CN104677804A - Batch determinator for soil saturated water conductivity of automatic flow-control constant head with float ball and lever - Google Patents

Batch determinator for soil saturated water conductivity of automatic flow-control constant head with float ball and lever Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104677804A
CN104677804A CN201510116474.7A CN201510116474A CN104677804A CN 104677804 A CN104677804 A CN 104677804A CN 201510116474 A CN201510116474 A CN 201510116474A CN 104677804 A CN104677804 A CN 104677804A
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China
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cutting ring
water
supply tank
soil
lever
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CN201510116474.7A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN104677804B (en
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刘洪强
刘广明
杨劲松
李兵
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中国科学院南京土壤研究所
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Publication of CN104677804B publication Critical patent/CN104677804B/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to a batch determinator for soil saturated water conductivity of an automatic flow-control constant head with a float ball and a lever. The batch determinator is composed of a water supply device, a float lever device, a water determining device and a water receiving device, wherein the water supply device comprises a water supply tank, a water supply tank support and a water supply tank water outlet pipe; the float ball lever comprises the lever, the float ball, a piston and a piston connecting rod; the water determining device comprises a water determining tank, a cutting ring exposure opening, a rubber plug, a rubber sleave, a cutting ring and a cutting ring bottom cover; the water receiving device comprises a funnel stand, a funnel and a conical flask. The determinator can efficiently and precisely determine the soil saturated water conductivity, also can automatically add water, and ensures the determination condition of the constant head.

Description

Floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of analyzer measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil, especially can automatic watering, to determine head method, batch measures the device of saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil.
Background technology
Saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil (being again soil permeability coefficient or hydraulic conductivity), when referring to soil by water saturation, by the water yield of unit area under unit water potential gradient, in the unit interval, it is the function of the soil texture, unit weight, porosity distribution, it is one of important physical property of soil, reflect porosity status and the water guide situation of soil, also can reflect soil quality.Saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil can largely reflect soil water at the motion process in field, as Infiltration, redistribution process, the saturation moisture motion etc. in shallow ground water evaporation process.The mensuration of saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil can be applied directly to the aspect such as agricultural, afforestation, in order to instruct irrigation water capacity, designing and arranging water system engineering, to calculate the flux etc. of water in soil profile.Also be the important parameter in hydrological model, its whether accurate precision having a strong impact on model.
Saturated hydraulic conductivity is due to the impact of multiple space variable factor (as the soil weight, quality, the content of organic matter, distribution of pores etc.), and its spatial variability is strong.The method measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil mainly contains: equation, field test, indoor measurement.Wherein, equation differs greatly due to the reduction coefficient of different soils quality, unit weight, can not preferably and actual conditions coincide.Field test is due to the restriction of field measuring condition, and estimating precision is difficult to ensure, and assay method is comparatively loaded down with trivial details.Therefore, indoor measurement is good selection.
At present, the device of known saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil mainly contains determines head method and variable water level method, wherein determining head method can the actual hydraulic conductivity of reflect soil (Huo Lijuan etc. determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity that head method and precipitation head method measure loess, 2010) preferably.
The method of existing mensuration saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil and instrument are all for simple sample, and can only measure a sample, determination efficiency is low at every turn; And be difficult to ensure that the different systematic error to measure batch is consistent, increase error at measurment, reduce data accuracy.Which has limited saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil as an important soil physics coefficient in the application of extensive sampling determination relatively or under different improved formulations in the test type such as effectiveness comparison.
According to current method, think the multiple sample of Simultaneously test, many complete equipments can only be equipped with simultaneously, this experimental cost that will be multiplied.
Summary of the invention
The technical matters solved: low in order to overcome during existing saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil measures the determination efficiency existed, unit sample cost of determination is high, the problem such as between sample data error is large, the invention provides a kind of floating ball lever automatic flow control and determine head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer, this analyzer comparatively efficiently, accurately can not only measure saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil, and can also automatic watering, ensure to determine head condition determination.
Technical scheme: floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer, by water supply installation, floating ball lever device, determines water device and hold water device to form; Described water supply installation comprises supply tank, supply tank support and supply tank rising pipe, described supply tank top is provided with tool and fills in the mouth of a river and tool plug exhausr port, supply tank bottom is located at by supply tank rising pipe, water supply casing is provided with air intake opening with supply tank rising pipe same level At The Height, air intake opening is provided with air induction conduit, be equipped with valve in supply tank rising pipe and air intake opening, the end of supply tank rising pipe is cross section is up-narrow and down-wide wedge-like opening; Described floating ball lever device comprises lever, ball float, piston and piston brace rod, described lever has the first fulcrum, second fulcrum, be rotatable fulcrum, the first fulcrum is positioned at one end that lever closes on supply tank, and the second fulcrum is at its intermediate part, described ball float is located at the lever other end, one end of piston brace rod is connected with the second fulcrum, and piston is located at the other end of piston brace rod and is located in supply tank rising pipe, and piston brace rod is flexible rotating in residing plane crossing with lever; Describedly determine water device and comprise and determine tank, cutting ring exposure mouth, rubber stopper, rubber sleave, cutting ring and cutting ring bottom, determine in tank, to be provided with at least one cutting ring exposure mouth, a rubber sleave is equipped with in each cutting ring exposure mouth, described rubber stopper or cutting ring are located in rubber sleave, described rubber stopper is for sealing the cutting ring exposure mouth do not used, and described cutting ring bottom is located at cutting ring lower end; The described water device that holds comprises filtration stand, funnel and conical flask, and filtration stand is provided with one group of up big and down small funnel hole, and funnel is located in funnel hole, and cutting ring bottom and inner wall of hopper are fitted, and conical flask is located at below funnel.
Described supply tank top is provided with water inlet and exhausr port, and described water inlet is provided with water inlet spiral cover, and described exhausr port is provided with exhausr port spiral cover.
Described piston is rubber rounding cylinder, and its basal diameter is identical with supply tank rising pipe water outlet end internal diameter, and outside surface scribbles lubricating fluid.
On described lever, the first fulcrum is positioned on supply tank support, and the lever connected can rotate for fulcrum flexibly up and down with it.
The size of described ball float, can support upper plunger connecting link, the weight of piston and the hydraulic pressure of supply tank water outlet pipe part with its buoyancy when determining floating in tank and determine.
The rubber stopper coordinated with rubber sleave in described cutting ring exposure mouth is truncated cone-shaped, and bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter.
Describedly determine tank height and determine according to the normal average saturated hydraulic conductivity surveying soil: normal when to measure soil types be sandy soil, it is highly 50 ~ 100% of cutting ring height; When normal mensuration soil types is loam, it is highly 100 ~ 200% of cutting ring height; Normal mensuration soil types is clay, and its height is for being not less than 200% of cutting ring height.
Described rubber sleave is fixed on determines bottom, tank bottom surface, is connected with cutting ring exposure mouth, is connected and fixed place one week closely waterproof; And its internal diameter is less than cutting ring external diameter, after cutting ring is put in this rubber sleave, make to seal between rubber sleave and cutting ring; The height of described rubber sleave, after cutting ring loads, accounts for 1/3rd of cutting ring height.
Described filtration stand two ends are provided with draw-in groove, and determine tank two ends and be provided with back up pad, described back up pad and draw-in groove removably connect.
Tool funnel hole on described filtration stand, funnel hole is reverse frustoconic, and the diameter in hole is that its inside surface and funnel outer wall are fitted from top to bottom by large gradually little.
Beneficial effect:
1, current saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil determinator can only measure the saturated hydraulic conductivity of a pedotheque at every turn, and the present invention can measure saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil in batches, greatly improves the determination efficiency of saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil.
2, current saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil determinator is there are no can accurately provide automatic watering function, and the device that part has automatic watering function is poor at accurate controlling party surface accuracy.The present invention carries out automatic watering function by floating ball lever device, control saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil be determined at determine head under carry out, sensitivity is higher, and it is continuous, automatic to ensure to add water, decrease use and the personal error of manpower in experiment, improve accuracy of measurement.
3, compared with measuring the complex apparatus of saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil at present, structure of the present invention is comparatively simple, and all completed by mechanical connection, thus cost is lower, is easy to make.
4, compared with measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil with core cutter method, the present invention is to determine the top idle loop cutter in tank replacement core cutter method, and the height determining tank can customize according to soil types, improves dirigibility during mensuration.Especially, when mensuration soil sample is clay, because clay saturated hydraulic conductivity is lower, when with core cutter method head for cutting ring height, osmosis slowly, even can not seep water, and cause determination efficiency low, the cycle is long, even cannot measure.Specific aim, applies the present invention in this situation, improves the height determining tank, increases head, improves hydraulic pressure, can shorten experimental period, improves determination efficiency.
5, supply tank rising pipe lower edge tool wedge-like opening, piston can be kept to rely on to some extent in rising pipe, and one dimension is up and down, to decline degree adjusting water outlet speed again according to liquid level.Liquid level reduces more, goes out water speed faster.
6, in experimentation, the piston of floating ball lever device smears lubricating fluid, floating ball lever device can be improved to the sensitivity of determining liquid level response in tank.
7, adopt rubber sleave to fix cutting ring, because rubber sleave has shrinkability, experiment whole process all tightly holds onto cutting ring, avoids leaking, improves experimental precision.All more for convenience, conventional efficient is higher for installing/dismounting, and more traditional adhesive tape is fixed, waterstop is fixing etc. has greater advantage.
8, determine below tank, there is row's cutting ring exposure mouth, rubber stopper can be coordinated to control the quantity of working sample.The rubber stopper coordinated is truncated cone-shaped, and bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth, controls the quantity of cutting ring exposure mouth according to soil sample quantity.The rubber stopper at the cutting ring exposure mouth place needed takes out, and the rubber stopper at the cutting ring exposure mouth place do not needed is filled in, and fills in rear water-tight.Adopt the composite design of rubber stopper and cutting ring exposure mouth, by increase and decrease rubber stopper quantity, realize flexible adjustment when varying number soil sample measures, improve the dirigibility that automatic watering determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer working sample.
9, tool funnel hole on filtration stand, the diameter in hole is that its inclined-plane and funnel coincide, and avoid funnel to rock from top to bottom by large gradually little.
10, the height of filtration stand is for after putting funnel and conical flask well, corrects above conical flask bottleneck, can ensure that funnel and conical flask are better corresponding, avoid liquid to spill under filler neck, also can ensure convenience when operating.
11, filtration stand two ends correspond to and determine back up pad place, tank two ends, tool draw-in groove, can be stuck in wherein by back up pad, ensure determine water device in mensuration process and hold the relatively stable of water device.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further described:
Fig. 1 is longitudinal profile of the present invention structural map;
Fig. 2 is supply tank rising pipe and floating ball lever device schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is the structural representation of the embodiment of the present invention 1.
In figure: 1. supply tank, 2. water inlet, 3. water inlet spiral cover, 4. exhausr port, 5. exhausr port spiral cover, 6. air intake opening, 7. air intake opening valve, 8. air induction conduit, 9. supply tank rising pipe, 10. supply tank support, 11. first fulcrums, 12. second fulcrums, 13. piston brace rods, 14. pistons, 15. levers, 16. ball floats, 17. determine tank, 18. rubber stoppers, 19. cutting ring exposure mouths, 20. rubber sleaves, 21. cutting rings, 22. cutting ring bottoms, 23. funnels, 24. filtration stands, 25. conical flasks, 26. rising pipe valves.
Embodiment
Following examples further illustrate content of the present invention, but should not be construed as limitation of the present invention.Without departing from the spirit and substance of the case in the present invention, the amendment do the inventive method, step or condition and replacement, all belong to scope of the present invention.If do not specialize, the conventional means that technological means used in embodiment is well known to those skilled in the art.
Embodiment 1
Contrast Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, automatic watering determine head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil in batches analyzer, by water supply installation, floating ball lever device, determines water device, holds four parts such as water device and connect and compose successively.Wherein water supply installation comprises the part such as supply tank 1, water inlet 2, water inlet spiral cover 3, exhausr port 4, exhausr port spiral cover 5, air intake opening 6, air intake opening valve 7 and air induction conduit 8, supply tank rising pipe 9, rising pipe valve 26, supply tank support 10.Floating ball lever device comprises lever 15, the first fulcrum 11, second fulcrum 12, ball float 16, piston 14, the parts such as piston brace rod 13.Determine water device to be made up of parts such as determining tank 17, cutting ring exposure mouth 19, rubber stopper 18, rubber sleave 20, cutting ring 21, cutting ring bottom 22.Hold water device by filtration stand 24, funnel 23, formation such as conical flask 25 grade.
The in-built promising water determined water device and provide of described supply tank 1, its size makes according to actual needs, determines water device water requirement be as the criterion can meet single experiment.Described supply tank 1, according to geneva bottle principle design, has water inlet 2, water inlet spiral cover 3, exhausr port 4, exhausr port spiral cover 5, air intake opening 6, air intake opening valve 7 and air induction conduit 8 and supply tank rising pipe 9, rising pipe valve 26.Wherein, described air intake opening 6 and described supply tank rising pipe 9 upper port are at same level line.
Described supply tank support 10 is four pin platforms, and length and width are consistent with supply tank 1 length and width, and height can determine more than tank 17 liquid level by assure feed water case rising pipe 9, but water delivering orifice is less than piston brace rod 13 and piston 14 length sum from determining tank 17 upper limb distance.Described supply tank support 10 has a vertical plane in supply tank rising pipe 9 one side, can truck dead lever first fulcrum 11.By regulating the height of the adjustable supply tank 1 of supply tank support 10.
Described supply tank rising pipe 9 is a right-angle bend, and pipe bent position arc connects, its horizontal segment tool flow control valve, i.e. rising pipe valve 26.Supply tank rising pipe 9 internal diameter uniformity, inner wall smooth.The end of described supply tank rising pipe 9 is cross section is up-narrow and down-wide wedge-like opening.The determination of the vertical range of supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe wedge-like opening top and supply tank rising pipe 9 upper port, determines so that ball float buoyancy suffered by this place's hydraulic pressure and piston 14 can be kept to balance each other.Supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe is positioned to be determined above tank 17, only flows into and determine in tank 17 during water outlet.
Described first fulcrum 11 is positioned at the correct position of supply tank support 10, can make connected lever 15 with it for fulcrum is up and down flexibly.
Described second fulcrum 12 is positioned in the middle part of lever 15, connects lever 15 and piston brace rod 13, and piston brace rod 13 can relative to flexible rotating in lever 15 residing plane both it.
Described piston 14 is fixed on the end of piston brace rod 13, is positioned at supply tank rising pipe 9 terminus inner, and be rubber rounding post, its basal diameter is identical with supply tank rising pipe 9 internal diameter, can pump flexibly after smearing lubricating fluid in supply tank rising pipe 9.
The size of described ball float 16, can support upper plunger connecting link 13, the weight of piston 14 and the hydraulic pressure at supply tank rising pipe 9 place with its buoyancy when determining floating in tank 17.
Describedly determine tank 17 for uncovered rectangular parallelepiped tank, bottom tool one arranges cutting ring exposure mouth 19.Its height is surveyed the average saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil according to normal or directly determine according to the soil texture.Usually, when normal mensuration soil types is sandy soil, it is highly 50 ~ 100% of cutting ring 21 height, when normal mensuration soil types is loam, it is highly 100 ~ 200% of cutting ring 21 height, and long mensuration soil types is clay is that it is highly more than 200% of cutting ring 21 height.
Described cutting ring exposure mouth 19 and rubber stopper 18, rubber sleave 20 are all the multiple of same size, and three's one_to_one corresponding.
Described rubber stopper 18 is truncated cone-shaped, and bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth 19, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth 19.The quantity of cutting ring exposure mouth 19 can be controlled according to soil sample quantity.The rubber stopper 18 at cutting ring exposure mouth 19 place needed takes out, and the rubber stopper 18 at cutting ring exposure mouth 19 place do not needed is filled in, and fills in rear water-tight.
Described rubber sleave 20 is fixed on determines bottom, tank 17 bottom surface, is connected with cutting ring exposure mouth 19, is connected and fixed place one week closely waterproof; Its internal diameter is more smaller than standard cutting ring 21 external diameter, after being put into by cutting ring 21, can ensure that rubber sleave 20 and cutting ring 21 are tightly fitted, can not leak in this rubber sleave 20.The length of described rubber sleave 20, after cutting ring 21 loads, accounts for 1/3rd of cutting ring 21 height.
Describedly determine bottom, tank 17 two ends tool back up pad, its height can keep cutting ring 21 upper end parallel with determining tank 17 bottom surface, and after cutting ring bottom 22 is buckled well in cutting ring 21 lower end, cutting ring bottom 22 is just in time identical with funnel 23 inwall.
Tool funnel hole on described filtration stand 24, funnel hole is reverse frustoconic, and the diameter in hole is that its inclined-plane and funnel 23 outer wall coincide, and avoid funnel 23 to rock from top to bottom by large gradually little.The funnel hole of described filtration stand 24, funnel 23, conical flask 25 and the equal one_to_one corresponding of cutting ring exposure mouth 19.Described filtration stand 24 two ends correspond to determines back up pad place, tank 17 two ends, tool draw-in groove, can be stuck in wherein by back up pad, ensures determine water device in experimentation and hold the relatively stable of water device.Described filtration stand 24 height, for after putting funnel 23 and conical flask 25 well, corrects under filler neck above conical flask 25 bottleneck.
Principle illustrates:
The realization of supply tank water delivering orifice constant voltage
Described supply tank 1 adopts geneva bottle principle to keep supply tank rising pipe 9 end constant voltage.
Tool spiral cover water inlet 2 and exhausr port 4 are arranged at described supply tank 1 top, and bottom same level height has tool valve supply tank rising pipe 9 and air intake opening 6, air intake opening 6 is connected with air induction conduit 8, and its upper end open is fixed on supply tank 1 top.
First close supply tank rising pipe valve 26 and air intake opening valve 7, open water inlet spiral cover 3 and exhausr port spiral cover 5, added water by water inlet 2 in supply tank 1, amount of water needs water to be as the criterion can complete unitary determination.The height of supply tank 1 is regulated by supply tank support 10.The determination of the vertical range of supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe wedge-like opening top and supply tank rising pipe 9 upper port, determines so that ball float 16 buoyancy suffered by this place's hydraulic pressure and piston 14 can be kept to balance each other.
After adding enough water in supply tank 1, close water inlet spiral cover 3 and exhausr port spiral cover 5.Open rising pipe valve 26 and air intake opening valve 7, supply tank 1 water supply start.
Along with the decline of the water surface in supply tank 1, the atmospheric pressure above the water surface will be less than 1atm, and (atm is standard atmospheric pressure unit, 1atm=1.01325*10 5pa), when above air pressure above the water surface and air intake opening, water column hydraulic pressure sum equals external atmosphere pressure, inside and outside air intake opening 6 place, pressure reaches balance, is all 1atm.Supply tank 1 water supply rate is not constant during this period, but reduce gradually, the pressure at supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe place neither be constant.
When the water surface continues to decline, gas is pressed in supply tank 1 from air induction conduit 8 by external pressure.In supply tank 1, the air contact point of liquid is air intake opening 6, the liquid level that the hydrostatic pressing of such supply tank 1 water body equals air intake opening 6 lower end exceeds the hydraulic pressure in the height of the supply tank rising pipe 9 end water surface, make to be consistent at the pressure at air intake opening 6 place, accordingly, the pressure of supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe wedge-like opening top end is also constant.
When the water surface in supply tank 1 is higher than supply tank rising pipe 9 upper end open, the pressure on supply tank rising pipe 9 mouth of pipe wedge-like opening top always is constant.
Floating ball lever flow control determines the realization of water
Tool wedge-like opening on supply tank rising pipe 9, the piston 14 of floating ball lever device is positioned at supply tank rising pipe 9, fits tightly with tube wall, can be freely movable.
When device reaches balance, piston 14 upper limb is positioned at supply tank rising pipe 9 wedge-like opening top just, blocks supply tank rising pipe, not there are flowing out.Decline along with determining liquid level in tank 17, ball float 16 drives lever 15 also to decline thereupon, thus affects the second fulcrum 12, piston brace rod 13, piston 14 to move downward, wedge-like opening exposure, supply tank rising pipe 9 water outlet.
When determining that in tank 17, liquid level declines by a big margin, wedge-like opening exposure amplitude is comparatively large, and exposure open area is comparatively large, and thus supply tank rising pipe 9 discharge is comparatively large, faster can supplement the water yield of determining in tank 17, otherwise then flow is less.The head determined in tank 17 can be maintained preferably constant.
Batch measures realization
Describedly determine tank 17 and below have row's cutting ring exposure mouth 19, rubber stopper 18 can be coordinated to control the quantity of working sample.Described rubber stopper 18 is truncated cone-shaped, and bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth, controls the quantity of cutting ring exposure mouth 19 according to soil sample quantity.The rubber stopper 18 at cutting ring exposure mouth 19 place needed takes out, and the rubber stopper 18 at cutting ring exposure mouth 19 place do not needed is filled in, and fills in rear water-tight.
Adopt rubber stopper 18 and the composite design of cutting ring exposure mouth 19, by increase and decrease rubber stopper 18 quantity, realize flexible adjustment when varying number soil sample measures, improve the dirigibility that floating ball lever flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer working sample.
Operation steps:
1. choose representational sampled point in the wild, dug soil profile to target depth, levelling upper surface, cutting ring is ajusted, cutting ring sword under, utilize cutting ring handle to squeeze in soil with tool hammer by vertical for cutting ring, with shovel by cutting ring and the complete taking-up of undisturbed soil wherein, avoid rocking and vibrating.With sharp sword, the soil body that cutting ring top and bottom are exposed is scabbled, wrap up with preservative film.Build cutting ring upper and lower covers, the filter paper that in lower cover, placement shears in advance.
2. indoor taken back by the cutting ring that undisturbed soil is housed adopted in field, still avoid rocking and vibrating in transportation.Remove cutting ring upper and lower covers, remove preservative film, again repair the soil body of cutting ring top and bottom, ensure that soil body surface is smooth, simultaneously also will by native face plucking.Cover cutting ring lower cover.
3. cutting ring is placed in basin together with the undisturbed soil of inside and cutting ring lower cover, adds water to the water surface from cutting ring upper surface 1mm place.Sand soil soaks 8 hours, and loamy soil soaks 12 hours, and clayey soil soaks 24 hours or the longer time, and in last cutting ring, soil body upper surface is obvious moistening saturated.
4. automatic watering is determined the installation of head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer, carry out testing front preparation.
5. by the cutting ring 21 after saturated from determining the cutting ring exposure mouth 19 of tank 17 toward transferring, be strapped in rubber sleave 20, make cutting ring upper limb concordant with cutting ring exposure mouth.The corresponding cutting ring exposure mouth 19 of each cutting ring 21, when cutting ring is not enough, clogs cutting ring exposure mouth 19 with rubber stopper 18.
6. to determining to add water in tank 17,2/3rds places of experiment water requirement are added to.Water filling in supply tank 1, supply tank rising pipe 9 place will continue water outlet, until water surface elevation makes floating ball lever device be closed by supply tank rising pipe 9.Continue to add enough water in supply tank 1, amount of water needs water to be as the criterion can complete unitary determination, tighten water inlet spiral cover 3 and exhausr port spiral cover 5, air induction conduit 8 upper end is fixed on the position higher than supply tank 1 top, open rising pipe valve 26 and air intake opening valve 7, supply tank 1 water supply start.Record the water layer thickness determined in tank 17, h.
7. when general soil after funnel 23 efflux flow speed stability is about 1 hour, start to measure.Record each infiltration institute interlude t n, and this inner conical bottle 25 in time interval collect ooze out water yield Q n, measure with graduated cylinder.Water temperature when record measures, t.
8. result calculating is carried out.
9. at least replication 4 times, gets its arithmetic mean, gets two-decimal.
10. cutting ring is removed, arrangement, cleaning experiment instrument.
Result calculates:
According to F-HZ-DZ-TR-0021 standard, saturated hydraulic conductivity (infiltration coefficient) is calculated as follows:
K t = 10 × Q n × L t n × S × ( h + L ) = V × L h + L .
In formula:
K t---the saturated hydraulic conductivity (infiltration coefficient) when temperature is t (DEG C), mm/min;
Q n---ooze out the water yield n time, mL, i.e. cm 3;
T n---each infiltration institute interval time, min;
The cross-sectional area of S---cutting ring, cm 2; (standard cutting ring is 20cm 2)
H---water layer thickness, cm;
L---soil thickness, cm; (standard cutting ring is 5cm)
V---seepage velocity, mm/min.
For the ease of comparing the saturated hydraulic conductivity under different temperatures, should saturated hydraulic conductivity (infiltration coefficient) when equivalent becomes 10 DEG C according to the following formula:
K 10 = K t 0.7 +0.03t
In formula:
K 10---the saturated hydraulic conductivity (infiltration coefficient) when temperature is 10 DEG C, mm/min;
K t---the saturated hydraulic conductivity (infiltration coefficient) when temperature is t (DEG C), mm/min;
T---the temperature of water during mensuration, DEG C.
Table 1 the present invention and the comparative analysis of existing apparatus applicable cases
Embodiment 2
Floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer, by water supply installation, floating ball lever device, determines water device and hold water device to form; Described water supply installation comprises supply tank 1, supply tank support 10 and supply tank rising pipe 9, described supply tank 1 top is provided with tool and fills in the mouth of a river 2 and tool plug exhausr port 4, supply tank 1 bottom is located at by supply tank rising pipe 9, water supply casing is provided with air intake opening 6 with supply tank rising pipe same level At The Height, air intake opening 6 is provided with air induction conduit 8, be equipped with valve in supply tank rising pipe 9 and air intake opening 6, the end of supply tank rising pipe 9 is cross section is up-narrow and down-wide wedge-like opening; Described floating ball lever device comprises lever 15, ball float 16, piston 14 and piston brace rod 13, described lever 15 has the first fulcrum 11, second fulcrum 12, be rotatable fulcrum, first fulcrum 11 is positioned at one end that lever 15 closes on supply tank, second fulcrum is in the middle part of lever 15, described ball float 16 is located at lever 15 other end, one end of piston brace rod 13 is connected with the second fulcrum 12, piston 14 is located at the other end of piston brace rod 13 and is located in supply tank rising pipe 9, and piston brace rod is flexible rotating in residing plane crossing with lever; Describedly determine water device and comprise and determine tank 17, cutting ring exposure mouth 19, rubber stopper 18, rubber sleave 20, cutting ring 21 and cutting ring bottom 22, determine in tank 17, to be provided with at least one cutting ring exposure mouth 19, a rubber sleave 20 is equipped with in each cutting ring exposure mouth 19, described rubber stopper 18 or cutting ring 21 are located in rubber sleave 20, described rubber stopper 18 is for sealing the cutting ring exposure mouth 19 do not used, and described cutting ring bottom 22 is located at cutting ring 21 lower end; The described water device that holds comprises filtration stand 24, funnel 23 and conical flask 25, and filtration stand is provided with one group of up big and down small funnel hole, and funnel 23 is located in funnel hole, and cutting ring bottom 22 and inner wall of hopper are fitted, and conical flask 25 is located at below funnel 23.Described supply tank 1 top is provided with water inlet 2 and exhausr port 4, and described water inlet is provided with water inlet spiral cover 3, and described exhausr port 4 is provided with exhausr port spiral cover 5.Described piston is rubber rounding cylinder, and its basal diameter is identical with supply tank rising pipe water outlet end internal diameter, and outside surface scribbles lubricating fluid.On described lever, the first fulcrum is positioned on supply tank support 10, and the lever connected can rotate for fulcrum flexibly up and down with it.The size of described ball float, can support upper plunger connecting link, the weight of piston and the hydraulic pressure of supply tank water outlet pipe part with its buoyancy when determining floating in tank and determine.The rubber stopper coordinated with rubber sleave in described cutting ring exposure mouth is truncated cone-shaped, and bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter.Describedly determine tank height and determine according to the normal average saturated hydraulic conductivity surveying soil: normal when to measure soil types be sandy soil, it is highly 50 ~ 100% of cutting ring height; When normal mensuration soil types is loam, it is highly 100 ~ 200% of cutting ring height; Normal mensuration soil types is clay, and its height is for being not less than 200% of cutting ring height.Described rubber sleave 20 is fixed on determines bottom, tank bottom surface, is connected with cutting ring exposure mouth, is connected and fixed place one week closely waterproof; And its internal diameter is less than cutting ring external diameter, after cutting ring is put in this rubber sleave, make to seal between rubber sleave and cutting ring; The height of described rubber sleave, after cutting ring loads, accounts for 1/3rd of cutting ring height.Described filtration stand two ends are provided with draw-in groove, and determine tank two ends and be provided with back up pad, described back up pad and draw-in groove removably connect.Tool funnel hole on described filtration stand, funnel hole is reverse frustoconic, and the diameter in hole is that its inside surface and funnel outer wall are fitted from top to bottom by large gradually little.

Claims (10)

1. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer, it is characterized in that: by water supply installation, floating ball lever device, determine water device and hold water device to form, described water supply installation comprises supply tank (1), supply tank support (10) and supply tank rising pipe (9), described supply tank (1) top is provided with tool and fills in the mouth of a river (2) and tool plug exhausr port (4), supply tank (1) bottom is located at by supply tank rising pipe (9), water supply casing is provided with air intake opening (6) with supply tank rising pipe same level At The Height, air intake opening (6) is provided with air induction conduit (8), be equipped with valve in supply tank rising pipe (9) and air intake opening (6), the end of supply tank rising pipe (9) is cross section is up-narrow and down-wide wedge-like opening, described floating ball lever device comprises lever (15), ball float (16), piston (14) and piston brace rod (13), described lever (15) has the first fulcrum (11), second fulcrum (12), be rotatable fulcrum, first fulcrum (11) is positioned at one end that lever (15) closes on supply tank, second fulcrum is at lever (15) middle part, described ball float (16) is located at lever (15) other end, one end of piston brace rod (13) is connected with the second fulcrum (12), piston (14) is located at the other end of piston brace rod (13) and is located in supply tank rising pipe (9), piston brace rod is flexible rotating in residing plane crossing with lever, describedly determine water device and comprise and determine tank (17), cutting ring exposure mouth (19), rubber stopper (18), rubber sleave (20), cutting ring (21) and cutting ring bottom (22), determine in tank (17), to be provided with at least one cutting ring exposure mouth (19), a rubber sleave (20) is equipped with in each cutting ring exposure mouth (19), described rubber stopper (18) or cutting ring (21) are located in rubber sleave (20), described rubber stopper (18) is for sealing the cutting ring exposure mouth (19) do not used, and described cutting ring bottom (22) is located at cutting ring (21) lower end, the described water device that holds comprises filtration stand (24), funnel (23) and conical flask (25), filtration stand is provided with one group of up big and down small funnel hole, and funnel (23) is located in funnel hole, cutting ring bottom (22) and inner wall of hopper are fitted, and conical flask (25) is located at funnel (23) below.
2. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described supply tank (1) top is provided with water inlet (2) and exhausr port (4), described water inlet is provided with water inlet spiral cover (3), and described exhausr port (4) is provided with exhausr port spiral cover (5).
3. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, and it is characterized in that described piston is rubber rounding cylinder, its basal diameter is identical with supply tank rising pipe water outlet end internal diameter, and outside surface scribbles lubricating fluid.
4. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, and it is characterized in that on described lever, the first fulcrum is positioned on supply tank support (10), the lever connected can rotate for fulcrum flexibly up and down with it.
5. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the size of described ball float, upper plunger connecting link, the weight of piston and the hydraulic pressure of supply tank water outlet pipe part can be supported with its buoyancy when determining floating in tank and determine.
6. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the rubber stopper coordinated with rubber sleave in described cutting ring exposure mouth is truncated cone-shaped, bottom is less than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter, and top is greater than cutting ring exposure mouth diameter.
7. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that describedly determining tank height and determining according to the normal average saturated hydraulic conductivity surveying soil: normal when to measure soil types be sandy soil, it is highly 50 ~ 100% of cutting ring height; When normal mensuration soil types is loam, it is highly 100 ~ 200% of cutting ring height; Normal mensuration soil types is clay, and its height is for being not less than 200% of cutting ring height.
8. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described rubber sleave (20) is fixed on and determines bottom, tank bottom surface, be connected with cutting ring exposure mouth, be connected and fixed place one week closely waterproof; And its internal diameter is less than cutting ring external diameter, after cutting ring is put in this rubber sleave, make to seal between rubber sleave and cutting ring; The height of described rubber sleave, after cutting ring loads, accounts for 1/3rd of cutting ring height.
9. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, and it is characterized in that described filtration stand two ends are provided with draw-in groove, determine tank two ends and be provided with back up pad, described back up pad and draw-in groove removably connect.
10. floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer according to claim 1, it is characterized in that tool funnel hole on described filtration stand, funnel hole is reverse frustoconic, and the diameter in hole is that its inside surface and funnel outer wall are fitted from top to bottom by large gradually little.
CN201510116474.7A 2015-03-17 2015-03-17 Floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer CN104677804B (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110763606A (en) * 2019-11-04 2020-02-07 河海大学 Indoor batch measuring device and method for soil saturation hydraulic conductivity

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CN204008399U (en) * 2014-07-15 2014-12-10 广州市地质调查院 A kind of soil permeability coefficient is measured integrated apparatus in batches
CN204461966U (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-08 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002365201A (en) * 2001-06-08 2002-12-18 Kajima Corp Method and apparatus for automatic permeability test
CN202372431U (en) * 2011-12-26 2012-08-08 浙江大学城市学院 Buoyancy type mechanical automatic control soil infiltration instrument
JP2013228384A (en) * 2012-03-28 2013-11-07 Daiki Rika Kogyo Kk Infiltration measuring device
CN204008399U (en) * 2014-07-15 2014-12-10 广州市地质调查院 A kind of soil permeability coefficient is measured integrated apparatus in batches
CN204461966U (en) * 2015-03-17 2015-07-08 中国科学院南京土壤研究所 Floating ball lever automatic flow control determines head saturated hydraulic conductivity in soil batch analyzer

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110763606A (en) * 2019-11-04 2020-02-07 河海大学 Indoor batch measuring device and method for soil saturation hydraulic conductivity

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