RU2580576C1 - Method for surface treatment of ammunition - Google Patents

Method for surface treatment of ammunition Download PDF

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Publication number
RU2580576C1
RU2580576C1 RU2015103999/02A RU2015103999A RU2580576C1 RU 2580576 C1 RU2580576 C1 RU 2580576C1 RU 2015103999/02 A RU2015103999/02 A RU 2015103999/02A RU 2015103999 A RU2015103999 A RU 2015103999A RU 2580576 C1 RU2580576 C1 RU 2580576C1
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Russia
Prior art keywords
ammunition
laser
munition
axis
focused
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RU2015103999/02A
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Russian (ru)
Inventor
Георгий Айратович Шафеев
Александр Владимирович Симакин
Сергей Владимирович Гарнов
Павел Иванович Родин
Иван Николаевич Торгун
Вячеслав Павлович Пахомов
Игорь Юрьевич Захаров
Алексей Григорьевич Ковальчук
Дмитрий Юрьевич Семизоров
Алексей Анатольевич Багров
Original Assignee
Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт общей физики им. А.М. Прохорова Российской академии наук (ИОФ РАН)
Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Центральный научно-исследовательский институт химии и механики" (ФГУП "ЦНИИХМ")
Открытое акционерное общество Центральный научно-исследовательский институт точного машиностроения (ОАО "ЦНИИТОЧМАШ")
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Application filed by Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт общей физики им. А.М. Прохорова Российской академии наук (ИОФ РАН), Федеральное государственное унитарное предприятие "Центральный научно-исследовательский институт химии и механики" (ФГУП "ЦНИИХМ"), Открытое акционерное общество Центральный научно-исследовательский институт точного машиностроения (ОАО "ЦНИИТОЧМАШ") filed Critical Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Институт общей физики им. А.М. Прохорова Российской академии наук (ИОФ РАН)
Priority to RU2015103999/02A priority Critical patent/RU2580576C1/en
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Publication of RU2580576C1 publication Critical patent/RU2580576C1/en

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B14/00Projectiles or missiles characterised by arrangements for guiding or sealing them inside barrels, or for lubricating or cleaning barrels
    • F42B14/04Lubrication means in missiles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B33/00Manufacture of ammunition; Dismantling of ammunition; Apparatus therefor
    • F42B33/14Surface treatment of cartridges or cartridge cases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/26Cartridge cases
    • F42B5/28Cartridge cases of metal, i.e. the cartridge-case tube is of metal
    • F42B5/295Cartridge cases of metal, i.e. the cartridge-case tube is of metal coated

Abstract

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: axially symmetric ammunition surface by laser ablation microstructure is created in form of directed at angle α= 15°-90° to ammunition axis furrows with depth of h to 50 mcm and with pitch of t = 20-70 mcm. Laser beam exposure on surface of ammunition during its rotation around its axis with simultaneous movement of focused laser beam on processed surface along axis of ammunition to produce said relief microstructures on which antifriction material is applied.
EFFECT: improved ballistic performance of ammunition.
5 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl

Description

The invention relates to the manufacture of ammunition, and in particular to methods for treating the surface of a bullet or projectile to increase firing efficiency by improving internal ballistics.
The internal and external ballistics of ammunition are described in the sources [Basics of small arms / F.K. Babak. - M .: LLC "Publishing house AST"; 2004. - p. 253; Missile and artillery weapons / V.P. Demidenko, I.K. Makhonina et al. - USSR Ministry of Defense; 1998. - p. 220].
After the transfer of energy from the trigger to the capsule, the impact composition explodes and the powder ignites in the cartridge. The combustion of gunpowder leads to the release of gases and to an increase in pressure, under the influence of which the bullet begins to move, crashing into the grooves of the barrel and rotating along them, it moves along the barrel with increasing speed and is thrown outward in the direction of the barrel. When the bullet rotates along the rifling of the barrel, its friction increases inside the barrel. Moreover, it deviates by small angles when moving from rifling to rifling with swaying (nutation). This movement leads to the fact that the direction of the trajectory of the bullet does not coincide with the axis of the barrel. These phenomena lead to dispersion during firing and reduce firing efficiency.
To reduce the influence of these phenomena, various methods of surface treatment are used in the manufacture of ammunition.
A known method of manufacturing armor-piercing cores (RF patent No. 2151369, IPC F42B 12/74 of 04/02/1999), including forming the core from easily deformable mild steel, cold stamping and heat treatment of the core by quenching and tempering, while hardening the outer layer of the armor-piercing core is carried out by chemical thermal surface treatment in a carburizer at 900-1000 ° C to a depth of h = (0.1-0.3) d heart. where d heart. - the diameter of the core, and the final heat treatment of the core is carried out by quenching and tempering of the outer layer of the core to a hardness of 55-60 HRC and the core of the core to the structure of tempered troostite with a hardness of 350-380 HB.
This method of surface treatment helps to increase the strength characteristics of the ammunition, but does not reduce the effect of the nutation effect when moving in the barrel of a bullet or projectile, which leads to a decrease in “accuracy” when firing.
A known bullet with an axisymmetric surface (RF patent No. 2224208, IPC F42B 12/82 of 02.26.2002), in the manufacture of which a coating is applied on its surface with a thickness equal to (0.01-0.03) D, where D is the diameter of the bullet, corresponding to the caliber of the bullet, based on a film-forming organic carrier with a filler, while the products used are dehydration hydrates containing oxides from the series: MgO, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, K2O, Na2O, with a filler content of 0.05 in the film-forming carrier -0.15 g / cm 3 .
The known technical solution has the disadvantage that the film-forming organic carrier on the surface of the bullet is removed already at the initial stage of the bullet movement in the barrel due to friction and does not significantly affect the internal ballistics of the bullet during its further movement.
The closest in technical essence to the proposed method is the known technical solution according to the patent of the Russian Federation No. 2382325, IPC F42B 14/02 of 01/21/2008), according to which an axisymmetric ammunition surface is formed with annular protrusions separated by annular grooves, while annular protrusions are in longitudinal section perform a rectangular or trapezoidal shape with a profile angle of not more than 40 °, while the depth of the annular grooves of 1.05-2.5 is greater than the working height of the drive belt, and on the surface of the steel drive belt apply tiffric coating.
The known technical solution has the disadvantage of the complexity and high complexity of the manufacture of ammunition, due to the large volume of mechanical operations associated with the manufacture of ring grooves and protrusions with a special profile, which requires special metalworking equipment.
In addition, this technical solution is used for the manufacture of a limited class of ammunition (only for artillery shells).
The technical result, which consists in reducing the complexity in the manufacture of ammunition by eliminating the need for these mechanical operations and in expanding the class of manufactured ammunition with improved ballistic characteristics by using new nanotechnologies, is achieved in the proposed method for surface treatment of ammunition, which consists in the formation of an axisymmetric surface of the ammunition and application on antifriction material, so that on an axisymmetric surface the ammunition creates a relief microstructure by laser ablation, carried out by the action of a laser beam on the surface of the ammunition when it rotates around its axis with the simultaneous movement of the focused laser beam along the machined surface along the axis of the munition, ensuring the creation of a microrelief in the form oriented at an angle α = 15 ° -90 ° to the ammunition axis of the furrows with a depth of h up to 50 microns and with a step of t = 20-70 microns.
The indicated technical result is also achieved by the fact that laser ablation is carried out by pulsed laser radiation with a wavelength of λ = (532-1064) nm, a pulse duration of τ and up to 200 nanoseconds, a pulse repetition rate of f and up to 200 kHz, and a pulsed radiation power of P and = ( 1-50) W, and the fact that the laser beam is focused with the size of the focused spot on the surface of the munition d = 5-8 mm.
In addition, the technical result is achieved by the fact that the laser beam is focused on the surface of the munition using a cylindrical lens in the form of a segment of a thin line, the direction of which coincides with the orientation of the microrelief grooves.
In this case, the microrelief grooves are filled with antifriction material.
The invention is illustrated by drawings and photographs, where:
- in FIG. 1 presents a functional diagram of the installation for implementing the proposed method;
- in FIG. 2 shows the shape of a laser beam focused on the surface of the munition;
- FIG. 3 illustrates on an enlarged scale the shape of the microrelief grooves obtained on the axisymmetric surface of the munition;
- in FIG. 4 shows the direction of the microrelief grooves with respect to the axis of the munition.
- in FIG. 5 - FIG. 8 shows photographs of the real surface of the ammunition obtained by processing the surface of the ammunition according to the proposed method.
Installation for implementing the proposed method (Fig. 1) contains a scan control unit 1 (computer), a scanner 2 with an optical system 3, an electric drive 4, mechanically connected to a holder 5, designed to fix the product 6 (bullet or projectile).
Block 1 is designed to control the operation of the scanner 1 and the electric drive 4.
The proposed method is as follows.
The processing of the axisymmetric surface of the munition is carried out on the installation (Fig. 1) according to the program recorded in block 1. In the holder 5, the munition 6 is fixed, oriented at a given angle to the laser beam 7 incident on its surface. In this case, the laser beam is focused on the surface of the munition using optical system 3 in the form of a spot (Fig. 2a) of size d = 5-8 mm or a line segment of length ℓ (Fig. 2b). In the second case, focusing is carried out using a cylindrical lens (not shown in Fig. 1).
Ammunition 6 is driven into rotation by an electric actuator 4, controlled by the unit 1, with a certain speed. In this case, the laser beam 7 moves (scans) along the surface of the munition 6 along its axis (shown by an arrow). The interaction time of the laser beam 7 with the material of the munition depends on the speed of rotation of the munition 6 and the speed of movement of the laser beam 7, which are set by the program in block 1.
In this case, laser ablation is performed - the process of rapid melting and evaporation of the material from which the ammunition is made, and the formation of the surface microstructure to ensure the creation of a microrelief in the form of grooves oriented at an angle α = 15 ° -90 ° to the axis of the ammunition, with depth h up to 50 μm and in increments t = 20-70 μm (Fig. 3).
To perform ablation, the program sets the parameters of laser radiation (energy density, wavelength, pulse duration, pulse repetition rate), which allows you to create a relief surface microstructure.
Laser ablation is carried out by pulsed laser radiation with a wavelength of λ = (532-1064) nm, a pulse duration of τ and up to 200 nanoseconds, a pulse repetition rate of f and up to 200 kHz, and a pulsed radiation power of P and = (1-50) W.
In this case, the laser beam is focused with the size of the focused spot on the surface of the munition d = 5-8 mm (Fig. 2A).
Another option is to focus the laser beam on the surface of the munition using a cylindrical lens in the form of a thin line segment (Fig. 2b), the direction of which coincides with the orientation of the microrelief grooves, which contributes to the concentration of the laser beam 7 in a certain direction along the orientation of the resulting microrelief.
The specific values of λ, τ and , f and and P and from the indicated ranges, which determine the degree of ablation, depend on the properties of the material from which the ammunition is made, and the given microrelief parameters h and t for each type of ammunition.
After surface treatment before coating the surface microrelief with antifriction material, microrelief studies were performed using a scanning electron microscope. Examples of the obtained microreliefs are shown in the photographs (Figs. 5-8).
The data on the microrelief parameters are summarized in a table.
Figure 00000001
 After laser surface treatment, the microrelief is filled with antifriction material, which can be used as a composition based on paraffin or a polymer antifriction composition.
In this case, the “lubricant” penetrates into the recesses of the relief.
A sectional view of a modified munition surface is schematically shown in FIG. 3.
Calculations show that the area of the surface of the munition modified by the proposed method increases 3 times in relation to the untreated axisymmetric surface, which provides a larger volume of antifriction composition filling the microrelief grooves (shown in gray in Fig. 3).
The supply of such a “lubricant” occurs at the entire stage of movement in the barrel of a bullet with a microstructured surface.
This contributes to a smoother movement of the bullet without swinging relative to the axis of the barrel, since the surface treated by the proposed method has improved anti-friction characteristics, which leads to a smaller spread of the angles of the trajectories of the bullet at the exit of the barrel.
Tests at the bench of four hundred samples showed that the use of such ammunition leads to an increase in accuracy when firing by 22.5% in the best option for microstructuring the surface in comparison with the use of ammunition with an unprocessed surface.
The proposed method can be implemented in the mass production of ammunition with improved characteristics in the automation of technological processes for the manufacture of ammunition of various kinds.

Claims (5)

1. The method of processing the surface of the ammunition, including the formation of an axisymmetric surface of the ammunition and applying antifriction material to it, characterized in that a relief microstructure is created on the axisymmetric surface of the ammunition in the form of grooves oriented at an angle α = 15 ° -90 ° to the axis of the ammunition with depth h up to 50 microns and with a step of t = 20-70 microns by laser ablation, carried out by the action of a laser beam on the surface of the munition during its rotation around its axis with the simultaneous movement of the focused laser beam and on the treated surface along the axis of the munition.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the laser ablation is carried out by pulsed laser radiation with a wavelength of λ = (532-1064) nm, pulse duration τ and up to 200 nanoseconds, pulse repetition rate f and up to 200 kHz and pulsed radiation power P and = (1-50) W.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the laser beam is focused with the size of the focused spot on the surface of the munition d = 5-8 mm
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the laser beam is focused on the surface of the munition using a cylindrical lens in the form of a segment of a thin line, the direction of which coincides with the orientation of the grooves of the relief microstructure.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the grooves of the embossed microstructure are filled with antifriction material.
RU2015103999/02A 2015-02-06 2015-02-06 Method for surface treatment of ammunition RU2580576C1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992003693A1 (en) * 1990-08-23 1992-03-05 International Shooter Development Fund, Inc. Match-grade rifle cartridge with improved components
RU2224208C2 (en) * 2002-02-26 2004-02-20 Владимир Леонидович Зозуля Cartridge
RU74197U1 (en) * 2007-12-11 2008-06-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Новосибирский государственный технический университет Single component bullet
RU2382325C2 (en) * 2008-01-21 2010-02-20 Государственное Унитарное Предприятие "Конструкторское Бюро Приборостроения" (Гуп "Кбп") Artillery projectile for rifled gun

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1992003693A1 (en) * 1990-08-23 1992-03-05 International Shooter Development Fund, Inc. Match-grade rifle cartridge with improved components
RU2224208C2 (en) * 2002-02-26 2004-02-20 Владимир Леонидович Зозуля Cartridge
RU74197U1 (en) * 2007-12-11 2008-06-20 Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования Новосибирский государственный технический университет Single component bullet
RU2382325C2 (en) * 2008-01-21 2010-02-20 Государственное Унитарное Предприятие "Конструкторское Бюро Приборостроения" (Гуп "Кбп") Artillery projectile for rifled gun

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