JP3953169B2 - Manufacturing method of plating material for mating type connection terminal - Google Patents

Manufacturing method of plating material for mating type connection terminal Download PDF

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JP3953169B2
JP3953169B2 JP36944697A JP36944697A JP3953169B2 JP 3953169 B2 JP3953169 B2 JP 3953169B2 JP 36944697 A JP36944697 A JP 36944697A JP 36944697 A JP36944697 A JP 36944697A JP 3953169 B2 JP3953169 B2 JP 3953169B2
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plating
tin
alloy
base
terminal
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JPH11193494A (en
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誠昭 磯野
康弘 真谷
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株式会社神戸製鋼所
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【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、かん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法に関し、より詳細には、オス、メス端子のかん合時の挿入力が低く多極コネクタ用として特に適し、同時に耐熱性に優れたかん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法に関するものである。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
自動車などの電線の接続には、銅合金に錫めっき等の表面処理を施した端子が使用されている。一つ一つの端子は、オス端子とメス端子の組み合わせのかん合型端子からなっている。これらが複数個集合したコネクタを多極コネクタという。
近年、自動車の電装化が進むなかで、このようなコネクタの極数、すなわち一つのコネクタの中の端子の数は増加している。端子数が増加すると挿入力(かん合力)が大きくなり、実装に道具が必要になったり、人が挿入する場合でも大きな力を必要とするようになり、その組立作業の効率を低下させる原因になる。
【0003】
このため、極数が増加しても、挿入力が従来よりも大きくならないように、低挿入力(低かん合力)の端子が要求されている。これらの要求に対し、従来の錫めっき端子ではその挿入力が大きく、作業性を低下させずに多極コネクタを製造することが困難であった。例えば、錫めっき端子の見かけの摩擦係数は約0.3〜0.4であり、すなわち、オスの上下両面でメス端子と接するので、接圧力の60%から80%の挿入力が必要であった。
また、例えば自動車の電装用コネクタでは使用中の温度が100℃以上に達することがあるなど、端子の中には従来要求されてきた以上に耐熱性、すなわち高温使用環境下での経時的信頼性を要求されるものが増えている。
【0004】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
端子の挿入力を低減するには、接圧力を低くすることが考えられるが、この場合、接点における電気的接続の信頼性を考慮すると、錫めっきではなく金めっきなどの信頼性は高いが高価な表面処理が必要になる。
また、錫めっき端子は、めっきを薄くすることにより挿入力が低下するが、薄すぎると特に高温環境下において素材の銅が錫めっき層中を拡散して表面に達し、酸化物を生成して端子の接触抵抗値が短期に増大するおそれがある。このため、現実には、めっき厚さを薄くし、かつ、接触抵抗値の増大を防いで端子の信頼性を維持することは大変困難である。すなわち、従来の錫めっき材では、コネクタの多極化に対応して挿入力を低減しようとすれば耐熱性が低下し、端子の耐熱性を向上させるべく錫めっき厚さを厚くすれば挿入力が増大するという問題があった。
【0005】
本発明は、従来の錫めっき材の上記問題点に鑑みてなされたもので、端子の耐熱性が損なわれず、かつ低挿入力で多極化に適したかん合型接続端子用めっき材を得ることを目的とする。
【0006】
【課題を解決するための手段】
本発明にかかるかん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法は、銅又は銅合金からなるめっき基材又はCuめっきをしためっき基材に、Ni、Co、Fe、Pd、Agの中の少なくとも一元素及びSnからなる合金の下地めっき層と、その表面に錫又は錫合金めっき層を形成した後、錫又は錫合金めっき層のリフロー処理を施し、前記下地めっき層の一部又は全部を金属間化合物とすることを特徴とする。
上記下地めっき層の下にさらにNiめっき層が形成されていてもよい。
このかん合型接続端子用めっき材は、オス端子又はメス端子の少なくともいずれか一方に使用することで、所望の効果を得ることができる。
【0007】
【発明の実施の形態】
端子の挿入力は、オス端子とメス端子の接点の摩擦、磨耗によって生じる。従って、この摩擦、磨耗を軽減すれば端子の挿入力は低下する。従来広く用いられている錫めっき端子は、通常、銅合金からなるめっき基材に銅下地めっきを行い、次いで錫めっきを行っているが、本発明においては、下地めっき層としてNi、Co、Fe、Pd、Agの中の少なくとも一元素とSnからなる合金を用いることにより、下地めっき層に一定の硬さを与え、これにより軟らかい錫又は錫めっき層が潤滑作用を生み出し、端子の摩擦係数が小さくなると考えられる。
【0008】
それと同時に、下地めっき層が銅又は銅合金基材や銅下地めっきのCuの拡散を抑制して、その表面の錫又は錫合金めっき層がCuと合金化するのを防ぎ、電気的特性を担う錫又は錫合金めっき層を従来よりも長期にわたり保持し、これにより端子の信頼性を長期にわたり維持することが可能となり、あるいは挿入力低下に有利なように、従来よりも錫又は錫合金めっき層の厚さを薄くすることが可能となる。また、耐熱性、すなわち高温使用環境下での経時的信頼性を要求される端子においては、この下地めっき層によりCuの拡散が抑制されるため、錫又は錫合金めっき層の厚さを従来よりも厚くすることなしに、信頼性を維持できる。下地めっき層の合金をNi及びSnを主体とする合金(典型例としてNi及びSnからなる合金)とした場合は、特にCuの拡散防止効果が高い。
【0009】
下地めっき層の厚さは、Cuの拡散防止のためには少なくとも0.1μm以上の厚さが必要であり、1μm以上では効果に差異がなくむだであるから、0.1〜1μmとするのが好ましい。錫又は錫合金めっき層は0.1〜3.0μmが好ましい。
下地めっき層にはNi、Co、Fe、Pd、Agのうちの少なくとも一元素とSnが用いられるが、これらの中からめっき基材に用いられる合金元素と同じ元素を選択して用いると、めっき材のスタンピング屑のリサイクルに際して、めっきの剥離などを必要としない利点がある。従って、例えばNiとSnからなる下地合金めっきは、少なくともNiとSnを含有するめっき基材に対して行うことが望ましい。
【0010】
このめっき材の錫又は錫合金めっき層を再溶解(リフロー)させ、下地めっき層の一部又は全部を金属間化合物としたときは、下地めっき層が硬化して一層の低挿入力化が可能であり、またCuの拡散を抑制する効果が向上する。リフロー処理する場合も、下地めっき層をNi及びSnを主体とする合金とするとCuの拡散を抑制する効果が高い。さらに、リフロー処理は、錫又は錫合金めっき層の応力除去によりウイスカの発生を抑制することができる。
なお、錫合金めっきとしては、例えば錫−鉛(はんだ)、錫−亜鉛、錫−ニッケル等の錫を主体とする合金が挙げられる。
【0011】
本発明のめっき基材としては、銅又は銅合金のほか、アルミニウム、アルミニウム合金、鉄合金、ステンレス鋼などの金属材料を挙げることができる。これらのめっき基材にNiめっきを行い、あるいはこれらのめっき基材にCuめっきをした上にさらにNiめっきを行い、その上に前記下地めっきを施してもよい。
Ni、Co、Fe、Pd、Agの中の少なくとも一元素とSnからなる合金の下地めっきや、錫又は錫合金の各めっきを施す方法は、蒸着などの気相めっきでも、電気めっき、無電解めっきなどの湿式めっきでも可能であり、特に限定されない。また、電気めっきや無電解めっきは実用上容易な手段であるが、めっき液の種類、光沢、無光沢の外観の相違は特にこれを問わない。
【0012】
【実施例】
以下、本発明の実施例を説明する。
厚さ0.3mmのCu−2%Sn−0.1%Fe−0.03%P合金(C50715)及び黄銅(C2600)を脱脂、酸洗した後、種々の厚さの各種下地めっき、及びその表面に錫めっきを行い、表1及び表2に示す各種構成のめっき材(オス側切片及びメス側切片)を作成した。
ここで、Cuめっき、Snめっき、Ni−Sn合金めっき、Co−Sn合金めっき、Fe−Sn合金めっき、Sn−Zn合金めっきは硫酸浴を用い、それぞれの硫酸塩の濃度を適宜変化させることによって、めっき皮膜合金組成を変化させた。また、Sn−Pd合金及びAg−Sn合金めっきはピロリン酸浴を用い、これも同様にピロリン酸塩の濃度を変えて、めっき皮膜の組成を制御した。
これらのめっき材のめっき厚さを蛍光X線膜厚さ測定法を用いて測定した。
【0013】
続いて、これらのめっき材をリフロー処理した後、いずれも下記手順で、オス側及びメス側切片間の摩擦係数、耐熱処理後の接触抵抗値を測定した。その結果を表1及び表2に併せて示す。
摩擦抵抗は、図1に示すように、めっき材を半径(内径)1.5mmで張り出し加工した上下のメス側切片1、2の間に、オス側切片3としてめっき材料の板を挟み、オス側切片3を水平に引っ張ることにより測定した。この際、接圧力はメス側切片1を取り付けた軸にかけた荷重(N=300gf)であり、オス側切片を引っ張る速度は50mm/分とした。次式のように、ロードセル4によって測定した水平方向にかかる力(F)を荷重(N)で除し、さらに1/2した値を摩擦係数(μ)とした。
μ=F/(2N)
なお、本測定において、接点の潤滑剤は一切使用していない。
接触抵抗値は、120℃×500時間又は150℃×500時間の耐熱処理後の値である。測定は4端子法により、解放電圧20mV、電流10mA、相手は直径0.5mmの金線、摺動荷重100gfで測定した。
【0014】
【表1】
【0015】
【表2】
【0016】
表1に示すように、Ni、Co、Zn、Fe、Pd、Agの中の少なくとも一元素とSnからなる合金下地層とその表面に錫めっきを行ったものは、表面の錫めっき厚さを0.5μmと薄くしても、耐熱処理後の接触抵抗の値が従来の厚い錫めっき材と同等に低く保つことができ、摩擦係数が小さい。
また、表2に示すようにオス、メス端子のいずれか一方を本発明のめっき材、他方を従来のめっき材としたものは、両方とも本発明のめっき材とした場合とほぼ同等の低い摩擦係数が得られている。
【0017】
【発明の効果】
本発明により、端子の挿入力を低減することができる。また、接点の信頼性を落とすことなしに低挿入力のかん合型端子を製造することが可能になる。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】 本発明における摩擦係数の測定方法を模式的に表した図である。
【符号の説明】
1、2 メス側切片
3 オス側切片
[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method for producing a mating type connection terminal plating material, and more particularly, a low insertion force when mating male and female terminals, which is particularly suitable for a multipolar connector, and at the same time has excellent heat resistance. The present invention relates to a method for producing a plating material for a combined connection terminal.
[0002]
[Prior art]
For connecting electric wires of automobiles or the like, terminals made of copper alloy with a surface treatment such as tin plating are used. Each terminal consists of a mating terminal that is a combination of a male terminal and a female terminal. A connector in which a plurality of these are assembled is called a multipolar connector.
In recent years, the number of poles of such a connector, that is, the number of terminals in one connector, is increasing as automobiles become more electronic. As the number of terminals increases, the insertion force (mating force) increases, requiring tools for mounting, and requiring a large force even when a person inserts, causing the efficiency of the assembly work to decrease. Become.
[0003]
For this reason, even if the number of poles increases, a terminal with a low insertion force (low mating force) is required so that the insertion force does not become larger than the conventional one. In response to these requirements, conventional tin-plated terminals have a large insertion force, and it has been difficult to produce a multipolar connector without degrading workability. For example, the apparent friction coefficient of a tin-plated terminal is about 0.3 to 0.4, that is, since it contacts the female terminal on both the upper and lower sides of the male, an insertion force of 60% to 80% of the contact pressure is required. It was.
In addition, for example, the temperature during use may reach 100 ° C. or higher for an automobile electrical connector, and some terminals have more heat resistance than that conventionally required, that is, reliability over time in a high temperature use environment. The demand for is increasing.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In order to reduce the terminal insertion force, it is conceivable to lower the contact pressure. In this case, considering the reliability of electrical connection at the contact point, the reliability of gold plating, etc. is high, but not tin plating, but expensive. Surface treatment is required.
In addition, the tin-plated terminal has a reduced insertion force when the plating is thinned. However, if it is too thin, the copper of the material diffuses through the tin-plated layer, especially in a high-temperature environment, and reaches the surface, producing an oxide. The contact resistance value of the terminal may increase in a short time. Therefore, in reality, it is very difficult to maintain the reliability of the terminal by reducing the plating thickness and preventing the contact resistance value from increasing. In other words, with conventional tin-plated materials, the heat resistance decreases if the insertion force is reduced in response to the increase in the number of connectors, and the insertion force increases if the tin plating thickness is increased to improve the heat resistance of the terminals. There was a problem to do.
[0005]
The present invention was made in view of the above-mentioned problems of conventional tin plating materials, and obtains a mating connection terminal plating material suitable for multipolarization with a low insertion force without impairing the heat resistance of the terminals. Objective.
[0006]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The method for manufacturing a mating type connecting terminal plating material according to the present invention includes at least one of Ni, Co, Fe , Pd, and Ag on a plating base material made of copper or a copper alloy or a plating base material plated with Cu. After forming a base plating layer of an alloy composed of elements and Sn and a tin or tin alloy plating layer on the surface thereof, a reflow treatment of the tin or tin alloy plating layer is performed, and a part or all of the base plating layer is intermetallic. It is a compound.
A Ni plating layer may be further formed under the base plating layer.
By using this mating type connecting terminal plating material for at least one of a male terminal and a female terminal, a desired effect can be obtained.
[0007]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The insertion force of the terminal is generated by friction and wear of the contact between the male terminal and the female terminal. Therefore, if this friction and wear are reduced, the terminal insertion force is reduced. Conventionally, tin-plated terminals that have been widely used are usually obtained by performing copper base plating on a plating base made of a copper alloy and then performing tin plating. In the present invention, Ni, Co, Fe are used as the base plating layer. By using an alloy composed of Sn and at least one element of Pd, Ag, the base plating layer is given a certain hardness, whereby the soft tin or tin plating layer produces a lubricating action, and the friction coefficient of the terminal is increased. It will be smaller.
[0008]
At the same time, the base plating layer suppresses the diffusion of Cu in the copper or copper alloy base material or copper base plating, prevents the tin or tin alloy plating layer on the surface from alloying with Cu, and bears electrical characteristics. The tin or tin alloy plating layer can be retained for a longer period of time than before, so that the reliability of the terminal can be maintained for a long period of time. It is possible to reduce the thickness of the. In addition, in terminals that require heat resistance, that is, reliability over time in a high temperature use environment, since the diffusion of Cu is suppressed by this base plating layer, the thickness of the tin or tin alloy plating layer is conventionally increased. The reliability can be maintained without increasing the thickness. When the alloy of the base plating layer is an alloy mainly composed of Ni and Sn (typically an alloy composed of Ni and Sn), the effect of preventing Cu diffusion is particularly high.
[0009]
The thickness of the base plating layer is required to be at least 0.1 μm or more in order to prevent Cu from diffusing, and if it is 1 μm or more, there is no difference in effect. Is preferred. The tin or tin alloy plating layer is preferably 0.1 to 3.0 μm.
At least one element of Ni, Co, Fe , Pd, and Ag and Sn are used for the base plating layer. If the same element as the alloy element used for the plating base material is selected from these, There is an advantage that no peeling of the plating is required when recycling the stamping waste of the material. Accordingly, for example, the base alloy plating made of Ni and Sn is desirably performed on a plating base material containing at least Ni and Sn.
[0010]
When the tin or tin alloy plating layer of this plating material is re-dissolved (reflowed) and part or all of the underlying plating layer is made of an intermetallic compound, the underlying plating layer is cured and a further low insertion force is possible. In addition, the effect of suppressing the diffusion of Cu is improved. Also in the case of the reflow treatment, if the base plating layer is an alloy mainly composed of Ni and Sn, the effect of suppressing Cu diffusion is high. Furthermore, the reflow process can suppress the generation of whiskers by removing stress from the tin or tin alloy plating layer.
Examples of the tin alloy plating include alloys mainly composed of tin, such as tin-lead (solder), tin-zinc, and tin-nickel.
[0011]
Examples of the plating substrate of the present invention include metal materials such as aluminum, aluminum alloy, iron alloy, and stainless steel in addition to copper or a copper alloy. Ni plating may be performed on these plating bases, or Cu plating may be performed on these plating bases, and then Ni plating may be further performed, and the base plating may be performed thereon.
The base plating of an alloy consisting of at least one element of Ni, Co, Fe , Pd, Ag and Sn, or the plating of tin or tin alloy is performed by vapor plating such as vapor deposition, electroplating, electroless Wet plating such as plating is also possible and is not particularly limited. Moreover, although electroplating and electroless plating are practically easy means, the difference in the type of plating solution, gloss and matte appearance is not particularly limited.
[0012]
【Example】
Examples of the present invention will be described below.
After degreasing and pickling a Cu-2% Sn-0.1% Fe-0.03% P alloy (C50715) and brass (C2600) with a thickness of 0.3 mm, various undercoats with various thicknesses, and Tin plating was performed on the surface, and plating materials (male side slice and female side slice) having various configurations shown in Tables 1 and 2 were prepared.
Here, Cu plating, Sn plating, Ni—Sn alloy plating, Co—Sn alloy plating, Fe—Sn alloy plating, and Sn—Zn alloy plating use a sulfuric acid bath, and appropriately change the concentration of each sulfate. The plating film alloy composition was changed. In addition, the Sn—Pd alloy and Ag—Sn alloy plating used a pyrophosphate bath, and similarly, the pyrophosphate salt concentration was changed to control the composition of the plating film.
The plating thickness of these plating materials was measured using a fluorescent X-ray film thickness measurement method.
[0013]
Subsequently, after reflowing these plating materials, the friction coefficient between the male side and female side sections and the contact resistance value after the heat treatment were measured in the following procedure. The results are also shown in Table 1 and Table 2.
As shown in FIG. 1, the frictional resistance is obtained by sandwiching a plate of plating material as a male side piece 3 between upper and lower female side pieces 1 and 2 obtained by projecting a plating material with a radius (inner diameter) of 1.5 mm. Measurement was made by pulling the side section 3 horizontally. At this time, the contact pressure is a load (N = 300 gf) applied to the shaft to which the female side section 1 is attached, and the pulling speed of the male side section is 50 mm / min. As in the following equation, the force (F) applied in the horizontal direction measured by the load cell 4 was divided by the load (N), and a value halved was defined as the friction coefficient (μ).
μ = F / (2N)
In this measurement, no contact lubricant is used.
The contact resistance value is a value after heat-resistant treatment at 120 ° C. × 500 hours or 150 ° C. × 500 hours. The measurement was carried out by a four-terminal method with a release voltage of 20 mV, a current of 10 mA, a counterpart of a gold wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and a sliding load of 100 gf.
[0014]
[Table 1]
[0015]
[Table 2]
[0016]
As shown in Table 1, the surface of the surface of the tin plating layer is obtained by tin plating the surface of the alloy base layer made of Sn and at least one element of Ni, Co, Zn, Fe, Pd, and Ag. Even if it is as thin as 0.5 μm, the value of contact resistance after heat-resistant treatment can be kept as low as that of a conventional thick tin-plated material, and the friction coefficient is small.
In addition, as shown in Table 2, when one of the male and female terminals is the plating material of the present invention and the other is the conventional plating material, both are low friction substantially equal to the case of using the plating material of the present invention. The coefficient is obtained.
[0017]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, the insertion force of the terminal can be reduced. In addition, a mating terminal with a low insertion force can be manufactured without reducing the reliability of the contacts.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a diagram schematically showing a method for measuring a friction coefficient in the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
1, 2 Female side section 3 Male side section

Claims (3)

  1. 銅又は銅合金からなるめっき基材又はCuめっきをしためっき基材に、Ni、Co、Fe、Pd、Agの中の少なくとも一元素及びSnからなる合金の下地めっき層と、その表面に錫又は錫合金めっき層を形成した後、錫又は錫合金めっき層のリフロー処理を施し、前記下地めっき層の一部又は全部を金属間化合物とすることを特徴とするかん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法。An underplating layer of an alloy composed of at least one element of Ni, Co, Fe , Pd, and Ag and a plating base made of copper or a copper alloy or a plated base made of Cu, and tin or After forming the tin alloy plating layer, a reflow treatment of the tin or tin alloy plating layer is performed, and a part or all of the base plating layer is an intermetallic compound. Production method.
  2. 銅又は銅合金からなるめっき基材又はCuめっきをしためっき基材に、Niめっき層を形成し、次いで前記下地めっき層を形成することを特徴とする請求項1に記載されたかん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法。  The mating type connection according to claim 1, wherein a Ni plating layer is formed on a plating base material made of copper or a copper alloy or a plating base material subjected to Cu plating, and then the base plating layer is formed. Manufacturing method of terminal plating material.
  3. 上記下地めっき層がNi及びSnを主体とする合金のめっき層であることを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載されたかん合型接続端子用めっき材の製造方法。  3. The method for producing a mating type connecting terminal plating material according to claim 1, wherein the base plating layer is a plating layer of an alloy mainly composed of Ni and Sn.
JP36944697A 1997-12-26 1997-12-26 Manufacturing method of plating material for mating type connection terminal Expired - Lifetime JP3953169B2 (en)

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