JP2013228384A - Infiltration measuring device - Google Patents

Infiltration measuring device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2013228384A
JP2013228384A JP2013067755A JP2013067755A JP2013228384A JP 2013228384 A JP2013228384 A JP 2013228384A JP 2013067755 A JP2013067755 A JP 2013067755A JP 2013067755 A JP2013067755 A JP 2013067755A JP 2013228384 A JP2013228384 A JP 2013228384A
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pressure
filter
liquid
storage tank
water
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JP2013067755A
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Masayuki Oishi
正行 大石
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Daiki Rika Kogyo Kk
大起理化工業株式会社
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Application filed by Daiki Rika Kogyo Kk, 大起理化工業株式会社 filed Critical Daiki Rika Kogyo Kk
Priority to JP2013067755A priority patent/JP2013228384A/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an infiltration measuring device capable of measuring an infiltration coefficient of a sample with high accuracy.SOLUTION: An infiltration measuring device 2 comprises: a storage tank 11 for storing liquid; a filter 20 that is placed on a surface of a sample and through which liquid flowed form the storage tank 11 can pass; and a pressure control part 12 for controlling a pressure of liquid in the filter 20. The pressure control part 12 includes: an air pressure sensor 12D for detecting an air pressure in the storage tank 11; a buffer tank 12C communicating with the storage tank 11; a suction pump 12A for sucking gas in the buffer tank 12C; and a controller unit 15 for controlling the suction pump 12A on the basis of the air pressure detected by the air pressure sensor 12D.

Description

  The present invention relates to an infiltration meter.
  The penetrometer penetrates a liquid into a sample and measures the penetration coefficient of the liquid in the sample. As such an intrusion meter, there is one that measures the hydraulic conductivity of soil (for example, Non-Patent Document 1). Some of the penetrometers described in Non-Patent Document 1 have a Marriott tube.
  As shown in FIG. 9, a conventional negative pressure infiltration meter 100 includes a filter 101 placed on the surface of soil 110 as a sample, a water storage tube 102 and a marriott tube 103 arranged immediately above the filter 101, And a vent pipe 104 communicating with the cylinder 102 and the Marriott pipe 103.
The measurement of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil 110 using this negative pressure infiltration meter 100 is performed as follows. First, predetermined water is poured into the Marriott tube 103. The negative pressure p <b> 1 in the water storage cylinder 102 can be adjusted by the water level in the Marriott pipe 103. Next, by opening an outflow valve (not shown) of the water storage tube 102, the water in the water storage tube 102 penetrates into the soil 110 through the filter 101. When water flows out from the water storage cylinder 102, the atmospheric pressure in the water storage cylinder 102 decreases, but the gas in the Marriott pipe 103 is supplied to the water storage cylinder 102 through the vent pipe 104 by an amount corresponding to the decrease in the atmospheric pressure. The In this way, the Marriott tube 103 can apply a constant negative pressure (= p1-p2) to the filter 101. The flow rate q of the water flowing out of the water storage tube 102 was measured from the water head h 102 read from the scale of the water storage tube 102 and the time when the water head h 102 was measured, and the flow rate q of the measured water became constant. In the state (hereinafter referred to as a stable flow rate state), the permeability coefficient of the soil 110 is measured. The following formula 1 is used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of the soil 110.
(Formula 1) k = q− (4 · P) / (π · r)
q: Flow rate of water in a stable flow rate state P: Negative pressure on the filter 101 in a stable flow rate state r: Radius of the filter 101
Soil physics Asakura Shoten P107-109
  Here, when water flows out from the water storage tube 102, it is ideal that the gas in the Marriott tube 103 is supplied to the water storage tube 102 by an amount corresponding to a decrease in the atmospheric pressure in the water storage tube 102. Actually, the gas in the Marriott tube 103 is attached to the vent tube 104 as bubbles. For this reason, in the negative pressure infiltration meter 100, it is difficult to maintain the atmospheric pressure in the water storage cylinder 102 with high accuracy.
Further, the bubbles coming out from the vent pipe 104 disturb the water surface of the water storage cylinder 102, that is, the water level. Therefore, measuring accuracy of the water head h 102 of the water storage cylinder 102 can not be said high. In addition, the head h 102 measured in this way is a material for determining whether or not the flow rate is stable, and is a factor that is a basis for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of the soil.
  Therefore, the soil permeability coefficient obtained using the conventional negative pressure penetrometer 100 cannot be said to be highly reliable.
  In view of such circumstances, the present invention intends to provide an infiltration meter capable of measuring the soil permeability coefficient with high accuracy.
  Means for solving the above-mentioned problem is an infiltration meter for infiltrating a liquid into a sample and measuring the permeation coefficient of the liquid in the sample, a storage tank for storing the liquid, and a storage tank mounted on the surface of the sample. A pressure control that adjusts the pressure on the filter surface when a filter through which the liquid exiting the tank can pass and a surface that faces the sample surface when the filter is placed on the sample surface are defined as a filter surface The pressure adjusting unit includes: a pump that adjusts the air pressure in the storage tank; an air pressure sensor that detects the air pressure in the storage tank; and the air pressure detected by the air pressure sensor. And a pump controller for controlling the motor.
  It is preferable that the pump adjusts the atmospheric pressure in the storage tank that is shut off from the outside, and the atmospheric pressure sensor detects the atmospheric pressure in the storage tank that is shut off from the outside. Moreover, it is preferable to provide the flow sensor which detects the outflow speed of the said liquid which flows out out of the said storage tank. Furthermore, it is preferable to provide a calculation unit that calculates the permeation coefficient based on the atmospheric pressure detected by the atmospheric pressure sensor and the outflow speed of the liquid detected by the flow rate sensor.
  A stable state determining unit that determines whether or not the outflow rate detected by the flow sensor is constant, and the calculating unit is configured to determine that the outflow rate is constant by the stable state determining unit; It is preferable to calculate the penetration coefficient. Moreover, it is preferable that the said pressure adjustment part increases the pressure of the said liquid so that the said outflow speed may approach a fixed state. Furthermore, it is preferable that the calculation unit calculates the penetration coefficient at the liquid pressure P2 different from the pressure P1 after calculating the penetration coefficient at the liquid pressure P1. In addition, the pressure P1 of the liquid is preferably smaller than the pressure P2 of the liquid.
  It is preferable to provide a hydraulic pressure sensor that detects the pressure of the liquid in the filter. In addition, it is preferable to include a storage unit that stores the atmospheric pressure detected by the atmospheric pressure sensor and the outflow speed of the liquid detected by the flow rate sensor. Furthermore, it is preferable that the storage unit stores the penetration coefficient.
  The pressure adjusting unit includes a pressure calculating unit that calculates a pressure on the filter surface based on the detected atmospheric pressure, and the pump controller controls the pump based on the calculated pressure. Is preferred.
  The pressure adjustment unit includes a volume detection unit that detects a volume of the liquid that has flowed out of the storage tank, and the pressure calculation unit includes the filter surface based on the detected atmospheric pressure and the detected volume. It is preferable to calculate the pressure at.
  A vent valve capable of releasing the inside of the storage tank to the outside; and a discharge valve for opening the storage space of the filter to the outside, wherein the pressure adjusting unit includes the vent valve and the discharge valve. And a flow rate sensor for detecting an outflow speed of the liquid flowing from the storage tank to the filter, and the storage tank to the filter based on the outflow speed detected by the flow rate sensor. A determination unit that determines whether or not the flow of the liquid is stopped, and a pressure calculation unit that calculates a pressure in the filter surface, the pump controller based on the calculated pressure In the storage step of storing the liquid in the storage tank and the filter via a flow path that controls the pump and connects the storage tank and the filter, The controller opens the vent valve and closes the discharge valve, is performed after the storage step, and in the liquid supply step of supplying the liquid stored in the storage tank to the filter, the valve When the controller closes the vent valve and opens the discharge valve, and the determination unit performs the determination and determines that the liquid flow from the storage tank to the filter has stopped Preferably, the pressure calculation unit calculates the pressure on the filter surface based on the sum of the pressure corresponding to the water level of the liquid in the filter and the external pressure of the filter.
  A filter cap attachable to the filter, the filter cap engaging with a peripheral edge portion of the filter surface; and when the peripheral edge portion engages with the peripheral edge engaging portion, the filter cap A liquid facing space in which the liquid is stored when the peripheral edge engages with the peripheral edge engaging part. It is preferable that it is formed by a spaced-ahead facing portion.
  According to the above means, the penetration coefficient of the sample can be measured with high accuracy.
It is explanatory drawing which shows the outline | summary of a 1st penetration meter. It is a block diagram which shows the outline | summary of a 1st penetration meter. The vertical axis is the water flow rate Q, the horizontal axis is the time T, and is a graph showing the transition of the water flow rate Q in the method of measuring the hydraulic conductivity using an infiltration meter. The vertical axis is the water flow rate Q, the horizontal axis is the time T, and is a graph showing the transition of the water flow rate Q in the method of measuring the hydraulic conductivity using an infiltration meter. The vertical axis is the water flow rate Q, the horizontal axis is the time T, and is a graph showing the transition of the water flow rate Q in the method of measuring the hydraulic conductivity using an infiltration meter. 6 is a table showing the relationship between measured pressures in the method for measuring the hydraulic conductivity multiple times shown in FIG. 5. It is explanatory drawing which shows the outline | summary of a 2nd penetration meter. It is explanatory drawing which shows the outline | summary of a 2nd penetration meter. It is sectional drawing which shows the outline | summary of a filter and a filter cap. It is an exploded sectional view showing an outline of a filter and a filter cap. It is explanatory drawing which shows the outline | summary of the conventional negative pressure penetration meter.
  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
  As shown in FIG. 1, the infiltration meter 2 is for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of the soil 7, and includes a device body 10, a filter 20 placed on the surface of the soil 7, the device body 10 and the filter 20. And a tube 30 connecting the two.
  The apparatus main body 10 includes a storage tank 11 that stores water, a pressure adjustment unit 12 that controls the pressure of water in the filter 20, a water outflow unit 13 that discharges water in the storage tank 11 toward the tube 30, and an operation. A panel 14, a controller unit 15 that supplies power to each unit and controls each unit, a power supply 16 that supplies power to the controller unit 15, a housing 17 that houses each unit, and a handle 18 provided in the housing 17 And having.
A water supply valve 11 </ b> Y for supplying water to the storage tank 11 is formed above the storage tank 11 (for example, the top surface). The water supply valve 11Y is normally closed. A suction opening 11 </ b> X for sucking the gas in the storage tank 11 is provided above the storage tank 11. The suction opening 11X opens at a position higher than the allowable water level h MAX of the storage tank 11. On the other hand, an outflow opening 11 </ b> Z for flowing out water stored in the storage tank 11 opens at a lower part (for example, the bottom surface) of the storage tank 11.
  The pressure adjusting unit 12 is for adjusting the pressure of water in the filter 20, and includes a suction pump 12A that sucks the gas in the storage tank 11, and an intake pipe that connects the suction opening 11X of the storage tank 11 to the suction pump 12A. 12B, a buffer tank 12C provided in the intake pipe 12B, and an atmospheric pressure sensor 12D and an exhaust valve 12E provided in the buffer tank 12C. The atmospheric pressure sensor 12D measures the atmospheric pressure in the buffer tank 12C. The exhaust valve 12E is openable and closable.
  The water outflow portion 13 includes an outflow passage 13A that connects the outflow opening 11Z of the storage tank 11 to the tube 30, and an outflow valve 13B and a flow meter 13C provided in the outflow passage 13A.
  The casing 17 includes a first block 17A formed in a rectangular parallelepiped and a second block 17B formed in a rectangular parallelepiped and shorter than the first block, and is formed in an L shape. The handle 18 extends from the upper surface of the second block 17B to the side surface of the first block 17A. The storage tank 11 is built in the first block 17A. The second block 17B includes a suction pump 12A, a buffer tank 12C, a controller unit 15, a power supply 16, and the like.
  The filter 20 includes a ring 21, a mesh 22 filled in an opening on one end side of the ring 21, a sealing lid 23 that closes an opening on the other end side of the ring 21, and a pressure sensor 24. The water sent out from the tube 30 flows into the closed space 27 formed by the ring 21, the mesh 22, and the sealing lid 23. The water in the closed space 27 passes through the circular mesh 22 and reaches the surface of the soil 7. The pressure sensor 24 detects the pressure in the closed space 27.
  The sealing lid 23 has a lid main body 23A, a valve 23B provided on the lid main body 23A, and a handle 23C provided on the lid main body 23A. The valve 23B can freely change between a state where the closed space 27 communicates with the outside and a state where the closed space 27 is blocked from the outside. The opening / closing operation of the valve 23B is performed when the closed space 27 is opened to the outside or when water in the closed space 27 flows out to the outside.
  The storage tank 11 and the filter 20 are provided with levelers 51 and 52, respectively.
  As shown in FIG. 2, the operation panel 14 includes an operation button 14A for performing a measurement operation, a monitor 14B for displaying measurement results and the like, and a GPS (Global Positioning System) 14C for detecting position information of the measurement position. Have.
  The controller unit 15 includes a storage unit 15A, a timer 15B that measures time, and a controller 15C that controls each unit. The storage unit 15A stores measurement data based on the sensing signal read by the controller 15C.
  Next, the operation of the pressure adjusting unit 12 will be described. The controller 15C reads the pressure value in the buffer tank 12C from the atmospheric pressure sensor 12D and also reads the water head H stored in its own internal memory. Here, the water head H is the height from the mesh 22 (filter surface) to the water surface in the storage tank 11 (see FIG. 1).
The controller 15C is the water head H, and calculates the pressure P H based on the water head H. The water pressure P H is the water head H, and the density of water [rho, obtained by the product of the gravitational acceleration g. Moreover, the controller 15C is calculated pressure P H and the, from the sum of the pressure P 12D read from pressure sensor 12D, and calculates the pressure P 22 in the filter plane. The controller 15C determines that the pressure P 22 which is calculated, the magnitude of the target value. The target value is set to one of positive pressure (pressure higher than atmospheric pressure), atmospheric pressure, and negative pressure (pressure lower than atmospheric pressure) by operating the operation button 14A. The difference between the pressure P 12D in the buffer tank 12C and the atmospheric pressure is, for example, 0 (mH 2 O) to 1 (mH 2 O).
Then, when the value of the pressure P 22 which is calculated is larger than the target value, the controller 15C has a function of driving the suction pump 12A, reads the value of the pressure P 12D from pressure sensor 12D, and the pressure P in the filter surface 22 is calculated. Driving the suction pump 12A by the controller 15C, the pressure P 22 which is calculated is performed until the target value. On the other hand, when the value of the pressure P 22 which is calculated is smaller than the target value, the controller 15C, as well as opening the exhaust valve 12E, the read values of the pressure P 12D from pressure sensor 12D, and a calculation of the pressure P 22 Do. Exhaust valve 12E, under control of the controller 15C, the value of the pressure P 22 which is calculated is remains open until the target value, the closed state when the value of the calculated pressure P 22 becomes the target value . Thus, the pressure adjusting section 12 can maintain the pressure P 22 at the desired value.
  Next, the operation of the water outflow portion 13 will be described.
  When the controller 15C opens the outflow valve 13B, the water stored in the storage tank 11 flows into the tube 30 through the outflow path 13A. On the other hand, when the controller 15C closes the outflow valve 13B, the flow of water in the outflow path 13A stops. The flow meter 13C detects the flow rate Q of water in the outflow path 13A. Here, the flow rate Q represents the amount of water passing through the outflow passage 13A per hour.
  Next, a method for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of soil using the infiltration meter 2 will be described. In the method for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of soil using the infiltration meter 2, the preparation step, the flow rate stabilization step, and the measurement step are performed in order.
  In the preparation process, first, the filter 20 is placed on the surface of the soil 7 to be measured so that the level 52 indicates “horizontal”. Similarly, the apparatus body 10 is placed so that the level 51 indicates “horizontal”. And the apparatus main body 10 and the filter 20 are connected with the tube 30. FIG.
  Thereafter, the power of the apparatus main body is turned on by operating the operation panel 14. When the outflow valve 13B is closed and the water supply valve 11Y is opened, water is stored in the storage tank 11. Then, the controller 15C that has received the operation signal from the operation button 14A opens the outflow valve 13B. Thereby, the water stored in the storage tank 11 flows into the filter 20 through the tube 30. The water flowing out from the tube 30 flows into the closed space 27 of the filter 20. When the closed space 27 is filled with water, the controller 15C closes the outflow valve 13B. Thereafter, the water head H is measured by a known measuring means such as a ruler or a measure. The measured head H is stored in the built-in memory of the apparatus body 10 by operating the operation button 14A.
  Subsequent to the preparation step, a flow rate stabilization step is performed.
A flow rate stabilizing steps, first, the controller 15C has a water pressure P H based on hydrocephalus H, the sum of the pressure P 12D read from pressure sensor 12D, and calculates the pressure P 22 in the filter plane. Next, the controller 15C is driven by the suction pump 12A, to adjust the pressure P 22 in the filter surface to a predetermined value (the measured pressure P M). Then, after the pressure P 22 in the filter surface is adjusted to the measured pressure P M, the controller 15C, at the same time opening the outlet valve 13B, the timer 15B to ON. The timer 15B starts measuring time.
Even when the water level changes in the storage tank 11, the controller 15C, in the following manner, for regulating the pressure P 22 in the filter plane. First, the controller 15C reads the water flow rate Q from the flow meter 13C and the time T from the timer 15B, and calculates the amount of change ΔH in the water level from the integrated value of the water flow rate Q in the time T range. Moreover, the controller 15C is the water level of the variation [Delta] H, and on the basis of the pressure P 12D read from pressure sensor 12D, and calculates the pressure P 22 in the latest of the filter surface. Then, the controller 15C, based on the latest pressure P 22, by driving the suction pump 12A, to adjust the pressure P 22 in the filter surface to a predetermined value (the measured pressure P M). Accordingly, even when the water level of the storage tank 11 is changed, it is possible to adjust the pressure P 22 in the filter surface to a predetermined value (the measured pressure P M).
  Next, the controller 15C reads the flow rate Q of water from the flow meter 13C and reads the time T from the timer 15B. Furthermore, the controller 15C determines that the flow rate is stable when the read water flow rate Q is constant for a predetermined time (see FIG. 3). Then, when it is determined that the flow rate is stable, the flow rate stabilization process ends.
  A measurement process is performed following the flow rate stabilization process.
The controller 15C is also in the measurement step, in the same manner as the flow stabilizing steps, regulates the pressure P 22 in the filter surface to a predetermined value (the measured pressure P M). Further, the controller 15C reads the water flow rate Q from the flow meter 13C. The controller 15C is read and the flow rate Q of the water, the measured pressure P M, by substituting then the equation 1 shown, determine the permeability coefficient k. Here, r is the radius of the mesh 22.
(Expression 1) k = Q− (4 · P M ) / (π · r)
The controller 15C stores the calculated water permeability coefficient k in the storage unit 15A. Along with the obtained water permeability coefficient k, the measurement pressure P M , the water flow rate Q, the time T, and the position information read from the GPS 14C may be stored in the storage unit 15A.
  Thus, according to the infiltration meter 2, the hydraulic conductivity k of the soil 7 can be measured without using a Marriott pipe. That is, according to the penetrometer 2, it is possible to avoid problems caused by the Marriott tube (difficulty in maintaining the negative pressure with high accuracy and difficulty in measuring the head H with high accuracy). Therefore, according to the infiltration meter 2, the hydraulic conductivity k of the soil 7 can be measured with higher accuracy than in the past.
  In addition, when the conventional negative pressure penetrometer 100 (see FIG. 9) is used, the determination of the stable flow rate and the reading of the water level in the descending state depend on the skill level of the operator. On the other hand, since the infiltration meter 2 has a flow meter 13C capable of detecting the flow rate Q of water, it is possible to accurately determine the flow rate stable state and read the water level in the descending state regardless of the skill level of the operator. it can. Therefore, according to the infiltration meter 2, the hydraulic conductivity k of the soil 7 can be easily measured with high accuracy.
In addition, the infiltration meter 2 can calculate the hydraulic conductivity k of the soil 7 based on the read water flow rate Q and the pressure P 12D in the storage tank 11. Such an infiltration meter 2 can perform measurement more easily than in the past.
  Further, according to the infiltration meter 2, since the flow rate stabilization process to the measurement process can be automatically performed, even one operator can simultaneously measure the hydraulic conductivity k for a plurality of points. Moreover, since the penetration meter 2 incorporates the power supply 16, it can also measure outdoors.
Next, in FIG. 4, the graph which shows transition of the flow rate Q of the water in the measuring method of a hydraulic conductivity is shown. The measured pressure P M in Figure 4, than the measured pressure P M in FIG. 3, smaller. As shown in FIGS. 3-4, small in the measurement of the measured pressure P M, the time required for the flow stabilization process becomes long. Accordingly, the flow rate stabilizing steps, the pressure in the storage tank 11 at the start set lower than the measured pressure P M, so that the pressure in the storage tank 11 at the time of completion of the measured pressure P M, the storage tank 11 Increase the pressure. Accordingly, the pressure P M at the flow rate stabilizing steps because that would be increased to approach the flow rate stable state, it is possible to shorten the time required for flow stabilization process. Incidentally, we are preferable to gradually increase the pressure P M at the flow rate stabilizing steps.
  In addition, when the pressure in the storage tank 11 is excessively small, the gas contained in the soil 7 is sucked and taken into the filter 20, resulting in a change in the original structure of the soil to be measured. Even if the hydraulic conductivity k is measured for the soil 7 whose structure has been changed in this way, the measurement result may be meaningless. Since the infiltration meter 2 includes the pressure sensor 24, it can be determined whether or not the gas from the soil 7 has been taken into the closed space 27. Therefore, according to the infiltration meter 2, it is possible to avoid the measurement of the soil 7 whose structure has been changed, that is, the measurement having no significance.
In the above embodiment, the measurement process is performed after the flow rate stabilization process. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the second flow stabilization process and the second measurement process may be performed sequentially after the measurement process. In this case, the value of the measured pressure P M at the first flow rate stabilization step and the first measurement step and P M1, a value of the measured pressure P M at the second flow rate stabilizing step and second measurement step and P M2 If you, P M2 is greater than P M1 (see FIG. 5-6). When assuming the value P M3 of the measurement pressure P M in the third flow stabilization process and the third measurement process, P M3 is larger than P M3 . That is, when a plurality of times the flow rate stabilizing step and the measuring step, as inning, may be increased measured pressure P M. Note that the second and subsequent flow rate stabilization steps and measurement steps may be performed as they are at the point where the first flow rate stabilization step and the first measurement step are performed.
  The controller 15C may output a graph as shown in FIG. 3 to the monitor 14B based on the flow rate Q of water and the time T stored in the storage unit 15A. Thereby, the output of the graph in the monitor 14B can be performed either during the flow rate stabilization process or during the measurement process. Thereby, the operator can determine whether the flow rate stabilization process and the measurement process are appropriately performed from the graph output to the monitor 14B. The timer may be a clock. The controller 15C can perform analysis in terms of measurement time and measurement position based on the measurement time read from the clock and the position information read from the GPS 14C.
  In the above embodiment, the controller 15C controls the completion of the flow rate stabilization process and the start of the measurement process, but the present invention is not limited to this, and may be operated manually instead of the control of the controller 15C. That is, the operator determines whether or not the flow rate is stable from the graph output to the monitor 14B. If it is determined that the flow rate is stable, the flow rate stabilization step can be completed and the measurement step can be started by operating the operation button 14A.
Instead of the preparation step of the above embodiment, the following preparation step may be performed. First, water is supplied from the water supply valve 11Y to the storage tank 11 with the outflow valve 13B closed. Thereafter, the controller 15C controls the pressure adjusting unit 12 adjusts the pressure P 22 to a predetermined value (Preparation pressure P R). Here, preparation pressure P R is less than the measured pressure P M, or equal to the measured pressure P M. After the pressure in the storage tank 11 becomes ready pressure P R, the controller 15C opens the outflow valve 13B. Thereby, the water stored in the storage tank 11 flows into the filter 20 through the tube 30. The water flowing out from the tube 30 flows into the closed space 27 of the filter 20. The controller 15 </ b> C reads the pressure sensor 24 and determines whether or not the closed space 27 is filled with water based on the pressure value read from the pressure sensor 24. For example, when the pressure value reaches a predetermined target pressure value, it may be determined that the closed space 27 is filled with water. Here, when the valve 23B is open, the pressure corresponding to the water head from the pressure sensor 24 to the discharge port 23X may be set to a predetermined target pressure value. The controller 15C opens the outflow valve 13B until it is determined that the closed space 27 is filled with water. If it is determined that the closed space 27 has been filled with water, the preparation process ends. This makes it possible to automate the preparation process.
  In the preparation step, the controller 15C determines whether or not both of the levelers 51 and 52 detect “horizontal”. Then, it may be included in the start condition of the measurement process that the controller 15C determines that both the level devices 51 and 52 are detecting “horizontal”.
In the above embodiment, the pressure P 12D in the buffer tank 12C is adjusted to a negative pressure by the controller 15C, but the pressure P 12D may be adjusted to an atmospheric pressure or higher. In this case, an intake suction pump that supplies gas into the storage tank 11 may be used instead of the suction pump 12A. Moreover, in the said embodiment, although soil was used as a sample, it is applicable also to things other than soil. Furthermore, in the said embodiment, although the water permeability coefficient of the sample was measured, the permeability coefficient of liquids other than water can also be measured about a sample.
  Next, an embodiment (infiltration meter 4) different from the above embodiment (infiltration meter 2) will be described. In the description of the penetrometer 4, only portions different from the penetrometer 2 will be described, and the same components and the like as those of the penetrometer 2 will be denoted by the same reference numerals and detailed description thereof will be omitted. As shown in FIG. 7A, the infiltration meter 4 is for measuring the hydraulic conductivity of the soil 7, and includes the apparatus main body 10, the filter 60 placed on the surface of the soil 7, the apparatus main body 10 and the filter 20. And a tube 30 connecting the two. A suction valve 11 </ b> B is provided in the suction opening 11 </ b> X of the storage tank 11.
  The filter 60 includes a ring 61, a mesh 62 filled in an opening on one end side of the ring 61, a sealing lid 63 that closes an opening on the other end side of the ring 61, and a pressure sensor 64. The water sent out from the tube 30 flows into the closed space 67 formed by the ring 61, the mesh 62, and the sealing lid 63. The water in the closed space 67 passes through the mesh 62 and reaches the surface of the soil 7. The pressure sensor 64 detects the pressure in the closed space 67.
  The sealing lid 63 includes a lid main body 63A and a valve 63B provided on the lid main body 63A. The valve 63B is capable of transition between a state where the closed space 67 communicates with the outside and a state where the closed space 67 is blocked from the outside. The opening / closing operation of the valve 63B is performed when the closed space 67 is opened to the outside, or when water in the closed space 67 flows out to the outside. The lid main body 63A includes a frustum portion 63AX that is formed in a frustum shape and stands upward, and a straight pipe portion 63AY that extends straight from the frustum portion 63AX. A discharge port 63X opens at the upper end of the straight pipe portion 63AY. The straight pipe portion 63BX has a constant inner diameter in the vertical direction. Further, the inner diameter of the frustum portion 63AX gradually decreases as the distance from the ring 61 increases. That is, the inner wall surface of the frustum portion 63AX can guide bubbles existing in the closed space 67 to the straight pipe portion 63. Moreover, it is preferable that the opening end which opens in the closed space 67 among the tubes 30 becomes sideways or downward.
The height H 0 from the mesh 62 to the discharge port 63X of the straight pipe portion 63 is stored in advance in the built-in memory of the controller 15C.
  Next, the preparation process in the penetration meter 4 will be described.
  In the preparation step, first, the filter 60 is placed on the surface of the soil 7 to be measured so that the level 52 indicates “horizontal”. Similarly, the apparatus body 10 is placed so that the level 51 indicates “horizontal”. And the apparatus main body 10 and the filter 60 are connected with the tube 30. Then, the power of the apparatus main body is turned on by operating the operation panel 14.
  In the subsequent preparation process, a storage process and a liquid supply process described below are performed in this order.
In the storage process, the outflow valve 13B is closed, and the water supply valve 11Y, the suction valve 11B, and the valve 63B are opened. Thereby, the water from the water supply valve 11 </ b> Y is stored in the storage tank 11. The pressure P 12D in the buffer tank 12C in the storage process is equal to the external pressure (ie, atmospheric pressure). The controller 15C stores the pressure P 12D in the buffer tank 12C at the storing step in the internal memory.
  In the liquid supply process, the controller 15C that has received the operation signal from the operation button 14A closes the water supply valve 11Y and the suction valve 11B, and then opens the outflow valve 13B. Thereby, the water stored in the storage tank 11 flows into the filter 20 through the tube 30. The water flowing out from the tube 30 flows into the closed space 27 of the filter 20 (see FIG. 7B). Then, the controller 15C keeps opening the outflow valve 13B until water overflows from the discharge port 63X. At this time, the controller 15C reads the sensing signal from the flow meter 13C and determines whether or not the flow rate Q of the water detected by the flow meter 13C has become “0”. Further, when the controller 15C determines that the flow rate Q of water has become “0”, the controller 15C closes the valve 63B.
Here, in a state in which the flow of water from the storage tank 11 to the filter 60 is stopped, the pressure P 22 at the filter surface is equal to the pressure caused by the height H 0 from the discharge port 63X to the water surface at the water storage tank 11 and the outside. It can be said that it is equal to the sum of the pressure (that is, atmospheric pressure). Thereafter, the controller 15C calculates the pressure P H0 based on the water head H 0 from hydrocephalus H0. The atmospheric pressure is stored in the built-in memory of the controller 15C in the storage process. Thus, the controller 15C, by calculating the sum of the calculated pressure P H0 to the atmospheric pressure, it is possible to obtain the pressure P 22 in the filter plane. Thereby, a preparation process is complete | finished.
As described above, the pressure P H0 which calculated, the sum of the atmospheric pressure, since the pressure P 22 in the filter surface, even without minutely measure the water level H B using major like, the pressure in the filter surface in the preparation step it can be calculated P 22. Then, the permeation coefficient can be measured by performing the above-described flow rate stabilization process and measurement process.
  By the way, when driving the suction pump 12A, pulsation may occur in the air flow due to the driving of the suction pump 12A. In order to prevent pressure fluctuation in the storage tank 11 due to the pulsation, first, the valve 12G provided between the suction pump 12A and the buffer tank 12C is opened, and the suction valve 11B and the exhaust valve 12E are closed. Then, the suction pump 12A is driven so that the pressure in the buffer tank 12C is lower than the pressure in the storage tank 11. Thereafter, the valve 12G is closed, and then the suction valve 11B is opened. Thereby, since the buffer tank 12C lower than the atmospheric pressure of the storage tank 11 communicates with the storage tank 11, the pressure of the storage tank 11 gradually decreases. Thereby, the pressure of the storage tank 11 can be adjusted to a desired value while suppressing the fluctuation of the water surface of the storage tank 11.
  On the other hand, the pressure in the buffer tank 12C may be higher than the pressure in the storage tank 11 and lower than the atmospheric pressure. When the pressure in the buffer tank 12C becomes a desired pressure, the valve 12G is closed, and then the suction valve 11B is opened. Thereby, since the buffer tank 12C slightly higher than the atmospheric pressure of the storage tank 11 communicates with the storage tank 11, the pressure of the storage tank 11 gradually increases. Therefore, compared with the case where the inside of the storage tank 11 is directly opened to the outside, the pressure can be increased while suppressing the pressure fluctuation in the storage tank 11.
  If there is no problem, the buffer tank 12C may be omitted.
  As shown in FIGS. 8A to 8B, the infiltration meter 4 includes a filter cap 70 that can be attached to the filter 60. The filter cap 70 includes a peripheral edge of the mesh 62, that is, a peripheral engagement ring 71 that engages with the ring 61, and a separation facing plate 72 that is connected to the peripheral engagement ring 71. The separation facing plate 72 faces away from the mesh 62 when the ring 61 engages with the peripheral engagement ring 71 (see FIG. 8A). The ring 61 is provided with a helical protrusion 61T, and the peripheral engagement ring 71 is provided with a helical groove 71M (see FIG. 8B). The spiral groove 71M can be screwed with the spiral protrusion 61T. When the ring 61 is screwed with the peripheral engagement ring 71 (see FIG. 8A), the water storage space 75 is formed by the peripheral engagement ring 71 and the separation facing plate 72.
  Furthermore, it is preferable that the filter cap 70 includes a communication channel 76 that communicates the storage space 75 and the external space, and an on-off valve 77 that opens and closes the communication channel 76.
  Next, a method for using the filter cap 70 will be described.
  When the filter cap 70 is used, the following immersion process is performed before the preparation process.
  In the soaking step, first, the on-off valve 77 is opened, and water is supplied to the storage space 75 via the communication channel 76. Thereby, the storage space 75 is filled with water (refer FIG. 8B). After the storage space 75 is filled with water, when the ring 61 and the peripheral engagement ring 71 are engaged (see FIG. 8A), water can be soaked from the outside of the mesh 62. Thus, the mesh 62 in which water is sufficiently immersed, that is, in a saturated state, can be obtained by the soaking step. By performing a preparatory step after the soaking step, the pressure on the filter surface can be accurately measured.
  It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and it is needless to say that various modifications can be made without departing from the gist of the present invention.
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Apparatus main body 11 Storage tank 11X Suction opening 11Y Water supply valve 11Z Outflow opening 12 Pressure control part 12A Suction pump 12B Intake pipe 12C Buffer tank 12D Pressure reduction sensor 12E Exhaust valve 13 Water outflow part 13A Outflow path 13B Outflow valve 13C Flowmeter 14 Operation panel 14A Operation button 14B Monitor 14C GPS
15 Controller unit 15A Storage unit 15B Timer 15C Controller 16 Power supply 17 Housing 18 Handle 20 Filter 24 Pressure sensor 30 Tube

Claims (15)

  1. An infiltration meter that penetrates a sample with a liquid and measures a penetration coefficient of the liquid in the sample,
    A storage tank for storing the liquid;
    A filter that is placed on the sample surface and through which the liquid exiting the storage tank can pass;
    A pressure adjusting unit that adjusts the pressure on the filter surface when a surface that faces the sample surface is defined as a filter surface when the filter is placed on the sample surface;
    The pressure adjusting unit is
    A pump for adjusting the atmospheric pressure in the storage tank;
    An atmospheric pressure sensor for detecting the atmospheric pressure in the storage tank;
    And a pump controller that controls the pump based on the atmospheric pressure detected by the atmospheric pressure sensor.
  2. The pump adjusts the atmospheric pressure in the storage tank in a state of being shut off from the outside,
    The infiltration meter according to claim 1, wherein the atmospheric pressure sensor detects an atmospheric pressure in the storage tank in a state of being shut off from the outside.
  3.   The infiltration meter according to claim 1, further comprising a flow rate sensor that detects an outflow speed of the liquid flowing out of the storage tank.
  4.   The infiltration meter according to claim 3, further comprising a calculation unit that calculates the permeation coefficient based on the atmospheric pressure detected by the atmospheric pressure sensor and the outflow speed of the liquid detected by the flow rate sensor.
  5. A stable state determination unit for determining whether or not the outflow speed detected by the flow sensor is constant;
    The infiltration meter according to claim 4, wherein the calculation unit calculates the penetration coefficient when the stable state determination unit determines that the outflow rate is constant.
  6.   The infiltration meter according to claim 5, wherein the pressure adjusting unit increases the pressure of the liquid so that the outflow speed approaches a constant state.
  7.   The calculation unit calculates the penetration coefficient at a pressure P2 of the liquid different from the pressure P1 after calculating the penetration coefficient at the pressure P1 of the liquid. The infiltration meter according to item 1.
  8.   The penetrometer according to claim 7, wherein the liquid pressure P1 is smaller than the liquid pressure P2.
  9.   The infiltration meter according to any one of claims 1 to 8, further comprising a hydraulic pressure sensor that detects a pressure of the liquid in a storage space of the filter.
  10.   The infiltration meter according to any one of claims 3 to 9, further comprising a storage unit that stores the atmospheric pressure detected by the atmospheric pressure sensor and the outflow speed of the liquid detected by the flow rate sensor.
  11.   The infiltration meter according to claim 10, wherein the storage unit stores the penetration coefficient.
  12. The pressure adjusting unit is
    A pressure calculating unit that calculates a pressure on the filter surface based on the detected atmospheric pressure;
    The infiltration meter according to claim 1, wherein the pump controller controls the pump based on the calculated pressure.
  13. The pressure adjusting unit is
    A volume detection unit for detecting the volume of the liquid flowing out of the storage tank;
    The intrusion meter according to claim 12, wherein the pressure calculation unit calculates a pressure on the filter surface based on the detected atmospheric pressure and the detected volume.
  14. A vent valve capable of releasing the inside of the storage tank to the outside;
    A discharge valve that opens the storage space of the filter to the outside, and
    The pressure adjusting unit is
    A valve controller for individually controlling the vent valve and the discharge valve;
    A flow rate sensor for detecting an outflow speed of the liquid flowing from the storage tank to the filter;
    A determination unit that determines whether the flow of the liquid from the storage tank to the filter is stopped based on the outflow speed detected by the flow sensor;
    A pressure calculation unit for calculating a pressure on the filter surface,
    The pump controller controls the pump based on the calculated pressure,
    In the storage step of storing the liquid in the storage tank and the filter via a flow path connecting the storage tank and the filter, the valve controller opens the vent valve and closes the discharge valve age,
    In the liquid supply step that is performed after the storage step and supplies the liquid stored in the storage tank to the filter, the valve controller closes the vent valve and opens the discharge valve. And the determination unit performs the determination,
    When it is determined that the flow of the liquid from the storage tank to the filter has stopped, the pressure calculation unit calculates the sum of the pressure corresponding to the water level of the liquid in the filter and the external pressure of the filter. The penetration meter according to any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the pressure on the filter surface is calculated based on the calculation result.
  15. A filter cap attachable to the filter;
    The filter cap is
    A peripheral engagement portion that engages with a peripheral portion of the filter surface;
    When the peripheral edge portion is engaged with the peripheral edge engaging portion, a separation facing portion facing directly away from the filter surface is provided.
    The liquid storage space in which the liquid is stored when the peripheral edge engages with the peripheral engaging part is formed by the peripheral engaging part and the separation facing part. The penetration meter according to any one of 14.
JP2013067755A 2012-03-28 2013-03-28 Infiltration measuring device Pending JP2013228384A (en)

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Cited By (12)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104458535A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-03-25 北京工业大学 Soil body permeability characteristic testing device for centrifugal model test
CN104677804A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-03 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Batch determinator for soil saturated water conductivity of automatic flow-control constant head with float ball and lever
CN105300867A (en) * 2015-10-12 2016-02-03 中国地质大学(武汉) Testing device for testing thermal diffusion characteristic of rock soil under fluid-structure interaction condition
JP2016024012A (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-02-08 株式会社 サンライト建設 Disk permeameter and water permeability coefficient automatic measurement method
CN105547968A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-05-04 东南大学 Diffusion type concrete surface layer anti-permeability test instrument and testing method thereof
CN105842137A (en) * 2015-01-15 2016-08-10 轻工业环境保护研究所 Soil gas permeability tester
CN105954169A (en) * 2016-04-20 2016-09-21 西北工业大学 Measuring method and measuring system for thickness-direction steady-state permeation rate of fiber fabric
CN106824586A (en) * 2017-02-02 2017-06-13 烟台玛努尔高温合金有限公司 A kind of static casting casting spraying equipment
CN107957390A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-24 北京林业大学 A kind of analogue measurement agricultural land soil surface crack influences preferentially to flow into the method oozed
CN110160929A (en) * 2019-05-22 2019-08-23 同济大学 Realize the flexible wall permeameter and application method that two kinds of solution continuously permeate
CN111239020A (en) * 2020-02-10 2020-06-05 山东大学 Soil permeability coefficient measuring device and method capable of considering rainfall and vegetation influence
WO2020228230A1 (en) * 2019-05-14 2020-11-19 浙江大学 Indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure

Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2016024012A (en) * 2014-07-18 2016-02-08 株式会社 サンライト建設 Disk permeameter and water permeability coefficient automatic measurement method
CN104458535A (en) * 2014-12-12 2015-03-25 北京工业大学 Soil body permeability characteristic testing device for centrifugal model test
CN105842137A (en) * 2015-01-15 2016-08-10 轻工业环境保护研究所 Soil gas permeability tester
CN104677804A (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-06-03 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Batch determinator for soil saturated water conductivity of automatic flow-control constant head with float ball and lever
CN105300867A (en) * 2015-10-12 2016-02-03 中国地质大学(武汉) Testing device for testing thermal diffusion characteristic of rock soil under fluid-structure interaction condition
CN105547968B (en) * 2016-03-11 2018-05-08 东南大学 A kind of diffused concrete surface layer anti-permeability performance test equipment and its test method
CN105547968A (en) * 2016-03-11 2016-05-04 东南大学 Diffusion type concrete surface layer anti-permeability test instrument and testing method thereof
CN105954169A (en) * 2016-04-20 2016-09-21 西北工业大学 Measuring method and measuring system for thickness-direction steady-state permeation rate of fiber fabric
CN106824586A (en) * 2017-02-02 2017-06-13 烟台玛努尔高温合金有限公司 A kind of static casting casting spraying equipment
CN106824586B (en) * 2017-02-02 2019-06-07 烟台玛努尔高温合金有限公司 A kind of static state casting casting spraying equipment
CN107957390A (en) * 2017-12-07 2018-04-24 北京林业大学 A kind of analogue measurement agricultural land soil surface crack influences preferentially to flow into the method oozed
WO2020228230A1 (en) * 2019-05-14 2020-11-19 浙江大学 Indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure
CN110160929A (en) * 2019-05-22 2019-08-23 同济大学 Realize the flexible wall permeameter and application method that two kinds of solution continuously permeate
CN111239020A (en) * 2020-02-10 2020-06-05 山东大学 Soil permeability coefficient measuring device and method capable of considering rainfall and vegetation influence

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