JP5121191B2 - Low-floor railway vehicles and low-floor trams - Google Patents

Low-floor railway vehicles and low-floor trams Download PDF

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JP5121191B2
JP5121191B2 JP2006239674A JP2006239674A JP5121191B2 JP 5121191 B2 JP5121191 B2 JP 5121191B2 JP 2006239674 A JP2006239674 A JP 2006239674A JP 2006239674 A JP2006239674 A JP 2006239674A JP 5121191 B2 JP5121191 B2 JP 5121191B2
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JP2008062680A (en
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利行 平嶋
賢治 吉田
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川崎重工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Description

本発明は、主としてワンマン運転で、軌道を走行する低床式鉄道車両および低床式路面電車に関するものである。 The present invention relates to a low-floor railway vehicle and a low-floor type tram that travels on a track mainly by one-man operation.
21世紀を迎え、本格的な高齢化社会が訪れようとしているとともに、移動制約者への対応などの理由で、低床式路面電車が注目されつつある(例えば特許文献1,2参照)。   In the 21st century, a full-fledged aging society is about to come and low-floor trams are attracting attention for reasons such as responding to people with limited mobility (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2).
ワンマン運転を伴う低床式路面電車としては、車両後方あるいは中程にある乗客入口より先端(運転台背面あるいは側面)の乗客出口まで段差のないフラットな低床面を有することが第1に要求される。このような低床式路面電車を実現するためには、一般的な台車の車軸では、低床部と干渉するので、干渉するおそれがないように小径車輪とすることが考えられるが、電動台車では、モータやギヤボックスがあり、そのような構成とすることが困難である。一方、台車を、車軸の通っていない独立軸台車とすれば、車輪の間に低床部を設けることが可能である。   The first requirement for low-floor trams with one-man driving is to have a flat low floor with no steps from the passenger entrance at the rear or middle of the vehicle to the passenger exit at the tip (back or side of the cab). Is done. In order to realize such a low-floor type tram, the axle of a general carriage interferes with the low floor, so it is conceivable to use small-diameter wheels so that there is no risk of interference. Then, there are a motor and a gear box, and it is difficult to make such a configuration. On the other hand, if the cart is an independent shaft cart that does not pass through the axle, a low floor portion can be provided between the wheels.
従って、前記要求を満たすためには、台車は、乗客出入口よりも車端寄りの編成端部に限っては串軸台車でもよいが、それ以外の部分に設ける場合には独立軸台車にする必要がある。なお、独立軸台車をボギー台車とすると、十分な貫通路幅を確保できないので、低床部を確保する観点からは、独立軸ボギー台車の採用意義はない。   Therefore, in order to satisfy the above-mentioned requirements, the cart may be a skew shaft cart as long as the knitting end closer to the vehicle end than the passenger entrance, but if it is provided in other parts, it needs to be an independent shaft cart. There is. If the independent shaft bogie is a bogie bogie, a sufficient through-passage width cannot be ensured, so there is no significance in adopting an independent shaft bogie bogie from the viewpoint of securing a low floor.
よって、各台車タイプの、列車編成中における配置は、次の表1のパターンになる。   Therefore, the arrangement of each carriage type during train formation is the pattern shown in Table 1 below.
ここで、「ボギー台車」とは車体に対し旋回し得る台車をいい、「単台車」とは車体に対し旋回しない台車をいい、「串軸」とは左右の車輪が車軸で結合されている輪軸をいい、「独立軸」とは左右の車輪が各々独立に回転し得る輪軸をいう。 Here, “bogie bogie” refers to a bogie that can turn relative to the vehicle body, “single bogie” refers to a bogie that does not turn relative to the vehicle body, and “skew shaft” has left and right wheels connected by an axle. The wheel shaft is referred to as “independent shaft”, which means that the left and right wheels can rotate independently of each other.
ところで、一軸台車と二軸台車とでは、ステアリングの観点から、原理的にレールによる案内機構が全く異なる。一軸台車自体ではステアリング機能を有しないので、別途リンク機構などの装置が必要となる。そのため、発明者は、システムの簡便化を図るために、そのような一軸台車を除き、二軸台車を採用することとした。   By the way, in principle, the guide mechanism using rails is completely different between a single-shaft cart and a two-shaft cart from the viewpoint of steering. Since the single-shaft cart itself does not have a steering function, a device such as a link mechanism is required separately. Therefore, in order to simplify the system, the inventor decided to employ a biaxial cart except for such a monoaxial cart.
以上の検討結果から、車両の最小単位は、次の4つのタイプに分けられる。
A:単車(ボギーしない独立軸台車を用いた車両)
B:ボギー車(台車は1つ)
B2:ボギー車(台車は2つ)
C:吊り車(前後に連なる車両により支持されている車体であり、台車を持たない)
これらに組み合わせにより、前記要求を満たす編成を作れば、次の表2に示す4タイプが考えられる。
From the above examination results, the minimum unit of the vehicle is divided into the following four types.
A: Single vehicle (vehicle using independent bogie that is not bogie)
B: Bogie car (one cart)
B2: Bogie car (two trolleys)
C: Suspended vehicle (a vehicle body supported by vehicles in front and rear, without a carriage)
If a knitting that satisfies the above requirements is created by combining them, the four types shown in the following Table 2 can be considered.
タイプIIIは、両端に来る単車(A)に出入口をもってくるかどうかで、2タイプIII,III’に分けられる。これらを模式的に表すと、図11のようになる。 Type III can be divided into two types III and III ′ depending on whether the single vehicle (A) at both ends has an entrance. These are schematically shown in FIG.
このようにして、各種低床式路面電車が提案されているが、第2の要求事項として、車体の全幅にわたって低床面となる全幅完全低床部を最大限に確保したいということがある。なぜなら、独立軸台車のある部位は、車輪の間は低床部であるが、車輪の部分はかなり床面が高い高床部であり、腰掛け等の配置にしか利用することができず、鉄道事業者によってシートアレンジを自由に選択できないからである。特に、ワンマン運転では、混雑する乗客出口付近は腰掛けをなくすなど、自由なレイアウトを考えるべきである。また、低床式車両は一般的に、主として屋上に機器を搭載するため、スペースが不足する場合は床上に配置せざるを得ず、この場合も全幅完全低床部が少ないと不利である。   In this way, various low-floor type trams have been proposed. However, as a second requirement, there is a desire to maximize the full-width completely low floor portion that becomes the low floor surface over the entire width of the vehicle body. This is because some parts of the independent axle bogie have a low floor between the wheels, but the wheel part is a high floor with a considerably high floor surface, which can only be used for the placement of seats, etc. This is because the person cannot select the seat arrangement freely. In particular, in one-man operation, a free layout should be considered, such as eliminating a stool near the crowded passenger exit. In addition, since a low-floor type vehicle is generally equipped with equipment mainly on the rooftop, if there is a shortage of space, it must be placed on the floor.
そこで、台車スペースB(ボギーしない場合)、B’(ボギーする場合)、出入り口スペースD、連結面間距離G等とすると、車体全幅にわたり低床面であるスペースXi(i=1〜4)は図11に示すとおりとなり、全長15mの車両で、実例の数値を代入すると、全幅完全低床率の大きいものはタイプIやIII’となる。   Therefore, if the bogie space B (when not bogged), B ′ (when bogged), the entrance / exit space D, the distance G between connecting surfaces, etc., the space Xi (i = 1 to 4) which is a low floor surface over the entire width of the vehicle body is As shown in FIG. 11, when a numerical value of an example is substituted for a vehicle having a total length of 15 m, a type having a full width and a low floor ratio is type I or III ′.
図12に低床率と全幅完全低床率をまとめたものを示す。
特開2001−158346号公報(段落0006,0007および図1〜3) 特開2001−138905号公報(段落0006〜0012および図1〜3)
FIG. 12 shows a summary of the low floor ratio and the full width full low floor ratio.
JP 2001-158346 A (paragraphs 0006, 0007 and FIGS. 1 to 3) JP 2001-138905 A (paragraphs 0006 to 0012 and FIGS. 1 to 3)
タイプIやIII’では、曲線通過時おける偏倚の関係から車両長が制限されるし、また、逆に低床率は低下してしまう(つまり運転台が大きくなる)。タイプIやIII’を除けば、IIは全幅低床率が最も大きく、また低床率も最大である(ちょうどバスのように乗客出口を最前縁にもってきても半室運転台が構成可能であるため)。しかし、単車のみの構成であるため、重心バランスの都合で客室割り付けに自由度がないし、2両編成までであり、長編成化への発展性がない。 In Type I or III ', to the vehicle length from the relationship biasing the definitive when curving is limited, also, low implantation rate is lowered (i.e. the cab increases) reversed. Except Type I and III ', II has the highest overall floor width and floor area, and the lowest floor area is the largest (a half-chamber cab can be configured even if the passenger exit is at the front edge just like a bus. Because). However, since it is a single-car configuration, there is no degree of freedom in allocating cabins due to the balance of the center of gravity, up to two-car trains, and there is no possibility of extending to long trains.
したがって、残るのは、タイプIIIとIVであるが、タイプIIIでは降車時に混雑する降車口付近が必ず狭隘な通路部となるため、ワンマン運転を条件とする場合には望ましくなく、降車口付近は自由に客室アレンジができることが望ましい。 Therefore, what remains is Type III and IV, but in Type III, the area around the exit that gets crowded when getting off is always a narrow passage, so it is not desirable when one-man operation is required, It is desirable to be able to arrange guest rooms freely.
この意味では、タイプIVが理想であるが、タイプIVは低床率、全幅完全低床率ともに劣る。その原因は先端のボギー台車部でスペースを取りすぎているためであり、この部分のスペースCを縮めることができれば、理想的な低床式車両が構成できることに発明者は着想し、本発明をなすに至ったものである。   In this sense, Type IV is ideal, but Type IV is inferior in both low floor ratio and full width full low floor ratio. The cause is that too much space is taken by the bogie truck at the tip, and if the space C in this portion can be reduced, the inventor has conceived that an ideal low floor type vehicle can be configured, and the present invention is It has been reached.
そして、タイプIVにおいてB’のスペースを縮めてスペースCとしたものをタイプIV’とする。スペースCを実現するために、ボギー台車の片側一軸を小径車輪とし、この部分を低床部に潜り込ませる構成とする。こうすれば、高度な一軸ステアリング技術を用いることなく、ボギー台車にて、車幅の全幅にわたり低床面である完全低床部を拡大することができる。なお、タイプIV’における全幅完全低床部X4’がタイプIIIのX3よりも大きくなる条件は、図11に示すとおり、C<(B+D)/2である。B=2500mm、D=1300mmの実施例ではC<1900mmであればよいことになり、実施例ではC=1500mmで成立していることから、タイプIVの全幅完全低床率39%はタイプIIIの34%よりも大きくなっている。低床率は、同じ63%であり、悪化していない。 In Type IV, the space of B ′ is reduced to space C, which is referred to as Type IV ′. In order to realize the space C, the one side shaft of the bogie truck is a small-diameter wheel, and this portion is configured to sink into the low floor portion. By doing so, it is possible to expand the complete low floor portion, which is a low floor surface, over the entire width of the vehicle with the bogie, without using advanced single-axis steering technology. The condition that the full width completely low floor portion X4 ′ in type IV ′ is larger than X3 in type III is C <(B + D) / 2 as shown in FIG. In the example of B = 2500 mm and D = 1300 mm, C <1900 mm is sufficient. In the example, since C = 1500 mm, the full width complete low floor ratio of 39% of type IV is of type III. It is larger than 34%. The low floor ratio is the same 63%, which is not deteriorated.
本発明は、ボギー台車の片側一軸を小径車輪とし、この部分を客室の床部の下に潜り込ませることで、客室において車体全幅にわたり低床面である部分を最大限確保できる低床式鉄道車両および低床式路面電車を提供することを目的とする。 The present invention is a low-floor railway vehicle in which one side of a bogie truck is a small-diameter wheel, and this portion is submerged under the floor of the passenger cabin, so that a portion having a low floor surface can be secured to the maximum in the passenger compartment. And it aims at providing a low-floor type tram.
請求項1の発明は、運転席と客室とを含む車体と、台車とを備えた低床式鉄道車両であって、前記台車は、両側に大径車輪が固定された主車軸と、前記大径車輪よりも外径が小さな小径車輪が両側に固定された副車軸と、前記主車軸を支持する主車軸枠と、前記副車軸を支持し、前記主車軸枠の後端に連結されて前記主車軸枠に対して上下方向に揺動可能な副車軸枠とを備え、前記大径車輪の上方に前記運転席が設けられ、前記小径車輪の上方に前記客室が設けられるものである。ここで、小径車輪の直径は、低床高さが路面より360mm以下を実現できる径とされる。 The invention of claim 1 is a low-floor railway vehicle comprising a vehicle body including a driver's seat and a cabin, and a carriage, the carriage comprising a main axle having large-diameter wheels fixed on both sides, and the large axle. A sub-axle in which a small-diameter wheel having a smaller outer diameter than the diameter wheel is fixed on both sides, a main axle frame that supports the main axle, a sub-axle that supports the auxiliary axle, and is connected to a rear end of the main axle frame, A sub-axle frame swingable in a vertical direction with respect to the main axle frame, the driver seat is provided above the large-diameter wheel, and the cabin is provided above the small-diameter wheel . Here, the diameter of the small-diameter wheel is a diameter that can realize a low floor height of 360 mm or less from the road surface.
このようにすれば、前記大径車輪の上方に前記運転席が設けられ、前記小径車輪の上方に前記客室が設けられるので、前記運転台付き車両の客室は、座席下の床部および通路の床部がともに低床面になり、車体全幅低床の部分を最大限確保することを実現できる。 In this way, the driver's seat is provided above the large-diameter wheel, and the cabin is provided above the small-diameter wheel. Therefore, the cabin of the vehicle with the cab has a floor portion and a passage under the seat. Both floors have a low floor surface, and it is possible to secure the maximum width of the vehicle body with a low floor.
この場合、請求項2に記載のように、前記主車軸と前記副車軸の間であって、前記運転席の床面と当該床面より低い位置にある前記客室の床面との間に鉛直面部をさらに備え、前記客室は、前記鉛直面部から車両長手方向に沿って車体後端までの床面高さが、前記運転席の床面高さよりも低い構成とすることも可能である。 In this case, as described in claim 2, between the main axle and the sub-axle, between the floor surface of the driver's seat and the floor surface of the cabin located at a position lower than the floor surface. The passenger compartment may further include a surface portion, and the cabin may be configured such that the floor surface height from the vertical surface portion to the rear end of the vehicle body along the longitudinal direction of the vehicle is lower than the floor surface height of the driver seat .
また、請求項3に記載のように、前記主車軸枠と前記副車軸枠との間に設けられ、前記副車軸を介して各前記小径車輪を下向きに付勢する付勢手段をさらに備える構成とすることも可能である。 Further, according to a third aspect of the present invention, there is further provided a biasing means that is provided between the main axle frame and the auxiliary axle frame, and biases each of the small-diameter wheels downward via the auxiliary axle. It is also possible.
請求項4に記載のように、前記小径車輪の上方には、前記客室の出入り口部が設けられている構成とすることも可能である。 According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, an entrance / exit part of the cabin may be provided above the small-diameter wheel .
請求項5に記載のように、請求項1に記載の低床式鉄道車両と、前記低床式鉄道車両に連結可能な中間車両とを備える低床式路面電車であって、前記中間車両は、車両幅方向の両端に設けられた第1座席部と、前記座席部の間に設けられた第1通路部とを有する中間客室を備え、前記第1通路部の床面高さは、前記低床式鉄道車両の前記客室の床面高さと略等しい、構成とすることができる。 A low-floor type tram comprising the low-floor type railway vehicle according to claim 1 and an intermediate vehicle connectable to the low-floor type railway vehicle, wherein the intermediate vehicle is , An intermediate passenger cabin having a first seat portion provided at both ends in the vehicle width direction and a first passage portion provided between the seat portions, the floor height of the first passage portion being It can be set as the structure which is substantially equal to the floor surface height of the said passenger room of a low floor type rail vehicle.
請求項6に記載のように、前記中間車両は、それぞれ独立して回転可能な少なくとも2組の独立車輪を有する台車をさらに備え、前記第1座席部は、各前記独立車輪の上方に設けられる、構成としたり、請求項7に記載のように、前記客室の車両幅方向の両端に設けられた第2座席部と、前記客室の床面と前記第2座席部の間に設けられ、走行用の電力を供給可能な蓄電装置をさらに備える、構成としたりすることができる。 According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, the intermediate vehicle further includes a carriage having at least two sets of independent wheels that can rotate independently, and the first seat portion is provided above the independent wheels. Or a second seat portion provided at both ends of the cabin in the vehicle width direction, and provided between the floor surface of the cabin and the second seat portion , as defined in claim 7. power use further Ru comprising a supply power storage device, or can be configured.
以上のように、本発明は、前記大径車輪の上方に前記運転席を設け、前記小径車輪の上方に前記客室を設けるので、客室において車体全幅低床の部分を最大限確保することを実現できる。 As described above , the present invention provides the driver's seat above the large-diameter wheel and the cabin above the small-diameter wheel, so that it is possible to maximize the vehicle body full width low floor portion in the cabin. it can.
以下、本発明の実施の形態を図面に沿って説明する。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
図8は本発明に係る低床式路面電車に用いる二軸ボギー台車の一実施の形態を示す平面図、図9は同側面図、図10は左半分が図9のA方向矢視図、右半分が図9のB方向矢視図である。   8 is a plan view showing an embodiment of a two-axis bogie used in a low-floor type tram according to the present invention, FIG. 9 is a side view thereof, and FIG. 10 is a left half view of FIG. The right half is a view in the direction of arrow B in FIG.
図8および図9に示すように、本発明に係る低床式路面電車21(例えば図1および図2参照)に用いる二軸ボギー台車1は、編成の前後に配置される運転台付き車両22,23の車体20の先端部(最前端部または最後端部)下に左右一対の枕ばね2を介して取り付けられる枕はり3付きの台車で、枕はり3の幅方向の中央位置に心ざら4を中心に水平旋回可能に支持された台車枠5を備えている。この台車枠5の両側の主車軸枠5aの前部間に、車軸6bの両側に大径車輪6a(例えば直径600mm)を一体回転可能に備えた主輪軸6が回転可能に取り付けられている。   As shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, the biaxial bogie 1 used for the low-floor type tram 21 according to the present invention (for example, see FIGS. 1 and 2) is a vehicle 22 with a cab arranged before and after the formation. , 23 is a cart with a pillow beam 3 that is attached via a pair of left and right pillow springs 2 below the front end portion (frontmost end portion or rearmost end portion) of the vehicle body 20, and is centered on the center position in the width direction of the pillow beam 3. 4 is provided with a carriage frame 5 supported so as to be able to turn horizontally around the center. Between the front portions of the main axle frame 5a on both sides of the bogie frame 5, the main wheel shaft 6 provided with large-diameter wheels 6a (for example, a diameter of 600 mm) on both sides of the axle 6b is rotatably attached.
両側の主車軸枠5a間を連結する横はり5b上の両側には、図10のように、左右の各大径車輪6aに対向する踏面ブレーキ7が設けられている。また、車軸6bの左側に減速歯車装置8が一体に組み込まれ、横はり5bの中央部付近に取り付けられた駆動装置9と減速歯車装置8とが接続され、両側の大径車輪6aが駆動輪として機能する構成とされている。   As shown in FIG. 10, tread brakes 7 facing left and right large-diameter wheels 6a are provided on both sides of the horizontal beam 5b connecting the main axle frames 5a on both sides. Further, a reduction gear device 8 is integrally incorporated on the left side of the axle 6b, and a drive device 9 and a reduction gear device 8 attached near the center of the lateral beam 5b are connected, and the large-diameter wheels 6a on both sides are connected to the drive wheels. It is set as the structure which functions as.
両側の各主車軸枠5aの後端二股部間に、副車軸枠10の前端部がそれぞれ上下方向に揺動自在に水平ピン11で連結されている。両側の副車軸枠10の後部間に、車軸12bの両側に誘導輪である小径車輪12a(例えば250mm)を一体回転可能に備えた副輪軸12が回転可能に取り付けられ、左右の水平ピン11を中心に上下方向に揺動する。各主車軸枠5aの後端部において、水平ピン11よりやや前方の下部からブラケット(スプリング受け)13が側方に一体に張り出して設けられ、副車軸枠10の長手方向に中間位置より側方に張り出した二股部10aの前端部10bとブラケット13の間に、コイルスプリング(軸ばね)14を縮装し、小径車輪12aが下向きに付勢されるようにしている。したがって、水平ピン11を中心に副車軸枠10を介して小径車輪12aが下方へ付勢され、小径車輪12aは軌道(レール)に対し一定の荷重で押し付けられる。 A front end portion of the auxiliary axle frame 10 is connected by a horizontal pin 11 so as to be swingable in the vertical direction between the rear end bifurcated portions of the main axle frames 5a on both sides. Between the rear parts of the auxiliary axle frames 10 on both sides, the auxiliary wheel shaft 12 provided with a small-diameter wheel 12a (for example, 250 mm) as a guide wheel on both sides of the axle 12b so as to be integrally rotatable is rotatably attached. Swings up and down around the center. At the rear end portion of each main axle frame 5a, a bracket (spring receiver) 13 is provided so as to integrally project laterally from a lower portion slightly in front of the horizontal pin 11, and in the longitudinal direction of the auxiliary axle frame 10 from the intermediate position to the side. A coil spring (shaft spring) 14 is mounted between the front end portion 10b of the bifurcated portion 10a and the bracket 13 so that the small-diameter wheel 12a is urged downward. Therefore, the small-diameter wheel 12a is urged downward about the horizontal pin 11 via the auxiliary axle frame 10, and the small-diameter wheel 12a is pressed against the track (rail) with a constant load.
これにより、小径車輪12aが軌道上から浮き上がるなどの輪重抜けが防止され、同時に小径車輪12a(もしくは副車軸枠10)と車体20の下面との接触が回避される。   Thus, wheel weight loss such as the small-diameter wheel 12a floating from the track is prevented, and contact between the small-diameter wheel 12a (or the auxiliary axle frame 10) and the lower surface of the vehicle body 20 is avoided at the same time.
なお、小径車輪12aや大径車輪6a(主車輪)の軸ばね定数を非線形として、圧縮すればばね定数が硬くなり、伸び側ではばね定数が柔らかくなるようにすることによって、不静定要因の輪重減少を改善することもできる。 It is to be noted that if the shaft spring constant of the small-diameter wheel 12a or the large-diameter wheel 6a (main wheel) is made non-linear, the spring constant becomes harder when compressed, and the spring constant becomes softer on the extension side, thereby Reduction of wheel load can also be improved.
図9および図10に示すように、ボギー台車1の枕はり3の下面の左右両側に第1のブラケット15aがそれぞれ下向きに突出して設けられ、各第1のブラケット15aの下端部と、コイルスプリング14の上方に位置する車体20の鉛直面部20aに固定した第2のブラケット15bとがボルスタアンカ15にて連結されている。これにより、ボギー台車1の大径車輪6aが駆動装置9で駆動されることによる動力で、車体20がボルタアンカ15を介して牽引される。なお、台車枠5の先端にガードプレート16の上端が下向きに固定されている。なお、図9において、30は軌道(走行レール)を示す。 As shown in FIGS. 9 and 10, first brackets 15 a are respectively provided on the left and right sides of the lower surface of the pillow beam 3 of the bogie 1 so as to protrude downward, and the lower ends of the first brackets 15 a and coil springs are provided. A bolster anchor 15 is connected to a second bracket 15 b fixed to the vertical surface portion 20 a of the vehicle body 20 located above 14. As a result, the vehicle body 20 is pulled through the voltaic anchor 15 by the power generated when the large-diameter wheel 6 a of the bogie 1 is driven by the drive device 9. Note that the upper end of the guard plate 16 is fixed downward at the tip of the carriage frame 5. In FIG. 9, reference numeral 30 denotes a track (running rail) .
上記のようにして、低床式路面電車21(例えば図1および図2参照)に用いる二軸ボギー台車1が構成され、この台車によれば、車両22,23の最前端部下または最後端部下に大径車輪6aを配置し、その中央寄りに小径車輪12a(誘導輪)が配置されるので、例えば車両の最前端部および最後端部を運転台とし、それより中央寄りを客室とした車両構成により、客室において車体全幅にわたり低床である部分を最大限確保する、ワンマン運転の車両を実現することができる。また、客室において車体全幅にわたり低床である部分を最大限確保するので、客室に配置する座席のレイアウトの自由度が高まる。ここで、小径車輪12aを直径250mmとしているので、低床高さが路面より360mm以下である低床化が実現される。   As described above, the biaxial bogie 1 used for the low-floor type tram 21 (see, for example, FIG. 1 and FIG. 2) is configured. Since the large-diameter wheel 6a is disposed in the center and the small-diameter wheel 12a (guidance wheel) is disposed near the center of the vehicle, for example, a vehicle having a front cab and a rearmost cab as a driver's cab, and a vehicle closer to the center than that. With the configuration, it is possible to realize a one-man-operated vehicle that secures a portion having a low floor over the entire width of the vehicle body in the cabin. In addition, since the maximum portion of the cabin that has a low floor is secured across the entire width of the vehicle body, the degree of freedom in the layout of seats arranged in the cabin is increased. Here, since the small-diameter wheel 12a has a diameter of 250 mm, a low floor is realized in which the low floor height is 360 mm or less from the road surface.
また、大径車輪6aおよび小径車輪12aの両輪とも両側の車輪を車軸に対して固着した串軸を使用したので、大径車輪6aおよび小径車輪12aの背面間距離が正確に規定され、小曲線や分岐部通過時には車輪の背面をガードレールに沿って接触させ案内させることができる。   Further, since both the large-diameter wheel 6a and the small-diameter wheel 12a use skewer shafts in which the wheels on both sides are fixed to the axle, the distance between the back surfaces of the large-diameter wheel 6a and the small-diameter wheel 12a is accurately defined, and the small curve When the vehicle passes through the bifurcation, the rear surface of the wheel can be brought into contact with the guard rail and guided.
さらに車両の最前端部または最後端部に大径車輪6aを配置して主車輪とし、前記車両の中央寄りに小径車輪の小径車輪12aを配置し、主車軸枠5aの、車体20に対する水平旋回抵抗により大径車輪6aおよび小径車輪12aに作用する横圧と、曲線に進入しボギー台車1全体を走行させるのに必要な横圧との和が大径車輪6aに作用するようにしたから、小径車輪12a側に過大な横圧が作用するのを防止し、小径車輪12aの輪重抜けやこれに起因する脱線を阻止することができる。   Further, a large-diameter wheel 6a is arranged at the foremost end or the rearmost end of the vehicle as a main wheel, a small-diameter wheel 12a of a small-diameter wheel is arranged near the center of the vehicle, and the main axle frame 5a turns horizontally with respect to the vehicle body 20 Since the sum of the lateral pressure acting on the large-diameter wheel 6a and the small-diameter wheel 12a due to resistance and the lateral pressure required to enter the curve and travel the entire bogie 1 is applied to the large-diameter wheel 6a. It is possible to prevent an excessive lateral pressure from acting on the small-diameter wheel 12a side, and it is possible to prevent wheel load loss and derailment caused by the small-diameter wheel 12a.
続いて、図1および図2に基づき、ボギー軸台車1を備えた、本発明に係る低床式路面電車の一実施の形態について説明する。   Next, an embodiment of a low-floor type tram according to the present invention provided with a bogie axle cart 1 will be described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2.
図1および図2(a)(b)に示すように、本例の低床式路面電車21は、客室P専用車両24の前後に運転台付き車両22,23を連結器28および幌29を介して連節した3両編成の車両からなる。前後の車両22,23は先端部に運転台Dが配置され、運転台Dを除きこの運転台Dより車体長さ方向中央寄りが車体全幅にわたり低床面である客室Pに構成されている。車両22,23の運転台Dの床部22b,23bが客室Pの低床部22a,23aに比べてやや高く上がっているのは、各運転台Dの床部22b,23b下に、片側一軸を小径車輪12a(誘導輪)とするボギー台車1の枕はり3を枕ばね2を介して取り付けるためである。二軸ボギー台車1の小径車輪12aは車体長さ方向中央寄りで客室Pの低床部22a,23aの下側に配置され、もう一軸を構成する大径車輪6aは運転台D下側に配置される。車体20の運転台Dと客室Pとの段差部における鉛直壁20aに左右一対のボルスタアンカ15が連結される。   As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 (a) and 2 (b), the low-floor type tram 21 of this example includes vehicles 22 and 23 with cabs before and after a vehicle P dedicated vehicle 24 with a coupler 28 and a hood 29. It consists of a three-car train that is articulated through the vehicle. The front and rear vehicles 22 and 23 are provided with a cab D at the tip, and except for the cab D, the cab D is configured as a cabin P having a low floor across the entire width of the vehicle body from the cab D toward the center in the vehicle body length direction. The floors 22b and 23b of the cab D of the vehicles 22 and 23 are slightly higher than the low floors 22a and 23a of the passenger cabin P. This is because the pillow beam 3 of the bogie 1 having a small diameter wheel 12a (guide wheel) is attached via the pillow spring 2. The small-diameter wheel 12a of the biaxial bogie 1 is disposed below the low floor portions 22a and 23a of the passenger cabin P near the center in the vehicle body length direction, and the large-diameter wheel 6a constituting the other shaft is disposed below the cab D. Is done. A pair of left and right bolster anchors 15 are connected to the vertical wall 20a at the step portion between the cab D and the cabin P of the vehicle body 20.
この配置により、座席22c,23c下の床部および通路22d,23dの床部がともに低床になっている。つまり、客室Pが車体全幅にわたり低床面である低床部22a,23aとなっている。ここで、通路幅は、乗客の移動をスムーズに行うために、一定の幅(例えば800mm)以上確保している。   With this arrangement, the floor portion under the seats 22c and 23c and the floor portions of the passages 22d and 23d are both low. That is, the passenger compartment P has low floor portions 22a and 23a that are low floor surfaces over the entire width of the vehicle body. Here, the passage width is secured to a certain width (for example, 800 mm) or more in order to smoothly move the passengers.
そして、車両22,23の客室Pにおいては、座席22c,23cが車幅方向に向かい合って配置され、この座席22c,23c下の低床面上に、大きなデッドスペースを利用して蓄電池BA(例えばニッケル水素電池)が配置され、架線のない区間では蓄電池BAを電源として走行できるようになっている。つまり、架線を設置した区間では後述のパンタグラフ27により架線から集電して、その電力で走行するとともに蓄電池BAを充電し、架線のない区間では蓄電池BAを電源として走行することができる。   In the passenger compartment P of the vehicles 22 and 23, the seats 22c and 23c are arranged facing each other in the vehicle width direction, and a storage battery BA (for example, a large dead space is used on the low floor surface below the seats 22c and 23c. Nickel metal hydride battery) is arranged, and in a section where there is no overhead line, the battery can be driven using the storage battery BA as a power source. That is, in the section where the overhead line is installed, current can be collected from the overhead line by the pantograph 27 described later, and the vehicle can be run with the power and charged with the storage battery BA, and can be run with the storage battery BA as the power source in the section without the overhead line.
ところで、電車21は、通常、架線から電力を取り入れ、モータを回転して走行する。ブレーキ時には前記モータを発電機として使用し、頭上の架線に電力を返し、エネルギー効率を高めている(回生ブレーキ)。しかしながら、せっかく架線に電力を返しても、回生電力を使用する他の電車がない場合には、前記モータは発電機として働かず(回生失効)、機械ブレーキに切り替わり電車の運動エネルギーは熱となって発散していた。そこで、この発明の電車は、発電したエネルギーを蓄電池BAに蓄え、発車時のモータ駆動や補機の電源として有効に活用することで、エネルギー効率を飛躍的に高めるようにしているのである。   By the way, the train 21 usually travels by taking electric power from an overhead line and rotating a motor. During braking, the motor is used as a generator to return power to overhead overhead lines to increase energy efficiency (regenerative braking). However, even if power is returned to the overhead line, if there is no other train that uses regenerative power, the motor does not work as a generator (regeneration expired), switching to mechanical braking, and the kinetic energy of the train becomes heat. And diverged. Therefore, the train of the present invention dramatically increases the energy efficiency by storing the generated energy in the storage battery BA and effectively using it as a motor drive at the time of departure and as a power source for auxiliary equipment.
また、車両22,23の座席22c,23cに隣接して、ドア22e,23eにて開閉される出入り口が設けられているが、床部の排水を考慮して出入り口部をわずかに低く下げる傾斜床部を勘案しない場合は、前記出入り口の床部22f,23fも通路と同じ低床部になっている。つまり、前後の車両22,23は運転台Dを除く客室Pが車体全幅にわたり低床である車両となる。   In addition, although doorways that are opened and closed by doors 22e and 23e are provided adjacent to the seats 22c and 23c of the vehicles 22 and 23, an inclined floor that slightly lowers the doorway in consideration of drainage of the floor portion. When the portion is not taken into consideration, the floor portions 22f and 23f of the doorway are also the same low floor portion as the passage. That is, the front and rear vehicles 22 and 23 are vehicles in which the cabin P excluding the cab D has a low floor over the entire width of the vehicle body.
中間の客室専用車両24は、通路24aを挟んで両側に車長方向に向かい合うように座席24bが設けられている。通路24aは前後の車両22,23と同じ高さの低床であるが、座席24bの下がやや高い床部24cになっている。これは、この床部24c下に軸箱25aに回転自在に支持された独立車輪25(例えば直径610mm)が配置され、高床部24cと軸箱25aとの間に枕ばね26を設けるためである。なお、車両24の屋根上に、架線から電力を取り入れるパンタグラフ27が配備されており、架線(図示せず)から電流を車内に取り込むようになっている。 The middle passenger-only vehicle 24 is provided with seats 24b on both sides of the passage 24a so as to face each other in the vehicle length direction. The passage 24a is a low floor having the same height as the front and rear vehicles 22 and 23, but the floor 24c is slightly higher below the seat 24b. This is because an independent wheel 25 (for example, a diameter of 610 mm) rotatably supported by the axle box 25a is disposed below the floor portion 24c, and a pillow spring 26 is provided between the high floor portion 24c and the axle box 25a. . Note that a pantograph 27 for taking in electric power from an overhead line is provided on the roof of the vehicle 24, and current is taken into the vehicle from the overhead line (not shown) .
また、運転台Dは、図3(a)〜(c)に示すように、運転席61の前側にはコンソールボックス62が配置され、このコンソールボックス62は運転者が立ち上がった状態では電車の直前方まで見える高さに設定されている(図3(b)参照)。コンソールボックスの上方には行先表示器63が配置されている。運転席61の右側上方には前側から行先表示設定器64およびカメラ・モニタ制御器65が、左側上方にはブレーキ受量器66がそれぞれ配置されている。それらの間であって運転席の上方には配電盤67A,67Bおよびブザーボックス68が配置されている。運転席61の後部上方には無線装置69およびTFT液晶表示パネル70が配置されている。また運転席61の後方には、運賃箱71が配置され、運転士が運転席61を回転するだけで、運賃の投入の確認ができるようになっている。なお、具体的に図示していないが、運転席61のアームレスト部に運転のためのジョイスティックタイプのマスコンが搭載され、運転席61の前後位置を調整しなくていいように構成されている。   In addition, as shown in FIGS. 3A to 3C, the cab D is provided with a console box 62 on the front side of the driver's seat 61. The console box 62 is immediately before the train when the driver stands up. The height is set so that it can be seen (see FIG. 3B). A destination indicator 63 is disposed above the console box. A destination display setting device 64 and a camera / monitor controller 65 are arranged from the front side above the right side of the driver's seat 61, and a brake receiver 66 is arranged above the left side. Between them and above the driver's seat, distribution boards 67A and 67B and a buzzer box 68 are arranged. A wireless device 69 and a TFT liquid crystal display panel 70 are disposed above the rear portion of the driver seat 61. Further, a fare box 71 is arranged behind the driver's seat 61, and the driver can confirm the introduction of the fare only by rotating the driver's seat 61. Although not specifically illustrated, a joystick type mascon for driving is mounted on the armrest portion of the driver seat 61 so that the front and rear positions of the driver seat 61 need not be adjusted.
このように、周辺機器はできる限り、運転台D上方の天井部に配置され、運転席61の前方から側方にかけての広い視野を確保できるようになっている。   As described above, the peripheral devices are arranged on the ceiling portion above the cab D as much as possible, so that a wide field of view from the front to the side of the driver seat 61 can be secured.
また、図4に示すように、車両22,23の屋根の上には、ともに、ブレーキ用空気タンク31(BR)、ブレーキ制御装置32(BCU)、主制御装置/補助電源装置33(VVVF/CVCF)および空調装置34(HVAC)が設けられ、さらに車両22には電源制御装置35(充放電装置)が、車両23にはコンプレッサ36(Comp)および元空気タンク37(MR)がそれぞれ設けられている。車両24の屋根の上には、ブレーキ用空気タンク31(BR)、ブレーキ制御装置32(BCU)、フィルタリアクトル38(FL1 FL2)、高速遮断器45(HB)、メインスイッチ46(MS)、メインヒューズ47(MF)がそれぞれ設けられている。このように、各車両22〜24の屋根の上には、低床化を図るために、通常床下機器とされる各種機器類が全体に亘って重量バランスよく配置されている。 As shown in FIG. 4, on the roofs of the vehicles 22 and 23, the brake air tank 31 (BR) , the brake control device 32 (BCU) , the main control device / auxiliary power supply device 33 (VVVF / CVCF) and an air conditioner 34 (HVAC) are provided, the vehicle 22 is provided with a power supply control device 35 (charge / discharge device), and the vehicle 23 is provided with a compressor 36 (Comp) and a source air tank 37 (MR). ing. On the roof of the vehicle 24, a brake air tank 31 (BR) , a brake control device 32 (BCU) , a filter reactor 38 (FL1 FL2) , a high-speed circuit breaker 45 (HB ), a main switch 46 (MS) , a main switch Fuses 47 (MF) are respectively provided. In this way, on the roofs of the vehicles 22 to 24, various devices that are normally underfloor devices are arranged with a good weight balance over the whole in order to reduce the floor.
上記低床式路面電車21のように3両編成に構成すれば、中間の客室専用車両24の通路24aを、前後の前記運転台付き車両22,23の座席22c,23c下の床部および通路22d,23dの床部と同じ高さの低床面とすることができるので、前後の運転台付き車両22,23の客室Pと中間の客室専用車両24の客室Pとの間を、通路22d,22d,24aを通じて、段差なくスムーズに移動することができる。   If it is configured in a three-car train like the low-floor type tram 21, the passage 24a of the intermediate passenger-only vehicle 24 is replaced with the floor portion and the passage under the seats 22c and 23c of the front and rear vehicles 22 and 23 with the driver's cab. Since the floor can be made as low as the floors 22d and 23d, a passage 22d is provided between the cabin P of the front and rear vehicles 22 and 23 and the cabin P of the middle cabin-dedicated vehicle 24. , 22d, and 24a, it can move smoothly without a step.
よって、例えば図5に示すように、車椅子Vでも、通路22d,22d,24a通じて、前後の運転台付き車両22,23の客室Pと中間の客室専用車両24の客室Pとの間を段差なくスムーズに移動することができる。   Therefore, for example, as shown in FIG. 5, even in the wheelchair V, there is a step between the passenger cabin P of the vehicles 22 and 23 with front and rear cabs and the passenger cabin P of the intermediate passenger cabin vehicle 24 through the passages 22d, 22d, and 24a. It can move smoothly.
前記実施の形態においては、車両22,23が比較的短い3両編成の連節車両に適用した場合について説明したが、図6(a)(b)に示すように、車両長さがさらに長い前後の運転台付き車両22’,23’を用いて、編成全長をさらに長くした連節車両41とすることも可能である。ここで、22c’,23c’は座席、22d’,23d’は通路で、これらが低床面となっているのは図1および図2に示す電車21と同じである。 In the embodiment described above, the case where the vehicles 22 and 23 are applied to a relatively short three-car train is described. However, as shown in FIGS. 6A and 6B, the vehicle length is longer. The articulated vehicle 41 having an even longer overall knitting length can be formed by using the front and rear cab-equipped vehicles 22 ′ and 23 ′. Here, 22c 'and 23c' are seats, 22d 'and 23d' are passages, and these are low floor surfaces, as in the train 21 shown in FIGS.
また、図7に示すように、さらに、中間の車両24を2つ用い、車両24,24の間に吊り車51を設ける連節車両42とすることも可能である。この場合、前記吊り車51において、客室の座席51a下の床部および通路51bの床部をともに運転台付き車両22’,23’の座席22c’,23c’下および通路22d’,23d’と同じ高さの低床面とすることで、中間の客室専用車両24の通路24aに加えて、吊り車51の座席51a下の床部および通路51bの床部をともに同じ高さの低床面とするので、前後の前記運転台付き車両22’,23’、中間の客室専用車両24,24および吊り車51の間を、通路22d’,23d’,24a,51aを通じて、段差なくスムーズに移動できる。   Further, as shown in FIG. 7, it is also possible to use an articulated vehicle 42 in which two intermediate vehicles 24 are used and a suspension vehicle 51 is provided between the vehicles 24 and 24. In this case, in the suspension vehicle 51, the floor portion under the passenger seat 51a and the floor portion of the passage 51b are both under the seats 22c 'and 23c' of the cab and the passages 22d 'and 23d'. By using the low floor surface of the same height, in addition to the passage 24a of the intermediate passenger vehicle 24, the floor portion under the seat 51a of the suspension vehicle 51 and the floor portion of the passage 51b are both low floor surfaces of the same height. Therefore, it moves smoothly between the front and rear vehicles 22 ', 23', the middle passenger-only vehicles 24, 24 and the suspension vehicle 51 through the passages 22d ', 23d', 24a, 51a without any step. it can.
さらに、図示していないが、単一車両の最前端部と最後端部とにそれぞれボギー台車1を設けて、低床式路面電車を実現することもできる。   Further, although not shown, a bogie 1 can be provided at the foremost end and the rearmost end of a single vehicle to realize a low floor tram.
本発明に係る低床式路面電車の一実施の形態を示す平面図である。It is a top view which shows one Embodiment of the low-floor type streetcar which concerns on this invention. (a)は同側面図、(b)は図(a)のC−C断面(左半分)と図(a)のD−D断面(右半分)とを組み合わせた断面図である。(A) is the same side view, (b) is a sectional view combining the CC section (left half) of FIG. (A) and the DD section (right half) of FIG. (a)〜(c)はそれぞれ運転台付近の周辺機器のレイアウトの説明図である。(A)-(c) is explanatory drawing of the layout of the peripheral device of the cab vicinity, respectively. (a)(b)はそれぞれ屋根上機器の配置を示す概略平面図および側面図である。(A) and (b) are the schematic plan views and side views which respectively show arrangement | positioning of equipment on a roof. (a)は車椅子の移動を示す平面図、(b)は図5(a)のE−E断面図である。(A) is a top view which shows the movement of a wheelchair, (b) is EE sectional drawing of Fig.5 (a). (a)(b)はそれぞれ他の実施の形態を示す平面図および側面図である。(A) and (b) are the top views and side views which show other embodiment, respectively. 別の実施の形態を示す平面図である。It is a top view which shows another embodiment. 本発明に係る低床式路面電車に用いるボギー台車の一実施の形態を示す平面図である。It is a top view which shows one Embodiment of the bogie used for the low-floor type tram which concerns on this invention. 同側面図である。It is the same side view. 左半分が図2のA方向矢視図、右半分が図2のB方向矢視図である。The left half is a view in the direction of arrow A in FIG. 2, and the right half is a view in the direction of arrow B in FIG. 編成パターンの説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of a knitting pattern. タイプ別の低床率、全幅低床率を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the low floor ratio and the full width low floor ratio according to type.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
BA 蓄電池
D 運転台
P 客室
1 二軸ボギー台車
6a 大径車輪
12a 小径車輪
20 車体
20a 鉛直面部
21,41,42 低床式路面電車
22,23 運転台付き車両
22a,23a 低床部
22c,23c 座席
22e,23e ドア
24 客室専用車両
24a 通路
24b 座席
24c 床部
27 パンタグラフ
BA Storage battery D Driver's cab P Guest room 1 Two-axis bogie trolley 6a Large-diameter wheel 12a Small-diameter wheel 20 Car body 20a Vertical surface portion 21, 41, 42 Low-floor type tram 22, 23 Vehicle with cab 22a, 23a Low-floor portion 22c, 23c Seat 22e, 23e Door 24 Vehicle for exclusive use of guest room 24a Passage 24b Seat 24c Floor part 27 Pantograph

Claims (7)

  1. 運転席と客室とを含む車体と、
    台車とを備えた低床式鉄道車両であって、
    前記台車は、
    両側に大径車輪が設けられた主車軸と、
    前記大径車輪よりも外径が小さな小径車輪が両側に設けられた副車軸と、
    前記主車軸を支持する主車軸枠と、
    前記副車軸を支持し、前記主車軸枠の後端に連結されて前記主車軸枠に対して上下方向に揺動可能な副車軸枠とを備え、
    前記大径車輪の上方に前記運転席が設けられ、前記小径車輪の上方に前記客室が設けられる、低床式鉄道車両。
    A vehicle body including a driver's seat and a cabin;
    A low-floor railway vehicle equipped with a carriage,
    The cart is
    A main axle with large diameter wheels on both sides;
    A sub-axle provided on both sides with a small-diameter wheel having a smaller outer diameter than the large-diameter wheel;
    A main axle frame that supports the main axle;
    A sub-axle frame that supports the sub-axle and is coupled to a rear end of the main axle frame and swingable in a vertical direction with respect to the main axle frame;
    A low-floor railway vehicle in which the driver's seat is provided above the large-diameter wheel and the cabin is provided above the small-diameter wheel.
  2. 前記主車軸と前記副車軸の間であって、前記運転席の床面と当該床面より低い位置にある前記客室の床面との間に鉛直面部をさらに備え、
    前記客室は、前記鉛直面部から車両長手方向に沿って車体後端までの床面高さが、前記運転席の床面高さよりも低い、請求項1に記載の低床式鉄道車両。
    A vertical surface portion is further provided between the main axle and the sub-axle, between the floor surface of the driver's seat and the floor surface of the passenger cabin located at a position lower than the floor surface,
    2. The low-floor railway vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the cabin has a floor surface height from the vertical surface portion to a rear end of the vehicle body along the longitudinal direction of the vehicle that is lower than the floor surface height of the driver seat.
  3. 前記主車軸枠と前記副車軸枠との間に設けられ、前記副車軸を介して各前記小径車輪を下向きに付勢する付勢手段をさらに備える、請求項1に記載の低床式鉄道車両。   2. The low-floor railway vehicle according to claim 1, further comprising biasing means provided between the main axle frame and the auxiliary axle frame and biasing each of the small-diameter wheels downward via the auxiliary axle. .
  4. 前記小径車輪の上方には、前記客室の出入り口部が設けられている、請求項1に記載の低床式鉄道車両。   The low floor railway vehicle according to claim 1, wherein an entrance / exit part of the cabin is provided above the small-diameter wheel.
  5. 請求項1に記載の低床式鉄道車両と、前記低床式鉄道車両に連結可能な中間車両とを備える低床式路面電車であって、
    前記中間車両は、
    車両幅方向の両端に設けられた第1座席部と、前記座席部の間に設けられた第1通路部とを有する中間客室を備え、
    前記第1通路部の床面高さは、前記低床式鉄道車両の前記客室の床面高さと略等しい、低床式路面電車。
    A low-floor tram comprising the low-floor railway vehicle according to claim 1 and an intermediate vehicle connectable to the low-floor rail vehicle,
    The intermediate vehicle is
    An intermediate passenger cabin having a first seat portion provided at both ends in the vehicle width direction and a first passage portion provided between the seat portions;
    The floor height of the first passage portion is a low-floor tram where the floor height of the cabin of the low-floor railway vehicle is substantially equal.
  6. 前記中間車両は、それぞれ独立して回転可能な少なくとも2組の独立車輪を有する台車をさらに備え、
    前記第1座席部は、各前記独立車輪の上方に設けられる、請求項5に記載の低床式路面電車。
    The intermediate vehicle further includes a carriage having at least two sets of independent wheels that are independently rotatable,
    The low floor type tram according to claim 5, wherein the first seat portion is provided above each independent wheel.
  7. 前記客室の車両幅方向の両端に設けられた第2座席部と、
    前記客室の床面と前記第2座席部の間に設けられ、走行用の電力を供給可能な蓄電装置をさらに備える、請求項5または6に記載の低床式路面電車。
    Second seat portions provided at both ends in the vehicle width direction of the cabin;
    The rooms of the floor surface is provided between the second seat portion, electric power for driving further Ru comprising a supply power storage device, low-floor trams of claim 5 or 6.
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