JP3849590B2 - Traffic information system - Google Patents

Traffic information system Download PDF

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JP3849590B2
JP3849590B2 JP2002180747A JP2002180747A JP3849590B2 JP 3849590 B2 JP3849590 B2 JP 3849590B2 JP 2002180747 A JP2002180747 A JP 2002180747A JP 2002180747 A JP2002180747 A JP 2002180747A JP 3849590 B2 JP3849590 B2 JP 3849590B2
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information
route
traffic
traffic information
vehicle
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JP2004029871A (en
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憲一郎 山根
孝義 横田
昇平 福岡
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株式会社日立製作所
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a system that provides traffic information such as traffic jams and travel times, and more particularly to the provision of traffic information based on information from a mobile sensor such as a road sensor or a probe car.
[0002]
[Prior art]
The conventional technology for providing traffic information includes VICS (Vehicle Information and VICS Center) of the Road Traffic Information Communication System Center (VICS Center).
Communication System). The VICS system processes congestion and travel time estimated by processing real-time collected information from road sensors (ultrasonic detectors, loop coil detectors, AVI, optical beacons, etc.) managed by prefectural police and road managers. It collects all traffic information such as information and provides it to the driver. Since the update cycle of traffic information depends on the counting cycle of measurement information from road sensors, it is usually every 5 minutes, and information can always be provided as long as the road sensor does not break down. As provided media, there are narrow-area communication using beacons (light, radio waves) and wide-area communication using FM multiplex broadcasting.
[0003]
Another conventional technique for providing traffic information is a so-called probe car that provides information based on measurement information obtained by a vehicle that collects vehicle information or driving information. In this technique, as disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open Nos. 5-151396 and 7-39098, a traveling vehicle is used as a moving body sensor to measure / aggregate the position and traffic status of the vehicle, and the traffic status is processed by information processing. Information is collected or provided by wireless communication. Information about the route on which the probe car has traveled can be provided because the measurement information is collected, but information on the route on which the probe car does not travel cannot be provided. Therefore, the penetration rate (presence rate) of probe cars greatly depends on the traffic information service area.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The above VICS is based on information collected from road sensors. Due to cost restrictions required for installation and operation of road sensors, road sensors are installed mainly in sections where traffic concentration is likely to occur on main roads such as national roads. Therefore, since the information provision service area is developed centering on such sections where traffic concentration is likely to occur, the service area is about several tens to 50% of all roads on which cars can pass, and services are always provided for drivers. I was not able to receive it. In addition, existence type sensors such as ultrasonic sensors that occupy most of the road sensors measure the traffic situation at the sensor installation location. For traffic conditions along the road space, the traffic situation at each sensor installation location is measured. It will be obtained by estimation. However, depending on the estimation method and the setting parameters for estimation, the estimation accuracy of the traffic situation may deteriorate.
[0005]
In the information providing technology using the probe car, since the traveling vehicle is used as a moving body sensor, it is possible to cover almost all roads on which automobiles pass. However, the measured information is directed to the traffic information center on mobile phones and
Since the running cost for transmitting by wireless communication using PHS or the like is large, it has hardly been used so far, and as a result, a sufficient service area could not be secured. Also, it has been difficult to update information every 5 minutes as in the VICS.
[0006]
Therefore, the present invention provides VICS traffic information (congestion, travel time, etc.) obtained based on conventional road sensor information and traffic information (hereinafter referred to as probe car information) or road sensor information obtained based on measurement information by a probe car. It is an object of the present invention to provide a traffic information system that realizes expansion of the traffic information service area and improvement of the estimation accuracy of traffic information by using in combination.
[0007]
In addition, the present invention monitors the traffic situation of the route from the probe car's route information and position information, and notifies the driver of the traffic situation when the traffic situation changes due to occurrence of traffic jams or accidents. The purpose is to reduce the running cost of communication.
[0008]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The traffic information system of the present invention that achieves the above object includes a traffic information collection unit that collects traffic information from at least one information source, and a traffic situation that estimates current or near future traffic information based on the traffic information. An estimation unit; a traffic information storage unit that stores the traffic information and the estimated traffic information; and an information transmission / reception unit that communicates information with a computer.
[0009]
In addition, the traffic information system of the present invention that achieves the above object estimates a traffic information collection unit that collects traffic information from at least one information source, and current or near future traffic information based on the traffic information. A traffic condition estimation unit; a traffic information storage unit that stores the traffic information and the estimated traffic information; an information transmission / reception unit that communicates information with a computer; and a route monitoring unit that monitors a change in traffic condition on the route. It may be a thing.
[0010]
In addition, the traffic information system of the present invention that achieves the above object estimates a traffic information collection unit that collects traffic information from at least one information source, and current or near future traffic information based on the traffic information. A traffic condition estimation unit, a traffic information storage unit that stores the traffic information and the estimated traffic information, an information transmission / reception unit that communicates information with a computer, a route monitoring unit that monitors changes in traffic conditions on the route, and The information search part which searches the information linked | related with the positional information on the route or the route periphery may be provided.
[0011]
Another feature of the traffic information system is that the route monitoring unit estimates the current vehicle position using the previous vehicle position and traffic information and updates the route information from the current position to the destination. In addition, traffic information on or around the route is extracted and provided from traffic information on all roads.
[0012]
Another feature of the traffic information system is that the route monitoring unit provides information to the user only when the traffic situation on the route changes more than a predetermined level.
[0013]
Another feature of the traffic information system is that, when a plurality of information sources are obtained, the traffic situation estimation unit adopts the newest one of the information sources or a linear sum of the information sources. The process of either obtaining the estimated value by the above or obtaining the estimated value by the linear sum based on the weighting coefficient determined according to the newness of the information source is performed.
[0014]
Another feature of the traffic information system is that it is used in accordance with at least one of the type of traffic information used to estimate and provide traffic information, or the quality and quantity when searching for and providing information other than traffic information. The processing is to distinguish the charge amount of the person.
[0015]
Another feature of the traffic information system is that for users who provide probe car measurement information, the billing amount is discounted according to the number of times information is provided, the amount of information, or the quality and scarcity of information. It is to perform processing.
[0016]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Next, an embodiment of a traffic information system according to the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.
[0017]
Hereinafter, the function of each part constituting the present invention and the processing flow of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing an embodiment of a traffic information system according to the present invention. The traffic information system includes a traffic information processing unit 10, an information management unit 11, and communication means.
12 and the vehicle-mounted device 13. Among these, the traffic information processing unit 10 has a function of collecting traffic information and estimating a traffic situation, and includes a traffic information collection unit 100, a traffic information storage unit 101, and a traffic situation estimation unit 102. In addition, the information management unit 11 has a function of processing / searching and providing necessary information in response to a request from a user (on-vehicle device), a route search unit 110, a route monitoring unit 111, an information search unit 112, information It is composed of a DB 113 and an information transmission / reception unit 114.
[0018]
First, each part which comprises the traffic information processing part 10 is demonstrated. As shown in FIG. 2, the traffic information collecting unit 100 collects at least traffic information (probe car information) measured by the vehicle-mounted device vehicle via the communication means 203, and measurement information of the road sensor 204. An information collection unit from any one of the information sources, such as a road sensor information collection unit 201 that collects traffic information or a traffic information collection unit 202 that collects traffic information provided by other organizations such as the traffic information center 205 It is about collecting real-time information about the situation, forecast information for the near future or mid to long term, or past statistical information. Information from each information source transmitted through the communication line is sent from the information transmitting / receiving unit 114 to each information collecting unit.
[0019]
FIG. 3 is an example of vehicle travel data (probe car information) transmitted from the in-vehicle device via the communication unit 203. The item of data to be transmitted is measurement information related to the traveling state of the own vehicle mainly including time and position information. The transmission data may further include information such as events around the host vehicle such as the weather at the traveling point and measurement information.
[0020]
FIG. 4 is an example of measurement information obtained by an ultrasonic sensor that is one of road sensors. An ultrasonic sensor is a device that measures the traffic volume, occupancy rate, average speed, and the like per unit time by measuring the presence or absence of a vehicle immediately below the installation position and counting the measured data at a fixed period. Finer measurement may be performed by shortening the collection period of the road sensor (5 minutes in the example of FIG. 4). Further, the measurement cycle may be set every time one vehicle passes instead of a fixed interval, and thereby the passing speed of each vehicle can be measured. The road sensors need not be limited to the above-described ultrasonic sensors, and how many vehicles are within a predetermined time, such as optical vehicle detectors, image sensors, loop coil detectors, radar detectors, etc. Any sensor can be used as long as it is a sensor that can measure the traffic condition such as traffic congestion or information equivalent to FIG.
[0021]
FIG. 5 shows a road traffic information communication system center (VICS center),
Japan Road Traffic Information Center (JARTIC), Traffic Information Service Co., Ltd.
(ATIS), or an example of an outline of traffic information transmitted from an external traffic information center 205 such as a police or a government agency, and information obtained by integrating a plurality of traffic information centers may be used. The traffic information from the external traffic information center is mainly information relating to traffic conditions such as the average vehicle speed per unit time, the travel time of a predetermined section, or traffic information (congestion level, traffic length) at each link. In addition to the main traffic information, traffic regulations, road construction, sudden incidents such as traffic accidents and disasters, parking lot availability information, tollgate and service area status (in operation / closed), etc. Additional information may be included. A link is a road section on the road network and often refers to a road section connecting intersections. The link is defined by map data such as digital road map database (DRM) and map data used in car navigation.
[0022]
The traffic information storage unit 101 stores the traffic information collected by the traffic information collection unit 100 or the traffic information estimated and edited by the traffic state estimation unit 102 based on the collected traffic information. Traffic information to be stored includes traffic information, road construction, traffic accidents and disasters, parking space availability information, tollgate and service area status (in operation) Additional information such as / closed) may be used. The freshness of information to be stored includes the latest information (real-time information), past information (or past trends obtained by statistically processing past information), or forecast information for the near future or medium to long term. May be.
[0023]
FIG. 6 shows, as an example of statistical processing, past information of a predetermined period for a certain link averaged at regular intervals. In this example, data such as travel time and congestion length of a link for weekdays, weekends, fifty days, or all days is statistically processed at 5-minute intervals, but it is shorter, as with the road sensor information collection cycle. Fine statistical processing may be performed at time intervals, or coarse statistical processing may be performed at longer time intervals, and may be used properly according to the usage in the traffic information system. In this example, the statistical unit is a day type such as weekdays, weekends, and fifty days, but the weather (sunny / rainy / snow) may be used as the unit for counting. A combination of the above-mentioned day type and weather may be used as a totaling unit, and this may be used in accordance with the usage in the traffic information system. The stored traffic information may be provided to the traveling vehicle from the information transmission / reception unit 114 via the route monitoring unit 111.
[0024]
The traffic situation estimation unit 102 estimates and processes various traffic situations based on information stored in the traffic information storage unit 101. In the process of estimating the traffic situation, there are various processing contents depending on the type of traffic situation to be estimated and the type of traffic information of the use source.
[0025]
As an example, a processing example in the case of estimating the current state of travel time in a link where only measurement information obtained by a road sensor (ultrasonic sensor) is obtained will be given. In many cases, as shown in FIG. 4, the items of measurement information by the ultrasonic sensor have an average speed (may be estimated from traffic volume and occupation time), so this average speed information is used. To find the estimated travel time. From the average speed information V (t) at time t and the link length (L), the estimated travel time T (t) can be calculated by the following equation.
[0026]
[Expression 1]
T (t) = L / V (t) (Equation 1)
As another example of estimating the current state of travel time, an example of travel time estimation processing in a link in which probe car information is obtained in addition to measurement information by a road sensor (ultrasonic sensor) will be given. The estimated travel time based on the information of the ultrasonic sensor is calculated by (Equation 1) as described above. On the other hand, an example of a travel time estimation method based on probe car information will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 7 shows the position of the road network and the probe car and the passage time. Point 70 and point 71 represent the position and time at which information was collected when the same probe car was passing through this road network, and 72 and 73 represent links for which travel time should be estimated. That is, the travel time from the point 70 to the point 71 is 3 minutes 30 seconds (210 seconds) because it is a time difference between the points. Here, assuming that the distance from the point 70 to the point 71 is X and the link lengths of the links 72 and 73 are L1 and L2, respectively, it is assumed that the moving speed from the point 70 to the point 71 is constant, Travel times T1 and T2 are estimated by equations (Equation 2) and (Equation 3), respectively.
[0027]
[Expression 2]
T1 = 210 (seconds) × L1 / X (Expression 2)
[0028]
[Equation 3]
T2 = 210 (seconds) × L2 / X (Equation 3)
In this way, two estimated travel times based on road sensor information and probe car information are obtained for the same link.
[0029]
These two estimated travel times may be properly used according to the usage in the traffic information system. For example, as in the case of using for providing real-time information, a method of adopting a newer information can be considered. In this case, if the time when the traffic information is to be provided is 7:04:30, the latest information on the road sensor is 6:55 to 7:00 if the traffic information collection period is 5 minutes. (The following information is collected after 7:05), and since the probe car information is information from 7:00:30 to 7: 00: 04: 00, the probe car information is newer, so the probe car information Travel time based on will be adopted. Further, as an index for properly using these two estimated travel times, reliability (accuracy) may be considered in addition to the newness of information. In the situation where the above two estimated travel times and measured travel times are obtained, the estimation accuracy is high by evaluating the accuracy of each estimated travel time by a statistical method such as a square error, that is, the estimation with high reliability. Adopt travel time. Furthermore, a method of using both of the above two estimated travel times by the following equation is also conceivable.
[0030]
[Expression 4]
T3 = α × T4 + (1−α) × T5 (Equation 4)
Here, T3 is an estimated travel time to be obtained, α is a weighting coefficient of 0 to 1 and T4 and T5 are estimated travel times obtained based on road sensor information and probe car information, respectively. These estimated travel times T3, T4, and T5 have time stamps based on the estimated times as attributes, so that it is possible to know when each estimated travel time is information. Moreover, the method which united said two methods may be sufficient. That is, the weighting factor α is determined according to the degree of newness (or reliability) of information, and then the estimated travel time is obtained by (Equation 4). For example, if T4 is newer (or higher in reliability) among T4 and T5, traffic information that is newer (or higher in reliability) should be set so that α is 0.5 or more and 1 or less. What is necessary is just to make weighting with respect to the travel time estimated using it heavy.
[0031]
Next, another method using both of the two estimated travel times will be described. (Equation 2) and (Equation 3) used in the travel time estimation example based on the above probe car information are estimated based on the assumption that the vehicle traveled at a constant speed from point 70 to point 71. In this estimation method, the link travel time is allocated by using the average speed information of the road sensor as a weighting coefficient. For example, the average speeds from the road sensors associated with the links 72 and 73 are V1 and V2, respectively, and the links (74 and 74) at both ends of the section (the point 70 to the point 71) where the estimated travel time based on the probe car information is obtained. 75), the average speed information from the road sensors associated with each other is Va and Vb, and the lengths of the sections at both ends (74 and 75) are La and Lb. .
[0032]
[Equation 5]
210 (seconds) = β × (La / Va + L1 / V1 + L2 / V2 + Lb / Vb) (Expression 5)
β is a parameter for correcting the estimated travel time based on the probe car information and the estimated travel time based on the road sensor information to coincide with each other. La, Lb, L1, L2 are known, Va, Vb, V1, V2 Is a measured value, and is obtained by (Equation 5). Using the parameter β, the estimated travel times T1 and T2 of the links 72 and 73 can be expressed by (Equation 6) and (Equation 7), respectively.
[0033]
[Formula 6]
T1 = β × L1 / V1 (Equation 6)
[0034]
[Expression 7]
T2 = β × L2 / V2 (Equation 7)
Furthermore, another example is given and demonstrated about the processing content in the traffic information estimation part 102. FIG. This time, the travel time is estimated at the link where at least one of the measurement information by the road sensor (ultrasonic sensor) or the probe car information is obtained and the traffic information from the external traffic information center 205 is obtained. This is an example of processing when The estimated travel time based on at least one of the measurement information by the road sensor or the probe car information is T6, and the travel time provided from the external traffic information center is T7. These two travel time informations may be properly used according to the usage in the traffic information system, similarly to the example using the road sensor information and the probe car information. For example, when using for providing real-time information, a method of adopting a newer information or a higher reliability (accuracy) is conceivable. Alternatively, a method of using both of the above two travel times of T6 and T7 by the following equation is also conceivable, similarly to the example using the above-mentioned road sensor information and probe car information.
[0035]
[Equation 8]
T8 = ζ × T6 + (1−ζ) × T7 (Equation 8)
Here, ζ is a weighting factor (a value between 0 and 1) determined according to the degree of novelty (or high reliability) of information, as with the weighting factor α, and T8 is an estimated travel to be obtained. It's time.
[0036]
Even when traffic information from a plurality of external traffic information centers 205 is obtained, the same method as described above, that is, whether the information is newer, or for a plurality of information as in (Equation 8) The present state of travel time can be estimated by a method of obtaining a linear sum in which the weighting ratio is changed according to the newness of the information. In this way, the more traffic information that can be obtained, the more links the estimated travel time can be obtained, that is, the area where traffic information can be provided becomes wider, and the reliability (accuracy) of the provided information increases as new information is adopted. ) Can be improved.
[0037]
Next, an example in which the traffic information estimation unit 102 performs near-future prediction of travel time will be described. In FIG. 8, 80 is a travel time at each time (statistical travel time) based on statistics based on past traffic information in a certain link, t is a current time on the predicted day, and 81 is the road sensor information up to the current time t on the predicted day. , Probe car information, travel time based on traffic information from an external traffic information center, or transition of travel time estimated based on these (actual travel time), 82 is a predicted value of travel time in the near future after the current time t ( Predicted travel time). In order to obtain the travel time Td ′ (t + 1) at the time (t + 1), which is a time one unit time in the future at the current time t, the statistical travel times Td (t) and Td (t + 1) at the times t and (t + 1), respectively. ) And the actual travel time Td ′ (t) at time t are applied to the following equation.
[0038]
[Equation 9]
Td ′ (t + 1) = Td (t + 1) × γ × Td ′ (t) / Td (t) (Equation 9)
Here, γ is a coefficient, which may normally be 1. However, if Td ′ (t) / Td (t) is larger than the normal range, such as when actual measurement and past statistics do not match, it is smaller than 1. Or, conversely, when Td ′ (t) / Td (t) is smaller than the normal range, the actual travel time and the past statistics are not matched. It is possible to consider dynamically so that it does not become a singular value. In the case of the above formula, the statistical travel time Td (t + 1) at the time (t + 1) to be predicted is corrected using the ratio of the actual travel time Td ′ (t) and the statistical travel time Td (t) at the current time t. However, the statistical travel time Td (t + 1) may be corrected using the difference between the actual travel time Td ′ (t) and the statistical travel time Td (t) as in the following equation. Here, δ is a coefficient, which may normally be 1 as in the case of the coefficient γ, but it is obtained by making it larger or smaller than 1 depending on the magnitude of Td ′ (t) −Td (t). It is possible to consider dynamically so that the predicted travel time should not be a unique value.
[0039]
[Expression 10]
Td ′ (t + 1) = Td (t + 1) + δ × (Td ′ (t) −Td (t)) (Equation 10)
In the above example, a prediction example at time (t + 1), which is one unit time future time with respect to the current time t, has been shown, but in the same way, a predicted travel time several units time future can be obtained. Here, the unit time is a time interval when the above-described past information is statistically processed.
[0040]
Next, an application example of the travel time near future prediction method will be described. Consider the case of FIG. 9 as a simple example of a road network. A to E in the figure represent intersections, and 90 to 93 represent links. Further, it is assumed that the link length of each link, the predicted travel time and the predicted travel speed for each time zone are as shown in FIGS. 10:00 in the figure means predicted travel time or predicted travel speed at times from 10:00 to less than 10:05. The predicted travel speed is obtained from the predicted travel time and link length of each time zone obtained from the above-described method for predicting travel time in the near future. In this example, the predicted travel time from intersection A to intersection E is calculated using the prediction results shown in FIGS.
[0041]
When leaving the intersection A at time 10:00, it is expected that 72 seconds (average speed is 30 km / h) will be required to pass through the link 90. Since it is not yet 10:05 at the time 10:01:12 at which this link 91 will be reached, the estimated travel speed of the next link 91 is 25 km / h of 10:00. For this reason, the estimated travel time required to pass the link 91 is 144 seconds, and the total estimated travel time from the intersection A is 216 seconds. Similarly, the travel time required to pass through the link 92 is predicted to be 82 seconds (total 298 seconds). Since the travel time required to pass the last link 93 is 173 seconds (total 471 seconds), it is necessary to switch to a speed of 10:05 on the way. That is, the speed of 10:00 (25 km / h) is adopted for the first two seconds after entering the link 93, so the travel distance during that time is approximately 14 m, and then the speed of 10:05 for the remaining distance 1186 m ( It is estimated that approximately 285 seconds will be required to adopt 15 km / h). Eventually, the travel time required to pass through the link 93 is predicted to be 287 seconds (total 585 seconds). From the above, the estimated arrival time of the vehicle that departed from the intersection A at 10:00:00 is 10:09:45, and the traveling situation along the route is as shown by a graph 120 in FIG. Similarly, the traveling state when the intersection A is departed at the time 10:05:00 is as shown by a graph 121 in FIG. 12, the estimated travel time to the intersection E is 759 seconds, and the estimated arrival time is 10:17. : 39 is predicted.
[0042]
When traffic information such as travel time estimated as described above is provided to the driver, for example, the traffic information type distinguished according to the type of information source used for estimation is provided to the driver together with the traffic information. Also good. At this time, seven travel time types are conceivable as combinations using at least one of probe car information, road sensor information, and traffic information center (other organizations) information. Furthermore, in consideration of the fact that two types of traffic information for the current state estimation and the near future prediction are required from each of the seven types of travel times, a total of 14 types may be distinguished.
[0043]
An example of providing information related to the traffic information type, travel time, and traffic jam information to the driver (on-vehicle device) is shown in FIGS. 130 and 140 in the figure indicate the current location of the vehicle. The current location can obtain the position (latitude, longitude, altitude, etc.) by GPS (Global Positioning System) connected to the in-vehicle device, but there is also a method of obtaining the position by PHS (Personal Handyphone System). Alternatively, the position information may be obtained from a beacon installed on the road. Reference numerals 131 and 132 denote travel times to main passage points or guidance points, and reference numeral 133 denotes the name of a transit point passing in the direction of the current route or on the route. 141 to 143 are congestion information, and the position, degree (congestion degree), and length (congestion length) of the congestion are represented by arrows. The degree of congestion is often distinguished by the color of an arrow. For example, smooth (non-congested) is green, light traffic (congested) is orange, and heavy traffic (congested) is red.
[0044]
The displays 134 and 144 on the lower left in FIGS. 13 and 14 are display examples of the type of traffic information to be provided and the provided time. “PV Preliminary” in the upper part of 134 uses both probe car information (P) and traffic information (V) of other organizations such as the VICS Center, and provides the results obtained by the near future prediction method (preliminary). Means that “PVS actual” in the upper stage of 144 uses both probe car information (P), traffic information (V) of other organizations such as VICS center, and road sensor information (S), and the current state estimation method (current). It means that the obtained result is provided. The lower part shows the time of the time point provided by the traffic information system of the present invention. By displaying the traffic information provision time and traffic information type in this way, the driver can accurately determine the reliability of the traffic information provided, and therefore can more accurately grasp the traffic situation. It becomes like this.
[0045]
As described above, the example of the processing content in the traffic situation estimation unit 102 has been described with a plurality of examples focusing on the example of estimating the travel time of the link. The same applies to the estimation of various types of traffic information (congestion information, speed, etc.) other than travel time.
[0046]
Next, each part which comprises the information management part 11 is demonstrated. First, the route search unit 110 searches for an optimal route between two points such as the current location and the destination transmitted from the vehicle 13. There are various route search methods such as Dijkstra method. In any case, at least one of distance, travel time, toll, width, number of turns, etc. is set for each link as the link cost. The route with the smallest value is obtained as the optimum route. Generally, the obtained route is output as a list of link numbers constituting the route, but may be converted into a list of coordinate values such as latitude and longitude based on the link number list of the links constituting the route. As an application of the route search, at least one waypoint other than the current location and the destination may be taken into account, and whether to give priority to the expressway or the general road may be set. The obtained route is transmitted via the information transmission / reception unit 114 to the vehicle-mounted device 13 or a computer connected via a network. In addition, this route information may be transmitted to the route monitoring unit 111 in order to monitor the traffic situation regarding the obtained route.
[0047]
The route monitoring unit 111 registers the route sent from the route search unit 110 or the route sent from the vehicle-mounted device 13 or the computer connected via the network via the information transmission / reception unit 114, and Based on the traffic information stored in the information storage unit 101, the registered route and the traffic situation around the route are monitored. Further, various information such as store information and facility information other than the registered route and traffic information around the route is searched through the information search unit 112, and the vehicle mounted vehicle 13 or the network is searched through the information transmission / reception unit 114. The result is sent to the connected computer.
[0048]
Here, a case where the route and the traffic situation around the route are monitored will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. The route obtained by the route search unit 110 is provided to the driver, and when the driver travels along the route, the route monitoring unit 111 monitors the traffic situation of the route from moment to moment. First, the route information obtained and registered by the route search unit 110 is acquired (step 150). The travel time to the destination at the time of providing the route from the route searching unit 110 (or when starting traveling according to the route) is assumed to be T0. Since the traffic situation is updated at regular intervals, for example, every 5 minutes, the travel time estimation calculation is performed for the links constituting the route after the traffic information is updated. Let T ′ be the estimated travel time of the route after the update. At this time,
[0049]
[Expression 11]
T′−T0> ε1 (Expression 11)
Or
[0050]
[Expression 12]
T ′ / T0> ε2 (Equation 12)
If the condition is satisfied, it is considered that the traffic situation has greatly deteriorated. Here, ε1 and ε2 are predetermined numbers equal to or greater than zero (ε2 is a number equal to or greater than 1). For example, when it is defined as a delay time in which the driver feels a large amount of stress, ε1 is 10 minutes. (10 minutes delay) and ε2 should be set to a value such as 1.2 (20% delay). Further, since the vehicle is traveling on the route while the traffic situation is updated, the section for which the travel time is estimated is actually shorter than the route at the start of the route travel. That is, it is approaching the destination. Therefore, when comparing the route travel time at the start of route travel and the update of the traffic situation, it is better to compare the travel time related to the route starting from the vehicle position at the update of the traffic situation. Here, the vehicle position needs to be transmitted from the vehicle-mounted device 13 via the information transmission / reception unit 114 and the communication unit 12, but is transmitted every time the traffic situation is updated due to communication cost, operability, and the like. The process is distinguished depending on whether or not the current vehicle position information has been transmitted (step 151). When the current position information of the vehicle is not transmitted, the current position of the vehicle is estimated from the previously transmitted vehicle position information and the traffic conditions collected so far. The estimation method is based on the previously transmitted position and time, and the route information (a list of links constituting the route) already provided to the vehicle-mounted device and registered in the route monitoring unit 111 as shown in FIG. The vehicle position on the route at the current time is estimated by the method (step 152). Thereby, since the current position of the vehicle can be updated every moment, the route can also be updated every moment, and the accuracy of the route to be monitored can be improved (step 153). Then, for the latest route, the travel time T0 at the start of route travel and the travel time T 'after updating the traffic condition (latest data) are calculated (step 154).
[0051]
Next, it is determined whether or not the traffic situation has greatly deteriorated by (Equation 11) or (Equation 12) (step 155). (Driver) or a computer connected via a network provides information that the traffic situation on the route has deteriorated, and allows the driver to determine whether or not to re-search the route. Alternatively, every time the traffic situation is updated in consideration of the traffic situation around the route, the route search unit 110 automatically performs a route search and provides information that the traffic situation of the current route has deteriorated along with the new route. The driver may determine whether or not to adopt a new route (step 156).
[0052]
In addition, when providing real-time traffic information to the in-vehicle device, it is possible to filter and provide only information on the latest route and the roads around the route in the above-described step 153. Thereby, the extraction accuracy of necessary information is improved, and as a result, it is possible to reduce the amount of communication and the communication cost associated with providing information to the in-vehicle device.
[0053]
In the above description, the route monitoring unit 111 shows an example of using travel time as an indicator of the traffic situation for monitoring the route and the traffic situation around the route. However, the congestion information (congestion degree, congestion length) and speed information are used. It can be used similarly.
[0054]
The information search unit 112 searches various information other than the traffic information and provides the information to the vehicle-mounted device 13 or the computer connected via the network via the information transmission / reception unit 114. For example, when searching for a restaurant near the current location in response to a request from the driver, the information DB 113 is based on the location information transmitted from the vehicle-mounted device 13 or the estimated location and route information estimated by the route monitoring unit 111. And the information of the obtained restaurant list is provided to the vehicle-mounted device 13.
[0055]
The information DB 113 is a database in which various information other than traffic information is accumulated. The information DB 113 includes information such as information on restaurants, retail stores, recreational facilities, public facilities, transportation facilities, and static information such as digital road map data. Includes dynamically changing information such as information and usage fees. Each of these pieces of information is associated with position information (link, latitude / longitude, or area) of the digital road map. In addition, the information DB 113 may be updated periodically by connecting to an external network such as the Internet, or an external information server (periodically connected to the external network without belonging to the information management unit 11). Update). The information update cycle is set appropriately according to the content, such as a relatively long period of information such as half a year to one year for static information and a short period of 5 minutes to several hours for dynamic information. improves.
[0056]
The information transmitting / receiving unit 114 receives in-vehicle information from the in-vehicle device 13 or a computer connected through the network via the communication unit 12 or 203 or other network. Alternatively, measurement information from the road sensor 204 and provision information from the traffic information center 205 are received. The information transmission / reception unit 114 has a function of transmitting the results processed by the route search unit 110, the route monitoring unit 111, or the information search unit 112 to the vehicle mounted vehicle 13 based on the received in-vehicle information. The in-vehicle information transmitted from the in-vehicle device mounted vehicle 13 is divided into an information request and probe car information. Of these, the probe car information has already been described with reference to FIG. 3 and includes the position of the vehicle and the running situation. Yes, it is also transmitted to the traffic information collecting unit 100 and processed as traffic information. An information request is information that a driver wants to provide, for example, static information such as information on restaurants, retail stores, recreational facilities, public facilities, transportation facilities, and digital road map data. It includes information such as traffic information such as traffic jams, route information to the destination, timetables and operating conditions of transportation facilities such as buses and railways, and dynamically changing information.
[0057]
Furthermore, each remaining part which comprises a traffic information system is demonstrated. The communication means 12 is an intermediary means that connects the vehicle-mounted device of the vehicle-mounted device 13 and the information transmission / reception unit 114 by using wireless communication technology such as a beacon on the road or a base station such as a mobile phone, PHS, and FM multiplex broadcasting. is there. A beacon is installed on a normal road and is used for narrow area communication, and performs bi-directional information communication when a vehicle equipped with a vehicle-mounted device passes nearby. Base stations for mobile phones, PHS, FM multiplex broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital terrestrial broadcasting, etc. are installed in buildings such as buildings and towers, public telephone boxes, etc., and vehicles equipped with in-vehicle devices exist in the radio wave arrival area It is used for wide-area communication, in which information communication is performed. Although these wireless communication means have different uses, any wireless communication means can be used in the traffic information system of the present invention. When the vehicle-mounted device 13 is not a wireless communication type equipped with wireless communication means but a wired communication type such as a computer equipped with wired communication means such as a home or office, the communication means 12 is an Internet It corresponds to an access point or a dedicated line connection point (router).
[0058]
The vehicle-mounted device 13 is a vehicle equipped with a dedicated vehicle-mounted device and a device for communicating with the communication means 12. In-vehicle devices are car navigation systems, notebook computers, personal digital (data) assistants (PDAs), computer terminals such as advanced mobile phones, or personal computers equipped with wired communication means such as homes and offices. It is desirable to connect a device for measuring. The device for position measurement is usually GPS, but may be PHS or a receiver for receiving the current position from a beacon that transmits position information. When the apparatus for position measurement is not provided, the position information input using the user interface of the computer terminal may be transmitted as in-vehicle information. For example, the current position is obtained by inputting the position on the map with an input device such as a stylus pen or a mouse, or by acquiring position information by searching for a telephone number or address. The in-vehicle device may be provided with digital road map data, but it is not always necessary, and even if it is not provided, it can be obtained by requesting the map data from the information search unit 112 as an information request. The communication device differs depending on the communication means 12, and is a dedicated transmission / reception unit if the communication means 12 is a beacon, and if it is a wireless base station such as a mobile phone, PHS, FM multiplex broadcast, satellite broadcast, or terrestrial digital broadcast. It is a communication terminal corresponding to them.
[0059]
With the above configuration, the traffic information system of the present invention can provide traffic information over a wide area and with high accuracy, and the user can receive information when the situation is deteriorated by monitoring the route to be used. It is also possible to reduce communication costs for extracting and receiving necessary information provided.
[0060]
Next, application examples of the traffic information system of the present invention will be described. As a first application example, an example of an integrated route monitoring system is given. In this example, a case where a daily commuting route from home to work place is searched and monitored will be described as an example. The route search unit 110 searches for a route. The route searched in this example is not only a road assuming a private car such as a normal car navigation but also a public transportation such as a railroad, a bus, a route, and an air route. It includes routes, or walking (sidewalk) and bicycle (bicycle path) routes. Therefore, in this example, in order to search and monitor the route, not only the conventional digital road map and traffic information based on the map, but also the schedule information of public transport and the operation status of the public transport (accidents, construction work) It is equipped with a database of sidewalks, bicycle paths, etc., and traffic conditions based on the information in this database are used. In particular, in the database of sidewalks and bicycle paths, the travel time greatly depends on the user's age / sex / weather, so the cost used for route calculation should be provided with a correction value to change due to these factors. It may be. FIG. 16 shows an example of a route obtained when a departure time, a departure place, and a destination are input. The route obtained in this way is registered by the route monitoring unit 111 and monitored from several hours before the departure time. During route monitoring, it is assumed that, for example, the operation schedule of △△ electric railway is disturbed due to bad weather, and the scheduled departure time of the vehicle scheduled to ride is gradually delayed in the route. When the delay time becomes larger than a predetermined value such as (Equation 11) or (Equation 12), the fact is notified to the user via the information transmission / reception unit 114. Further, when there is a disturbance in the public transportation system, in particular, bus schedule, from the traffic information, the cost value used in the route calculation in the database is corrected.
[0061]
Here, a specific method for providing information indicating that the traffic situation has deteriorated during route monitoring (push-type distribution) will be described. For example, in a situation where communication connection is always established, such as in the case of a constant connection type such as wireless packet communication or a dedicated line as a communication means, the information provider can be easily understood, so if information is transmitted to the provider Good. However, in the case of a connection method by line switching such as a PDC mobile phone, PHS, or analog telephone line, a communication fee is generated according to the connection time, so communication connection is rarely established, and in that case Cannot identify to which terminal information should be sent. Therefore, when registering a route that the user (information recipient such as a driver) wants to monitor the route, an identification ID for specifying the user is also registered in addition to the route. The identification ID can be specified as an information communication destination such as an IP address, a telephone number (FAX number), and a mail address. For example, when an e-mail address is registered as the identification code, the route monitoring unit 111 transmits an e-mail informing the traffic condition deterioration to the e-mail address registered due to the traffic condition deterioration. The user who has received the mail can know the deterioration of the traffic situation by reading the mail. However, when driving as a driver, the user may not be able to read the mail because traffic safety is hindered. In that case, it may be possible to automatically output the contents of the mail when a mail is received. Alternatively, when a predetermined code is described in a specific place of the mail (sender mail address, subject, first line of the text, etc.), the received terminal automatically monitors the route via the information transmitting / receiving unit 114. A method may be used in which information is acquired by the unit 111 and the acquired data is displayed on the vehicle-mounted device. When a telephone number is registered as the identification code, the route monitoring unit 111 transmits voice data that conveys the traffic condition deterioration to the telephone number registered due to the traffic condition deterioration, and listens to the voice to transmit the voice data. Can grasp the situation. Alternatively, only one call is made to the registered telephone number while notifying the caller side number (calling number) of the telephone, and communication is immediately cut off. When the terminal recognizes this calling number, it automatically goes to the route monitoring unit 111 via the information transmitting / receiving unit 114 to obtain information. And it is realizable also by the method of displaying the acquired data with a vehicle equipment. In this way, the route monitoring unit 111 can provide information on the deterioration of traffic conditions as push-type delivery or pseudo push-type delivery.
[0062]
By doing as described above, the user can automatically know the deterioration of the situation without monitoring the traffic situation relating to the commuting route, and can make an appropriate judgment on the subsequent action.
[0063]
As a second application example, an example of an operation mode related to information provision to a user will be given. In this example, when a traffic information service provider operates a traffic information system, an example of a charging method for information charges (excluding communication charges) when a user uses a traffic information service will be described. As the information fee, for example, a charging method with a constant monthly fee is used. At this time, the charge amount is changed according to the quality and quantity of the type of traffic information used for estimating and providing the traffic information. For example, as shown in FIG. 17, a billing amount is set for each of the probe car information, road sensor information, and other institution traffic information (an example is VICS traffic information), and the billing amount is calculated by combining these traffic information. Set to. Further, when adding a service for providing near-future prediction information or route monitoring as an option, additional charge is performed. Furthermore, when the vehicle mounted on the vehicle of the user has made a contract to provide measurement information to the traffic information system as a probe car, it is assumed that it contributes to information collection and the charge amount is discounted. The discount amount is set according to the number of times the information is provided (for example, 2 yen per time) or the amount of information (for example, 1 yen per link), or there is little road sensor information or other institutional traffic information and there is congestion or congestion. The price is set according to the quality of information (rareness), such as increasing the discount amount when probe car information is provided. In addition to a method for charging a fixed monthly amount, a daily method may be used in combination. For example, if you usually have a membership contract for only other institutional traffic information, but you want to use the probe car and road sensor information together only during the trip, you can make an additional contract on a daily basis. Such a contract procedure is preferably automatically performed by means such as an in-vehicle device or a mobile phone, but may be performed through an operator by telephone. FIG. 18 shows an example of a screen for automatically performing a contract procedure for the contract as described above on the vehicle-mounted device or the like. The user sets the contract content on the screen and transmits it to the user information management unit 115 via the information transmission / reception unit 114 (FIG. 19). As shown in FIG. 18, since the contract content as described above is set for each contractor ID, the user is managed for each ID. The ID may be assigned to one user, may be assigned to each owned vehicle, or may be assigned to each owned terminal device.
[0064]
The user information management unit 115 also stores billing amount information shown in FIG. 17 for billing amount calculation. The user information management unit 115 manages a provision information item for storing a history of traffic information provided for each user ID of a user and a reception information item for recording a probe car information item received from the user. Yes.
[0065]
The user information management unit 115 stores contract content information of each user, and performs information service instructions, billing, etc. according to the contract content. For example, when “probe car” is contracted as the type of traffic information, only relevant traffic information (probe car information) is extracted from the traffic information stored in the traffic information storage unit 101 to obtain information. Information is provided to the user via the transmission / reception unit 114. The same applies to contracts for other near-future prediction information and other traffic information types and traffic information options. When the traffic information option “route monitoring” is contracted, the user is permitted to use the function of the route monitoring unit 111 and is not permitted to a user who is not contracted. If you have contracted “Probing car information provision” as a traffic information option, you will be discounted. The discount amount is set according to the number of times the information is provided (for example, 2 yen per time) or the amount of information (for example, 1 yen per link), or there is little road sensor information or other institutional traffic information and there is congestion or congestion. The price is set according to the quality of information (rareness), such as increasing the discount amount when probe car information is provided. The quality of information (rareness) is determined by comparing the obtained probe car information with other traffic information stored in the traffic information storage unit 101. The billing amount and discount amount for all of these contracts are tabulated together, and a fee is collected from the user via a financial institution 14 such as a bank or a credit card company. If the discount amount exceeds the billing amount, the billing amount may be zero (free handling), or the difference between the discount amount and the billing amount may be paid to the user via the financial institution 14. Therefore, the user needs to have a deposit account with the financial institution 14.
[0066]
For example, if the billing is a monthly fee, the monthly fee is calculated and notified to the financial institution by calculation according to the contents of the contract of the user. On the other hand, in the case of a one-day contract, a charge is calculated for the contract period. When the quality of information changes due to a contract with the user, the discount amount can be changed by updating the unit charge amount of the charge amount information. In this case, each user can confirm the unit price of the information with which he / she has contracted, and can change the contract contents as needed. Therefore, it is possible to refer to the billing amount information and the contract contents of the user from the user information management unit 115 via the information transmission / reception unit 114. The change in the discount amount due to the quality of information is, for example, the number and frequency of users who provide target information in the user information management unit 115 in association with user contract renewals (including new contracts and contract cancellation / termination) every month. It may be changed in inverse proportion to the product of.
[0067]
Similarly, various types of information other than traffic information stored in the information DB are set so that the quality and amount of information are different, or the usage amount such as the number of times of use and the amount of received data (number of received packets) is used. You may charge accordingly. By setting the billing amount to be different according to the quality and amount of information as described above, it is possible to charge appropriately according to the quality and amount of information requested by the user, and therefore to the information communication network. Less overburdening. In addition, the provision of probe car information, which is often shunned due to concerns about communication costs, privacy, etc., can be expected to increase the number of providers due to the discount system, and as a result, the accuracy of the provided information can be further improved.
[0068]
As a third application example, an operation information service related to a vehicle will be given. In public transportation such as railroads and buses, the train travels in a predetermined route and time according to a schedule, but a delay may occur depending on traffic conditions on the route. There are rarely early arrivals. There are cases where the user of the moving means wants to know the current state of the specific route or vehicle to be boarded. In such a case, by inputting the route and time according to the diagram and monitoring by the route monitoring unit 111, information such as whether the route or vehicle designated by the user is in line with the schedule or how many minutes are delayed, The current position of the specific vehicle is provided along with the route map. The user can easily adjust the departure time by obtaining the provided information. On the other hand, these public transport managers (railway companies, bus companies, etc.) are suddenly affected by accidents, weather, etc. by managing the operation status and current location information for all vehicles in operation. Therefore, even if the operation is disturbed, it can be used as a reference for taking prompt and appropriate measures. Further, when there is no diagram such as a cargo transportation means such as a truck, the current location and the destination or a planned route from the vehicle to the destination is transmitted to the information transmitting / receiving unit 114 and monitored by the route monitoring unit 111. By this, the manager of the freight transportation means (logistics company, etc.) can grasp the operation status and current position of all the vehicles in operation, and explain the delay time etc. to the customer in case of trouble such as delay And vehicle allocation plan become easier.
[0069]
【The invention's effect】
According to the present invention, traffic information from at least one information source is collected, and traffic information in the current state or near future is estimated based on the traffic information, thereby expanding a traffic information provision area and improving accuracy. Providing an improved traffic information system can be achieved.
[0070]
In addition, according to the present invention, by monitoring changes in traffic conditions on the route, if the situation deteriorates, information is provided to the user, and the position is automatically updated as time passes. Therefore, the route is also updated, and it is possible to achieve a traffic information system that reduces the communication fee and the communication cost by filtering only information on the latest route.
[0071]
In addition, according to the present invention, it is possible to provide a traffic information system for accurately searching for information requested by a user by using an information database associated with current position information or route information and position information.
[0072]
In addition, according to the present invention, the amount charged by the user according to at least one of the type of traffic information used for estimating and providing traffic information, or the quality and quantity when searching for and providing information other than traffic information It is possible to achieve a traffic information system capable of operating an appropriate traffic information service.
[0073]
In addition, according to the present invention, for users who provide probe car measurement information, by discounting the billing amount according to the number of times information is provided, the amount of information, or the quality and scarcity of information, It is possible to achieve a traffic information system that increases the amount of traffic information to be collected and improves the accuracy of provided information.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing an embodiment of a traffic information system of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating an example when information from each information source is collected in a traffic information collection unit;
FIG. 3 is a table showing an example of vehicle travel data (probe car information) transmitted from an in-vehicle device.
FIG. 4 is a table showing an example of measurement information obtained by an ultrasonic sensor.
FIG. 5 is a table showing an example of traffic information transmitted from an external traffic information center (another organization).
FIG. 6 is a table showing an example of traffic information statistical processing;
FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating a road network, a position of a probe car, and a passage time for explaining an example of estimating a link travel time using probe car information.
FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining a near future prediction method of travel time.
FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a road network for explaining an application example of a near future prediction method for travel time.
FIG. 10 is a table showing predicted travel times for each link / time zone for explaining an application example of a near future prediction method for travel time.
FIG. 11 is a table showing predicted travel speed for each link / time zone for explaining an example of using a near future prediction method of travel time.
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a traveling situation in the middle of a route for explaining an example of using a near future prediction method of travel time.
FIG. 13 is a diagram showing an example of provision of traffic information type and travel time information.
FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating an example of providing traffic information types and traffic jam information.
FIG. 15 is a flowchart illustrating a process flow when a route and a traffic situation around the route are monitored.
FIG. 16 is a diagram showing an example of a route monitored in an integrated route monitoring system as an application example of the traffic information system of the present invention.
FIG. 17 is an example of a billing amount (monthly amount) for each type of traffic information and option for which a user makes a contract.
FIG. 18 is an example of a screen for setting a contract for a traffic information service.
FIG. 19 is a block diagram showing an embodiment as an application example of the traffic information system of the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Traffic information processing part, 11 ... Information management part, 12, 203 ... Communication means, 13 ... Vehicle mounted vehicle, 14 ... Financial institution, 100 ... Traffic information collection part, 101 ... Traffic information storage part, 102 ... Traffic condition Estimating unit 110 ... Route searching unit 111 111 Route monitoring unit 112 112 Information searching unit 113 Information DB 114 Information transmitting / receiving unit 115 User information managing unit 200 Probe car information collecting unit 201 Road Sensor information collection unit, 202... Other organization traffic information collection unit, 204. Road sensor, 205.

Claims (3)

  1. A traffic information collection unit that collects traffic information based on information from road sensors and traffic information transmitted from traveling vehicles;
    A traffic situation estimation unit that estimates current or future traffic information based on collected traffic information;
    A traffic information storage unit for storing the collected traffic information and the estimated traffic information;
    An information transmission / reception unit for transmitting the traffic information stored in the traffic information storage unit to the vehicle;
    In a traffic information system comprising a route on which a vehicle travels and a travel time to the destination at the start of the route travel, and a route monitoring unit that monitors changes in traffic conditions on the route,
    The route monitoring unit
    Estimating the current vehicle position of the vehicle using the latest vehicle position and traffic information transmitted from the vehicle traveling on the route to be monitored,
    Update the route that the vehicle travels from the estimated current position to the destination as a new route,
    Extract traffic information on or around the route;
    For the updated route, when the travel time based on the current traffic situation has changed more than a predetermined degree compared to the travel time at the start of route travel, the extracted traffic information for the vehicle traveling on the route is Provided by the information transmission / reception unit
    A traffic information system characterized by this.
  2. The traffic information system according to claim 1 ,
    When a plurality of pieces of traffic information are obtained for the same route, the traffic state estimation unit determines traffic information used when obtaining the estimated value based on the newness or reliability of the traffic information. A featured traffic information system.
  3. The traffic information system according to claim 1 , further comprising an information search unit that searches for information associated with position information on or around the route.
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