RU2224208C2 - Cartridge - Google Patents

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Publication number
RU2224208C2
RU2224208C2 RU2002105083/02A RU2002105083A RU2224208C2 RU 2224208 C2 RU2224208 C2 RU 2224208C2 RU 2002105083/02 A RU2002105083/02 A RU 2002105083/02A RU 2002105083 A RU2002105083 A RU 2002105083A RU 2224208 C2 RU2224208 C2 RU 2224208C2
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RU
Russia
Prior art keywords
bullet
filler
film
cartridge
coating
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RU2002105083/02A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2002105083A (en
Inventor
Владимир Леонидович Зозул (UA)
Владимир Леонидович Зозуля
Сергей Леонидович Зозул (UA)
Сергей Леонидович Зозуля
Сергей Николаевич Александров (UA)
Сергей Николаевич Александров
Original Assignee
Владимир Леонидович Зозуля
Сергей Леонидович Зозуля
Сергей Николаевич Александров
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Application filed by Владимир Леонидович Зозуля, Сергей Леонидович Зозуля, Сергей Николаевич Александров filed Critical Владимир Леонидович Зозуля
Priority to RU2002105083/02A priority Critical patent/RU2224208C2/en
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Publication of RU2224208C2 publication Critical patent/RU2224208C2/en
Publication of RU2002105083A publication Critical patent/RU2002105083A/en

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Abstract

FIELD: ammunition, applicable for small-arms cartridges and ammunitions of other types, as well as for improvement of characteristics of sniper's weapon. SUBSTANCE: the cartridge has a powder charge, primer, cartridge case and a bullet, having a coating with thickness δ, equal to (0.01-0.03)d, where d-the bullet diameter corresponding to the bullet caliber, on the basis of a film-forming organic carrying agent with a filler, the products of dehydration of hydrates containing oxides of series:

Description

 The invention relates to ammunition and can be used both for small arms ammunition and other types of ammunition, as well as for improving the characteristics of sniper barrels.
 It is known that in firearms the charge of smokeless powder during combustion almost completely turns into gaseous products with high elasticity and temperature. The pressure of the powder gases, acting on the bottom of the bullet, creates a movement of the bullet in the bore. Despite the fact that the movement in the bore is characterized by short duration (about 0.002 sec), the effect of powder gases is significant during intensive shooting. The barrel bore of a firearm is particularly significantly worn out. The channel of an automatic weapon wears out most quickly.
 The result of the deterioration of the barrel of a firearm is the loss, first of all, of the accuracy of the battle, as well as the range and the associated killer force. Although these characteristics depend on many reasons, such factors as the design of ammunition and the preparation for firing weapons and ammunition can significantly change these characteristics for the better or vice versa.
 In order to improve these characteristics, various designs of ammunition are created using various modern materials. A number of ammunition devices are known in which improvements are made to reduce friction and wear. For example, a 5.6 millimeter cartridge containing a metal sleeve, a capsule, a powder charge and a bullet [see US Patent Specification 5,490,463, M. cl. F 42 B 12/82, publ. 12/13/96]. The bullet head has a circular groove and is coated with synthetic lubricant. Or, for example, a bullet with a metal core made of sintered metal powder coated with plastic or metal [see description of the patent of Great Britain 2278423, M. cl. F 42 V 12/74, publ. 11/30/94]. A plastic coating is applied by immersing a heated bullet in plastic.
 The ammunition devices mentioned above reduce friction mainly in the breech of the weapon and do not affect the friction in the barrel of the weapon during firing and its wear.
 Known artillery shell with a device that reduces barrel wear, and the method of its manufacture [see description in WO 9528612, M.cl. F 42 V 5/24. publ. 10.26.95]. The projectile contains a sleeve, to the wall of which are attached tablets made of a material that reduces barrel wear during firing. The tablets have a paraffin component in their composition, which, solidifying, glues them to the wall of the sleeve. This method of attaching tablets of the protective material can be used in shells of a wide variety of caliber.
 However, tablets located on the walls of the liner have very little effect on the barrel as a whole, and therefore on such a characteristic as accuracy. In addition, the technology for applying such tablets can only be used for artillery shells, that is, for ammunition of significant caliber.
 A high-speed bullet for firing a rifled firearm is also known [see US Pat. No. 5,365,853, M.C. F 42 V 12/34. publ. 02.11.94], which contains a deformable core, shell and parts fixing the shell on the core of the bullet. Details fixing the shell on the core of the bullet are located in the holes of the shell and serve to reduce friction between the bullet and the rifling of the barrel when firing.
 Due to the reduction of friction between the bullet and the rifling of the bore, the wear of the bore is also reduced. However, the complexity of the bullet design reduces the possible extent of the use of such cartridges.
 In addition, a bullet containing a shell is known in which a lead shirt and a core are placed [see description of the patent of the Russian Federation 2034231, M.cl. F 42 B 12/06, publ. 06/30/90], in which, due to the implementation of the core made of hard alloy and the special shape of the bottom of the lead shirt, the accuracy of fire is increased by 16-18% in comparison with the known ones. The special shape of the leading part of the bullet eliminates the formation of bulges and the separation of the shell from the lead shirt when the shell is bent, i.e. contributes to an increase in the density of the assembly of bullet elements, as a result of which there is an additional increase in the accuracy of the battle.
 However, when using the ammunition described above, high combat accuracy indicators are characteristic mainly for new, worn-out small arms and significantly decrease after short-term use due to wear on the barrel channels.
 The closest to the claimed solution for the purpose, technical nature and the achieved result when using is a cartridge in which there is a bullet, a powder charge, an igniter capsule and a sleeve [see Zhuk A.B. Weapon. - M.: Military Publishing House, 1992, pp. 645-648]. Established from the end of the year before last, the type of cartridge for infantry weapons does not undergo fundamental changes and perfectly serves its purpose.
 However, when using the ammunition described above, high combat accuracy indicators are characteristic mainly for new, worn-out small arms and significantly decrease after short-term use due to wear on the barrel channels. The problem of increasing the resource of weapons and improving their characteristics remains relevant.
 Therefore, the purpose of the proposed technical solution is to reduce the wear of the barrel of a firearm and, as a result, increase the accuracy and other characteristics of the weapon.
This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known cartridge containing a bullet, a powder charge, an igniter capsule and a sleeve, according to the invention, an additional coating with a thickness of δ = (0.01-0.03) D is located on the pool, where D is the diameter of the bullet corresponding to the caliber of a bullet based on a film-forming organic carrier with a filler, while the products of hydration containing oxides from the series MgO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Na 2 O, were taken as filler when the content of the filler in the organic carrier of 0.05-0.15 g / cm 3 .
 According to the invention, for cartridges of calibers 22LR, 5.56 • 45 - 7.62 • 39, a film-forming gel based on paraffins was used as an organic carrier, with the coating applied to the entire surface of the bullet.
 According to the invention, for cartridges of a caliber of 7.62 • 54 and more, a film-forming polymer is used as an organic carrier, and the coating is made in the form of a belt of width h = (0.7-1.8) D and is located at a distance L = (0.5- 0,7) D from the tip of the bullet.
 The above values of the coating thickness, the width of the belt and the distance from the tip of the bullet (ammunition) are optimal from the point of view of the flow rate of the filler and the achieved effect.
 As can be seen from the presentation of the essence of the proposed solution, it differs from the prototype and, therefore, is new.
The solution also has an inventive step. The basis of the invention is the task of improving the design of the cartridge, in which, due to the location on the pool of an additional coating of thickness δ = (0.01-0.03) D, where D is the diameter of the bullet corresponding to the caliber of the bullet, made on the basis of a film-forming organic carrier with a filler based on dehydration products of hydrates containing oxides from the series MgO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Na 2 O, with a filler content of 0.05-0.15 g / cm 3 , apparently, an improvement in the transmission of the rotation pool by the rifled barrel channel through an additional the bullet’s cover, the angle of its nutation in flight decreases, its gyroscopic stability increases in flight, and due to this, such an important characteristic as the accuracy of the battle improves, unfavorable storage conditions of the weapon have a lesser effect on this characteristic, which indicates stabilization of the barrel’s channel parameters and increased survivability weapons.
 A known method of manufacturing a wear-resistant barrel of a firearm [see Description to the patent of Ukraine 35271 A, M.cl. 41 A 21/00, publ. 03/15/2001], including its preliminary cleaning and treatment with an ultrafine powder or a mixture of ultrafine powder with a process medium before each shot of the series, which includes at least 3-5 shots, by applying ultrafine powder or an ultrafine mixture to the outer surface of each shell and the inner surface of the barrel powder with a technological environment, while ultrafine powder is made from a natural mineral from a number of layered silicates.
 As tests have shown, the use of the technical solution described above provides an increase in the survivability of firearms, which manifests itself in a steady improvement in its ballistic characteristics, both new and used, while it is possible to reduce the requirements for storage conditions under certain conditions.
 However, the method cannot be attributed to the number of technological ones; it cannot be mechanized and is not suitable for use in adverse conditions.
 This technical solution is fundamentally different from the previously proposed. It allows you to prepare cartridges (ammunition) in conditions of mass mechanized production, while significantly reducing the consumption of filler and the cost of its manufacture. Ammunition (ammunition), providing high ballistic properties of the weapon, suitable for transportation and use in a variety of conditions.
Also known composition for processing friction pairs [see Ukrainian patent 34768, M. cl. With 10 M 125/10, publ. 06/15/01], including oxides of metals and nonmetals, in which the products of hydrates dehydration with a temperature of removal of constitutional water and destruction of the crystal lattice in the range of 400-900 o C, which in the stable phase contain oxides from the series MgO, SiO 2 , are used as the indicated oxides. , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Na 2 O. The specified composition is used in a mixture with various process fluids to reduce friction and wear.
 This technical solution differs fundamentally from the previously proposed one in that film-forming materials are used as a carrier, which ensure the formation of a stable additional coating on the surface of the bullet with a uniform distribution of the required filler in a given area. Its fixation on the surface of the bullet, and this is most important, provides the ability to use the necessary cartridges without bringing the weapon channels to a state of complete deterioration. As noted above, such a cartridge design is technologically advanced and suitable for mass production.
 It should also be noted once again that with the persistent effect of increasing the accuracy of the battle, such an indicator as the speed of the bullet during the tests could slightly change both upward and downward or remain unchanged. This fact provides the basis for the assertion that the proposed solution gives a new technical result, which is manifested in the improvement of the transmission of the rotation pool by the rifled barrel channel through the additional coating of the bullet. In this case, it is possible that leveling, smoothing of the barrel channels occurs, and due to this, the angle of the nutation of the bullet in flight decreases, and its gyroscopic stability increases in flight.
 The proposed technical solution can be widely used in the production of ammunition, as well as in the refinement of small arms barrels to higher rates.
 The drawing shows a cartridge coated with a film-forming gel with a filler.
 A cartridge, for example, 5.56 • 45 caliber contains a bullet 1, a powder charge 2, a primer 3 and a sleeve 4. A coating 5 of a film-forming gel is applied to the surface of the bullet. The cartridge from the side of the bullet is protected by a cap 6. In cases where film-forming polymers are used for coating, a protective cap is not used. Mixtures of the above oxides were used as filler. The prepared compositions of film-forming gels or polymers with fillers are collectively referred to as "XADO Revitalizant".
The table shows the test results of cartridges of various calibres with an additional coating on a pool of various compositions of "XADO Revitalizants" made on the basis of the above filler material. The effect of the additional coating on the ballistic characteristics of the weapon was evaluated by the change in R 100 (radius of the circle centered at the midpoint of the hit, containing 100% of the holes) and r 50 (radius of the circle centered at the midpoint of the hit, containing 50% of the holes, and also after 3 months after processing.
 As can be seen from the table, the use of an additional coating made on the basis of XADO Revitalizant allows you to speed up the leveling process, smooth the bore and achieve an improvement in accuracy from 30 to 44.5% or more, without changing or practically slightly reducing it (to 0.8 %) bullet speed. With proper care of the weapon in accordance with the technical description and instructions for use, the recovery effect can progress and reach more than 60% according to the criterion of accuracy of fire both during storage and during further operation.

Claims (3)

1. A cartridge containing a bullet, a powder charge, an igniter capsule and a sleeve, characterized in that the pool further has a coating of thickness δ equal to (0.01-0.03) D, where D is the diameter of the bullet corresponding to the caliber of the bullet, based on a film-forming organic carrier with a filler, and the products of hydration of hydrates containing oxides from the series: MgO, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 O, Na 2 O, at a content of filler in a film-forming carrier of 0.05-0.15 g / cm 3 .
2. The cartridge according to claim 1, characterized in that for cartridges of caliber 22LR, 5.56 × 45-7.62 × 39, a film-forming gel based on paraffins is used as an organic carrier, with the coating applied to the entire surface of the bullet.
3. The cartridge according to claim 1, characterized in that for cartridges of a caliber of 7.62 × 54 or more, a film-forming polymer is used as an organic carrier, and the coating is made in the form of a girdle with a width h equal to (0.7-1.8) D , and is located at a distance L equal to (0.5-0.7) D from the tip of the bullet.
RU2002105083/02A 2002-02-26 2002-02-26 Cartridge RU2224208C2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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RU2002105083/02A RU2224208C2 (en) 2002-02-26 2002-02-26 Cartridge

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RU2002105083/02A RU2224208C2 (en) 2002-02-26 2002-02-26 Cartridge

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RU2224208C2 true RU2224208C2 (en) 2004-02-20
RU2002105083A RU2002105083A (en) 2004-05-20

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2480311C1 (en) * 2010-12-24 2013-04-27 Владимир Леонидович Зозуля Nanostructure of revitalisant and method of production of sustainable form of nanostructure of revitalisant
RU2580576C1 (en) * 2015-02-06 2016-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт общей физики им. А.М. Прохорова Российской академии наук (ИОФ РАН) Method for surface treatment of ammunition

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
ЖУК А.Б. Стрелковое оружие. - М.: Воениздат, 1992, с. 645-648. *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2480311C1 (en) * 2010-12-24 2013-04-27 Владимир Леонидович Зозуля Nanostructure of revitalisant and method of production of sustainable form of nanostructure of revitalisant
RU2580576C1 (en) * 2015-02-06 2016-04-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт общей физики им. А.М. Прохорова Российской академии наук (ИОФ РАН) Method for surface treatment of ammunition

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MM4A The patent is invalid due to non-payment of fees

Effective date: 20160227