JP5836998B2 - Crack generation method, laser cutting method and crack generation apparatus - Google Patents

Crack generation method, laser cutting method and crack generation apparatus Download PDF

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JP5836998B2
JP5836998B2 JP2013090762A JP2013090762A JP5836998B2 JP 5836998 B2 JP5836998 B2 JP 5836998B2 JP 2013090762 A JP2013090762 A JP 2013090762A JP 2013090762 A JP2013090762 A JP 2013090762A JP 5836998 B2 JP5836998 B2 JP 5836998B2
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light
pulse
laser
workpiece
light source
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JP2014213334A (en
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正寿 米村
正寿 米村
加藤 覚
覚 加藤
塚田 敏彦
敏彦 塚田
道春 太田
道春 太田
秀知 高橋
秀知 高橋
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株式会社豊田中央研究所
アイシン精機株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P40/00Technologies relating to the processing of minerals
    • Y02P40/50Glass production, e.g. reusing waste heat during processing or shaping
    • Y02P40/57Improving the yield, e-g- reduction of reject rates

Description

  The present invention relates to a crack generation method, a laser cleaving method, and a crack generation apparatus, and more particularly, a crack generation method capable of generating a fine crack according to a material to be processed, a laser cleaving method, and a crack generation. Relates to the device.

  In a transparent material, a short pulse light source with a relatively narrow pulse width, for example, a light pulse from a femtosecond laser with a pulse width of the order of femtoseconds (fs), or a long pulse light source with a relatively wide pulse width, for example, Multi-photon absorption occurs when a condensing point is formed by condensing a light pulse from a nanosecond laser with a pulse width of the order of nanoseconds (ns), and the electric field strength in the vicinity of the condensing point is made extremely high. The energy of the light pulse can be injected into the transparent material. Then, a modified region can be formed in the material by the injected energy, so that such a modified region is continuously or intermittently provided in a semiconductor material substrate, a piezoelectric material substrate, a glass substrate, or the like. A technique that is formed and used for cleaving is known.

Patent Document 1 discloses a cleaving technique using a laser using the above technique. In Patent Document 1, a modified region is formed inside a workpiece by the first irradiated femtosecond laser, and then a region having a high light absorption rate is temporarily formed by the irradiated femtosecond laser. Heat by irradiating and absorbing a nanosecond laser to the region where the light absorption rate is high,
The thermal expansion caused by the heating is configured to cut from the modified region as a starting point.

JP2013-022627A

  The modified region is a region accompanied by a change in the refractive index of the material, but it is desirable to include fine cracks in the modified region in order to perform high-precision cleaving. In this regard, the cleaving technique using a laser disclosed in Patent Document 1 is not intended to generate a crack in a modified region caused by a femtosecond laser irradiated first. Moreover, since there is no idea of setting the optical output of the nanosecond laser to an appropriate value according to the material of the processing object, the processing object is not in an appropriate heating state. It is not designed to perform cleaving while generating a crack.

If a crack is not generated, it does not function sufficiently as a starting point for cleaving during subsequent thermal expansion, and cleaving may be difficult depending on the material. Moreover, even if a crack is generated,
Since it is not a condition for generating fine cracks, the fractured surface is roughened.
Therefore, there is room for improvement in that high-definition cutting is performed on various materials.

  On the other hand, the conditions for the laser light to be irradiated in the case of generating fine cracks differ depending on the material, and it is difficult to generate fine cracks in soda-lime glass with a femtosecond laser, for example. The generation of fine cracks is related to the temperature distribution and temperature duration after laser light is absorbed into the material, or the thermal expansion resulting from them (ie, the thermal properties of the material). This is because the light pulse emitted from the laser injects relatively small energy into the material in a very short time, and may not be suitable depending on the material in terms of thermal conditions applied to the material. Note that the fine crack includes a crack that does not form a minute cavity.

  In addition, the light pulse from the nanosecond laser has larger energy than the light pulse from the femtosecond laser, and multi-photon absorption occurs if the electric field strength is set to a very high condition by condensing like the femtosecond laser. However, for this purpose, it is necessary to use an expensive apparatus having a large laser output. Even if such a device is used, the energy of the pulse becomes excessive and a crack larger than necessary is generated, resulting in problems such as a rough section, generation of debris, and a decrease in chip yield.

  The present invention has been made in order to solve the above-described problems, and includes a crack generation method, a laser cleaving method, and a crack generation apparatus that can generate fine cracks according to the material of a workpiece. The purpose is to provide.

In order to achieve the above object, the crack generation method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the first pulse width determined in advance from the first laser light source and the light intensity at which the material of the processing object causes multiphoton absorption. Irradiating the object to be processed with a first light pulse, and forming a first region where the light absorption rate is temporarily increased inside the object to be processed along a predetermined schedule line, Before the light absorption rate of the first region where the light absorption rate has temporarily increased returns to the original state, the processing target object determined in advance for the material of the processing target object from the second laser light source A second light pulse having a light intensity that does not cause multiphoton absorption and a second pulse width wider than the first pulse width,
At least a part of the first region is irradiated and absorbed, and a crack is generated in the workpiece along the predetermined planned line.

  According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the present invention, the second light pulse emitted from the second laser light source is different from the first light pulse in terms of time and space. The second light pulse is irradiated in a superimposed manner on at least one of the target.

  The invention according to claim 3 is the invention according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the second pulse width is the second laser light source when a crack is generated in the workpiece. The pulse width is determined to be a value corresponding to the minimum pulse width.

  The invention according to claim 4 is the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the peak of the second optical pulse is determined in advance from the peak of the first optical pulse. Is delayed by the specified time.

  The invention according to claim 5 is the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the second pulse width is set to a coefficient of thermal expansion and a thermal conductivity of the material to be processed. And at least one of Young's modulus.

  The invention according to claim 6 is the invention according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the irradiation with the first light pulse is performed by processing the first light pulse. Irradiating so as to condense inside the object and irradiating the second light pulse may irradiate the second light pulse so as to condense inside the object to be processed. At least one of the size, the shape, and the number of the converging portions of the light pulse and the second light pulse is controlled in accordance with the direction in which the crack is generated.

  The invention according to claim 7 is the invention according to claim 6, wherein the condensing part of the second light pulse has an elliptical shape, and the major axis of the ellipse is predetermined. It is parallel to the planned line.

  The invention according to claim 8 is the invention according to claim 6, wherein the number of the condensing portions of the second light pulse is plural, and a straight line connecting the centers of the respective condensing portions is provided. It is parallel to the predetermined schedule line.

  On the other hand, in order to achieve the above object, the cleaving method by a laser according to claim 9 uses the crack generation method according to any one of claims 1 to 8 and uses the predetermined schedule. The cutting of the workpiece is further performed along the line.

  Furthermore, in order to achieve the above object, the laser cleaving apparatus according to claim 10 includes: a first laser light source that emits pulsed light; a second laser light source that emits pulsed light; The first pulse width predetermined from the first laser light source and the material of the processing object are multiphoton absorption so as to form a first region in which the light absorption rate is temporarily increased inside the object. The first laser light source is controlled to irradiate the object to be processed with a first light pulse having a light intensity that generates light, and the light in the first region in which the light absorption rate is temporarily increased The light intensity and the first pulse width, which are determined in advance from the second laser light source to the material of the object to be processed, so that the material of the object to be processed does not cause multiphoton absorption before the absorption rate is restored. A second light pulse having a wider second pulse width, An irradiation control means for controlling the second laser light source so as to irradiate at least a part of one region to generate a crack in the object to be processed; and the first control unit along a predetermined schedule line. The workpiece, the first laser light source, and the second laser light source so as to irradiate the first light pulse from the laser light source and the second light pulse from the second laser light source; Moving means for moving at least one of the above.

  According to the present invention, there is an effect that it is possible to provide a crack generation method, a cleaving method using a laser, and a crack generation device that can generate fine cracks according to the material of the workpiece.

It is a block diagram which shows an example of a structure of the crack generation apparatus which concerns on embodiment. It is process drawing which shows the procedure of the crack generation method which concerns on 1st Embodiment. It is a schematic diagram which shows the temporal relationship of the light pulse from the femtosecond laser which concerns on 1st Embodiment, and the light pulse from a nanosecond laser. It is a schematic diagram which shows the state of the crack production | generation which concerns on 1st Embodiment. It is a graph which shows the change of the light absorption rate at the time of irradiating soda-lime glass with the light from a femtosecond laser. It is a graph which shows the change of the light absorption rate at the time of irradiating SiC with the light from a femtosecond laser. It is a graph which shows the relationship between the pulse width of the optical pulse from a nanosecond laser in case a workpiece is SiC, and the generation probability of a crack. It is a graph which shows the relationship between a thermal expansion coefficient and the minimum pulse width which produces the crack of the optical pulse from a nanosecond laser. It is a graph which shows the change of the light absorption rate at the time of irradiating the light from a laser beam generator to soda lime glass by making the delay time of the light pulse from a nanosecond laser with respect to the light pulse from a femtosecond laser into 0.25 ns. It is a graph which shows the change of the light absorption rate at the time of irradiating the light from a laser beam generator to soda lime glass by setting the delay time of the light pulse from a nanosecond laser with respect to the light pulse from a femtosecond laser as 0.05 ns. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the relationship between the condensing spot of a femtosecond laser, the condensing spot of a nanosecond laser, and the direction of a crack. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the relationship between the condensing spot of a femtosecond laser, the condensing spot of a nanosecond laser, and the direction of a crack. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the relationship between the condensing spot of a femtosecond laser, the condensing spot of a nanosecond laser, and the direction of a crack. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the relationship between the condensing spot of a femtosecond laser, the condensing spot of a nanosecond laser, and the direction of a crack.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Before that, a basic concept of the present embodiment will be described.

  As described above, it is desirable to include fine cracks in the modified region in order to perform high-definition cleavage. Further, in the cleaving using a laser, it is difficult to generate a fine crack even if a short pulse laser or a long pulse laser is used alone.

Therefore, in this embodiment mode, the light of the long pulse laser with low optical power that cannot be absorbed alone is absorbed by irradiating the short pulse laser and the long pulse laser in a temporally or spatially superimposed manner. ing.
In other words, in the present embodiment, the light absorption rate of the material is temporarily increased by the light from the short pulse laser with relatively low energy, and the light from the long pulse laser is applied to the region where the light absorption rate is high. Adopting a method of absorbing This makes it possible to absorb a long pulse laser even with low optical power that cannot be absorbed by itself.

  This makes it possible to freely select the optical power and pulse width of the long pulse laser to be absorbed according to the material, and to generate fine cracks according to the optical power and pulse width of the long pulse laser depending on the material. It is possible to set to an appropriate condition. That is, it is possible to generate a fine crack by using the short pulse laser as a “trigger” for absorbing the long pulse laser, and then adjusting an appropriate heating condition and thermal expansion condition with the long pulse laser. At this time, since the crack becomes finer as the pulse width of the optical pulse from the long pulse laser becomes narrower, the minimum pulse width that causes the crack may be set as the pulse width of the optical pulse of the long pulse laser.

[First Embodiment]
With reference to FIG. 1, the structure of the crack generation apparatus 10 which concerns on this Embodiment is demonstrated.
The crack generator 10 includes a laser beam generator 12, a beam diameter adjuster 28, a dichroic filter 30, a condenser lens 32, an XYZ stage 34, a CCD camera 36, and a controller 38.
The laser beam L emitted from the laser beam generator 12 passes through the beam diameter adjuster 28, the dichroic filter 30, and the condenser lens 32, and is irradiated onto the workpiece 40 held on the XYZ stage 34.

  The laser beam generator 12 includes a short pulse light source 14 as a first laser light source, a half-wave plate 18, a long pulse light source 16 as a second laser light source, a mirror 20, a delay circuit 22, and a half-wave plate. 24, a PBS (Polarization Beam Splitter) 26, and a laser control unit 42.

  The laser light generator 12 can be configured to oscillate the short pulse light source 14 and the long pulse light source 16 singly or to oscillate the short pulse light source 14 and the long pulse light source 16 in synchronization. Yes. The laser light generator 12 adjusts the relative positional relationship between the peak of the light pulse emitted from the short pulse light source 14 and the peak of the light pulse emitted from the long pulse light source 16, and The light can be emitted temporally or spatially, or superimposed temporally and spatially. The synchronization or superimposition control is executed via the laser control unit 42.

In the present embodiment, the pulse width of the light pulse from the short pulse light source 14 is set relatively narrower than the pulse width of the light pulse from the long pulse light source 16, but the specific pulse width is particularly limited. Not. However, for ease of understanding, here, a femtosecond laser that generates an optical pulse having a pulse width of the femtosecond (fs) order is applied as the short pulse light source 14, and a nanosecond as the long pulse light source 16. An example in which a nanosecond laser that generates an optical pulse having an order pulse width is applied will be described.
Therefore, hereinafter, the short pulse light source 14 may be referred to as a femtosecond laser 14, and the long pulse light source 16 may be referred to as a nanosecond laser 16, respectively.

  In the present embodiment, the pulse width of the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 is set to 10 fs or more and 10 ps or less as an example. In the present embodiment, a femtosecond laser 14 is used as a laser to be irradiated first, and a region where the light absorption rate for the nanosecond laser 16 is higher than that of the non-modified region (light absorption rate increasing region) inside the workpiece 40. ) Temporarily.

  On the other hand, in the present embodiment, the pulse width of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is set to 100 ps or more and 20 ns or less as an example. Then, the nanosecond laser 16 is used as the second laser to be irradiated, and the light absorption rate increasing region formed inside the workpiece 40 is locally heated using the femtosecond laser 14. The second laser beam to be irradiated is a laser having a wavelength band that is absorbed in the formed light absorption increase region, like the nanosecond laser 16 described above. Any laser that is transparent or nearly transparent may be used.

A half-wave plate 18 is provided on the downstream side (downstream side) of the laser light traveling from the femtosecond laser 14, and a PBS 26 is provided on the downstream side of the half-wave plate 18. . The light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 is linearly polarized light, the direction of the polarization plane is adjusted by the half-wave plate 18, and only the P-polarized component of the linearly polarized light is transmitted through the PBS 26. Emitted.
In the following, the downstream side in the traveling direction of the laser output from the light source is simply referred to as “backward side”, and the upstream side in the traveling direction of the laser output from the light source is simply referred to as “upstream side”. To.

  On the downstream side of the nanosecond laser 16, a mirror 20, a delay circuit 22, and a half-wave plate 24 are provided in this order, and the light emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 is reflected by the mirror 20 and is delayed. It is positioned so as to enter the PBS 26 through the circuit 22 and the half-wave plate 24. The light emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 is linearly polarized light, the direction of the polarization plane is adjusted by the half-wave plate 24, and only the S-polarized component of the linearly polarized light is reflected by the PBS 26. Emitted.

  The PBS 26 that transmits and outputs the light from the femtosecond laser 14 and reflects and outputs the light from the nanosecond laser 16 multiplexes the light from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light from the nanosecond laser 16. It also functions as a multiplexing means.

The delay circuit 22 includes a pair of mirrors 22a and 22b arranged at right angles, and changes the optical path length of the nanosecond laser 16 by moving the mirrors parallel to the optical axis of the incident laser. The temporal relationship between the light pulse emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 is adjusted.
As a result of the adjustment, a light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and a light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 in which the delay time tD is set are emitted as laser light L from the PBS 26 as shown in FIG.
The delay circuit 22 is not limited to the above configuration, and a retro reflector or the like may be used.

  A beam diameter adjuster 28 is disposed on the downstream side of the PBS 26, and light incident from the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 is adjusted to a desired beam diameter and emitted to the downstream side. As the beam diameter adjuster 28, a beam expander, an aperture, or the like can be used.

On the downstream side of the beam diameter adjuster 28, light from both the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 is reflected, and visible light is transmitted, and a condensing lens 32 is configured. And the XYZ stage 34 is provided in this order.
The light from the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 emitted from the beam diameter adjuster 28 is reflected by the dichroic filter 30 and passes through the condenser lens 32 to the workpiece 40 held on the XYZ stage 34. Incident.

Here, for each axis of the XYZ stage 34, the X axis and the Y axis are in the plane of the installation surface for installing the workpiece 40 on the XYZ stage 34, and the Z axis is the normal direction of the installation surface (See FIG. 4).
The XYZ stage 34 is configured so that the workpiece 40 installed on the installation surface can be moved along the X, Y, and Z axes by a desired distance.

  A CCD camera 36 is provided facing the installation surface of the XYZ stage 34. The CCD camera 36 includes a visible light source that irradiates visible light toward the installation surface of the XYZ stage 34. Visible light emitted from the visible light source passes through the dichroic filter 30 and the condenser lens 32 and is irradiated onto the processing object 40 held on the XYZ stage 34 and reflected by the processing object 40. The CCD camera 36, the dichroic filter 30, the condenser lens 32, and the XYZ stage 34 are positioned so as to pass through the dichroic filter 30 again and enter the image sensor of the CCD camera 36. In the present embodiment, the focal point of the visible light collected by the condenser lens 32 coincides with the focal points of the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 collected by the condenser lens 32.

A controller 38 that controls the XYZ stage 34 and the CCD camera 36 is electrically connected to the XYZ stage 34 and the CCD camera 36.
The control unit 38 includes a CPU that executes processing operations such as various operations, control, and discrimination, a ROM that stores various control programs executed by the CPU, data during the CPU processing operations, input data, and the like. Are temporarily included, and a non-volatile memory such as flash memory or SRAM is included. The control unit 38 includes an input operation unit (not shown) including a keyboard or various switches for inputting predetermined commands or data, an input / setting state of the XYZ stage 34, a captured image of the CCD camera 36, and the like. A display unit (for example, a display) (not shown) that performs various displays is connected.

Next, an example of a method for setting the focal point of the light emitted from the laser light generator 12 to a predetermined position inside the workpiece 40 will be described.
The control unit 38 controls the XYZ stage 34 and the CCD camera 36 so that the CCD camera 36 acquires image data while moving the XYZ stage 34 holding the workpiece 40 in the Z-axis direction. Based on the imaging data acquired by the CCD camera 36, the control unit 38 matches the focal position of the light emitted from the visible light source and collected by the condenser lens 32 with the surface of the workpiece 40. The position of the XYZ stage 34 is acquired, and the position is set as a reference position. The reference position may be stored in a storage unit such as a RAM (not shown) provided in the control unit 38. This reference position can be used when the condenser lens 32 is provided at the same position and the thickness of the workpiece 40 is the same.

When the focal point of the femtosecond laser 14 or the nanosecond laser 16 through the condenser lens 32 is set at a predetermined position inside the workpiece 40, the Z-axis direction of the XYZ stage 34 with the reference position as a reference. Adjust the position of and set.
For example, when the user wants to set the focal point at a position of x μm from the surface of the workpiece 40, the user sets x μm as focal length information regarding the distance from the surface of the workpiece 40 to the focal point by the input operation unit (not shown). Then, the refractive index of the material of the workpiece 40 is input.

The control unit 38 moves the XYZ stage 34 based on the reference position stored in the RAM or the like so that the surface of the workpiece 40 matches the focal point from the condenser lens 32. Next,
The control unit 38 calculates a corresponding distance of x μm in the input refractive index based on the focal length information input by the user and the refractive index of the material of the processing target 40, and based on the calculation result, the processing target The XYZ stage 34 is moved downward by a predetermined distance from the reference position (in the Z-axis direction and away from the condenser lens 32) so that the focal position comes to the position of x μm from the surface of the object 40 toward the inside. . As a result, the focal points of the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 collected by the condenser lens 32 are located at predetermined positions inside the workpiece 40.

  Next, a method for adjusting the pulse width and optical power of the optical pulse emitted from the laser beam generator 12 will be described.

The pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 can be adjusted, for example, inside the nanosecond laser 16 of FIG. As an example, when the pulse width is about 1 ns or more, an acousto-optic device (AOM) is provided on the optical path inside the resonator of the nanosecond laser 16, and the time of the switch operation of the AOM is determined. The pulse width can be adjusted depending on the length. For example, when a pulse width of about 1 ns or less is used, an optical fiber stretcher disclosed in Patent Document 1 or the like can be used.
Further, the optical fiber stretcher can adjust the pulse width according to its length. For example, an optical pulse having a narrow pulse width such as an optical pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 is propagated into the optical fiber stretcher. The width can be enlarged.

The optical power can be adjusted using the half-wave plate 18 or 24 and the PBS 26 shown in FIG. The laser light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 is linearly polarized light. By rotating the half-wave plate 18 or 24 and changing the direction of the polarization plane, the P-polarized component and the S-polarized component are changed. The amount can be changed.
The half-wave plate 18 is configured such that light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 enters the PBS 26 with P-polarized light. The half-wave plate 24 is configured such that light emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 enters the PBS 26 as S-polarized light.

Since the PBS 26 transmits the P-polarized component and reflects the S-polarized component, the laser light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 is emitted to the outside from the laser light generator 12 when the P-polarized component is increased (decreasing the S-polarized component). On the contrary, if the P-polarized component is decreased (the S-polarized component is increased), the optical power of the optical pulse is decreased.
On the other hand, in the laser light emitted from the nanosecond laser 16, when the S-polarized component is increased (P-polarized component is decreased), the optical power of the light pulse emitted from the laser light generator 12 increases, and conversely, the S-polarized light. When the component is decreased (the P-polarized component is increased), the optical power of the light pulse emitted from the laser light generator 12 to the outside decreases.

  Since the polarization state of the light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 or the nanosecond laser 16 is elliptically polarized or circularly polarized, the femtosecond laser 14 or nanosecond is adjusted when the output is adjusted as described above. When the extinction ratio of the light emitted from the laser 16 deteriorates, it is possible to improve the extinction ratio by inserting a polarizer on the upstream side of the half-wave plate 18 or the half-wave plate 24, respectively. It is.

  Next, with reference to FIG. 2, the procedure in the case of generating a crack in the workpiece 40 will be described. FIG. 2 shows steps of the crack generation method according to the present embodiment.

First, in step S100, parameters of optical pulses from the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16, here, the pulse width and optical power are set according to the material of the workpiece 40.
The parameters of the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 are set so as to have the minimum energy necessary for forming the light absorption rate increasing region inside the workpiece 40. Specifically, the optical power is set to an optical power that exceeds an absorption threshold specific to the material of the workpiece 40 (the lowest optical power at which multiphoton absorption occurs in a specific material), and the pulse width is the light width. It is set based on power and required energy.

  On the other hand, the optical power of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is set to be less than the absorption threshold, and the pulse width is fine when the optical absorption increase region is irradiated with the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16. It is set so as to have energy for generating cracks.

  FIG. 3 schematically shows the temporal relationship between the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 set as described above. In the figure, the peak of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is set so as to be delayed by the delay time tD from the peak of the optical pulse from the femtosecond laser 14, but the setting of the delay time tD is necessary. You can do it, it's not essential. Details of the delay time tD will be described later.

  The optical pulse parameters of the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 and the set value of the delay time tD are stored in a storage unit such as a ROM (not shown) provided in the control unit 38 for each material as an example. Alternatively, the control unit 38 may read at a predetermined timing.

Next, in step 102, the light from the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 are moved while the XYZ stage 34 holding the workpiece 40 is moved relative to the laser light L from the laser light generator 12. By irradiating the light from the workpiece 40 in a temporally or spatially superimposed manner within the workpiece 40, fine cracks are generated along a predetermined planned line. The irradiation with the laser light L may be performed continuously or intermittently. Also,
The irradiation of the laser beam L along a predetermined schedule line may be performed a plurality of times (for example, five times) by changing the depth inside the workpiece 40 as necessary. The control of the irradiation of the laser light L from the laser light generator 12 is executed by the control unit 38 controlling the XYZ stage 34 and the laser control unit 42.

  FIG. 4 schematically shows the relationship between the laser beam L and the crack generation region R described above. SL shown in the figure indicates the predetermined schedule line. The predetermined scheduled line may be a virtual line or a line actually written on the surface of the workpiece 40.

  Although not shown in FIG. 2, after the irradiation with the laser light L, the workpiece 40 may be cleaved along a predetermined schedule line. The cleaving may be performed using a break process due to external mechanical stress.

In the present embodiment, the workpiece 40 is moved relative to the laser beam L from the laser beam generator 12, but the present invention is not limited to this. The laser beam L may be moved relative to the workpiece 40.
Further, in the present embodiment, the cleaving is performed by providing a separate break step. However, the cleaving may be performed by laser irradiation as in the case of Patent Document 1.

Hereinafter, the contents related to the process chart shown in FIG. 2 will be described in more detail.
Examples of the processing object 40 as an object of crack generation according to the present embodiment include materials such as GaN (gallium nitride), SiC (silicon carbide), sapphire, and glass. However, the material of the workpiece 40 is not limited to these materials, and a light absorption rate increasing region is formed by the femtosecond laser 14, and the nanosecond laser 16 is absorbed in the light absorption rate increasing region, thereby causing fine cracks. Any material that can be generated can be applied.

Further, the wavelength of the laser beam L from the laser beam generator 12 (the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16) is selected to be transparent to the material of the workpiece 40.
In that sense, the workpiece 40 is a transparent material that is transparent to the light emitted from the laser light generator 12.

First, irradiation with the femtosecond laser 14 will be described.
In step S102, a light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 having sufficient energy to generate a solid internal plasma or a photoionization phenomenon is formed in order to form a light absorption rate increasing region inside the workpiece 40. To do. In the present embodiment, the energy density of the femtosecond laser 14 does not necessarily need to be set to an energy density enough to modify the object to be processed (energy enough to form a modified region). What is necessary is just to set it as the energy which induces a phenomenon.

The specific setting of the femtosecond laser 14 is, for example, wavelength = 1.04 μm, pulse width (specified by the time width of the optical pulse where the optical power is ½ of the peak value, and so on.
Hereinafter, this time width may be referred to as “full width at half maximum”. ) = 500 fs laser beam is condensed to a spot diameter of about 1.5 μm by the condenser lens 32 with NA = 0.65. The required energy in this case (that is, the energy that induces solid internal plasma or photoionization phenomenon) is approximately 0.01 μJ.

When the processing object 40 is irradiated with the light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14, self-absorption (avalanche absorption) due to solid internal plasma or photoionization occurs, and light of the irradiation part of the femtosecond laser 14 on the processing object 40 Absorption rate rises temporarily.
FIG. 5 is a measurement example of temporal change in light absorption rate when soda lime glass is irradiated with light and FIG. 6 is irradiated with light from femtosecond laser 14 on SiC. The measurement was performed by the pump probe method.

  That is, in FIG. 1, immediately after the light from the femtosecond laser 14 is emitted, a part is branched using a half mirror (this branched light is called “probe light”). After passing through another delay circuit), the light from the femtosecond laser 14 is multiplexed using PBS (PBS different from the PBS 26) or the like, and returned to the same path. (In FIG. 5 and FIG. 6, expressed as “elapsed time”), the workpiece 40 is irradiated, and the absorptance of the probe light that has passed through the material is obtained to create the graph of FIG. 5 or FIG. . In this measurement, the nanosecond laser 16 is not oscillated.

  From the measurement results shown in FIG. 5 or 6, the absorption rate of both soda lime glass and SiC increases rapidly immediately after the femtosecond laser 14 is irradiated (that is, in the vicinity of elapsed time 0), and then relaxes. I understand. Moreover, it turns out that the change of the said light absorption rate is complete | finished in about 0.2 ns for soda-lime glass, and about 4 ns for SiC. Therefore, the time during which the light absorptance is changed can be regarded as the duration of increase in the light absorptance due to solid internal plasma or photoionization. Hereinafter, the duration of the increase in the light absorption rate may be referred to as “light absorption rate duration”.

  Next, a method for determining the pulse width of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 for each material will be described.

  In principle, the pulse width (time width) of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 can efficiently apply heat to the material of the workpiece 40, and the electronic excitation resulting from the optical pulse → lattice It is desirable to set the light irradiation so that the process of vibration → thermal diffusion proceeds. Considering this point, it can be said that the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 is generally preferably 100 ps or more. Below, the pulse width of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 actually obtained by experiment will be described.

FIG. 7 shows the pulse width of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 and the probability of occurrence of cracks when the light from the femtosecond laser 14 is irradiated under a certain condition and then the light from the nanosecond laser 16 is irradiated. This example shows an example in which the workpiece 40 is measured as SiC. From the figure, it can be seen that the probability of occurrence of cracks saturates when the pulse width is around 100 ps, and the probability of occurrence of cracks becomes a substantially constant value for the subsequent pulse width.
Although not shown, if the pulse width is further expanded, the probability of occurrence of cracks decreases, and the crack occurs in a case where the pulse width of the light pulse from the irradiated nanosecond laser 16 is within a certain range. Further, as shown in the figure, the narrower the pulse width, the finer the crack.

  Therefore, the pulse width of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 can be set to the minimum pulse width within the range of the pulse width in which the crack occurs as an example. That is, when the material of the workpiece 40 is SiC, it can be seen from FIG. 7 that the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 may be about 100 ps.

  Table 1 shows an example of the minimum pulse width for causing cracks, which was obtained by experiments in the same manner as described above for various materials. As the pulse width becomes shorter than this, the probability of occurrence of cracks decreases and eventually does not occur (see FIG. 7). Therefore, a certain amount of cracks are generated even in a region where the pulse width is narrower than the minimum pulse width. In this sense, the minimum pulse width shown in Table 1 is a guideline and is a value with a certain width. .


  From the experimental results shown in Table 1, if the crack generated in the workpiece 40 is observed while changing the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 with respect to a certain material in advance and the minimum pulse width at which the crack occurs is obtained, When generating the crack of the material, the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 can be set as the pulse width.

  Also, as shown in FIG. 8, for many materials, there is a correlation between the thermal expansion coefficient of the material and the minimum pulse width that can generate fine cracks. The pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 may be determined according to the thermal expansion coefficient. That is, the pulse width may be predicted and determined from the physical property value of the material.

For example, from FIG. 8, as an example, for a material having a thermal expansion coefficient in the range of 3 × 10 −6 to 7 × 10 −6 (1 / K), the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 is 10 ps or more and 1 ns. For materials having a thermal expansion coefficient of 7 × 10 −6 (1 / K) or more, the pulse width of the nanosecond laser 16 may be set to 1 ns or more and 20 ns or less.

  As a result of the experiment, in addition to the thermal expansion coefficient of the material to be processed, there is a correlation between the thermal conductivity or Young's modulus of the material to be processed and the minimum pulse width that can generate fine cracks. It was.

The pulse width and optical power of the nanosecond laser 16 set for each material as described above are as follows.
You may memorize | store in ROM etc. which are provided in the control part 38 and which are not shown in figure.

  Next, step S102 in FIG. 2 will be described. In step S <b> 102, before the light absorption rate of the light absorption rate increasing region returns to the original with respect to the light absorption rate increasing region locally formed on the workpiece 40 by irradiation of light from the femtosecond laser 14. That is, the light from the nanosecond laser 16 is irradiated within the light absorption rate duration. The pulse width and optical power of the nanosecond laser 16 at this time are the pulse width and optical power set in step S100.

It is preferable that the light pulse emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 overlaps (superimposes) the light pulse emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 in time or space, or in time and space.
FIG. 3 shows an example in which the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 are temporally overlapped. In FIG. 3, the time difference of the delay of the peak of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 with respect to the peak of the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 is defined as a delay time tD seconds.

  In the example shown in FIG. 3, the peak of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is delayed by the delay time tD with respect to the peak of the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14, but it is nano that is incident on the workpiece 40. The light pulse from the second laser 16 is first. Therefore, a temporal overlap occurs between the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16.

  FIG. 3 also shows the absorption threshold value. As described above, in the present embodiment, the peak value of the optical power of the optical pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 is set to a value exceeding the absorption threshold value. The peak value of the optical power of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is set to be less than the absorption threshold value.

  FIG. 9 and FIG. 10 show changes in the light absorption rate when the delay time tD is changed for soda-lime glass. FIG. 9 shows the change in the light absorption rate when tD = 0.25 ns, and FIG. 10 shows the change in the light absorption rate when tD = 0.05 ns. In each of FIGS. 9 and 10, a nanosecond laser 16 having an energy of about 1.2 μJ and a pulse width of about 0.1 ns is irradiated in addition to the femtosecond laser 14. Moreover, the measurement of this light absorption rate was performed using the above-mentioned pump probe method.

  As is clear from comparison with FIG. 5, in FIG. 10, the light absorption rate is high and the light absorption rate duration is greatly expanded, whereas in FIG. 9, there is a clear difference in comparison with FIG. 5. Absent. From this, FIG. 10 shows the energy of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 irradiated for the light absorption duration of about 0.2 ns (see FIG. 5) generated by the light pulse irradiation from the femtosecond laser 14. It can be said that the self-absorption due to solid internal plasma or ionization is further sustained by the absorption of the energy by the workpiece 40 and the absorption of the energy.

Even if the pulse width of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is longer (for example, a pulse width of about 10 ns as an example), if the first part of the optical pulse is absorbed,
This means that the remaining part of the subsequent light pulse is also absorbed, in other words, it can be absorbed over the entire pulse width of the light pulse.

In the present embodiment, the delay time tD is basically obtained from experiments or the like for each material of the workpiece 40.
However, the fact shown from the results of FIGS. 5 and 10, that is, the light absorption rate increases immediately after the object 40 is irradiated with the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14, and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 is generated. Due to the fact that if the first part of is absorbed by the workpiece 40, then the rest of the light pulses from the nanosecond laser 16 are also absorbed, the delay time tD is, for example, nano, regardless of the material. You may set to about 1/2 of the pulse width (full width at half maximum) of the light pulse from the second laser 16. If the delay time tD is set in this way, it is possible to save the trouble of checking the duration of light absorption after irradiation with the femtosecond laser 14 for each material.

Further, if the workpiece 40 is irradiated with the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 with a delay time tD = 0 s, the first half of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 Ca n’t absorb the energy and wasted energy,
Such a problem does not occur. Note that ½ of the pulse width is a guideline and can be absorbed even if the delay time tD is increased to some extent, and may be changed to another fixed value as necessary.

  As described above, by irradiating the workpiece 40 with the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 (laser transparent to the workpiece 40), the energy of the light pulse is increased in the light absorption rate region (excitation). And the inside of the workpiece 40 can be locally heated. As a result, in this embodiment, fine cracks can be generated.

  In the present embodiment, irradiation with the femtosecond laser 14 and the nanosecond laser 16 is performed along a predetermined schedule line as described above, and a crack generation region including a fine crack is continuously formed, or It can be formed intermittently. Thereafter, if necessary, cleaving may be performed along the crack generation region by a break process using an external mechanical stress.

[Second Embodiment]
The present embodiment is a form that further enables control of the direction in which cracks occur in the first embodiment.

  When a crack is formed by laser light, generally, when a perfect circular beam is irradiated, the thermal stress at the light condensing part isotropically spreads, so that the crack occurs in an arbitrary direction. Therefore, for example, when a semiconductor material is selected as the workpiece 40 and a line in which cracks are continuously formed is formed in a predetermined direction and then cleaved, cracks having an unfavorable shape may occur. Therefore, it is necessary to control the direction in which cracks occur.

  As a method for controlling the direction in which cracks occur, the beam condensing shape has directionality (for example, the beam condensing shape is made into an ellipse), or two condensing spots are brought close to each other. For example, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2011-056544 is known.

  However, since an ultrashort pulse laser is used in the above method, sufficient thermal stress cannot be applied depending on the material, and therefore, it can be applied only to a specific material. Further, since an ellipse or a plurality of focused spots are required, the required energy of the laser becomes large. Furthermore, if an attempt is made to generate multiphoton absorption using a light pulse from a nanosecond laser with a pulse width sufficient to apply thermal stress, more energy is required compared to a single pulse, Cracks become too big.

  Even when a mixed pulse of femtosecond laser pulses and nanosecond laser pulses is used, when both femtosecond light pulses and nanosecond light pulses are elliptical or multiple focused spots, femtosecond light pulses Since the light energy is more than double that of a single spot, it is not preferable for inexpensive and high-speed processing.

  In the present embodiment, attention is paid to the fact that the area of the light absorption increase region generated by the femtosecond light pulse is wider than the area of the condensing spot of the femtosecond light pulse (empirically, the light absorption increase region The area is at least 4 times the area of the focused spot of the femtosecond light pulse), and the femtosecond light pulse is irradiated with a single spot to reduce the required energy and control only the focused shape of the nanosecond light pulse. Thus, the direction in which cracks occur is controlled.

  Hereinafter, the present embodiment will be described in more detail. First, referring to FIG. 11 and FIG. 12, which are views of the inside of the workpiece 40 viewed from a direction perpendicular to the surface of the workpiece 40 in FIG. 1, the elliptical spot emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 is shown. The relationship between the major axis direction and the crack direction will be described.

  When the light emitted from the femtosecond laser 14 is condensed inside the workpiece 40 as shown in FIG. 11A, after the light is absorbed by the workpiece 40, the condensing unit and its surroundings. A solid internal plasma is generated. If the solid internal plasma absorbs the light pulse emitted from the nanosecond laser 16, the region where the solid internal plasma and the elliptical spot emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 overlap is heated, and thermal stress is generated in the region. It spreads anisotropically and cracks occur in the major axis direction of the elliptical spot. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 11B, for example, when an optical pulse from an elliptical nanosecond laser 16 having a long axis in the X-axis direction is irradiated, a crack is generated in the X-axis direction.

  Therefore, using the nanosecond laser 16 having the spot shown in FIG. 11B, the light pulse from the femtosecond laser 14 and the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 are irradiated as shown in FIG. However, if the workpiece 40 is scanned in the X-axis direction, a crack can be formed in parallel with the line to be cut, which is preferable in terms of generating fine cracks according to the material of the workpiece 40, which is an object of the present embodiment. The state can be obtained. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 12 (b), when the long axis of the elliptical spot in the light emitted from the nanosecond laser 16 is scanned in the X-axis direction, cracks are perpendicular to the line to be cleaved. It is not preferable because it is possible.

  As described above, in this embodiment, the major axis direction of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 having an elliptical spot is set to be parallel to the planned cutting line. With such a configuration, it is possible to generate fine cracks in a preferable direction according to the material of the workpiece, and it is possible to perform high-precision cleaving.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 13 (a) or 13 (b), the length of the light pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 having a fractured section (surface generated by cleaving, XZ plane) of the workpiece 40 and an elliptical spot. You may make it an axis | shaft become parallel (the direction of a crack becomes parallel to a split surface). Even with such a configuration, cracks can be generated in a preferable direction when the workpiece 40 is cleaved.

  Further, in addition to the method of making the emitted light spot from the nanosecond laser 16 into an ellipse, as shown in FIG. 14, the emitted light spot from the nanosecond laser 16 is made into a substantially perfect circle, and a plurality of spots (see FIG. 14 may be irradiated). The direction of the crack in this case is the direction of a straight line connecting the centers of the spots of the emitted light from the nanosecond laser 16 as indicated by arrows in the figure.

  As described above, in the present embodiment, the direction of the long axis of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser 16 having an elliptical spot is set to be parallel to the split surface. Alternatively, the direction of the line connecting the centers of the spots of the optical pulse from the nanosecond laser having a plurality of substantially circular spots is set to be parallel to the planned cutting line. With such a configuration, it is possible to generate fine cracks in a preferable direction according to the material of the workpiece, and it is possible to perform high-precision cleaving.

10 Crack generator 12 Laser light generator 14 Short pulse light source (femtosecond laser)
16 Long pulse light source (nanosecond laser)
18, 24 1/2 wavelength plate 20 mirror 22 delay circuit 22a, 22b mirror 26 PBS
28 Beam Diameter Adjuster 30 Dichroic Filter 32 Condensing Lens 34 XYZ Stage 36 CCD Camera 38 Controller 40 Processing Object 42 Laser Controller L Laser Light SL Predetermined Schedule Line

Claims (10)

  1. The processing object is irradiated with a first light pulse having a predetermined first pulse width from a first laser light source and a light intensity at which the material of the processing object causes multiphoton absorption. While forming a first region in which the light absorption rate is temporarily increased along a predetermined planned line,
    Before the light absorption rate of the first region where the light absorption rate has temporarily increased returns to the original state, the processing target object determined in advance for the material of the processing target object from the second laser light source Irradiating at least a part of the first region with a second light pulse having a light intensity that does not cause multiphoton absorption and a second pulse width wider than the first pulse width, A crack generation method for generating a crack in the workpiece along the predetermined schedule line.
  2. Irradiating the second light pulse from the second laser light source
    The crack generation method according to claim 1, wherein the second light pulse is irradiated with the first light pulse superimposed in at least one of time and space.
  3. The second pulse width is determined so as to be a value corresponding to a minimum pulse width among pulse widths of the second laser light source when a crack is generated in the workpiece. The crack generation method according to claim 2.
  4. The crack generation method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the peak of the second optical pulse is delayed by a predetermined time from the peak of the first optical pulse.
  5. 5. The crack width according to claim 1, wherein the second pulse width is determined based on at least one of a thermal expansion coefficient, a thermal conductivity, and a Young's modulus of a material of the workpiece. Generation method.
  6. Irradiating the first light pulse irradiates the first light pulse so as to be condensed inside the workpiece,
    Irradiating the second light pulse irradiates the second light pulse so as to be condensed inside the workpiece,
    6. At least one of the size, shape, and number of condensing portions of the first light pulse and the second light pulse is controlled according to a direction in which a crack is generated. The crack generation method according to claim 1.
  7. The crack generation method according to claim 6, wherein a shape of the condensing part of the second light pulse is an ellipse, and a major axis of the ellipse is parallel to the predetermined planned line.
  8. The crack generation according to claim 6, wherein the number of the condensing portions of the second light pulse is plural, and a straight line connecting the centers of the respective condensing portions is parallel to the predetermined predetermined line. Method.
  9. Using the crack generation method according to any one of claims 1 to 8,
    A cleaving method using a laser, further cleaving the workpiece along the predetermined schedule line.
  10. A first laser light source that emits pulsed light;
    A second laser light source that emits pulsed light;
    A first pulse width predetermined from the first laser light source and a material of the processing object are multiphotons so as to form a first region in which the light absorption rate is temporarily increased inside the processing object. Controlling the first laser light source to irradiate the workpiece with a first light pulse having a light intensity that causes absorption; and
    Before the light absorption rate of the first region where the light absorption rate has temporarily increased returns to the original state, the processing target object determined in advance for the material of the processing target object from the second laser light source The second light pulse having a light intensity that does not cause multiphoton absorption and a second pulse width wider than the first pulse width so that at least a part of the first region is irradiated with the second light pulse. An irradiation control means for controlling the laser light source to generate cracks in the workpiece;
    The workpiece and the workpiece so as to irradiate the first light pulse from the first laser light source and the second light pulse from the second laser light source along a predetermined schedule line. Moving means for moving at least one of the first laser light source and the second laser light source;
    A crack generating apparatus including:
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USRE36971E (en) 1991-06-18 2000-11-28 Syncrolift, Inc. Method of determining and analyzing a ship's weight
USRE37061E1 (en) 1991-06-18 2001-02-20 Syncrolift, Inc. Method of distributing loads generated between a ship and a supporting dry dock

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LT3302866T (en) * 2015-06-01 2019-09-10 Evana Technologies, Uab Method of laser scribing of semiconductor workpiece using divided laser beams
CN107953027B (en) * 2018-01-15 2019-09-20 哈尔滨工业大学 A kind of femtosecond of pulse combined-nanosecond laser system of processing and processing method
JP2019130538A (en) * 2018-01-29 2019-08-08 浜松ホトニクス株式会社 Machining apparatus

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JP2003088975A (en) * 2001-09-12 2003-03-25 Hamamatsu Photonics Kk Laser beam machining method
JP4209615B2 (en) * 2001-12-28 2009-01-14 株式会社ニデック Laser processing equipment
JP2005109323A (en) * 2003-10-01 2005-04-21 Tokyo Seimitsu Co Ltd Laser beam dicing device
JP2006035710A (en) * 2004-07-28 2006-02-09 Cyber Laser Kk Glass processing method using laser and device
JP4736633B2 (en) * 2005-08-31 2011-07-27 セイコーエプソン株式会社 Laser irradiation device
TW200722218A (en) * 2005-12-05 2007-06-16 Foxsemicon Integrated Tech Inc Laser cutting apparatus
JP5232375B2 (en) * 2006-10-13 2013-07-10 アイシン精機株式会社 Method for separating semiconductor light emitting device
WO2008127807A1 (en) * 2007-03-09 2008-10-23 University Of Virginia Patent Foundation Systems and methods of laser texturing of material surfaces and their applications
WO2010132880A1 (en) * 2009-05-15 2010-11-18 Translith Systems, Llc Method and apparatus for controlled laser ablation of material
JP5862088B2 (en) * 2011-07-22 2016-02-16 アイシン精機株式会社 Laser cleaving method and laser cleaving apparatus
JP5967405B2 (en) * 2012-01-17 2016-08-10 アイシン精機株式会社 Laser cleaving method and laser cleaving apparatus
JP5727433B2 (en) * 2012-09-04 2015-06-03 イムラ アメリカ インコーポレイテッド Transparent material processing with ultrashort pulse laser

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USRE36971E (en) 1991-06-18 2000-11-28 Syncrolift, Inc. Method of determining and analyzing a ship's weight
USRE37061E1 (en) 1991-06-18 2001-02-20 Syncrolift, Inc. Method of distributing loads generated between a ship and a supporting dry dock

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