The invention relates to the field of railway transport, in particular to devices for cleaning mechanical parts and assemblies. The washing coordinate machine for the automated cleaning of mechanical parts and assemblies is intended for use in the process of their repair in the conditions of car depots and car repair plants.
A known machine for cleaning rolling bearings. It contains a tank with washing liquid, a washing chamber with nozzles, devices for feeding bearings to the washing chamber and dispensing them after cleaning, as well as a rotation mechanism for bearings of different diameters. This mechanism includes drive rollers mounted with the possibility of rotation of the bearings being cleaned at different speeds and located below the entry level of the bearings in the washing chamber. A cradle with a pressure roller is placed in the washing chamber with the possibility of vertical movement. In the washing chamber there is an additional mesh cradle for placement of bearings. The cradle is rotated by means of a drive, which is made in the form of power hydraulic cylinders with a common rod having gear cutting for interaction with a gear gear fixed to the axis . The disadvantages of this design is that it is not universal, cannot be used to clean many products, it does not have targeted cleaning of the surface of parts, it is necessary to use special cleaning solutions.
Known machine for cleaning products. It contains a washing chamber with a mechanism located therein for rotation of the product being cleaned and a washing element provided with a turning mechanism. The machine has a tank for washing liquid and a pump for supplying it to the washing chamber. The machine has a hydraulic distributor and an oil flow regulator associated with it. The washing element is made in the form of at least two rotary heads with rigidly mounted swinging pipelines with nozzle nozzles. Nozzles are placed at the free ends of the pipelines. Each pivoting head consists of a housing in which a thrust cup with an earring is mounted for connection with the rotation mechanism of the washing element. This mechanism is a three-position stepped rod mounted in the housing with the possibility of reciprocating movement, spring-loaded on opposite sides . The disadvantage of this device is the need to use detergents.
Known machine for automated washing of axleboxes. It contains a base, a loading device, a roller table for moving the axle boxes into the washing chamber. In this chamber, nozzles for internal and external washing of the axle box housing, as well as a container with a washing solution, are placed at various levels. The capacity through the pump is connected to a pressure head manifold and washing nozzles. Through the pipeline, the spent washing solution is discharged. The machine also has a drive and hydraulic shut-off and control valves. The base of the machine has the form of a truss, in the upper part of which there are sensors that record the position of the axle box bodies on the rolling table. The roller table is made inclined, and part of the roller table is made in the form of a gripper connected to a hydraulic cylinder that provides vertical reciprocating movement to set the next axle box body in working position. Roller is equipped with stoppers for stopping the axle box body at the signal of the indicated sensors. The casing of the washing chamber is arranged to vertically move it together with the washing nozzles for internal and external washing of the axle box bodies. The nozzles are installed in the center of the casing on a common axis connected to the installation for cleaning the spent washing solution. The relics of the liquid are heated using a special heater. A control system equipped with a time relay is used to automate the washing process. A cleaning device is used to clean the washing solution. It contains a separator, a sludge filter, a tank for accumulating sludge, a pump for pumping it, as well as a chamber for a purified washing solution connected to its circulation line . The disadvantage of the design is the use of hot water and a washing solution. The flow of liquid jets is chaotic; liquid does not get into each point of the surface to be cleaned.
Known installation for jet washing parts. The installation comprises a bath with a drain pipe, jet forming elements installed in the bath for washing parts in a perforated drum. Detergent supply systems are connected to the bath. The unit produces a combined washing of parts (jet and immersion). It is made in the form of a pallet mounted rotatably by means of executive bodies. The installation is also equipped with elements of the formation of jets for washing parts on suspensions. These elements are connected to an optional detergent supply system. For mounting parts on the suspension is a special rod. The pallet is mounted with the possibility of reciprocating movement by means of actuators and rods with axles located in the bearings. The bearings are rigidly connected to the working bodies of the actuators for reciprocating movement of the pallet using pneumatic cylinders. Their work is controlled by means of three-way electromagnetic pneumatic distributors . The disadvantages of this design, as well as all of the above, is that the mode of supply of the washing liquid in them is carried out without taking into account the configuration of the washed product. As a result of this, it is impossible to efficiently clean products without the use of specially prepared cleaning liquids.
The aim of the invention is to increase the cleaning efficiency of mechanical products. Using the proposed technical solution will allow you to effectively clean parts of complex configuration without the use of detergents and water heating.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the products placed in the washing chamber are exposed to a jet of water entering at high pressure into the hydraulic monitor. Products are placed on a turntable that rotates during cleaning. The rotation of the turntable and the movement of the hydraulic monitor according to a special program ensures the impact of a jet of water on each point on the surface of the product being cleaned, taking into account its configuration. Dirty water through a hose enters the recycling water treatment station for its repeated technological use. The cleaned devices after the washing process are dried using air coming from the air atomizer. The whole process of cleaning mechanical products is fully automated.
Figures 1 and 2 show a coordinate washing machine for the automated washing of mechanical parts and assemblies (Fig. 1 is a front and side view, and in Fig. 2 is a top view).
The inventive device consists of a washing chamber 1 and a hydraulic monitor 2, having a head 3 with pneumatic drive cylinders 4 and 5. The device is equipped with displacement sensors 6 and 7, proximity sensors 8, 9, 10 and 11. For washing the devices 21, there is a unit for supplying water under high pressure 12. In the washing chamber there is a rotary table 13 with a stand 14, on which the device to be cleaned is installed 21. The rotary table 13 is driven by an induction motor with a reducer 15. The pneumatic unit serves to control the compressed air supply mechanisms cally valves 16 with a control cabinet (not shown). The device has a protective casing 17, driven by a cylinder 18. An air atomizer 19 is used to dry the instruments 21. Dirty water is drained through the drain tee 20. The washing process is controlled using control equipment located in a control cabinet (not shown). The control equipment is used to control actuators and includes: a control unit, a control panel and a panel of power equipment.
The device operates as follows. The cleaning process of the device has two phases: washing and drying. A stand 14 is mounted on the turntable 13. A device 21 is installed on the stand, which must be cleaned. After installing the device, the protective casing 17, driven by the cylinder 18, is lowered and isolates the cleaning zone. The movement and rotation of the monitor 2 is carried out by cylinders 4 and 5, respectively. The movement of the monitor 2 and turntable 13 is carried out according to a specially developed cleaning program for the device. Water is supplied under high pressure to the head of the hydraulic monitor 3 by a high-pressure unit 12. At the same time, a stream of water, falling on the surface of the device, cleans it of impurities. Contaminated water along the sleeve connecting the washer with a water treatment plant (not shown), through a receiving filter (not shown) flows by gravity to the water treatment station. After the completion of the washing program, the movement of the hydraulic monitor 2 stops and the water supply stops. Next is the drying program of the device, during which the rotation of the rotary table 13. The compressed air from the air atomizer 19 is supplied to the surface of the device. At the end of the drying program of the device, the rotation of the rotary table 13 is stopped, the supply of compressed air is stopped. The protective cover 17 rises, providing access to the cleaned device 21. The displacement sensors 6 and 7 indicate the coordinates of the horizontal movement and rotation of the monitor. Discrete proximity sensors 10 and 11 indicate the coordinates of the rotation of the table. Discrete proximity sensors 8 and 9 record the initial position of the displacement and rotation cylinders of the hydraulic monitor. The machine makes the “movement” of the washed device in three spatial coordinates, providing a direct hit of a stream of water at any point on its surface. Two operating modes are possible: manual and (or) automatic. Switching between modes is performed using a hand control (not shown). In automatic mode - the device washing process is controlled by a program specially written for this type of device. In manual mode, the operator from the remote control controls the supply of the jet of a hydraulic monitor to the desired point on the surface of the device being washed. The hydraulic monitor is controlled by buttons and toggle switches located on the panel of the control cabinet. The toggle switches located on the panel of the control cabinet turn on and off the pump, turn on and off the air for drying, raise and lower the protective cover.
The technical result of the inventive washer is due to the fact that it allows a high degree of cleaning of mechanical parts and components of complex configuration in automatic mode without the use of detergents and water heating. In the memory of the control unit, it is possible to quickly enter cleaning programs for various products by manually entering them from the control panel, which makes the washing machine universal. The washing machine has an indication of the progress of cleaning the device, which allows you to control the entire process of cleaning the product: washing and drying it.
1 Patent RU No. 2008104, filed September 17, 1991, MKI B08B 3/10.
2 Patent RU No. 20055638, claimed 16.12.1991, MKI B60S 3/04.
3 Patent RU No. 2260481, filed November 26, 2003, MKI B08B 3/02, B60S 3/00.
4 Patent RU No. 2078624, filed March 14, 1994, MKI B08B 3/06.