WO2020228230A1 - Indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure - Google Patents

Indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure Download PDF

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WO2020228230A1
WO2020228230A1 PCT/CN2019/110702 CN2019110702W WO2020228230A1 WO 2020228230 A1 WO2020228230 A1 WO 2020228230A1 CN 2019110702 W CN2019110702 W CN 2019110702W WO 2020228230 A1 WO2020228230 A1 WO 2020228230A1
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box
water
soil
water flow
erosion
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PCT/CN2019/110702
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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王立忠
芮圣洁
国振
张皓杰
李玲玲
佀同令
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浙江大学
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C5/00Measuring height; Measuring distances transverse to line of sight; Levelling between separated points; Surveyors' levels
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/56Investigating resistance to wear or abrasion
    • G01N3/567Investigating resistance to wear or abrasion by submitting the specimen to the action of a fluid or of a fluidised material, e.g. cavitation, jet abrasion
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N5/00Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid
    • G01N5/02Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid by absorbing or adsorbing components of a material and determining change of weight of the adsorbent, e.g. determining moisture content
    • G01N5/025Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid by absorbing or adsorbing components of a material and determining change of weight of the adsorbent, e.g. determining moisture content for determining moisture content

Abstract

Disclosed is an indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure, comprising an experiment chamber body, a servo hydraulic loading system, a constant head water-pressure system, a vertical displacement sensor, a water flow sensor, a fine particle migration measurement system, and a computer integrated control system; the experiment chamber body is used for holding soil samples; the servo hydraulic loading system is used for providing the in-situ pressure of a normal load to simulate a soil sample; the fine particle migration measurement system is used for counting the mass of the fine particles washed out by the water flow in the soil sample under the effect of seepage; the computer integrated control system is used for controlling the operation of the experimental instrument and collecting, calculating, and storing the experimental parameters monitored by the sensors; the present apparatus can provide in-situ pressure and constant head seepage erosion conditions for multiple layers of soil samples indoors, and can also timely determine the change in the coefficient of permeability of the soil sample, the amount of settlement of the soil sample, and the amount of fine particles in each layer of the soil sample, and finally, analyze the seepage erosion characteristics of each layer of soil samples.

Description

一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置Indoor test device for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于建筑工程技术领域,具体涉及一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置。The invention belongs to the technical field of construction engineering, and specifically relates to an indoor test device for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure.
背景技术Background technique
随着城市化的进一步发展,城市地面沉降越来越引起了人们的关注,全球许多国家许多地区均发生了此类问题,如德国、香港、西班牙、印尼等,每年由地面沉降造成的经济损失严重。在中国累积沉降超过200mm的区域有7.9×104km 2,而且仍有扩大的趋势。导致地面沉降的一个重要因素就是地层在渗流过程中细颗粒在土孔隙中的迁移、流动,也就是地层发生的渗流侵蚀现象。 With the further development of urbanization, urban land subsidence has attracted more and more people’s attention. Such problems have occurred in many countries and regions around the world, such as Germany, Hong Kong, Spain, Indonesia, etc., and the annual economic losses caused by land subsidence serious. In China, the area where the accumulated subsidence exceeds 200mm is 7.9×104km 2 , and there is still a trend of expansion. An important factor leading to ground subsidence is the migration and flow of fine particles in the pores of the soil during the seepage process of the stratum, which is the seepage erosion phenomenon that occurs in the stratum.
土中水的渗流对土的工程性质有很大影响,土的强度、变形和稳定都与土中水的渗流有关。水在土中渗流会对土颗粒施加渗透力,引起土体内部应力状态、结构、强度发生改变。当渗透力过大时,土颗粒间会发生相对运动甚至土体的整体移动,颗粒的流失基本上可分为两个过程,首先是大小颗粒分离,接着是小颗粒的迁移。土样内部基本上可分为两种颗粒,一种是位置上基本上不变的骨架颗粒,它可支撑荷载传递应力;另一种便是存在于骨架空隙中的可动颗粒,其位置随时在变,且不能传递应力,由于土体内部的结构复杂,随机性大, 孔隙的尺寸随时间、位置而变,颗粒的移动特性与骨架颗粒、可动颗粒以及水之间的相互作用行为是密切相关的,流过孔隙的渗透水流总会有使孔隙内的可动颗粒沿流动方向迁移的趋势,如果可动颗粒粒径比受到的限制尺寸要小,它们就会从一个孔隙流入临近的另一个孔隙,直到被排出土体,这就产生了颗粒渗流侵蚀现象。The seepage of water in the soil has a great influence on the engineering properties of the soil. The strength, deformation and stability of the soil are all related to the seepage of the water in the soil. The seepage of water in the soil will exert seepage force on the soil particles, causing changes in the internal stress state, structure and strength of the soil. When the seepage force is too large, relative movement between soil particles and even the overall movement of the soil body will occur. The loss of particles can basically be divided into two processes, the first is the separation of large and small particles, and then the migration of small particles. The inside of the soil sample can be basically divided into two kinds of particles. One is the skeleton particle with basically the same position, which can support the load transfer stress; the other is the movable particle existing in the void of the skeleton. Because the internal structure of the soil is complex and random, the size of the pores changes with time and position. The movement characteristics of the particles and the interaction behavior between the framework particles, movable particles and water are Closely related, the seepage water flowing through the pores will always have the tendency to move the movable particles in the pores along the flow direction. If the movable particles are smaller than the restricted size, they will flow from one pore into the neighboring ones. Another pore, until it is discharged from the soil, which produces the phenomenon of particle seepage erosion.
而地层发生渗流侵蚀现象不仅与地层土体的自身基本参数和水头高度有关,也与地层的原位压力有关。目前,已有研究采用现场试验和室内模型试验模拟研究渗透力对渗流侵蚀作用的影响,但已有的装置未能考虑到原位压力对土体渗流侵蚀作用的影响,尤其对于揭示渗透过程细颗粒运移量侵蚀机理的实验装置与量测方法的研究还很欠缺。The seepage erosion phenomenon of the stratum is not only related to the basic parameters of the stratum soil and the height of the water head, but also related to the in-situ pressure of the stratum. At present, existing studies have used field tests and indoor model tests to simulate the effect of seepage force on seepage erosion. However, existing devices have failed to consider the effect of in-situ pressure on soil seepage erosion, especially for revealing the details of the seepage process. The research on experimental equipment and measurement methods of particle migration erosion mechanism is still lacking.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的在于针对现有技术的不足,提供一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置。The purpose of the present invention is to provide an indoor test device for measuring the seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure in view of the deficiencies of the prior art.
本发明采取以下技术方案:The present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,包括实验箱体、细小颗粒运移量计量系统、伺服液压加载系统、定水头水压系统计算机集成控制系统;An indoor test device for measuring the seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure, including an experiment box, a measurement system for the migration of fine particles, a servo hydraulic loading system, and a computer integrated control system for a fixed head hydraulic system;
其中,所述的实验箱体用于装入土样并进行土样渗流侵蚀实验,所述的实验箱体包括实验箱体壁、箱体上盖和箱底底座;所述的实验箱体壁是透明的,所述的箱体上盖和箱体底座都有互相对应的孔洞用 于反力柱的穿入,箱体的上盖和底座之间用四根反力柱相互连接,反力柱的两端有螺纹,用螺母将反力柱分别与箱体上盖和底座固定;Wherein, the experiment box is used for loading soil samples and conducting soil sample seepage erosion experiments. The experiment box includes an experiment box wall, an upper cover of the box, and a bottom base; the experiment box wall is Transparent, the upper cover of the box body and the base of the box body have corresponding holes for the penetration of the reaction force column. The upper cover and the base of the box body are connected to each other by four reaction force columns. There are threads at both ends, and the reaction column is fixed to the upper cover and base of the box with nuts;
所述的实验箱体从上往下按照其用途分为四个部分,实验箱体的第一部分安装有液压千斤顶的传力轴和竖向位移传感器,所述的传力轴上设置有定位平台,所述的竖向位移传感器安装在箱体上盖上,从而传感器能够实时监测并记录传力轴的竖向位移,进而能够实现实时监测并记录土样的沉降量;实验箱体的第二部分是由两片钢板组成的钢性腔室,两片钢板通过钢性轴焊接连接,下钢片上设有孔洞,用于水流和土壤的细小颗粒通过,腔体内部装有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料,该钢性腔室可随着土样的沉降而下滑;实验箱体的第三部分用于盛装实验土样,且不同土样间用透水薄膜隔离,该透水薄膜只能通过水流而不能通过任何大小的土壤细小颗粒;实验箱体的第四部分是由固定的带孔钢板和箱体底座构成的腔体,腔体内装有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料;实验箱体的第二和第三部分的箱壁上均开设有出水口,实验箱体的第四部分箱壁上设有入水口;The test box is divided into four parts from top to bottom according to its purpose. The first part of the test box is equipped with a force transmission shaft of a hydraulic jack and a vertical displacement sensor, and a positioning platform is provided on the force transmission shaft. The said vertical displacement sensor is installed on the upper cover of the box, so that the sensor can monitor and record the vertical displacement of the force transmission shaft in real time, thereby realizing real-time monitoring and recording of the settlement of the soil sample; the second part of the experiment box Part is a rigid chamber composed of two steel plates. The two steel plates are connected by a rigid shaft welding. The lower steel plate is provided with holes for the passage of small particles of water and soil. The cavity is equipped with a bimodal non-uniformity Coarse particle material, the steel chamber can slide down with the settlement of the soil sample; the third part of the experimental box is used to contain the experimental soil sample, and the different soil samples are separated by a permeable membrane, which can only pass through water It cannot pass through the soil fine particles of any size; the fourth part of the experiment box is a cavity composed of a fixed perforated steel plate and the base of the box. The cavity is filled with bimodal non-uniform coarse particle materials; Water outlets are provided on the wall of the second and third parts, and water inlets are provided on the wall of the fourth part of the experiment box;
所述的细小颗粒运移量计量系统与所述的实验箱体体壁上设置的出水口连接,用于测定土样在渗流侵蚀作用下被水流冲出的细小颗粒的质量;The fine particle migration amount measurement system is connected to the water outlet provided on the wall of the experiment box body, and is used to measure the quality of the fine particles washed out by the water flow under the action of seepage erosion of the soil sample;
所述的伺服液压加载系统包括千斤顶,所述的千斤顶与所述的实验箱体的箱体上盖相连,用于提供法向荷载模拟土样的原位压力;The servo-hydraulic loading system includes a jack, which is connected to the upper cover of the experiment box, and is used to provide the in-situ pressure of the normal load to simulate the soil sample;
所述的定水头水压系统与所述的实验箱体的入水口通过水流导入管连接,定水头水压系统能够提供定水头压力,能够提供实验所需 水头高度的水压,从而实现对实验土样进行渗流侵蚀作用;The fixed-head hydraulic system is connected to the water inlet of the experiment box through a water inlet pipe. The fixed-head hydraulic system can provide a fixed-head pressure, and can provide the water pressure of the required water head height for the experiment, thereby realizing the experiment Seepage erosion of soil samples;
所述的计算机集成控制系统用于控制各系统,并收集、计算、储存实验参数。The computer integrated control system is used to control each system, and collect, calculate and store experimental parameters.
在本发明的装置中,进一步地,所述的细小颗粒运移量计量系统包括依次连接的水流导出管、精密筛网、水流流量传感器、精密天平、滤网、U型水流排出管和排出水收集瓶,所述的水流导出管与U型水流排出管的最高点齐平;所述的精密筛网安装在水流导出管的入水端内,用于防止大粒径的颗粒流出,可用于定量控制渗蚀颗粒的大小,具体可根据试验需要进行选择;所述的滤网安装在U型水流排出管的入水端内。从实验箱体排出的土样细小颗粒流过水流导出管最终会沉淀到精密天平的称重面,滤网的作用就是防止细小颗粒的流出,从而保证实验结果的精确。In the device of the present invention, further, the fine particle migration volume measurement system includes a water flow outlet pipe, a precision screen, a water flow sensor, a precision balance, a filter screen, a U-shaped water discharge pipe, and a water discharge pipe connected in sequence. In the collection bottle, the water flow outlet pipe is flush with the highest point of the U-shaped water flow outlet pipe; the precision screen is installed in the water inlet end of the water flow outlet pipe to prevent large-diameter particles from flowing out and can be used for quantitative Controlling the size of the eroded particles can be specifically selected according to test requirements; the filter screen is installed in the water inlet end of the U-shaped water discharge pipe. The fine particles of soil sample discharged from the experiment box will flow through the water outlet pipe and finally settle on the weighing surface of the precision balance. The function of the filter is to prevent the outflow of fine particles, thereby ensuring the accuracy of the experimental results.
进一步地,所述的计算机集成控制系统分为控制单元和计算与储存单元;其中控制单元用于控制实验装置各个系统的操作,包括伺服液压加载系统的压力调节、定水头水压系统的水头高度调节;计算与储存单元用于实时的收集、计算并储存实验期间监测的各个参数,其参数包括水流流量传感器测定的水流流量、竖向位移传感器测定的土样沉降量、精密天平测定的包括土壤细颗粒在内的水的重量。计算机能够结合水头高度,水流流量和土样的横截面最终得出需要的土样的渗透系数变化量,并可以根据土壤细颗粒运移量、土样的渗透系数变化量和土样的沉降量,最终能够实现科学的探究和分析土样的渗流侵蚀特性。Further, the computer integrated control system is divided into a control unit and a calculation and storage unit; wherein the control unit is used to control the operation of each system of the experimental device, including the pressure adjustment of the servo hydraulic loading system, and the water head height of the fixed head hydraulic system Adjustment; the calculation and storage unit is used to collect, calculate and store the various parameters monitored during the experiment in real time. Its parameters include the water flow measured by the water flow sensor, the soil sample settlement measured by the vertical displacement sensor, and the soil measured by the precision balance. The weight of the water in the fine particles. The computer can combine the height of the water head, the flow rate and the cross-section of the soil sample to finally obtain the required change in the permeability coefficient of the soil sample, and can be based on the amount of soil fine particle transport, the change in permeability coefficient of the soil sample and the settlement of the soil sample In the end, scientific exploration and analysis of the seepage and erosion characteristics of soil samples can be realized.
进一步地,所述的伺服液压加载系统与液压千斤顶之间采用液压管连接,液压千斤顶的油缸用螺栓固定于箱体上盖,液压千斤顶的油压由伺服电机提供,能够使液压千斤顶提供实验需要的恒定的竖向压力。Further, the servo hydraulic loading system and the hydraulic jack are connected by hydraulic pipes. The oil cylinder of the hydraulic jack is fixed to the upper cover of the box body with bolts. The oil pressure of the hydraulic jack is provided by the servo motor, which enables the hydraulic jack to provide experimental requirements. The constant vertical pressure.
进一步地,所述的水流导入管上设置有水流流量传感器,水流流量传感器连接在定水头水压系统和实验箱体的水流导入管中间,用于实时测量并记录流过导管的水流流量。Further, a water flow sensor is provided on the water flow introduction pipe, and the water flow sensor is connected between the fixed-head water pressure system and the water flow introduction pipe of the experiment box for real-time measurement and recording of the water flow through the pipe.
进一步地,所述的实验箱体的第三部分的实验箱体壁上出水口的设置方式具体为:除了与第二部分相连的土样外,装有其它层土样的试验箱体壁上部也设有出水口,包含每层土样的细小颗粒的水流会从出水口流出,该装置可满足多层不同厚度的土样的实验需求。Further, the arrangement of the water outlet on the test box wall of the third part of the test box is specifically as follows: in addition to the soil sample connected to the second part, the upper part of the test box wall is equipped with other layers of soil samples There is also a water outlet, and the water stream containing the fine particles of each layer of soil sample will flow out from the outlet. The device can meet the experimental needs of multiple layers of soil samples with different thicknesses.
进一步地,所述的实验箱体壁上还设置有预留出水口,用于试验完成后排出装置内残余的水。Further, a reserved water outlet is also provided on the wall of the test box body for draining the residual water in the device after the test is completed.
本发明的有益效果在于:The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
本发明的装置可以在室内的条件下,用现场采取的土样作为实验对象,对多层土样提供竖向压力和定水头水压水流渗透侵蚀的条件,从而模拟土层在实际的工程现场的渗流侵蚀状态,并能够实时观测并记录多层土样在渗流侵蚀过程中的土壤细颗粒运移量、土样的渗透系数变化量和土样的沉降量,最终能够实现科学的探究和分析土样的渗流侵蚀特性。The device of the present invention can use soil samples taken on site as experimental objects under indoor conditions, and provide conditions for vertical pressure and constant water pressure water flow infiltration and erosion for multi-layer soil samples, thereby simulating soil layers in actual engineering sites The state of seepage and erosion can be observed and recorded in real time in the seepage erosion process of multi-layered soil samples, the amount of soil fine particle migration, the change in permeability coefficient of the soil sample and the settlement of the soil sample, and finally scientific exploration and analysis can be realized Seepage erosion characteristics of soil samples.
附图说明Description of the drawings
图1是本发明装置的一种整体结构外观图(正面图);Figure 1 is an appearance view (front view) of an overall structure of the device of the present invention;
图2是本发明装置的一种整体结构示意图(正视图);Figure 2 is a schematic diagram (front view) of an overall structure of the device of the present invention;
图3是本发明装置的A部分示意图(正视图);Figure 3 is a schematic diagram (front view) of part A of the device of the present invention;
图4是本发明装置的A部分示意图(俯视图);Figure 4 is a schematic view of part A (top view) of the device of the present invention;
图5是本发明装置的B部分示意图(正视图);Figure 5 is a schematic diagram (front view) of part B of the device of the present invention;
其中,A.实验箱体、B.细小颗粒运移量计量系统、1.计算机集成控制系统、2.伺服液压加载系统、3.定水头水压系统、4.液压管、5.液压千斤顶、6.水流导入管、7.水流流量传感器、8.箱体底座、9.固定螺栓、10.竖向位移传感器、11.箱体上盖、12.钢性腔室、13.实验箱体壁、14.带孔钢板、15.入水口、16.千斤顶传力轴、17.定位平台、18.出水口、19.双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料、20.反力柱、21.土样(a)、22.土样(b)、23.土样(c)、23.精密天平、24.透水薄膜、25.预留出水口、26.精密筛网、27.水流导出管、28.精密天平、29.滤网、30.U型水流排出管、31.排出水收集瓶。Among them, A. Experimental box, B. Small particle migration measurement system, 1. Computer integrated control system, 2. Servo hydraulic loading system, 3. Constant head hydraulic system, 4. Hydraulic pipe, 5. Hydraulic jack, 6. Water inlet pipe, 7. Water flow sensor, 8. Box base, 9. Fixing bolt, 10. Vertical displacement sensor, 11. Box cover, 12. Rigid chamber, 13. Experiment box wall , 14. Steel plate with holes, 15. Water inlet, 16. Jack force transmission shaft, 17. Positioning platform, 18. Water outlet, 19. Bimodal non-uniform coarse particle material, 20. Reaction column, 21. Soil sample (a), 22. Soil sample (b), 23. Soil sample (c), 23. Precision balance, 24. Water permeable membrane, 25. Reserved water outlet, 26. Precision screen, 27. Water flow out pipe, 28. .Precision balance, 29. Filter, 30. U-shaped water discharge pipe, 31. Discharge water collection bottle.
具体实施方式Detailed ways
本发明的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,包括实验箱体A、伺服液压加载系统2、定水头水压系统3、竖向位移传感器10、水流流量传感器7、细小颗粒运移量计量系统B、计算机集成控制系统1。The indoor test device for measuring the seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure includes an experiment box A, a servo hydraulic loading system 2, a fixed-head hydraulic system 3, a vertical displacement sensor 10, and a water flow sensor 7. Fine particle migration volume measurement system B, computer integrated control system 1.
参照图1-3,伺服液压加载系统2与液压千斤顶5之间用液压管4连接;定水头水压系统3与入水口15之间连接有水流导入管6和水流流量传感器7。Referring to Figures 1-3, the servo hydraulic loading system 2 and the hydraulic jack 5 are connected by a hydraulic pipe 4; between the constant-head hydraulic system 3 and the water inlet 15 are connected a water flow inlet pipe 6 and a water flow sensor 7.
参照图3及图4,实验箱体A包括箱体上盖11、实验箱体壁13、箱体底座8、反力柱20,箱体上盖11与液压千斤顶5用四根螺栓9固定,箱体上盖11和箱体底座8各有四个对应的孔,四根反力柱20插入孔中后,端头用螺丝进行固定。实验箱体A内部空间从上往下按照功能不同共分为四个部分,第一部分主要是放置传力轴16,传力轴16上装有定位平台17,竖向位移传感器10安装在箱体上盖,竖向位移传感器10的定位针放置在定位平台17上面;第二部分是由两片钢板组成的钢性腔室12,两片钢板通过钢性轴焊接连接,腔室的下部钢板为带孔钢板,腔室内填充有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料19,该钢性腔室可随着土样的沉降而下滑;第三部分主要是盛放实验土样,土样(a)21与土样(b)22、土样(b)22与土样(c)23之间均采用透水薄膜24隔离;第四部分的上方固定了带有孔洞的钢板14,下方同样填充满了双峰型非均匀粗颗粒19;实验箱体壁13上设置有预留出水口25,预留出水口25可打开作为出水口,用于清理实验装置,实验箱体A的第二部分和第三部分的试验箱体壁上开设有出水口18。实验箱体A的第四部分箱壁上设有入水口15。Referring to Figures 3 and 4, the experiment box A includes a box upper cover 11, an experiment box wall 13, a box base 8, and a reaction column 20. The box upper cover 11 and the hydraulic jack 5 are fixed with four bolts 9. The upper cover 11 of the box body and the base 8 of the box body each have four corresponding holes. After the four reaction force columns 20 are inserted into the holes, the ends are fixed with screws. The internal space of the experiment box A is divided into four parts from top to bottom according to different functions. The first part is mainly to place the force transmission shaft 16. The force transmission shaft 16 is equipped with a positioning platform 17, and the vertical displacement sensor 10 is installed on the box. Cover, the positioning pin of the vertical displacement sensor 10 is placed on the positioning platform 17; the second part is a rigid chamber 12 composed of two steel plates, the two steel plates are welded and connected by a rigid shaft, and the lower steel plate of the chamber is a belt Hole steel plate, the chamber is filled with bimodal non-uniform coarse particle material 19, the rigid chamber can slide down with the settlement of the soil sample; the third part is mainly for the experimental soil sample, soil sample (a) 21 and The soil sample (b) 22, soil sample (b) 22 and soil sample (c) 23 are separated by a permeable membrane 24; the upper part of the fourth part is fixed with a steel plate 14 with holes, and the lower part is also filled with double peaks Type non-uniform coarse particles 19; the experimental box body wall 13 is provided with a reserved water outlet 25, the reserved water outlet 25 can be opened as a water outlet for cleaning the experimental device, the second part and the third part of the experiment box A A water outlet 18 is opened on the wall of the test box. A water inlet 15 is provided on the wall of the fourth part of the experiment box A.
第三部分的实验箱体壁上出水口的设置方式具体为:除了与第二部分相连的土样外,装有其它层土样的试验箱体壁上部也设有出水口,包含每层土样的细小颗粒的水流会从出水口流出,该装置可满足多层不同厚度的土样的实验需求。The setting method of the water outlet on the wall of the test box of the third part is specifically as follows: In addition to the soil sample connected to the second part, the upper part of the test box with other layers of soil samples also has a water outlet, including each layer of soil. The water stream of such fine particles will flow out from the water outlet, and the device can meet the experimental needs of multiple layers of soil samples with different thicknesses.
参照图2及图5,细小颗粒运移量计量系统B由水流导出管27、精密筛网26、水流流量传感器7、精密天平28、U型水流排出管30、 滤网29、排出水收集瓶31顺次连接,精密筛网26安装在水流导出管27的入水端,滤网29安装U型水流排出管30的入水端;在安装时保证水流导出管27与U型水流排出管30的最高点齐平。Referring to Figures 2 and 5, the fine particle transport volume measurement system B consists of a water flow outlet pipe 27, a precision screen 26, a water flow sensor 7, a precision balance 28, a U-shaped water flow discharge pipe 30, a filter screen 29, and a discharged water collection bottle 31 are connected in sequence, the precision screen 26 is installed at the water inlet end of the water flow outlet pipe 27, and the filter screen 29 is installed at the water inlet end of the U-shaped water flow outlet pipe 30; ensure that the water flow outlet pipe 27 and the U-shaped water outlet pipe 30 are highest during installation Point flush.
参照图1-5,计算机集成控制系统1分为控制单元和计算与储存单元;其中控制单元用于控制实验装置各个系统的操作,包括伺服液压加载系统2的压力调节、定水头水压系统3的水头高度调节;计算与储存单元用于实时的收集、计算并储存实验期间监测的各个参数,其参数包括水流流量传感器7测定的水流流量、竖向位移传感器10测定的土样沉降量、精密天平28测定的包括土壤细小颗粒在内的水的重量。Referring to Figure 1-5, the computer integrated control system 1 is divided into a control unit and a calculation and storage unit; the control unit is used to control the operation of the various systems of the experimental device, including the pressure adjustment of the servo hydraulic loading system 2 and the constant head hydraulic system 3 The water head height adjustment; the calculation and storage unit is used to collect, calculate and store various parameters monitored during the experiment in real time. Its parameters include the water flow measured by the water flow sensor 7 and the soil sample settlement measured by the vertical displacement sensor 10. The weight of the water including the fine soil particles measured by the balance 28.
计算各个出水口处的水流流量的总和,并与入水口处的水流流量进行比较,若两者相差不大,则认为装置的气密性良好。具体计算土样的渗流侵蚀时采用入水口处的水流流量进行计算。Calculate the sum of the water flow at each water outlet and compare it with the water flow at the water inlet. If the difference between the two is not much, the air tightness of the device is considered to be good. When calculating the seepage erosion of soil samples, the water flow at the water inlet is used for calculation.
下面以沙土试样为例,简述采用本发明装置的试验过程:The following takes a sand sample as an example to briefly describe the test process using the device of the present invention:
1、工作时,先拆卸实验箱体A的反力柱,使实验箱体A的箱体上盖11脱离实验箱体,拿出装有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料19的钢性腔室12,并将要求厚度的土样(c)23、透水薄膜24、要求厚度的土样(b)22、透水薄膜24、要求厚度的土样(a)21依次放置在实验箱体A中,然后放入钢性腔室,再放置箱体上盖11,并用反力柱20和螺丝将箱体上盖11和箱体底座8固定牢靠;连接出水口18和细小颗粒运移量计量系统B;连接千斤顶与实验箱体的箱体上盖;将定水头水压系统3与实验箱体A上的入水口15连接。1. When working, first disassemble the reaction column of the experiment box A, make the upper cover 11 of the experiment box A separate from the experiment box, and take out the rigid chamber containing the bimodal non-uniform coarse particle material 19 12. Place the required thickness of the soil sample (c) 23, the water-permeable membrane 24, the required thickness of the soil sample (b) 22, the water-permeable membrane 24, and the required thickness of the soil sample (a) 21 in the experiment box A, Then put it into the rigid chamber, and then place the upper cover 11 of the box body, and use the reaction column 20 and screws to fix the upper cover 11 and the base 8 of the box body firmly; connect the water outlet 18 and the fine particle transportation measurement system B ; Connect the jack to the upper cover of the experiment box; connect the constant-head hydraulic system 3 with the water inlet 15 on the experiment box A.
2、打开计算机集成控制系统1,调节伺服液压加载系统2对土样施加预荷载,使土体变形直至逐渐稳定,模拟土体固结状态,然后将竖向荷载加至实验所需大小。2. Turn on the computer integrated control system 1 and adjust the servo hydraulic loading system 2 to apply preload to the soil sample to deform the soil until it is gradually stabilized, simulate the consolidation state of the soil, and then add the vertical load to the required size for the experiment.
3、利用计算机集成控制系统1调节定水头水压控制系统3,向土样施加实验要求水头高度的水流,期间让水流流量传感器7、竖向位移传感器10、精密天平28实时收集数据。计算机能够结合水头高度,水流流量和土样的横截面最终得出需要的土样的渗透系数变化量,并可以根据土壤细颗粒运移量、土样的渗透系数变化量和土样的沉降量,最终能够实现科学的探究和分析土样的渗流侵蚀特性。3. Use the computer integrated control system 1 to adjust the constant head water pressure control system 3, and apply the water flow with the required water head height to the soil sample, during which the water flow sensor 7, the vertical displacement sensor 10, and the precision balance 28 collect data in real time. The computer can combine the height of the water head, the flow rate and the cross-section of the soil sample to finally obtain the required change in the permeability coefficient of the soil sample, and can be based on the amount of soil fine particle transport, the change in permeability coefficient of the soil sample and the settlement of the soil sample In the end, scientific exploration and analysis of the seepage and erosion characteristics of soil samples can be realized.
4、试验结束后,打开预留出水口25排出装置内残余的水,并仔细清理实验装置,准备下一组试验。4. After the test is over, open the reserved water outlet 25 to drain the remaining water in the device, and carefully clean the experimental device to prepare for the next set of tests.

Claims (7)

  1. 一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,包括实验箱体(A)、细小颗粒运移量计量系统(B)、伺服液压加载系统(2)、定水头水压系统(3)计算机集成控制系统(1);An indoor test device for measuring the seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure, which is characterized by comprising an experiment box (A), a fine particle migration measurement system (B), a servo hydraulic loading system (2), Constant head water pressure system (3) Computer integrated control system (1);
    其中,所述的实验箱体(A)用于装入土样并进行土样渗流侵蚀实验,所述的实验箱体(A)包括实验箱体壁(13)、箱体上盖(11)和箱底底座(8);所述的实验箱体壁(13)是透明的,所述的箱体上盖(11)和箱体底座(8)间通过反力柱(20)进行固定连接;所述的实验箱体(A)从上往下分为四个部分,实验箱体(A)的第一部分安装有液压千斤顶(5)的传力轴(16)和竖向位移传感器(10),所述的传力轴(16)上设置有定位平台(17),所述的竖向位移传感器(10)安装在箱体上盖(11)上,竖向位移传感器(10)的定位针位于定位平台(17)上;实验箱体(A)的第二部分是由两片钢板组成的钢性腔室,两片钢板通过钢性轴焊接连接,下钢片上设有孔洞,用于水流和土壤的细小颗粒通过,腔体内部装有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料(19),该钢性腔室可随着土样的沉降而下滑;实验箱体(A)的第三部分用于盛装实验土样,且不同土样间用透水薄膜(24)隔离;实验箱体(A)的第四部分是由固定的带孔钢板(14)和箱体底座(8)构成的腔体,腔体内装有双峰型非均匀粗颗粒材料(19);实验箱体(A)的第二和第三部分的实验箱体壁(13)上均开设有出水口(18),实验箱体(A)的第四部分箱壁上设有入水口(15);Wherein, the experiment box (A) is used to load soil samples and conduct soil sample seepage erosion experiments, and the experiment box (A) includes the experiment box wall (13) and the box cover (11) And the bottom base (8) of the box; the test box wall (13) is transparent, and the upper cover (11) of the box body and the box base (8) are fixedly connected by a reaction column (20); The experiment box (A) is divided into four parts from top to bottom. The first part of the experiment box (A) is equipped with the force transmission shaft (16) of the hydraulic jack (5) and the vertical displacement sensor (10). , The force transmission shaft (16) is provided with a positioning platform (17), the vertical displacement sensor (10) is installed on the upper cover (11) of the box, and the positioning pin of the vertical displacement sensor (10) Located on the positioning platform (17); the second part of the experiment box (A) is a rigid chamber composed of two steel plates. The two steel plates are welded and connected by a rigid shaft. The lower steel plate has holes for water flow. And the fine particles of the soil pass, the cavity is equipped with bimodal non-uniform coarse particle material (19), the rigid cavity can slide down with the settlement of the soil sample; the third part of the experiment box (A) is used The test soil samples are contained in it, and the different soil samples are separated by a permeable membrane (24); the fourth part of the test box (A) is a cavity composed of a fixed perforated steel plate (14) and a box base (8) , The cavity is equipped with bimodal non-uniform coarse particle material (19); the second and third parts of the experiment box (A) are provided with water outlets (18) on the experiment box wall (13), the experiment box A water inlet (15) is provided on the wall of the fourth part of the body (A);
    所述的细小颗粒运移量计量系统(B)与实验箱体壁(13)上设 置的出水口(18)连接,用于测定土样在渗流侵蚀作用下被水流冲出的细小颗粒的质量;The fine particle migration measurement system (B) is connected to the water outlet (18) provided on the experiment box wall (13), and is used to determine the quality of the fine particles washed out by the water flow under the action of seepage erosion of the soil sample ;
    所述的伺服液压加载系统(2)包括千斤顶(5),所述的千斤顶(5)与所述的实验箱体(A)的箱体上盖(11)相连,用于提供法向荷载模拟土样的原位压力;The servo hydraulic loading system (2) includes a jack (5), and the jack (5) is connected to the upper cover (11) of the experiment box (A) for providing normal load simulation In-situ pressure of the soil sample;
    所述的定水头水压系统(3)与所述的实验箱体(A)的入水口(15)通过水流导入管(6)连接,用于向土样施加实验要求水头高度的水流;The fixed-head water pressure system (3) is connected to the water inlet (15) of the experiment box (A) through a water flow introduction pipe (6), and is used to apply the water flow with the required water head height to the soil sample;
    所述的计算机集成控制系统(1)用于控制以上各系统,并收集、计算、储存实验参数。The computer integrated control system (1) is used to control the above systems, and collect, calculate and store experimental parameters.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的细小颗粒运移量计量系统(B)包括依次连接的水流导出管(27)、精密筛网(26)、水流流量传感器(7)、精密天平(28)、滤网(29)、U型水流排出管(30)和排出水收集瓶(31),所述的水流导出管(27)与U型水流排出管(30)的最高点齐平;所述的精密筛网(26)安装在水流导出管(27)的入水端;所述的滤网(29)安装在U型水流排出管(30)的入水端内。An indoor test device for measuring seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, wherein the fine particle migration measurement system (B) comprises successively connected water flow outlet pipes (27), precision screen (26), water flow sensor (7), precision balance (28), filter screen (29), U-shaped water discharge pipe (30) and discharge water collection bottle (31), The water flow outlet pipe (27) is flush with the highest point of the U-shaped water flow outlet pipe (30); the precision screen (26) is installed at the water inlet end of the water flow outlet pipe (27); the filter screen (29) Installed in the water inlet end of the U-shaped water discharge pipe (30).
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的计算机集成控制系统(1)分为控制单元和计算与储存单元;其中控制单元用于控制实验装置各个系统的操作,包括伺服液压加载系统(2)的压力调节、定水头水压系统(3)的水头高度调节;计算与储存单元用于实时的收集、计 算并储存实验期间的各个参数。The indoor test device for measuring seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, wherein the computer integrated control system (1) is divided into a control unit and a calculation and storage unit; The control unit is used to control the operation of each system of the experimental device, including the pressure adjustment of the servo hydraulic loading system (2), and the head height adjustment of the fixed-head hydraulic system (3); the calculation and storage unit is used for real-time collection, calculation and Store each parameter during the experiment.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的伺服液压加载系统(2)与液压千斤顶(5)之间采用液压管(4)连接。An indoor test device for measuring seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, characterized in that the servo hydraulic loading system (2) and the hydraulic jack (5) adopt hydraulic The tube (4) is connected.
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的水流导入管(6)上设置有水流流量传感器(7)。An indoor test device for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, characterized in that a water flow sensor (7) is provided on the water flow introduction pipe (6).
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的实验箱体(A)的第三部分的实验箱体壁(13)上出水口(18)的设置方式具体为:除了与第二部分相连的土样外,装有其它土样的实验箱体壁上部也设有出水口。An indoor test device for measuring seepage and erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, characterized in that the test box wall (13) of the third part of the test box (A) ) The setting method of the upper water outlet (18) is specifically as follows: in addition to the soil sample connected with the second part, the upper part of the experiment box wall with other soil samples is also provided with a water outlet.
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的一种测定原位压力下多层土样渗流侵蚀特性的室内试验装置,其特征在于,所述的实验箱体壁(13)上还设置有预留出水口(25)。An indoor test device for measuring seepage and erosion characteristics of multi-layer soil samples under in-situ pressure according to claim 1, characterized in that the test box wall (13) is also provided with a reserved water outlet (25) ).
PCT/CN2019/110702 2019-05-14 2019-10-12 Indoor test apparatus for measuring seepage erosion characteristics of multilayer soil samples under in-situ pressure WO2020228230A1 (en)

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