JP2011521194A - Filling management in refrigerant vapor compression systems. - Google Patents

Filling management in refrigerant vapor compression systems. Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2011521194A
JP2011521194A JP2011509646A JP2011509646A JP2011521194A JP 2011521194 A JP2011521194 A JP 2011521194A JP 2011509646 A JP2011509646 A JP 2011509646A JP 2011509646 A JP2011509646 A JP 2011509646A JP 2011521194 A JP2011521194 A JP 2011521194A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
refrigerant
vapor compression
compression system
closed loop
circuit
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JP2011509646A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
タラス,マイケル,エフ.
リフソン,アレキサンダー
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キャリア コーポレイションCarrier Corporation
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Priority to US5316908P priority Critical
Priority to US61/053,169 priority
Application filed by キャリア コーポレイションCarrier Corporation filed Critical キャリア コーポレイションCarrier Corporation
Priority to PCT/US2009/043770 priority patent/WO2009140370A2/en
Publication of JP2011521194A publication Critical patent/JP2011521194A/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B9/00Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point
    • F25B9/002Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point characterised by the refrigerant
    • F25B9/008Compression machines, plant, or systems, in which the refrigerant is air or other gas of low boiling point characterised by the refrigerant the refrigerant being carbon dioxide
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B45/00Arrangements for charging or discharging refrigerant
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2309/00Gas cycle refrigeration machines
    • F25B2309/06Compression machines, plant or systems characterised by the refrigerant being carbon dioxide
    • F25B2309/061Compression machines, plant or systems characterised by the refrigerant being carbon dioxide with cycle highest pressure above the supercritical pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B2600/00Control issues
    • F25B2600/17Control issues by controlling the pressure of the condenser

Abstract

The refrigerant vapor compression system includes a refrigerant compression device, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, an expansion device, and a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger, which are arranged in series in a refrigerant communication relationship in a closed loop refrigerant circuit. The refrigerant storage device is connected in fluid communication with a closed loop refrigerant circuit by at least one refrigerant line, and a refrigerant flow control device is disposed in the refrigerant line. Refrigerant is selectively removed from the high pressure side of the refrigerant circuit and selectively returned to the high pressure side. Alternatively, the refrigerant is selectively removed from the low pressure side of the refrigerant circuit and selectively returned to the low pressure side. Alternatively, the refrigerant is selectively removed from the high pressure side of the refrigerant circuit and selectively returned to the low pressure side. Refrigerant is selectively removed from the refrigerant circuit during operation or off-cycle and selectively returned to the circuit.

Description

  The present invention relates generally to refrigerant vapor compression systems, and more particularly to effective refrigerant refrigerant compression systems including transport refrigerant refrigeration vapor compression systems that use carbon dioxide refrigerant and operate in a transcritical cycle. It relates to filling management.

  Refrigerant vapor compression systems are well known in the art, and cooling of air supplied to temperature controlled cargo spaces such as trucks, trailers, containers, etc. in transport refrigeration systems for transporting frozen and fresh products. Widely used in Refrigerant vapor compression systems are also commonly used in commercial refrigeration systems associated with supermarkets, convenience stores, restaurants, or other commercial facilities that supply cooling air to cold rooms for storing fresh food or cooling display shelves. It is used. In addition, refrigerant vapor compression systems are widely used for conditioning air supplied to comfort zones that are temperature controlled in homes, office buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants, or other facilities. In general, the refrigerant vapor compression system as described above functions as a compressor, an air-cooled or water-cooled refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger that functions as a condenser in subcritical operation, and functions as a gas cooler in transcritical operation, and an evaporator. A functioning heat exchanger for heat absorption of refrigerant, and generally a temperature-sensitive expansion valve or electronic expansion valve, which is arranged upstream of the heat exchanger for heat absorption of refrigerant and downstream of the heat exchanger for heat dissipation of refrigerant with respect to the refrigerant flow. An expansion device. The components of these basic refrigerant systems are connected to each other by a refrigerant line as a closed-loop refrigerant circuit and arranged according to a known refrigerant vapor compression cycle.

  Traditionally, most of this refrigerant vapor compression system operates at subcritical refrigerant pressure. Refrigerant vapor compression systems that operate in the subcritical range generally include conventional chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) such as R22, and more generally hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as R134a, R410A, and R407C. Although it is filled, it is not limited to these. In the current market, attention is focused on “natural” refrigerants such as carbon dioxide instead of HFC refrigerants for use in air conditioners and transport refrigeration systems. However, many refrigerant vapor compression systems filled with carbon dioxide as a refrigerant are designed to operate in a transcritical pressure mode because the critical temperature of carbon dioxide is low. For example, a transport refrigerant vapor compression system includes an air-cooled refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger that operates in an environment where the ambient air temperature exceeds 31.1 ° C. (88 ° F.), the critical temperature of carbon dioxide. This refrigerant vapor compression system is required to operate even in an environment where the discharge pressure of the compressor exceeds 7.38 MPa (1070 psi), which is the critical pressure of carbon dioxide, and operates in a transcritical cycle. In refrigerant vapor compression systems operating in a transcritical cycle, the evaporator operates at sub-critical refrigerant temperatures and pressures, while the heat-dissipating heat exchanger operates at refrigerant temperatures and pressures above the refrigerant critical point temperature and pressure. Operates as a gas cooler, not as a condenser.

  On the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system located between the outlet of the evaporator expansion device and the refrigerant inlet, the refrigerant pressure and the refrigerant temperature are associated. However, in transcritical operation, the refrigerant pressure and the refrigerant temperature are independent of each other on the high pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system located between the refrigerant discharge port of the compressor and the inlet of the evaporator expansion device. Thus, the refrigerant pressure can be optimized for a single design operating point. For this reason, the refrigerant vapor compression system may not reach the optimum state because the refrigerant charge is higher or lower than the optimum refrigerant charge outside the design conditions.

  US 2005/0132729 A1 discloses a transcritical refrigerant vapor compression system having a refrigerant storage container that receives a variable refrigerant mass, thereby reducing the capacity of the system. Be controlled.

  In the disclosure of the above specification, the refrigerant storage container is always open with the closed-loop refrigerant circuit via a single refrigerant line at a position upstream of the evaporation expansion device and downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger with respect to the fluid. In fluid communication. The mass of the refrigerant in the refrigerant storage container is controlled by adjusting the temperature of the container or adjusting the storage volume in the container. This requires an additional measurable output that is permanently or temporarily applied to the refrigerant system.

  In one aspect of the present invention, a refrigerant vapor compression system includes a refrigerant compression device, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, an expansion device, and a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger that are respectively arranged in a serial refrigerant communication relationship in a closed loop refrigerant circuit; A refrigerant storage device connected in fluid communication with a closed-loop refrigerant circuit by at least one refrigerant line and defining a storage volume; and a refrigerant flow control device arranged in the at least one refrigerant line. The refrigerant flow control device has an open position that allows the flow of refrigerant through at least one refrigerant line, and a closed position that blocks the flow of refrigerant through at least one refrigerant line. In one embodiment, the controller operates in conjunction with the refrigerant flow control device and selectively places the refrigerant flow control device in an open position and a closed position.

  In one embodiment, the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device is connected to a position on the high pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system upstream of the expansion device in relation to the refrigerant flow by a single refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit. The expansion device is disposed in the closed-loop refrigerant circuit downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger and upstream of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger. In one embodiment, the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device is connected to a low pressure side location of the refrigerant vapor compression system downstream of the expansion device with respect to the refrigerant flow by a single refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit.

  In one aspect of the present invention, a refrigerant vapor compression system includes a refrigerant compression device, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, an expansion device, and a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger that are respectively arranged in a serial refrigerant communication relationship in a closed loop refrigerant circuit; A refrigerant storage device defining a storage volume having an upper region and a lower region, wherein the upper region is a refrigerant upstream of the expansion device in relation to the refrigerant flow by a first refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit. The lower region is connected to the low pressure side position of the refrigerant vapor compression system downstream of the expansion device with respect to the refrigerant flow by a second refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit. The The first refrigerant flow control device is arranged in the first refrigerant line, and the second refrigerant flow control device is arranged in the second refrigerant line. Each refrigerant flow control device has an open position and a closed position. In one embodiment, each refrigerant flow control device includes a solenoid valve having an open position and a closed position. The refrigerant vapor compression system further includes a controller that operates in conjunction with the first and second refrigerant flow controllers, wherein the controller selectively places one of the first and second refrigerant flow controllers into the open position. And, at the same time, selectively arrange the other refrigerant flow control device in the closed position.

  In one aspect of the invention, a method for managing refrigerant charge in a refrigerant vapor compression system operating in a transcritical cycle is provided. The refrigerant vapor compression system includes a refrigerant compression device, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger, and a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, which are respectively arranged in series communication relationship in a closed loop refrigerant circuit, and An expansion device disposed in a closed loop refrigerant circuit upstream of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger. The method includes selectively removing refrigerant from a closed loop refrigerant circuit of a refrigerant vapor compression system, storing the removed refrigerant in a refrigerant storage device, and refrigerant from the refrigerant storage device to a closed loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system. Returning.

  When the refrigerant storage device is connected to the closed loop refrigerant circuit at the high pressure side, the refrigerant is typically removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit during the refrigerant vapor compression system operating cycle and closed loop during the refrigerant vapor compression system off cycle. Returned to the refrigerant circuit. In the method of the present embodiment, the refrigerant is removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a high-pressure side position located upstream of the expansion device, and the removed refrigerant is returned to the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a position upstream of the expansion device.

  When the refrigerant storage device is connected to the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a low pressure position, the refrigerant is typically removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit during the off cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system and closed loop refrigerant during operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system. Returned to the circuit. In the method of the present embodiment, the refrigerant is removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a low pressure side position located downstream of the expansion device, and the removed refrigerant is returned to the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a position downstream of the expansion device.

  If the refrigerant storage device is connected to the closed loop refrigerant circuit in two positions (ie, one on the high pressure side and the other on the low pressure side), the refrigerant is typically removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit during the operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system. And returned to the closed loop refrigerant circuit during the operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system. In the method of this embodiment, the refrigerant is removed from the closed-loop refrigerant circuit at a high-pressure side position located upstream of the expansion device, and the removed refrigerant is closed-loop refrigerant circuit at a low-pressure side position located downstream of the expansion device. Returned to

  For a better understanding of the present invention, reference is made to the following detailed description. The accompanying drawings will be briefly described below.

1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a first exemplary embodiment of a refrigerant vapor compression system according to the present invention. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating a second exemplary embodiment of a refrigerant vapor compression system according to the present invention. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram illustrating a third exemplary embodiment of a refrigerant vapor compression system according to the present invention.

  Referring to FIGS. 1 to 3, the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 includes a compression device 20, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger 40, and a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50 (also referred to as an evaporator). The components are connected in a serial refrigerant flow relationship by various refrigerant lines 2, 4, 6 in a refrigerant closed circuit. Further, an expansion device 55 that operates in association with the evaporator 50 is disposed in the refrigerant line 4 on the downstream side of the refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger 40 and the upstream side of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50 in relation to the refrigerant flow. Has been. In the embodiment of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 shown in FIGS. 1 to 3, the expansion device 55 is an electronic expansion valve. However, it should be understood that the expansion device may be a temperature sensitive expansion valve or a fixed orifice device such as a capillary tube.

  When the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 operates in a transcritical cycle, for example, when the refrigerant is compressed with carbon dioxide refrigerant and the discharge pressure of the compressor exceeds the critical pressure of carbon dioxide, The heat exchanger 40 operates at supercritical pressure and functions as a refrigerant gas cooler, but does not operate to condense the carbon dioxide refrigerant vapor. The tube row 42 of the refrigerant heat radiating heat exchanger 40 includes, for example, a plate fin / round tube row such as a tube row of a conventional round tube / plate fin type heat exchanger or a waveform of a mini-channel or micro-channel heat exchanger. A fin multi-channel flat tube row is included. When the refrigerant passes through the heat radiating heat exchanger 40, the refrigerant flows through the heat exchange tubes of the tube row 42 and exchanges heat with the second fluid, which is usually ambient air (generally outside air), This second fluid is drawn through the tube row 42 by an air moving device 44 (eg, one or more fans) that operates in conjunction with the tube row 42 of the refrigerant heat dissipating heat exchanger 40.

  Even when the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 operates in a subcritical or transcritical cycle, the refrigerant endothermic heat exchanger 50 disposed downstream of the expansion device 55 with respect to the refrigerant flow in the refrigerant circuit is always Operates at subcritical pressure and functions as an evaporator. When the refrigerant passes through the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50, the refrigerant flows through the heat exchange tubes of the tube row 52 and exchanges heat with the conditioned air, generally the air drawn from the temperature controlled environment and returned to the environment. The air is drawn through the tube row 52 by an air moving device 54 (eg, one or more fans) that operates in conjunction with the tube row 52 of the refrigerant heat sink heat exchanger 50. Thereby, air is cooled and the refrigerant is superheated and vaporized. The tube row 52 of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50 includes, for example, a tube type heat exchange with fins such as a plate fin / round tube row of a conventional round tube / plate fin type heat exchanger, mini-channel or micro A channel heat exchanger corrugated fin multi-channel flat tube row is included.

  The compression device 20 functions to compress the refrigerant and circulate the refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit as will be described later. As shown, the compressor 20 can be a single compressor consisting of a single stage, such as a scroll compressor, a reciprocating compressor, a rotary compressor, a screw compressor and a centrifugal compressor. However, it should be understood that the compression device 20 may be a multi-stage compression device having at least a low pressure compression stage and a high pressure compression stage, with the refrigerant stream flowing from the low pressure compression stage to the high pressure compression stage. In the above embodiment, the multi-stage compression apparatus includes a single multi-stage compressor, such as a scroll compressor, or a screw compressor having a stage-like compression pocket, or at least a first cylinder row and A reciprocating compressor having a second cylinder row, or a compressor composed of a pair of stages in which a discharge port on the upstream side of the compressor and a suction port on the downstream side of the compressor are connected in series in relation to the refrigerant flow. . The compression device 20 may include two or more compressors that operate in parallel or in series.

  The refrigerant vapor compression system 10 includes a refrigerant storage device (receiver) 60 that defines a volume in which fluctuating refrigerant is stored. The receiver 60 is in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 via at least one refrigerant line. The refrigerant vapor compression system 10 further includes a controller 100 that operates in conjunction with a refrigerant flow control device disposed in at least one refrigerant line that connects a receiver 60 in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10. The refrigerant flow through the at least one refrigerant line is controlled by selectively opening and closing the refrigerant flow control device.

  In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the receiver 60 defines a volume having a lower region 63 in which liquid refrigerant is received and a lower region 67 in which refrigerant vapor is present. It should be understood that under certain circumstances and operating conditions, the entire internal volume of the receiver 60 may be filled with refrigerant vapor. The upper region 67 is connected to the refrigerant line 4 disposed on the high pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 at a position upstream of the refrigerant expansion device 55 and downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger 40 in relation to the refrigerant flow. Fluid communication is established via the refrigerant line 12. The lower region 63 has a refrigerant line 4 and a refrigerant line 14 arranged on the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 at a position downstream of the refrigerant expansion device 55 and upstream of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50 with respect to the refrigerant flow. Fluid communication via Further, a refrigerant flow control device 65 having an open position and a closed position is arranged in the refrigerant line 12, and a refrigerant flow control device 75 having an open position and a closed position is arranged in the refrigerant line 14. It should be understood that other locations on the high pressure side and low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 may be selected to be in refrigerant flow communication with the receiver 60.

  In this embodiment, the controller 100 is operatively associated with each refrigerant flow control device 65, 75 disposed in the refrigerant line 12, 14, and selectively arranges each refrigerant flow control device to an open position or a closed position. To do. The controller 100 adjusts the amount of refrigerant that circulates in the closed loop refrigerant circuit defined by the refrigerant lines 2, 4, 6 in order to maintain the desired refrigerant discharge pressure from the compressor 20 for a given operating point. This adjustment can be accomplished by selectively placing the refrigerant flow control device in the open or closed position, thereby reducing the amount of refrigerant that circulates through the closed loop refrigerant circuit from the closed loop refrigerant circuit through the receiver 60, or This is done by increasing the amount of refrigerant that circulates through the closed-loop refrigerant circuit from the receiver 60 through the closed-loop refrigerant circuit. Therefore, the refrigerant is added to the closed loop refrigerant circuit on the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, and the refrigerant is removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit on the high pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10.

  To remove refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, the controller 100 typically places the refrigerant flow control device 65 in the open position and the refrigerant flow control device 75 in the closed position during operation. By arranging the refrigerant flow control devices 65 and 75 in this way, high-pressure refrigerant vapor flows from the refrigerant line 4 through the refrigerant line 12 into the storage chamber of the receiver 60. However, the refrigerant vapor does not flow out of the receiver 60 through the refrigerant line 14 because the refrigerant flow control device 75 is in the closed position.

  To add refrigerant to the closed-loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 (during operation or during off-cycle), the controller 100 places the refrigerant flow control device 65 in the closed position and opens the refrigerant flow control device 75 in the open position. To place. By arranging the refrigerant flow control devices 65 and 75 in this way, the refrigerant flows from the lower region 63 of the storage chamber of the receiver 60 to the refrigerant line 4 through the refrigerant line 14. However, since the refrigerant flow control device 65 is in the closed position and the flow of the high-pressure refrigerant vapor passing through the refrigerant line 12 is blocked, the high-pressure refrigerant vapor does not flow into the receiver 60. It should be understood that during off-cycles in certain environmental conditions, refrigerant may be added to or removed from the closed-loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 through the refrigerant flow controllers 65, 75.

  The storage chamber of the receiver 60 has an equilibrium pressure that varies with the amount of refrigerant stored. During the operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, this equilibrium pressure is always lower than the high-pressure side refrigerant pressure in the refrigerant line 4 located upstream of the expansion device 55, and the low-pressure side in the refrigerant line 4 located downstream of the expansion device 55. Higher than the refrigerant pressure. During operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, the refrigerant is removed from the closed loop refrigerant circuit to the receiver 60 by simply opening the refrigerant flow controller 65 for a predetermined time. The refrigerant vapor flows through the refrigerant line 12 due to the pressure difference between the refrigerant pressure at the position where the refrigerant line 12 contacts the refrigerant line 4 upstream of the expansion device 55 and the equilibrium pressure in the storage chamber of the receiver 60. During operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, refrigerant is added from the receiver 60 to the closed loop refrigerant circuit by simply opening the refrigerant flow controller 75. The refrigerant vapor flows through the refrigerant line 14 due to the pressure difference between the equilibrium pressure in the storage chamber of the receiver 60 and the refrigerant pressure at the position where the refrigerant line 14 contacts the refrigerant line 4 downstream of the expansion device 55.

  Since the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant are independent from each other, and the optimum pressure on the high-pressure side varies depending on the environmental conditions, the refrigerant charging management as described above is particularly important in the transcritical operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10. Please understand that.

  Referring to FIG. 2 illustrating an exemplary embodiment of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, the receiver 60 is not connected to both the high pressure side and the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, but a single refrigerant line 16. And is connected in a refrigerant flow communication relationship with the closed-loop refrigerant circuit on the high-pressure side. The refrigerant line 16 contacts the refrigerant line 4 downstream of the refrigerant heat radiating heat exchanger 40 and upstream of the expansion device 55. A refrigerant flow control device 85 having an open position and a closed position is disposed in the refrigerant line 16. Controller 100 is operatively associated with refrigerant flow control device 85 and selectively places refrigerant flow control device 85 in the open or closed position.

  In this embodiment, the controller 100 fills the refrigerant that circulates in the closed-loop refrigerant circuit defined by the refrigerant lines 2, 4, 6 in order to maintain a desired refrigerant discharge pressure from the compressor 20 with respect to a predetermined operating point. Adjust. This adjustment can be accomplished by selectively placing the refrigerant flow control device 85 in the open position to pass refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit to the receiver 60, or to pass refrigerant from the receiver 60 to the closed loop refrigerant circuit, or This is done by selectively placing the refrigerant flow control device 85 in the closed position so as to block the refrigerant passing through the line 16. During operation of the system 10, if the controller 100 determines that the refrigerant charge is excessive in the current operating state, the controller 100 opens the refrigerant flow control device 85 and causes the refrigerant vapor to flow to the receiver 60. When the refrigerant charge is reduced as desired, the controller 100 closes the refrigerant flow control device 85 and traps the high-pressure refrigerant vapor in the receiver 60. When the system 10 is off-cycle, the controller 100 opens the refrigerant flow control device 85 to cause the high-pressure refrigerant vapor to flow out from the receiver 60 through the refrigerant line 16 to the refrigerant line 4, and the refrigerant vapor is closed loop refrigerant circuit. To increase the refrigerant charge of the system. If the controller 100 determines that the system refrigerant charge is sufficient, the controller 100 closes the refrigerant flow control device 85 again, so that the refrigerant vapor is not generated when the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 returns to the operating state. Do not flow into the receiver 60. As described above, the connection position of the refrigerant line 16 can be any position on the high-pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10.

  Referring now to FIG. 3, which shows an exemplary embodiment of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, the receiver 60 is not connected to both the high pressure side and the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, but a single refrigerant. It is connected via a line 18 in a refrigerant flow communication relationship with the closed loop refrigerant circuit on the low pressure side. The refrigerant line 18 contacts the refrigerant line 4 downstream of the expansion device 55 and upstream of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger 50. A refrigerant flow control device 95 having an open position and a closed position is disposed in the refrigerant line 18. Controller 100 is operatively associated with refrigerant flow control device 95 and selectively places refrigerant flow control device 95 in the open or closed position.

  In this embodiment, the controller 100 fills the refrigerant that circulates in the closed-loop refrigerant circuit defined by the refrigerant lines 2, 4, 6 in order to maintain a desired refrigerant discharge pressure from the compressor 20 with respect to a predetermined operating point. Adjust. This adjustment is accomplished by selectively placing the refrigerant flow controller 95 in the open position to pass liquid refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit to the receiver 60 or to pass liquid refrigerant from the receiver 60 to the closed loop refrigerant circuit. And the refrigerant flow control device 95 is selectively disposed at the closed position so as to block the refrigerant passing through the refrigerant line 18. If the controller 100 determines that the refrigerant charge amount is excessive in the current operating state, the controller 100 shuts down the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 and activates the refrigerant flow control device 95 during the off-cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10. Open and allow the refrigerant to flow through the refrigerant line 18 to the receiver 60. When the refrigerant charge is reduced as desired, the controller 100 closes the refrigerant flow control device 95, traps the refrigerant vapor in the receiver 60, and the operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 is resumed. During operation of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10, the controller 100 opens the refrigerant flow control device 95 to cause refrigerant vapor to flow from the receiver 60 through the refrigerant line 18 to the refrigerant line 4 and return the refrigerant to the closed loop refrigerant circuit. Increase the refrigerant charge in the system. If the controller 100 determines that the refrigerant charge of the system is sufficient, the controller 100 closes the refrigerant flow control device 95 again, thereby blocking the refrigerant flow from the receiver 60. As described above, the connection position of the refrigerant line 18 may be an arbitrary position on the low pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10.

  The refrigerant flow control devices 65, 75, 85, and 95 include a flow control device that can be selectively repositioned to at least a first open position and a second closed position. In the first open position, the refrigerant flows through the refrigerant line in which the refrigerant flow control device is disposed, and in the second closed position, the refrigerant is blocked from flowing through the refrigerant line in which the refrigerant flow control device is disposed. The For example, each refrigerant flow control device 65, 75, 85, 95 may include a two-position solenoid valve. In one embodiment, at least one of the refrigerant lines 12, 14 includes, for example, an additional orifice or capillary tube so that the refrigerant amount can be controlled more accurately in the refrigerant storage device (receiver) 60. Also good. The orifice or capillary tube slows down the refrigerant transfer process to or from the refrigerant storage device 60, thereby enabling more accurate control of the refrigerant amount in the refrigerant storage device. The orifice may be part of the valve mechanism or may be an independent refrigerant flow control device.

  The refrigerant vapor compression system 10 may have an economizer cycle that injects steam into the compressor 20. Further, the refrigerant vapor compression system 10 may inject a liquid for cooling the compression process in the compressor 20. The second fluid moving devices 44 and 54 may include a pump that circulates a liquid such as water or an aqueous glycol solution that is in a heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant circulating in the closed loop refrigerant circuit of the refrigerant vapor compression system 10.

  While the invention has been illustrated and described with reference to the drawings, those skilled in the art will recognize that various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. .

Claims (19)

  1. A refrigerant compressor arranged in series in a closed loop refrigerant circuit, and a refrigerant heat dissipating heat exchanger for passing the refrigerant from the compressor at a high pressure in a heat exchange relationship with the cooling medium; A refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger that allows the refrigerant to pass at low pressure in a heat exchange relationship with the medium to be cooled;
    An expansion device disposed in the closed loop refrigerant circuit downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipating heat exchanger and upstream of the refrigerant heat absorbing heat exchanger;
    A refrigerant storage device connected in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit by at least one refrigerant line and defining a storage volume;
    A refrigerant flow control device arranged in at least one refrigerant line;
    With
    The refrigerant flow control device has an open position where the refrigerant flows through at least one refrigerant line, and a closed position where the refrigerant flow through the at least one refrigerant line is blocked.
  2.   The refrigerant vapor compression system of claim 1, further comprising a controller that operates in conjunction with the refrigerant flow control device and selectively places the refrigerant flow control device in an open position and a closed position.
  3.   The at least one refrigerant line connecting the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device with the closed loop refrigerant circuit in fluid communication is comprised of a single refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a position on the high pressure side of the refrigerant vapor compression system. The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 1.
  4.   The at least one refrigerant line connecting the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device with the closed loop refrigerant circuit in fluid communication is comprised of a single refrigerant line in fluid communication with the closed loop refrigerant circuit at a low pressure side position of the refrigerant vapor compression system. The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 1.
  5. At least one refrigerant line connecting the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device with the closed loop refrigerant circuit in fluid communication relationship;
    A first refrigerant line connecting an upper portion of the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device with a closed loop refrigerant circuit at a high pressure side position of the refrigerant vapor compression system in fluid communication relation;
    A second refrigerant line connecting a lower portion of the storage volume of the refrigerant storage device with a closed loop refrigerant circuit at a low pressure side position of the refrigerant vapor compression system in fluid communication relation;
    The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 1, comprising:
  6. The refrigerant flow control device arranged in at least one refrigerant line is:
    A first refrigerant flow control device disposed in the first refrigerant line;
    A second refrigerant flow control device disposed in the second refrigerant line;
    The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 5, comprising:
  7.   The refrigerant vapor compression system of claim 1, wherein the refrigerant vapor compression system operates in a transcritical cycle for at least a fixed time.
  8.   The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 1, wherein the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant vapor compression system is carbon dioxide.
  9. A refrigerant compression device having a refrigerant discharge port and a refrigerant suction port, which are respectively arranged in series in a closed-loop refrigerant circuit and having a refrigerant discharge port and a refrigerant suction port, and the refrigerant from the compression device passes through the cooling medium at a high pressure. A refrigerant heat-dissipating heat exchanger, a refrigerant heat-absorbing heat exchanger that allows the refrigerant to pass at low pressure in a heat exchange relationship with the medium to be cooled,
    An expansion device disposed in the closed loop refrigerant circuit downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipating heat exchanger and upstream of the refrigerant heat absorbing heat exchanger;
    A refrigerant storage device defining a chamber having an upper region and a lower region;
    With
    By means of the first refrigerant line, the upper region is connected to the high-pressure side of the closed-loop refrigerant circuit in fluid communication at the upstream position of the expansion device with respect to the refrigerant flow,
    A refrigerant vapor compression system, characterized in that, by means of a second refrigerant line, the lower region is connected to the low pressure side of the closed loop refrigerant circuit in fluid communication at a downstream position of the expansion device with respect to the refrigerant flow.
  10. A first refrigerant flow control device disposed in the first refrigerant line;
    A second refrigerant flow control device disposed in the second refrigerant line;
    The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 9, further comprising:
  11.   The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 10, wherein the first and second refrigerant flow control devices have an open position and a closed position, respectively.
  12.   The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 11, wherein the first and second refrigerant flow control devices each include a solenoid valve having an open position and a closed position.
  13.   A controller that operates in conjunction with the first and second refrigerant flow control devices, wherein the controller selectively places one of the first and second refrigerant flow control devices in the open position and simultaneously The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 10, wherein the refrigerant flow control device is selectively arranged at a closed position.
  14.   The refrigerant vapor compression system of claim 9, wherein the refrigerant vapor compression system operates in a transcritical cycle for at least a fixed time.
  15.   The refrigerant vapor compression system according to claim 9, wherein the refrigerant circulating in the refrigerant vapor compression system is carbon dioxide.
  16. A method for managing refrigerant charge in a refrigerant vapor compression system operating in a transcritical cycle for at least a certain period of time, comprising:
    The refrigerant vapor compression system includes a refrigerant compression device, a refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger, and a refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger that are respectively arranged in a serial refrigerant communication relationship in a closed loop refrigerant circuit, and downstream of the refrigerant heat dissipation heat exchanger. And an expansion device disposed in a closed loop refrigerant circuit upstream of the refrigerant heat absorption heat exchanger,
    Selectively removing refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit;
    Storing the removed refrigerant in a refrigerant storage device;
    Returning the removed refrigerant from the refrigerant storage device to the closed loop refrigerant circuit;
    A method comprising the steps of:
  17. The step of selectively removing refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit is performed during the operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system,
    17. The method of claim 16, wherein the step of returning removed refrigerant from the refrigerant storage device to the closed loop refrigerant circuit occurs during an operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system.
  18. The step of selectively removing refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit is performed during the operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system,
    The method of claim 16, wherein returning the removed refrigerant from the refrigerant storage device to the closed loop refrigerant circuit is performed during an off-cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system.
  19. The step of selectively removing refrigerant from the closed loop refrigerant circuit is performed during the off-cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system,
    The method of claim 16, wherein returning the removed refrigerant from the refrigerant storage device to the closed loop refrigerant circuit is performed during an operating cycle of the refrigerant vapor compression system.
JP2011509646A 2008-05-14 2009-05-13 Filling management in refrigerant vapor compression systems. Withdrawn JP2011521194A (en)

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US5316908P true 2008-05-14 2008-05-14
US61/053,169 2008-05-14
PCT/US2009/043770 WO2009140370A2 (en) 2008-05-14 2009-05-13 Charge management in refrigerant vapor compression systems

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CN102132112A (en) 2011-07-20
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WO2009140370A2 (en) 2009-11-19
EP2304345A4 (en) 2014-10-15
US20110041523A1 (en) 2011-02-24

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