JP5092413B2 - Flow velocity or flow rate measuring device - Google Patents

Flow velocity or flow rate measuring device Download PDF

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JP5092413B2
JP5092413B2 JP2007006702A JP2007006702A JP5092413B2 JP 5092413 B2 JP5092413 B2 JP 5092413B2 JP 2007006702 A JP2007006702 A JP 2007006702A JP 2007006702 A JP2007006702 A JP 2007006702A JP 5092413 B2 JP5092413 B2 JP 5092413B2
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time
flow rate
vibrator
flow
measuring
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JP2008175542A (en
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文一 芝
晃一 竹村
裕治 中林
大介 別荘
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Panasonic Corp
Panasonic Holdings Corp
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Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd
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本発明は、振動子などを用い、超音波を利用して気体や液体などの流量を計測する流速または流量計測装置に関する。   The present invention relates to a flow velocity or flow rate measuring device that uses a vibrator or the like and measures a flow rate of gas or liquid using ultrasonic waves.

従来、この種の流量計測装置としては、流路に流れの方向に相対して振動子を設け、超音波の伝搬時間差から流体の速度を演算していた(例えば、特許文献1参照)。   Conventionally, as this type of flow rate measurement device, a vibrator is provided in a flow path in the flow direction, and the velocity of the fluid is calculated from the difference in ultrasonic propagation time (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

図10は、従来の超音波流量計の構成を示すブロック図である。図10において、流体管路4の途中に超音波を発信する第1振動子5と受信する第2振動子6が流れ方向に配置されている。7は第1振動子5への送信回路、8は第2振動子6で受信した信号の増幅回路であり、ここで増幅された信号は比較回路9で基準信号と比較され、基準信号以上の信号が検出されたとき、回数設定回路10で設定された回数だけ繰り返し手段11はトリガ回路12を付勢し、遅延手段13で信号を遅延させた後超音波信号を繰り返し送信する。   FIG. 10 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a conventional ultrasonic flowmeter. In FIG. 10, a first vibrator 5 that transmits ultrasonic waves and a second vibrator 6 that receives ultrasonic waves are arranged in the flow direction in the middle of the fluid conduit 4. 7 is a transmission circuit to the first vibrator 5, and 8 is an amplification circuit for the signal received by the second vibrator 6. The amplified signal is compared with the reference signal by the comparison circuit 9, and is equal to or higher than the reference signal. When the signal is detected, the repeating unit 11 activates the trigger circuit 12 by the number of times set by the number setting circuit 10, and after delaying the signal by the delay unit 13, the ultrasonic signal is repeatedly transmitted.

繰り返しが始まったときに計時手段14のタイマカウンタを起動し、回数設定回路10で設定された繰り返し回数が終了したとき計時手段14のタイマカウンタを停止し、時間を計測する。次に切換手段15で第1振動子5と第2振動子6の送受信を切り換えて、第2振動子6から第1振動子5すなわち下流から上流に向かって超音波信号を発信し、この発信を前述のように繰り返し、その時間を計時する。そしてその時間差から管路の大きさや流れの状態を考慮して流量演算手段16で流量値を求める。
特開平9−280917号公報
When the repetition starts, the timer counter of the time measuring means 14 is started. When the number of repetitions set by the number setting circuit 10 is completed, the timer counter of the time measuring means 14 is stopped and the time is measured. Next, transmission / reception between the first vibrator 5 and the second vibrator 6 is switched by the switching means 15, and an ultrasonic signal is transmitted from the second vibrator 6 to the first vibrator 5, that is, from downstream to upstream. Is repeated as described above, and the time is counted. From the time difference, the flow rate calculation means 16 determines the flow rate value in consideration of the size of the pipe line and the flow state.
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 9-280917

しかしながら従来の流量計測装置では送信側振動子と受信側振動子を切換える動作が入り、計測−切換え−計測というように計測の間に時間のずれが発生している。   However, in the conventional flow rate measuring apparatus, an operation for switching between the transmitting-side vibrator and the receiving-side vibrator is entered, and a time lag occurs between the measurements, such as measurement-switching-measurement.

本発明は上記の課題を解決するもので、大きな時間ずれを発生することの無いよう直接振動子間を伝搬した時間を計時する第1の計時手段と振動子間を少なくとも2回反射した超音波信号の伝搬時間を計時する第2の計時手段との計時値に基づいて流量を算出することを目的としている。   The present invention solves the above-described problem. The ultrasonic wave reflected at least twice between the first time measuring means for measuring the time directly propagating between the vibrators and the vibrator so as not to cause a large time lag. The object is to calculate the flow rate based on the time measured with the second time measuring means for measuring the signal propagation time.

前記従来の課題を解決するために、本発明の流量計測装置は、被測定流体の流れる流路に配置され超音波を送受信する一対の振動子と、送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が受信側の前記振動子伝搬するまでの第1の時間を計時する第1の計時手段と、送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が前記振動子間を少なくとも2回反射してから受信側の前記振動子に伝搬するまでの第2の時間を計時する第2の計時手段と、前記第1の時間と前記第2の時間に基づいて流量を算出する流量演算手段とを備え前記流量演算手段は、前記第1の時間と、前記第2の時間から2倍の前記第1の時間を減算した時間から前記被測定流体の流速を算出し、前記流量を算出する。 In order to solve the conventional problem, a flow rate measuring device according to the present invention includes a pair of transducers arranged in a flow path through which a fluid to be measured flows and transmits / receives ultrasonic waves, and the transducer output from the transducer on the transmission side. a first counting means for counting a first time until the ultrasonic waves are propagated to the vibrator recipient, at least 2 times for output said ultrasound said vibrator from said oscillator on the transmission side Second time measuring means for measuring a second time from reflection to propagation to the transducer on the receiving side, and flow rate calculating means for calculating a flow rate based on the first time and the second time with the door, the flow rate calculating unit, said a first time to calculate the flow rate of the fluid to be measured from the time obtained by subtracting the first time 2-fold from the second time, calculating the flow rate To do.

本発明の流量計測装置は、流路に配置され超音波を送受信する一対の振動子間を伝搬する直接波と少なくとも2回反射した超音波信号の伝搬時間を用いて流量を算出する。 The flow rate measuring device of the present invention calculates a flow rate using a direct wave propagating between a pair of transducers arranged in a flow path and transmitting and receiving ultrasonic waves and a propagation time of an ultrasonic signal reflected at least twice.

このため振動子を切換えて送受信動作を行う必要が無いので、時間ずれを発生することなく計測を行うことができる。   For this reason, there is no need to perform transmission / reception operations by switching the vibrator, so that measurement can be performed without causing a time lag.

第1の発明は被測定流体の流れる流路に配置され超音波を送受信する一対の振動子と、送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が受信側の前記振動子伝搬するまでの第1の時間を計時する第1の計時手段と、送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が前記振動子間を少なくとも2回反射してから受信側の前記振動子に伝搬するまでの第2の時間を計時する第2の計時手段と、前記第1の時間と前記第2の時間に基づいて流量を算出する流量演算手段とを備え前記流量演算手段は、前記第1の時間と、前記第2の時間から2倍の前記第1の時間を減算した時間から前記被測定流体の流速を算出し、前記流量を算出する流量計測装置である。 According to a first aspect of the present invention, a pair of transducers arranged in a flow path through which a fluid to be measured flows and transmits / receives ultrasonic waves, and the ultrasonic waves output from the transducers on the transmission side are propagated to the transducers on the reception side And the ultrasonic wave output from the transducer on the transmission side propagates to the transducer on the reception side after reflecting between the transducers at least twice. comprises a second counting means for counting a second time to, and flow rate calculation means for calculating a flow rate based on the second time and the first time, the flow rate calculating means, said first And a flow rate measuring device that calculates the flow rate by calculating the flow velocity of the fluid to be measured from the time obtained by subtracting the first time that is twice the first time from the second time .

そして、反射することなく直接振動子間を伝搬した時間を計時する第1の計時手段と振動子間を少なくとも2回反射した超音波信号の伝搬時間を計時する第2の計時手段との計時値に基づいて流量を算出するものである。これによって、振動子を切替えて送受信動作を行う必要が無いため時間ずれを発生することなく計測を行うことができる。   And the time value of the 1st time measuring means which time-measures the time which propagated directly between the vibrators without reflecting, and the 2nd time-keeping means which time the propagation time of the ultrasonic signal reflected between the vibrator at least twice The flow rate is calculated based on the above. As a result, there is no need to perform transmission / reception operations by switching the vibrator, and therefore measurement can be performed without causing a time lag.

の発明は、流量が無い時に前記第1の計時手段と前記第2の計時手段の出力信号を用いて流量演算手段の演算係数の補正を行う演算補正手段を有することで、直接波と反射波による誤差を流量の無い時に調整することが可能になる。 According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a calculation correction unit that corrects a calculation coefficient of the flow rate calculation unit by using output signals of the first time measurement unit and the second time measurement unit when there is no flow rate. It is possible to adjust the error due to the reflected wave when there is no flow rate.

の発明は、送信側の前記振動子を前記流路の上流側に設置することで、伝搬時間を短くすることができ、省電力計測が可能になる。 In the third aspect of the invention, the transmission-side vibrator is installed on the upstream side of the flow path, so that the propagation time can be shortened and power-saving measurement can be performed.

の発明は、送信側の前記振動子を前記流路の下流側に設置することで、送信信号で強く励振するため送信側振動子の周りにゴミなどの付着を除去することが可能になる。 According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the transmission-side vibrator is installed on the downstream side of the flow path, so that it is strongly excited by the transmission signal, so that adhesion of dust and the like around the transmission-side vibrator can be removed. Become.

第7の発明は、特に第1の発明から第6の発明のいずれか1つにおける制御手段としてコンピュータを機能させるためのプログラムを有する構成としたもので、これにより測定方法の動作設定、変更が容易にでき、また経年変化などにも柔軟に対応できるためよりフレキシブルに計測の精度向上を行うことができる。   The seventh aspect of the invention has a configuration having a program for causing a computer to function as the control means in any one of the first to sixth aspects of the invention. It can be done easily, and it can flexibly cope with aging, etc., so the measurement accuracy can be improved more flexibly.

以下、本発明の実施の形態について、図面を参照しながら説明する。なお、本実施の形態によって本発明が限定されるものではない。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. Note that the present invention is not limited to the present embodiment.

(実施の形態1)
実施の形態1に関する本発明の流速または流量計測装置について説明する。
(Embodiment 1)
The flow velocity or flow rate measuring device of the present invention relating to Embodiment 1 will be described.

図1は本実施の形態の構成を示す流速または流量計測装置のブロック図である。図1おいて、本発明の超音波流量計は被測定流体の流れる流路31と、前記流路31に配置された超音波を送受信する第1の振動子32、第2の振動子33を設置し、前記第1の振動子32を駆動する送信手段34と、前記第2の振動子33の受信信号を受け受信タイミングを決定する受信手段35と、送信手段34による第1の振動子32の駆動開始から直接超音波の伝搬波が第2の振動子33に到達し受信手段35を介してその伝搬時間を測定する第1の計時手段36と、直接超音波が第2の振動子33で反射し、再度第1の振動32で反射した後に第2の振動子33に到達し受信手段35を介してその伝搬時間を測定する第2の計時手段37と、前記第1の計時手段36と前記第2の計時手段37の計時値に基づいて前記一対の振動子間の流速を演算し、それから流量を求める流量演算手段38とを有するものである。   FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a flow velocity or flow rate measuring apparatus showing the configuration of the present embodiment. In FIG. 1, an ultrasonic flowmeter of the present invention includes a flow path 31 through which a fluid to be measured flows, a first vibrator 32 and a second vibrator 33 that transmit and receive ultrasonic waves arranged in the flow path 31. The transmitter 34 for installing and driving the first vibrator 32, the receiver 35 for receiving the reception signal of the second vibrator 33 and determining the reception timing, and the first vibrator 32 by the transmitter 34 From the start of driving of the first ultrasonic wave, the first ultrasonic wave reaches the second vibrator 33 and the first time measuring means 36 for measuring the propagation time via the receiving means 35, and the direct ultrasonic wave the second vibrator 33. The second time measuring means 37 for measuring the propagation time via the receiving means 35 after reaching the second vibrator 33 after being reflected again by the first vibration 32 and the first time measuring means 36. And the pair of vibrators based on the time value of the second time measuring means 37 Flow rate calculated to the, then those having a flow rate calculating unit 38 for determining the flow rate.

さらに制御手段39を設け、前記送信手段34と前記受信手段35と前記第1の計時手段36と前記第2の計時手段37と前記流量演算手段38との少なくとも1つを制御する。   Further, a control unit 39 is provided to control at least one of the transmission unit 34, the reception unit 35, the first timing unit 36, the second timing unit 37, and the flow rate calculation unit 38.

通常の流速または流量計測の動作を説明する。制御手段39からスタート信号を受けた送信手段34が第1の振動子32を一定時間パルス駆動行うと同時に第1の計時手段36および第2の計時手段37は時間計測始める。パルス駆動された第1の振動子32からは超音波が送信される。第1の振動子32から送信した超音波は被測定流体中を伝搬し、第2の振動子33で受信される。第2の振動子33の受信出力は、受信手段35で信号を増幅された後、予め定められている受信タイミングの信号レベルで超音波の受信を決定する。   A normal flow rate or flow rate measurement operation will be described. Upon receiving the start signal from the control means 39, the transmission means 34 pulse-drives the first vibrator 32 for a certain time, and at the same time, the first time measuring means 36 and the second time measuring means 37 start measuring time. An ultrasonic wave is transmitted from the pulse-driven first vibrator 32. The ultrasonic wave transmitted from the first vibrator 32 propagates through the fluid to be measured and is received by the second vibrator 33. The reception output of the second vibrator 33 amplifies the signal by the receiving means 35 and then determines the reception of the ultrasonic wave at the signal level at a predetermined reception timing.

この超音波の受信を決定した時点で第1の計時手段36の動作を停止し、その時間情報tから(式1)によって流速を求める。   When the reception of this ultrasonic wave is determined, the operation of the first time measuring unit 36 is stopped, and the flow velocity is obtained from the time information t according to (Equation 1).

ここで、第1の計時手段36から得た測定時間をt、超音波振動子間の流れ方向の有効距離をL、確度をφ、音速をc、被測定流体の流速をvとする。
v=(1/cosφ)*(L/t)−c ・ ・・(式1)
受信手段35は通常コンパレータによって基準電圧と受信信号を比較するようになっていることが多い。
Here, t is the measurement time obtained from the first time measuring means 36, L is the effective distance in the flow direction between the ultrasonic transducers, φ is the accuracy, c is the speed of sound, and v is the flow velocity of the fluid to be measured.
v = (1 / cosφ) * (L / t) −c (Equation 1)
The receiving means 35 is usually configured to compare the reference voltage and the received signal by a comparator.

また、第1の振動子32と第2の振動子33との送信、受信方向を切り替え、被測定流体の上流から下流と下流から上流へのそれぞれの伝搬時間を測定し、(式2,式3,式4)より速度vを求めることができる。   Further, the transmission and reception directions of the first vibrator 32 and the second vibrator 33 are switched, and the respective propagation times of the fluid under measurement from upstream to downstream and from downstream to upstream are measured. 3, the speed v can be obtained from Equation 4).

ここで、上流から下流への測定時間をt1、下流から上流への測定時間をt2とする。t1=L/(c+v*cosφ)・・・・・・・・(式2)
t2=L/(c−v*cosφ)・・・・・・・・(式3)
v=(L/2*cosφ)*((1/t1)−(1/t2))・・・(式4)
この方法によれば音速の変化の影響を受けずに流度を測定することが出来るので、流速・流量・距離などの測定に広く利用されている。流速vが求まると、それに流路31の断面積を乗ずることにより流量を導くことができる。
Here, the measurement time from the upstream to the downstream is t1, and the measurement time from the downstream to the upstream is t2. t1 = L / (c + v * cosφ) (Equation 2)
t2 = L / (c−v * cos φ) (Equation 3)
v = (L / 2 * cosφ) * ((1 / t1) − (1 / t2)) (Expression 4)
According to this method, the flow rate can be measured without being affected by the change in the sound speed, and thus it is widely used for measuring the flow velocity, the flow rate, the distance, and the like. When the flow velocity v is obtained, the flow rate can be derived by multiplying it by the cross-sectional area of the flow path 31.

このようにして流速や流量を求めることはできるが、上流から下流、下流から上流と超音波の伝搬方向を切換える動作が入ると計測−切換え−計測というように計測の間に時間のずれが発生する。また切換えの構成が複雑になり経路長を等しくするような調整が困難となる。   Although the flow velocity and flow rate can be obtained in this way, if an operation for switching the ultrasonic wave propagation direction from upstream to downstream and from downstream to upstream occurs, there will be a time lag between measurements such as measurement-switching-measurement. To do. In addition, the switching configuration becomes complicated, and adjustment to equalize the path length becomes difficult.

そこで送信、受信方向を切換えることをせずに伝搬方向が対になる伝搬時間を求める方法を説明する。   Therefore, a method for obtaining the propagation time in which the propagation directions are paired without switching the transmission and reception directions will be described.

通常の動作は図2に示すタイミング図のようになる。すなわち、制御手段39による時刻t0における開始信号から計測を開始するとともに送信手段34を介して第1の振動子32を駆動する。そこで発生した超音波信号は流路31内を伝搬し時刻t1で第2の振動子33に到達し、受信手段35で受信点を検知すると信号を増幅された後、予め定められている受信タイミングの信号レベルで超音波の受信を決定する。第1の計時手段36は送信手段34による第1の振動子32の駆動開始から直接超音波の伝搬波が第2の振動子33に到達し受信手段35を介してその伝搬時間を測定する。これで上流から下流への伝搬時間を求めることができる。   Normal operation is as shown in the timing diagram of FIG. That is, measurement is started from the start signal at time t 0 by the control means 39 and the first vibrator 32 is driven via the transmission means 34. The ultrasonic signal generated there propagates through the flow path 31 and reaches the second transducer 33 at time t1, and when the reception means 35 detects the reception point, the signal is amplified and then received in advance. The reception of the ultrasonic wave is determined at the signal level. The first time measuring means 36 measures the propagation time of the propagation wave of the ultrasonic wave directly reaching the second vibrator 33 from the start of driving of the first vibrator 32 by the transmission means 34 via the receiving means 35. Thus, the propagation time from upstream to downstream can be obtained.

超音波の伝搬は第2の振動子33に到達するとそこで反射し第1の振動子32の方向へ伝搬する。これが下流から上流への伝搬になる。第1の振動子32に到達した伝搬信号は同様にそこで反射し第2の振動子33方向で伝搬する。これが最初の直接伝搬と同じ方向になる。これを図3に横軸時間、縦軸を流路幅として伝搬する過程を示す。図2のタイミング図とあわせて説明する。流れが無い場合は伝搬方向に関わらず伝搬時間は同じになる。図3においてt0で第1の振動子(送信側振動子)32から超音波信号が送出される。   When the ultrasonic wave reaches the second vibrator 33, it is reflected and propagates in the direction of the first vibrator 32. This is propagation from downstream to upstream. Similarly, the propagation signal reaching the first vibrator 32 is reflected there and propagates in the direction of the second vibrator 33. This is the same direction as the first direct propagation. FIG. 3 shows the process of propagation with the horizontal axis time and the vertical axis as the channel width. This will be described together with the timing chart of FIG. When there is no flow, the propagation time is the same regardless of the propagation direction. In FIG. 3, an ultrasonic signal is transmitted from the first transducer (transmission-side transducer) 32 at t0.

流路31内を伝搬した超音波信号は時刻t1で第2の振動子(受信側振動子)33に到達する。反射した超音波信号は時刻t2で第1の振動子32に戻り、再度そこで反射して時刻t3で第2の振動子33に到達する。   The ultrasonic signal propagated through the flow path 31 reaches the second transducer (receiving transducer) 33 at time t1. The reflected ultrasonic signal returns to the first transducer 32 at time t2, is reflected there again, and reaches the second transducer 33 at time t3.

この時、受信側の第2の振動子33の出力は受信手段35に接続されているため、時刻t1と時刻t3の信号を捕らえることができるが、時刻t2を直接求めることはできない。   At this time, since the output of the second vibrator 33 on the receiving side is connected to the receiving means 35, signals at time t1 and time t3 can be captured, but time t2 cannot be directly obtained.

しかし、図3より流路31の中を流れる流体速度がt0からt1までの超音波直接波とt2からt3までの同方向の反射波伝搬時間が変化するほど高速に変動していない場合は、この2つの伝搬時間同士をT1として等しいとおくことができる。全体の時間T3から2倍のT1分を減算すると反対波となる下流から上流への伝搬時間T2を求めることが可能である。   However, if the velocity of the fluid flowing through the flow path 31 from FIG. 3 does not change so fast that the ultrasonic wave propagation from t0 to t1 and the reflected wave propagation time in the same direction from t2 to t3 change, These two propagation times can be assumed to be equal as T1. By subtracting twice the amount of T1 from the total time T3, it is possible to obtain the propagation time T2 from the downstream to the upstream that is the opposite wave.

流れのある場合を図4で説明する。図4において流体の流れ方向は左から右にむかっている。   The case where there is a flow will be described with reference to FIG. In FIG. 4, the direction of fluid flow is from left to right.

制御手段39による時刻t0における開始信号から計測を開始するとともに送信手段34を介して第1の振動子32を駆動する。そこで発生した超音波信号は流路31内を伝搬し時刻t1’で第2の振動子33に到達し、受信手段35で受信点を検知すると信号を増幅された後、予め定められている受信タイミングの信号レベルで超音波の受信を決定する。この場合超音波信号は流体の流れに沿っているため、図3の時刻t1より早く第2の振動子に到達する。第1の計時手段36は送信手段34による第1の振動子32の駆動開始から反射せず直接伝搬する直接超音波の伝搬波が、第2の振動子33に到達し受信手段35を介してその伝搬時間T1aを測定する。これで上流から下流への伝搬時間を求めることができる。   Measurement is started from the start signal at time t 0 by the control means 39 and the first vibrator 32 is driven via the transmission means 34. The ultrasonic signal generated there propagates through the flow path 31 and reaches the second transducer 33 at time t1 ′. When the reception point is detected by the receiving means 35, the signal is amplified and then received in advance. The reception of the ultrasonic wave is determined based on the timing signal level. In this case, since the ultrasonic signal is along the flow of the fluid, it reaches the second vibrator earlier than time t1 in FIG. The first time measuring means 36 transmits a direct ultrasonic wave propagating directly from the start of driving of the first vibrator 32 by the transmitting means 34 to the second vibrator 33 and via the receiving means 35. The propagation time T1a is measured. Thus, the propagation time from upstream to downstream can be obtained.

次に時刻t2’で超音波の伝搬は第2の振動子33に到達するがこの伝搬時間は流体の流れに対向しているため図3のt1からt2までの時間より長くかかっている。これが下流から上流への伝搬時間であるが直接この時間を測定することは出来ない。同様に第1の
振動子32で反射した超音波は第2の振動子32の方向へ伝搬する。これが最初の直接伝搬と同じ方向になり全体の伝搬時間T3aは受信手段35を介して第2の計時手段37で計測する。第1の計時手段36で求めたT1aと第2の計時手段37で求めたT3aを流量演算手段38に送ることで式5からT2aを求めることができる。
T2a=T3a−2*T1a ・・・・・・・・(式5)
T1aをt1、T2aをt2とし、式(4)代入することで、流速を求めることができる。
Next, at time t2 ′, the propagation of the ultrasonic wave reaches the second vibrator 33, but this propagation time is longer than the time from t1 to t2 in FIG. This is the propagation time from downstream to upstream, but this time cannot be measured directly. Similarly, the ultrasonic wave reflected by the first vibrator 32 propagates in the direction of the second vibrator 32. This is in the same direction as the first direct propagation, and the entire propagation time T3a is measured by the second time measuring means 37 via the receiving means 35. By sending T1a obtained by the first time measuring means 36 and T3a obtained by the second time measuring means 37 to the flow rate calculating means 38, T2a can be obtained from Expression 5.
T2a = T3a-2 * T1a (Equation 5)
By setting T1a to t1, T2a to t2, and substituting Equation (4), the flow velocity can be obtained.

流速vが求まると、それに流路31の断面積を乗ずることにより、流量を導くことができる。   When the flow velocity v is obtained, the flow rate can be derived by multiplying it by the cross-sectional area of the flow path 31.

本実施の形態の説明では反射波は2回反射を基にしているが、これに限定されるものではなく、4回、6回の反射波を用いても同様の関係は導くことができる。   In the description of the present embodiment, the reflected wave is based on two-time reflection. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the same relationship can be derived even when four or six times of reflected waves are used.

このように、直接振動子32,33間を伝搬した時間を計時する第1の計時手段36と振動子32,33間を少なくとも2回反射した超音波信号の伝搬時間を、計時する第2の計時手段37との計時値に基づいて流量を算出することにより、振動子を切替えて送受信動作を行う必要が無くても相対する伝搬時間を求めることができ、これにより流速を求めることが可能になる。これにより送受信方向を切換えるなどの時間ずれを発生することなく計測を行うことができる。   As described above, the first time measuring means 36 for measuring the time directly propagating between the transducers 32 and 33 and the second time for measuring the propagation time of the ultrasonic signal reflected between the transducers 32 and 33 at least twice. By calculating the flow rate based on the time measured with the time measuring means 37, it is possible to obtain the relative propagation time without the need to perform transmission / reception operation by switching the vibrator, thereby making it possible to obtain the flow velocity. Become. As a result, measurement can be performed without causing a time lag such as switching between transmission and reception directions.

また、伝搬到達時間を求める際に受信波のどこをもって到達とするのかは、例えば図5で示すようにある基準電圧Vrefを越えた波形のゼロクロス点taを利用することが多い。またta一点を用いるのでは無くta,tb,tc,tdの4点の平均を用いるようにすることも可能である。第1の振動子32から第2の振動子33に直接伝搬してくる超音波波形は図6(a)のように振幅がA1である場合、2回反射して第2の振動子33へ到達する信号は減衰するため図6(b)のように振幅がA0と小さくなっている。この場合、受信手段35で受信点taを求めることができなくなる可能性がある。図7を用いてこれを回避する方法を説明する。   Further, when determining the propagation arrival time, the zero cross point ta of a waveform exceeding a certain reference voltage Vref is often used as the arrival position of the received wave, for example, as shown in FIG. It is also possible to use an average of four points ta, tb, tc, and td instead of using one point ta. The ultrasonic waveform directly propagating from the first transducer 32 to the second transducer 33 is reflected twice to the second transducer 33 when the amplitude is A1 as shown in FIG. Since the arriving signal is attenuated, the amplitude is as small as A0 as shown in FIG. In this case, there is a possibility that the receiving point ta cannot be obtained by the receiving means 35. A method for avoiding this will be described with reference to FIG.

制御手段39は第1の計時手段36で直接伝搬波を受信したことを検知すると利得変更手段42を介して受信手段35の前段にある増幅手段43の利得を大きくする。例えば図6(b)の反射波の振幅A0がA1にまで大きくなるようにする。そうすることで本来なら減衰して捕捉することが難しい反射を増幅して受信点として第2の計時手段37で反射波による伝搬時間計測を可能にする。制御手段39は第2の計時手段37もしくは流量演算手段38の信号により反射波が到達したことを検知すると次の直接波を受信するために利得を最初の状態にもどしておくよう利得変更手段42を介して増幅手段43の状態を調整する。   When the control unit 39 detects that the first time measuring unit 36 has directly received the propagation wave, the control unit 39 increases the gain of the amplifying unit 43 in the preceding stage of the receiving unit 35 via the gain changing unit 42. For example, the amplitude A0 of the reflected wave in FIG. 6B is increased to A1. By doing so, the reflection that is otherwise attenuated and difficult to capture is amplified and the second time measuring means 37 can measure the propagation time by the reflected wave as a reception point. When the control means 39 detects that the reflected wave has arrived by the signal from the second time measuring means 37 or the flow rate calculating means 38, the gain changing means 42 returns the gain to the initial state in order to receive the next direct wave. The state of the amplification means 43 is adjusted via

このように利得変更手段42を有することにより、反射で振幅の小さくなった伝搬信号を正しく捕らえることが可能になる。   By having the gain changing means 42 in this way, it becomes possible to correctly capture a propagation signal having a small amplitude due to reflection.

また反射波の伝搬到達時間を求める際に反射波の振幅を増幅手段43で大きくしても直接波の波形とまったく同じになることは期待できない。このため同じ振幅A1にしても基準電圧Vrefを調整する必要がでてくる。   Further, even when the amplitude of the reflected wave is increased by the amplifying means 43 when obtaining the propagation arrival time of the reflected wave, it cannot be expected to be exactly the same as the direct wave waveform. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the reference voltage Vref even with the same amplitude A1.

制御手段39は第1の計時手段36で直接伝搬波を受信したことを検知すると利得変更手段42を介して受信手段35の前段にある増幅手段43の利得を大きくするとともに参照電圧変更手段44を介して受信手段35の増幅手段43後段にある比較手段45の比較電圧を調整する。この調整は本来反射波が到達する時間を予測し制御手段39が自動的に
求める場合や予め実験などで求めた値を記憶しておきその値を入れ替えながら調整することが可能である。
When the control means 39 detects that the first time measuring means 36 has directly received the propagation wave, the control means 39 increases the gain of the amplifying means 43 in the preceding stage of the receiving means 35 via the gain changing means 42 and sets the reference voltage changing means 44. Thus, the comparison voltage of the comparison means 45 in the subsequent stage of the amplification means 43 of the reception means 35 is adjusted. This adjustment can be performed by predicting the time for the reflected wave to arrive and automatically obtaining it by the control means 39 or by storing the value obtained in advance through experiments and replacing the value.

そうすることで本来なら減衰して捕捉することが難しい反射を増幅するとともに参照電圧を調節することで波形形状が変化しても受信点として第2の計時手段37で反射波による伝搬時間計測を可能にする。制御手段39は第2の計時手段37もしくは流量演算手段38の信号により反射波が到達したことを検知すると次の直接波を受信するために参照電圧を最初の状態にもどしておくよう参照電圧変更手段44を介して比較手段45の状態を調整する。   By amplifying the reflection that would otherwise be attenuated and captured, and adjusting the reference voltage, the second time measuring means 37 can measure the propagation time by the reflected wave as a reception point even if the waveform shape changes. to enable. When the control means 39 detects the arrival of the reflected wave by the signal from the second time measuring means 37 or the flow rate calculating means 38, the reference voltage is changed so that the reference voltage is returned to the initial state in order to receive the next direct wave. The state of the comparison means 45 is adjusted via the means 44.

このように、反射波を受信するために受信手段35の参照電圧を変化する参照電圧変更手段44を有することにより、反射で振幅の小さくなった伝搬信号の受信点を正しく捕捉することが可能になる。   As described above, by including the reference voltage changing unit 44 that changes the reference voltage of the receiving unit 35 in order to receive the reflected wave, it is possible to correctly capture the reception point of the propagation signal whose amplitude is reduced by reflection. Become.

また、図3のT1とT3からT2を求める方法は反射波時刻t2からt3の伝搬時間が時刻t0からt1を等しいとしている。しかし受信手段35の利得を変化したり、反射波の波形そのものが変形したりするとこの前提を補正する必要がでてくる。   Further, the method of obtaining T2 from T1 and T3 in FIG. 3 assumes that the propagation times from reflected wave times t2 to t3 are equal from times t0 to t1. However, if the gain of the receiving means 35 is changed or the waveform of the reflected wave itself is deformed, this premise needs to be corrected.

そこで演算からもとめたT2がT1に近くなった場合(流速がほぼ0になった場合)に、流量演算手段38が制御手段39に信号を出し、制御手段39は流速がほぼ無くなった場合に流量演算手段38で用いる式4の係数L/2*cosφに補正を行うことにより、誤差を小さくする演算が可能なように調整する。この調整は自動で行ったり、予め求めた値を記憶しておきその値を入れ替えながら調整したりすることで実現できる。また、外部から流路31を閉止して強制的に流速をゼロにし、調整することも可能である。その場合は流量ゼロであることを制御手段39に通信手段などで入力するとより精度を高めることが可能になる。   Therefore, when T2 obtained from the calculation is close to T1 (when the flow velocity becomes almost zero), the flow rate calculation means 38 sends a signal to the control means 39, and the control means 39 sets the flow rate when the flow velocity almost disappears. By correcting the coefficient L / 2 * cosφ of Equation 4 used in the calculation means 38, adjustment is performed so that calculation that reduces the error is possible. This adjustment can be realized automatically or by storing a value obtained in advance and adjusting the value while exchanging the value. It is also possible to adjust the flow rate to zero by closing the flow channel 31 from the outside. In that case, it is possible to further improve the accuracy by inputting that the flow rate is zero to the control means 39 by a communication means or the like.

このように、流量演算手段38の出力または外部信号により流量が無い時に、第1の計時手段36と第2の計時手段37との出力信号を用いて、流量演算手段38の演算係数の補正を行う演算補正手段を有することで、直接波と反射波による誤差を流量の無い時に調整することが可能になる。   As described above, when there is no flow rate due to the output of the flow rate calculation means 38 or an external signal, the calculation coefficient of the flow rate calculation means 38 is corrected using the output signals of the first time measurement means 36 and the second time measurement means 37. By having the calculation correction means to perform, it becomes possible to adjust the error due to the direct wave and the reflected wave when there is no flow rate.

また、図1に示すように送信側振動子である第1の振動子32を常に上流に設置することで、電力の利点を出すことが可能になる。図4に示すように伝搬時間は流体の流れ方向に沿ったほうが短くなる。   Further, as shown in FIG. 1, it is possible to obtain the advantage of electric power by always installing the first vibrator 32 which is a transmission-side vibrator upstream. As shown in FIG. 4, the propagation time is shorter along the fluid flow direction.

図4では流れに沿った伝搬時間T1aが2回と流れに対向した伝搬時間T2aが1回の総時間T3aを測定している。ここでT1aはT2aより短い。もし送信側を下流に設置すると流れに対向する伝搬時間が2回発生することになり総時間はT3aより長くなる。伝搬時間を第2の計時手段37が測定しているため、その動作時間が短いほどこのシステムを動作する電力は少なくてすむ。   In FIG. 4, the total time T3a of the propagation time T1a along the flow being twice and the propagation time T2a facing the flow being one is measured. Here, T1a is shorter than T2a. If the transmission side is installed downstream, the propagation time opposite to the flow occurs twice, and the total time becomes longer than T3a. Since the second time measuring means 37 measures the propagation time, the shorter the operation time, the less power is required to operate this system.

このように送信側振動子を上流側に設置することで、伝搬時間を短くすることができ、省電力計測が可能になる。   By installing the transmitting-side vibrator in the upstream side in this way, the propagation time can be shortened and power saving measurement can be performed.

また、図1に示すように送信側振動子を常に下流に設置することでシステムの信頼性を出すことが可能になる。図1に示すように下流側の振動子は流れ方向に対向しているため例えば流体に不純物が混在していると、振動子前面に体積する可能性がある。このような場合は信号を受信するだけの受動的な動きをしていると感度は要求されるのに不純物堆積によりその動きが悪くなる可能性がある。したがって送信信号を入力して強く動作するこ
とで不純物やゴミが振動子前面に付着してきてもそれを振動子の物理的振動動作により除去することで信頼性を向上できる。上流側振動子は構造上ゴミなどが入りにくいため受信動作を継続しても問題はないと思われる。
Further, as shown in FIG. 1, it is possible to increase the reliability of the system by always installing the transmission-side transducer downstream. As shown in FIG. 1, the vibrator on the downstream side is opposed to the flow direction, so that, for example, if impurities are mixed in the fluid, there is a possibility that the vibrator will be in front of the vibrator. In such a case, if a passive movement is performed only to receive a signal, sensitivity is required, but the movement may be deteriorated due to impurity deposition. Therefore, by operating strongly by inputting a transmission signal, even if impurities or dust adhere to the front surface of the vibrator, reliability can be improved by removing it by the physical vibration operation of the vibrator. The upstream vibrator is structurally resistant to dust, so it seems that there is no problem even if the receiving operation is continued.

このように送信側振動子を下流側に設置することで、送信信号で強く励振するため送信側振動子の周りにゴミなどの付着を除去することが可能になる。   By installing the transmission-side vibrator on the downstream side in this way, it is possible to remove adhesion of dust and the like around the transmission-side vibrator because the transmission signal is strongly excited.

また、図8に示すように受信手段35で直接波、反射波を受信した後、繰返し手段40を介して送信手段34で再度第1の振動子32を駆動し、送受信を繰り返すことも可能である。そして予め定めた回数繰返した後、もとめた直接波伝搬時間と反射波伝搬時間の平均を求めることでより精度の良い流速演算を行うことが可能である。   Further, as shown in FIG. 8, after receiving the direct wave and the reflected wave by the receiving means 35, it is possible to drive the first vibrator 32 again by the transmitting means 34 via the repeating means 40 and repeat the transmission and reception. is there. Then, after repeating a predetermined number of times, it is possible to perform a more accurate flow velocity calculation by obtaining the average of the obtained direct wave propagation time and reflected wave propagation time.

また、図9に示すように遅延手段41を用いるとn回反射が残響として残っている場合でもその影響の無い時間に送受信を繰り返すことが可能になる。   Further, when the delay means 41 is used as shown in FIG. 9, transmission / reception can be repeated at a time when there is no influence even when reflection n times remains as reverberation.

(実施の形態2)
実施の形態2に関する本発明の流速または流量計測装置について説明する。実施の形態1と異なるところは、振動子32,33や送信手段34、受信手段35、第1の計時手段36、第2の計時手段37と流量演算手段38との少なくとも1つを制御する制御手段39の動作を確実にするためのコンピュータを機能させるためのプログラムを有する記憶媒体46を用いていることである。
(Embodiment 2)
The flow velocity or flow rate measuring apparatus of the present invention relating to the second embodiment will be described. The difference from the first embodiment is that control is performed to control at least one of the vibrators 32 and 33, the transmission means 34, the reception means 35, the first time measurement means 36, the second time measurement means 37, and the flow rate calculation means 38. The storage medium 46 having a program for causing a computer to function to ensure the operation of the means 39 is used.

図4において実施の形態1で示した制御手段39の動作を行うには、予め実験等により式4の補正係数を求めたり、経年変化、温度変化、システムの安定度に関して動作タイミングなどの相関を求め、ソフトをプログラムとして記憶媒体46に格納しておいたりする。通常マイクロコンピュータのメモリやフラッシュメモリ等電気的に書き込み可能なものにしておくと利用が便利である。   In order to perform the operation of the control means 39 shown in FIG. 4 in the first embodiment, the correction coefficient of Expression 4 is obtained in advance through experiments or the like, and correlations such as operation timing with respect to aging, temperature change, and system stability are correlated. The software is stored in the storage medium 46 as a program. Usually, it is convenient to use an electrically writable memory such as a microcomputer memory or a flash memory.

このように制御手段39の動作をプログラムで行うことができるようになると流量演算の補正係数の条件設定、変更や計測間隔の調整などが容易にでき、また経年変化などにも柔軟に対応できるためよりフレキシブルに流速または流量計測の精度向上を行うことができる。なお本実施例において制御手段39以外の動作もマイコン等によりプログラムで行ってもよい。   As described above, when the operation of the control means 39 can be performed by a program, it is possible to easily set, change and adjust the measurement interval of the correction coefficient for the flow rate calculation, and to flexibly cope with aging. The accuracy of flow velocity or flow rate measurement can be improved more flexibly. In this embodiment, operations other than the control means 39 may be performed by a program using a microcomputer or the like.

これにより制御手段としてコンピュータを機能させるためのプログラムを有する構成としたもので、測定方法の動作設定、変更が容易にでき、また経年変化などにも柔軟に対応できるためよりフレキシブルに計測の精度向上を行うことができる。   As a result, it has a configuration that has a program for causing the computer to function as a control means, making it easy to set and change the operation of the measurement method and flexibly respond to secular changes, etc. It can be performed.

以上のように、本発明にかかる流速または流量計測装置は、振動子を切替えて送受信動作を行う必要が無いため時間ずれを発生することなく伝搬時間を計測することができ精度よく流速、流量演算結果を求めることが気体の流量計として家庭用・工業用ガスメータや、液体の流量計として水道メータ等の用途に適用できる。   As described above, the flow velocity or flow rate measuring device according to the present invention does not need to perform transmission / reception operations by switching the vibrator, so that it is possible to measure the propagation time without causing a time lag and to accurately calculate the flow velocity and flow rate. Obtaining the results can be applied to uses such as household and industrial gas meters as gas flow meters and water meters as liquid flow meters.

本発明の流速または流量計測装置の全体ブロック図Overall block diagram of the flow velocity or flow rate measuring device of the present invention (a)同計測装置における計測制御手段の動作を示すタイミング図(b)同計測装置における送信波の動作を示すタイミング図(c)同計測装置における受信波および反射波の動作を示すタイミング図(A) Timing diagram showing the operation of the measurement control means in the measuring device (b) Timing diagram showing the operation of the transmitted wave in the measuring device (c) Timing diagram showing the operation of the received wave and the reflected wave in the measuring device 同計測装置における伝搬動作を示すタイミング図Timing chart showing propagation operation in the same measuring device 同計測装置における伝搬動作を示すタイミング図Timing chart showing propagation operation in the same measuring device 同計測装置における受信波を示すタイミング図Timing chart showing received waves in the same measuring device (a)同計測装置における受信波を示すタイミング図(b)同計測装置における反射波を示すタイミング図(A) Timing diagram showing a received wave in the measuring device (b) Timing diagram showing a reflected wave in the measuring device 同計測装置における制御手段周辺を示すブロック図Block diagram showing the periphery of the control means in the same measuring device 本発明の他の動作を示す計測装置の全体ブロック図Overall block diagram of a measuring apparatus showing another operation of the present invention 本発明の他の動作を示す計測装置の全体ブロック図Overall block diagram of a measuring apparatus showing another operation of the present invention 従来の流量計測装置の全体ブロック図Overall block diagram of a conventional flow measurement device

符号の説明Explanation of symbols

31 流路
32 第1の振動子
33 第2の振動子
34 送信手段
35 受信手段
36 第1の計時手段
37 第2の計時手段
38 流量演算手段
39 制御手段
42 利得変更手段
43 増幅手段
44 参照電圧変更手段
45 比較手段
46 記憶媒体
31 Flow path 32 First vibrator 33 Second vibrator 34 Transmitting means 35 Receiving means 36 First timing means 37 Second timing means 38 Flow rate calculating means 39 Control means 42 Gain changing means 43 Amplifying means 44 Reference voltage Changing means 45 Comparison means 46 Storage medium

Claims (4)

被測定流体の流れる流路に配置され超音波を送受信する一対の振動子と、
送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が受信側の前記振動子に伝搬するまでの第1の時間を計時する第1の計時手段と、
送信側の前記振動子から出力された前記超音波が前記振動子間を少なくとも2回反射してから受信側の前記振動子に伝搬するまでの第2の時間を計時する第2の計時手段と、
前記第1の時間と前記第2の時間に基づいて流量を算出する流量演算手段とを備え、
前記流量演算手段は、前記第1の時間と、前記第2の時間から2倍の前記第1の時間を減算した第3の時間から前記被測定流体の流速を算出し、前記流量を算出する流量計測装置。
A pair of transducers arranged in the flow path of the fluid to be measured and transmitting and receiving ultrasonic waves;
First time measuring means for measuring a first time until the ultrasonic wave output from the transmitting-side vibrator propagates to the receiving-side vibrator;
Second time measuring means for measuring a second time from when the ultrasonic wave output from the transmitting-side transducer is reflected at least twice between the transducers to propagate to the receiving-side transducer; ,
Flow rate calculating means for calculating a flow rate based on the first time and the second time,
The flow rate calculating means calculates the flow rate of the fluid to be measured from the first time and a third time obtained by subtracting the first time that is twice the second time. Flow measurement device.
流量が無い時に前記第1の計時手段と前記第2の計時手段の出力信号を用いて流量演算手段の演算係数の補正を行う演算補正手段を有する請求項1記載の流量計測装置。 2. The flow rate measuring apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a calculation correction unit that corrects a calculation coefficient of the flow rate calculation unit by using output signals of the first time measurement unit and the second time measurement unit when there is no flow rate. 送信側の前記振動子を前記流路の上流側に設置する請求項1記載の流量計測装置。 The flow rate measuring device according to claim 1, wherein the transducer on the transmission side is installed upstream of the flow path. 送信側の前記振動子を前記流路の下流側に設置する請求項1記載の流量計測装置。 The flow rate measuring device according to claim 1, wherein the transducer on the transmission side is installed on the downstream side of the flow path.
JP2007006702A 2007-01-16 2007-01-16 Flow velocity or flow rate measuring device Expired - Fee Related JP5092413B2 (en)

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Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS58167918A (en) * 1982-03-29 1983-10-04 Toshiba Corp Ultrasonic wave flow speed measuring device
JPH0375808B2 (en) * 1987-03-20 1991-12-03 Noritoshi Nakabachi
JP3624642B2 (en) * 1997-08-06 2005-03-02 松下電器産業株式会社 Fluid measuring device
JP4561088B2 (en) * 2003-12-10 2010-10-13 パナソニック株式会社 Ultrasonic flow meter

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