JP2008061509A - Apparatus for forming seaweed bed and method for forming sea weed bed using the same - Google Patents

Apparatus for forming seaweed bed and method for forming sea weed bed using the same Download PDF

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JP2008061509A
JP2008061509A JP2006239494A JP2006239494A JP2008061509A JP 2008061509 A JP2008061509 A JP 2008061509A JP 2006239494 A JP2006239494 A JP 2006239494A JP 2006239494 A JP2006239494 A JP 2006239494A JP 2008061509 A JP2008061509 A JP 2008061509A
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algae
seaweed
floor
seaweeds
bed
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Yuichi Hayashi
裕一 林
Yuzo Nakano
雄藏 中野
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Okabe Co Ltd
岡部株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an apparatus for forming seaweed bed, which can improve the success rate and its permanence on the formation of seaweed beds, using seaweeds and/or algae for transplantation, and to provide a method for forming the seaweed bed that uses the same. <P>SOLUTION: This apparatus 1 for forming seaweed bed is constituted of floats 4, ropes 5, anchors 6, and implantation beds 3 comprising three-dimensional network structures in which vegetative propagation seaweeds and/or algae, such as Zostera marina or Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura are implanted. The seaweed bed forming apparatus 1 is moored in a depth of water, capable of giving a quantity of light sufficient for the photosynthesis of seaweeds and/or algae 2 on the implantation beds 3. Since after the peripheral water has been purified with the growth of seaweeds and/or algae 2, the positions of the implantation beds 3 are lowered farther, the seaweed bed forming apparatus 1 can reduce the implanted seaweeds and/or algae 2 withering, before functioning as sources for supplying seeds and/or spores essential to the formation of seaweed beds, when the seaweed bed forming apparatus 1 is applied to a sea region having poor coastal water body environment. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、魚介類の繁殖をもたらし、海中環境の改善に重要な役割を果たしている海草類または海藻類(本発明ではこれらを総称して「海草・藻類」という。)からなる藻場の造成技術に関するものである。   The present invention provides a technique for constructing an algae basin comprising seaweeds or seaweeds (in the present invention, these are collectively referred to as “seagrass / algae”) that bring about the reproduction of seafood and play an important role in improving the marine environment. It is about.
沿岸の砂泥域で生育するアマモは数少ない海草類であり、その群落であるアマモ場は、アラメ、カジメ、ホンダワラ等の海藻類からなる岩礁性藻場と同様に、魚介類の産卵・成育の場所として機能している。さらに、この種のアマモ類は、砂泥海底に地下茎を発達させて生育することから、海底の砂の移動を防止して海浜の保全を図るとともに、海水と海底汚泥から海の富栄養化の原因となる窒素やリンを吸収し、浮遊懸濁物の沈降を促進するなど、水域浄化にも大きく貢献している。しかるに、斯かるアマモ場に限らず、種々の原因によってこれら藻場が消滅し、藻場を生活の場としている魚介類が激減する、いわゆる「磯焼け」と呼ばれる現象が各地に拡大し、その早急な対策が求められている。このような磯焼け海域での藻場の再生、あるいは新たな場所で藻場の創生を行う場合には、その核(母藻)となる海草・藻類を外部から対象区域に導入することが効果的であるとされている。   The sea lions that grow in the coastal sand and mud area are one of the few seaweeds, and the area of the sea turtles is a place for spawning and growing fish and shellfish, as well as the rocky seaweeds made of seaweeds such as arame, kajime and hondawala. Is functioning as Furthermore, this kind of sea eel grows by developing a rhizome on the sandy bottom of the mud, preventing the movement of the sand on the bottom of the sea to protect the beach, and also improving the eutrophication of the sea from seawater and seabed sludge. It contributes to the purification of water bodies by absorbing the causative nitrogen and phosphorus and promoting the sedimentation of suspended suspensions. However, it is not limited to such eelgrass fields, but these algae fields disappear due to various causes, and the so-called “burning” phenomenon, in which the seafood that uses the algae fields as a place of life, drastically diminishes in various places. Immediate measures are required. When regenerating seaweed beds in such a salmon-burned sea area, or creating a seaweed bed at a new location, it is possible to introduce seagrass and algae that serve as the core (maternal algae) from outside into the target area. It is said to be effective.
従来、海藻類を対象とした藻場造成を行う場合には、海藻の着生床として機能し得る種々の工夫を施したコンクリートブロック等の人工構造物(造成用基盤)や投石を沈設し、それらの表面に海藻が自然着生するのを待つ方法が一般的であった。しかしながら、この方法では、遊走子を介した自然着生に依存するため、特に重要な造成初期における海藻の着生状態が不確定な自然的要素によって大きく左右されるばかりか、藻場造成に時間がかかるといった造成効率や確実性の点において根本的な問題があった。そこで、近年ではワカメ養殖などで使用されている細い撚糸に海藻幼体を着生させたものをコンクリートブロックに巻き付けるか、あるいは海藻幼体を着生させたプレートをコンクリートブロックにボルトで取り付けるなどして、将来的に母藻となり得る移植用海草・藻類を造成用基盤と組み合わせた施工方法が種々提案されている(特許文献1〜3)。これらの方法は、コンクリートブロックの表面で成熟した移植用海藻が遊走子を放出することにより、コンクリートブロック表面で個体数を増大するとともに、その周囲にある岩盤、捨て石などにも着生範囲を拡大し、海藻の繁茂状態を実現しようとするものである。   Conventionally, when constructing seaweed beds for seaweeds, artificial structures such as concrete blocks (foundation bases) and stones that have been devised in various ways that can function as seaweed settlement floors, The method of waiting for the seaweed to naturally settle on their surface was common. However, since this method relies on natural settlement through zoospores, the state of seaweed formation in the early stage of development is not only greatly influenced by uncertain natural factors, but it also takes time to develop a seaweed bed. There was a fundamental problem in terms of creation efficiency and certainty. Therefore, in recent years, a thin twisted thread used in wakame culture etc. is wound around a concrete block with a seaweed juvenile grown on it, or a plate with a seaweed juvenile grown on it is attached to the concrete block with bolts, etc. Various construction methods have been proposed in which transplanted seaweeds and algae, which can become mother algae in the future, are combined with a creation base (Patent Documents 1 to 3). These methods increase the population on the surface of the concrete block by expanding seaweeds transplanted on the surface of the concrete block, releasing the zoospores, and expanding the range of settlement to the surrounding rocks and discarded stones. However, it is intended to realize the overgrown state of seaweed.
一方、砂泥性のアマモ類を対象とした藻場造成を行う場合には、その地下茎部を海底の砂泥中に十分に安定させることが重要である。このため従来技術では、アマモと土を一緒にした状態で移植するのが基本である。具体的には、アマモの種子を含む生育基盤材(団粒構造の肥土)と石を混合したものをネット状袋体の内部に充填した形態で海中に投下するもの(特許文献4)、あるいはアマモの地下茎部を粘土で包み込んだ状態で海中に投下する方法(特許文献5,6)などが提案されている。したがって、この種のアマモ類を適用する場合には、その対象区域が前記理由により砂面変動の少ない海域に限定される。 On the other hand, it is important to stabilize the underground stem part in the sandy mud of the seabed when constructing a seaweed bed targeting sandy mud. For this reason, in the prior art, it is basically transplanted in the state where the eel and soil are put together. Specifically, what is thrown into the sea in a form filled with the inside of a net-like bag body mixed with a growth base material containing a seed of sea eel (fertilized soil with aggregate structure) and stone (Patent Document 4), Or the method (patent documents 5 and 6) etc. which are dropped in the sea in the state which wrapped the rhizome part of the ammo in the clay are proposed. Therefore, when this kind of eel is applied, the target area is limited to the sea area where the sand surface fluctuation is small for the above reason.
特開昭61−260818号公報Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 61-260818 実開昭63−155366号公報Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 63-155366 特公平2−20211号公報JP-B-2-20211 特開2001−169611号公報JP 2001-169611 A 特公平7−2063号公報Japanese Patent Publication No. 7-2063 特開平8−242717号公報JP-A-8-242717
上記従来技術において、対象区域に導入した海草・藻類は、移植当初から海底または海底に近い位置に置かれることになる。ところが、施工対象となるような海域の多くは、いずれも藻場が消失あるいは縮小した場所である。このような海域は、懸濁物質が他に比べて多く、それにより海中の照度がかなり低下していることから、光合成で生育する海草・藻類にとってきわめて厳しい環境条件となっている。このため、移植された海草・藻類が、その場所で成育するのに必要な光量を十分に得られなかったり、また葉部への浮遊物の沈着、堆積などが原因で、藻場造成の核となる母草・母藻としての役割を十分に果たさないうちに枯死してしまう場合が多々見られる。このような状況からして、上記従来技術には、いずれの海草・藻類を選択する場合でも藻場造成の成功率や藻場の永続性の点で改善の余地が残されている。   In the above prior art, the seaweeds and algae introduced into the target area are placed at the seabed or near the seabed from the beginning of transplantation. However, most of the sea areas that are subject to construction are places where the seaweed beds have disappeared or have shrunk. Such a sea area has extremely severe environmental conditions for seaweeds and algae growing by photosynthesis because there are more suspended solids than others and the illuminance in the sea is considerably reduced. For this reason, the transplanted seaweeds and algae do not have enough light to grow at the site, and the sedimentation and deposition of suspended matter on the leaves causes the core of the seaweed development. In many cases, it will die without fulfilling its role as a mother grass and algae. From such a situation, there is still room for improvement in the above-mentioned prior art in terms of the success rate of the seaweed bed construction and the durability of the seaweed bed, no matter which seaweed or algae is selected.
本発明は、これら従来技術の問題点に鑑みなされたもので、藻場造成における成功率とその後の永続性を併せて改善することのできる藻場造成装置とこれを用いた藻場造成方法の提供をその目的とするものである。   The present invention has been made in view of the problems of these prior arts. An algae field creation device capable of improving both the success rate in algae field creation and the subsequent persistence, and an algae field creation method using the same. The purpose is to provide.
上記課題を解決するため、本発明の請求項1に係る藻場造成装置では、栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類が着生した三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床、この着生床に浮力を与えるフロート、このフロートと協働して前記着生床を海面下の所定位置に係留するロープおよびアンカーとを備えるという技術手段を採用した。なお、前記着生床としては紐状に形成された三次元網目状構造体を格子状に織成したものが好適であり(請求項2)、三次元網目状構造体の開口部分の大きさは5〜20mmの範囲内が好ましい(請求項3)。また、前記海草・藻類としては、アマモ類、ホンダワラ類、アミジグサ類、テングサ類、イワヅタ類およびツルアラメから選ばれた少なくとも1種の適用が好都合である(請求項4)。   In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, in the seaweed bed construction device according to claim 1 of the present invention, an afloat composed of a three-dimensional network structure in which vegetatively breeding seaweeds and algae are deposited, The technical means is provided that includes a float that provides a sway, a rope that anchors the settlement floor at a predetermined position below the sea surface, and an anchor in cooperation with the float. In addition, it is preferable that the accretion floor is a woven three-dimensional network structure formed in a string shape (Claim 2), and the size of the opening of the three-dimensional network structure is as follows. A range of 5 to 20 mm is preferable (Claim 3). Further, as the seaweed / algae, at least one kind of application selected from sea cucumbers, hondawala, amidigusa, primroses, scallops, and pickaxe is advantageous (claim 4).
さらに、本発明の請求項5に係る藻場造成方法では、栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類が着生した三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床、この着生床に浮力を与えるフロート、このフロートと協働して前記着生床を海面下の所定位置に係留するロープおよびアンカーを備える藻場造成装置を対象水域に設置した後、当該水域における透明度の改善状況に応じて前記着生床の設置水深を下げながら海草・藻類を育成し、これを核として周囲に海草・藻類を繁茂させるという技術手段を採用した。なお、前記着生床は、海中の中間位置にとどめたままでもよいが、最終的に海底に下ろすことももちろん可能である(請求項6)。 Furthermore, in the algae bed construction method according to claim 5 of the present invention, an agglomerated floor composed of a three-dimensional network structure in which vegetatively breeding seaweeds and algae are agglomerated, a float for imparting buoyancy to the agglomerated floor, After installing a seaweed bed creation device having a rope and an anchor mooring the settlement floor at a predetermined position under the sea surface in cooperation with a float in the target water area, the settlement floor according to the state of improvement in transparency in the water area The technology was adopted to grow seaweeds and algae while lowering the water depth of the plant, and to allow seaweeds and algae to flourish around this. In addition, although the said accretion bed may remain in the middle position in the sea, of course, it is also possible to finally lower to the seabed (Claim 6).
上記構成を備える本発明によれば、次のような効果を得ることができる。
(1)施工の初期段階では、移植用の海草・藻類の生育基盤となる着生床を、フロートとロープとアンカーとにより、光量が十分に確保できる水深を選択して係留することができるから、導入した海草・藻類が成熟することなく早期に枯死してしまう確率が大幅に減少する。そして、その場所で海草・藻類が生育することによって水域の透明度が改善されると、着生床の設置水深をさらに下げ、最終的には潮位や波浪などの影響を受け難い安定した生育環境に海草・藻類を置くことができる。これにより、移植した海草・藻類の定着率が高まり、それが母草・母藻となって胞子や種子を拡散し、周囲に海草・藻類を繁茂させることができる。
(2)着生床に適用する海草・藻類が、アマモ類、ホンダワラ類、ツルアラメなど、茎部・根部を介して増殖する性質のものであって、その着生床は三次元網目状構造体からなるので、海草・藻類の茎部や根部が着生床内部によく伸張する。このため、夏季の高水温や他の原因で海草・藻類の葉部が失われても、着生床には茎部や根部が広範囲に残ることから、着生床上で新たな葉部が再生する。このように、母草・母藻として長期にわたり対象区域に残存する確率が高まるので、胞子や種子の供給源となって藻場の永続性に大きな役割を果たす。
According to the present invention having the above configuration, the following effects can be obtained.
(1) At the initial stage of construction, it is possible to moor the settlement floor, which serves as the growth base for transplanting seaweeds and algae, with a float, a rope, and an anchor to select the water depth at which a sufficient amount of light can be secured. , The probability that the introduced seaweeds and algae will die quickly without ripening is greatly reduced. And if the transparency of the water area is improved by growing seaweeds and algae in that place, the water depth of the settlement floor will be further lowered, and finally it will become a stable growth environment that is hardly affected by tide level and waves. Can place seaweeds and algae. As a result, the establishment rate of the transplanted seaweeds and algae increases, and it becomes a mother grass / maternal algae, spreads spores and seeds, and allows seagrass / algae to flourish around.
(2) Seagrass and algae applied to the settlement bed are of the nature that grows through stems and roots, such as sea breams, hondawalas, and cranes, and the settlement bed is a three-dimensional network structure. Therefore, the stems and roots of seaweed and algae extend well inside the settlement bed. For this reason, even if the leaves of seagrass and algae are lost due to high water temperature in summer and other causes, the stems and roots remain extensively on the settlement bed, so that new leaves regenerate on the settlement bed. To do. In this way, the probability of remaining in the target area for a long time as a mother grass / maternal algae increases, so it serves as a source of spores and seeds and plays a major role in the persistence of the algae beds.
本発明による藻場造成方法において、海草・藻類の着生床は、設置海域に導入した海草・藻類による透明度の改善状況に応じてその水深を下げるが、海底に近い位置に浮いたままの状態でとどめるか、あるいは段階的に水深を下げ、最終的に海底に下ろしてもよい。どちらを選択するかについては、対象海域の環境改善、魚介類の産卵礁、餌料供給を主とした藻場礁など、藻場造成装置を設置する目的に応じて適宜に決定すればよい。中間位置にとどめた場合には、着生床の下方が魚類の隠れ家として利用できるので、漁礁的機能を奏する。さらに、砂泥域でのアマモ場造成においては、砂面変動の影響を受け難いという利点がある。すなわち、海底の状態が適地でない条件であっても、着生床でアマモを育成できるので、群落を長期にわたり維持することができる。また、海底に下ろした場合にも、安定した着生床に草体が現存しているため、砂面変動の影響を受け難い利点がある。そのため、新たなアマモ場の造成が可能である。その結果、漁場の拡大にもつながる。   In the seagrass bed construction method according to the present invention, the seagrass / algae settlement floor is lowered in depth according to the state of improvement in transparency by seagrass / algae introduced into the installation sea area, but remains floating near the seabed. Or you can step down in depth and finally down to the seabed. Which one should be selected may be determined as appropriate according to the purpose of installing the seaweed formation device, such as improving the environment of the target sea area, spawning reefs of seafood, and seaweed reef mainly supplying food. In the case of staying in the middle position, the lower part of the landing floor can be used as a fish hideout, and it functions as a reef. Furthermore, there is an advantage that the Amamo field construction in the sand mud area is not easily affected by sand surface fluctuation. That is, even under conditions where the state of the sea floor is not suitable, the sea eel can be grown on the landing floor, so that the community can be maintained for a long time. In addition, even when lowered to the seabed, there is an advantage that it is difficult to be affected by sand surface fluctuations because the grass bodies are present on a stable settlement floor. Therefore, it is possible to create a new Amamo field. As a result, it also leads to the expansion of fishing grounds.
本発明に適用可能な海草類としてはアマモ類があり、具体的にはスガモ、エビアマモ、オオアマモ、スゲアマモ、タチアマモ、コアマモ、アマモ、ベニアマモ、リュウキュウアマモ、マツバウミジグサ、ウミジグサ、ボウバアマモ、ウミショウブ、リュウキュウスガモ、ヒメウミヒルモ、ウミヒルモなどが挙げられる。また、海藻類の中ではコンブ科のツルアラメと、ホンダワラ類、アミジグサ類、テングサ類およびイワヅタ類の中から栄養繁殖性のものが選択される。ホンダワラ類の具体例としては、ヒジキ、イソモク、タマナシモク、ミヤベモク、コバモク、ヒラネジモク、エゾノネジモク、アズマネジモク、エチゴネジモクなどが挙げられる。   Seaweeds that can be applied to the present invention include eelgrass, and specifically, sugamo, shrimp eel, eelgrass, sedge eel, tachiamamo, core eel, eelgrass, veneer moth, ryuca eelgrass, pine swordfish, sea squirrel, crab eel, Himehi Hirumo, Umi Hirumo and the like. Also, among seaweeds, those that are vegetatively breeding are selected from the common camellia pickaxe, Honda Walla, Amygusa, Proboscis and Iwata. Specific examples of Honda Wallarum include hinoki, isomoku, tamanashimoku, miyabemoku, kobamoku, hiranemomoku, ezonojyokumoku, azuma nemokumoku, and echigonemokumoku.
本発明で着生床の素材として使用する三次元網目状構造体とは、文字通り網目が立体的に形成された多孔質構造のものである。一例を挙げると、プラスチック製のモノフィラメントを羊腸のように曲折させ、互いの接点を付着させながら集合して立体的な網状構造にしたものなどが好適である(特開2001−248054号公報参照)。三次元網目状構造体における開口部分の大きさは、海草・藻類の茎部・根部の大きさとの関係から5〜20mmの範囲内が好ましいが、前記以外に気孔径の大きいスポンジ状のもの、不織布状のものなど、その素材については特に限定されない。また、三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床の形状は、マット状でも何ら問題はないが、紐状に形成された三次元網目状構造体を格子状に織成したものを使用した場合には、海草・藻類の生育阻害要因となる海中に存在する浮遊物の沈着や堆積が少なくなるので、砂泥性アマモ類を除き、そこに着生している移植用海草・藻類の成育にとって好都合である。なお、三次元網目状構造体の開口部分の大きさが小さい場合には、海草・藻類の葉部・茎部で捕捉した浮遊物が着生床上に堆積しやすくなる。ここに堆積した浮遊物は、再び海中に拡散することはほとんどないから、海草・藻類自体が備える水質浄化機能と合わせて水質の改善につながる。さらに、三次元網目状構造体に浮遊物が堆積すると、その内部に伸張している海草・藻類の茎部・根部がより安定する。また、このように浮遊物が堆積した状態の着生床を海底に下ろすと、捕捉した浮遊物が海底に拡散することなく、砂泥中の微生物などによって分解されて海草類の養分として利用される。これら着生床の形状や素材については、本発明の技術思想内での種々の変更実施はもちろん可能であり、フロートやアンカーの配置等についても同様である。 In the present invention, the three-dimensional network structure used as the material for the settlement floor is literally a porous structure in which the network is three-dimensionally formed. For example, a plastic monofilament bent like a sheep intestine and assembled into a three-dimensional network structure while adhering to each other's contacts is suitable (see Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-248054). . The size of the opening in the three-dimensional network structure is preferably within a range of 5 to 20 mm from the relationship with the size of the seaweed / algae stem / root, but in addition to the above, a sponge-like one having a large pore diameter, There are no particular restrictions on the material such as non-woven fabric. In addition, there is no problem with the matte floor made of a three-dimensional network structure, but there is no problem even if it is a mat, but when a three-dimensional network structure formed in a string is woven in a lattice shape Is less favorable for the growth of transplanted seaweeds and algae that grow on the seaweed, except for sandy sea cucumbers. It is. In addition, when the size of the opening of the three-dimensional network structure is small, suspended matter captured by the seagrass / algae leaves / stalks easily accumulates on the settlement bed. The suspended matter deposited here rarely diffuses into the sea again, leading to improved water quality in combination with the water purification function of seaweeds and algae themselves. Furthermore, when suspended matter accumulates in the three-dimensional network structure, the seaweeds and algae stems and roots that extend inside the three-dimensional network structure become more stable. In addition, when the settled floor with suspended solids is lowered to the seabed, the trapped suspended matter is not diffused to the seabed, but is decomposed by microorganisms in sand mud and used as nutrients for seaweeds. . Of course, various changes and modifications within the technical idea of the present invention are possible with respect to the shape and material of these landing floors, and the same applies to the arrangement of floats and anchors.
以下、図面に基づき本発明の第1実施例について説明する。図1は、本発明に係る藻場造成装置の説明図である。図示の藻場造成装置1は、栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類2が着生した着生床3、フロート4、ロープ5およびアンカー6から構成され、それらフロート4とアンカー6の協働作用により、着生床3が海面下の所定水深位置に保持されるように設置する。実施例では、4個の平面視矩形状の着生床3が互いに間隔を開け、全体形状として矩形状となるようにロープ5で連結一体化されるとともに、各着生床3の外側の角部にフロート4とアンカー6とが各1個ずつ連結されている。なお、フロート4の数とその取付位置は、着生床3の面積や素材等により適宜変更することができる。また、着生床3の数の増減ももちろん可能である。   Hereinafter, a first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is an explanatory view of a seaweed bed creation device according to the present invention. The illustrated algae bed construction device 1 is composed of an agglomerated floor 3, a float 4, a rope 5, and an anchor 6 on which vegetative and aquatic seaweeds and algae 2 are deposited. By the cooperative action of the float 4 and the anchor 6, Installation floor 3 is installed so as to be held at a predetermined water depth position below the sea surface. In the embodiment, four standing floors 3 having a rectangular shape in a plan view are connected and integrated with a rope 5 so as to form a rectangular shape as a whole, and the corners on the outer sides of the respective landing floors 3 are integrated. One float 4 and one anchor 6 are connected to each part. Note that the number of floats 4 and their attachment positions can be changed as appropriate depending on the area, material, and the like of the landing floor 3. Of course, the number of the landing floors 3 can be increased or decreased.
本発明で使用する着生床3は、図2(A)に拡大して示すように、マット状に形成されたもので、その内部構造が三次元網目状となっている。具体的には、例えばポリプロピレン製のモノフィラメントが屈曲しながら三次元的に絡み合ったもの(商品名:ヘチマロン、新光ナイロン社製)などが好適に使用される。この着生床3は、適度な硬さで太径のモノフィラメントが互いに絡み合った状態で各接点部分において融着していることにより、軽量でありながら剛性を有し、強度や形状保持性も優れている。しかも、その特異な三次元網目状構造に基づき、図2(B)に示すように、着生床3上に載置した海草・藻類2の茎部・根部が、比較的短期間で無理なく内部に伸張して前記モノフィラメントと絡み合うことから、海草・藻類2が着生床3から脱落しにくいという利点がある。さらに、網目が粗く比較的大きな気孔が連続した状態で多数存在することから、着生床3上への浮遊物の沈着や堆積が少なく、海草・藻類2が成育する上で良好な条件を維持することができる。なお、三次元網目状構造体における開口部分の大きさは、5〜20mmの範囲内が好ましい。あまり小さすぎると、海草・藻類2の茎部・根部が着生床3の内部に入り込みにくくなる。さらに、浮遊物が堆積しやすくなるので、海藻類のようにそれら浮遊物が生育の阻害要因となりやすい種類にとっては好ましくない場合もある。一方、20mmを超えると、海草・藻類2の茎部・根部が三次元網目状構造体に絡み難く、海草・藻類2の着生状態が不安定になって脱落しやすくなる。 As shown in the enlarged view of FIG. 2A, the setting floor 3 used in the present invention is formed in a mat shape, and its internal structure is a three-dimensional mesh shape. Specifically, for example, polypropylene monofilaments that are entangled three-dimensionally while being bent (trade name: Hetimaron, manufactured by Shinko Nylon Co., Ltd.) are preferably used. This settlement floor 3 is light in weight and has excellent strength and shape retention by being fused at each contact portion in a state in which large monofilaments with moderate hardness are intertwined with each other. ing. Moreover, based on the unique three-dimensional network structure, as shown in FIG. 2 (B), the stems and roots of the seaweed and algae 2 placed on the settlement floor 3 can be reasonably placed in a relatively short period of time. There is an advantage that the seaweed and algae 2 are less likely to fall off from the settlement bed 3 because they extend inside and entangle with the monofilament. Furthermore, because there are many large pores in a continuous state with coarse meshes, there is little sedimentation and accumulation of suspended matter on the settlement bed 3, and good conditions are maintained for the growth of seaweeds and algae 2 can do. The size of the opening in the three-dimensional network structure is preferably in the range of 5 to 20 mm. If it is too small, it will be difficult for the stems and roots of seaweed and algae 2 to enter the settlement bed 3. Furthermore, since suspended matter is likely to accumulate, it may not be preferable for a kind such as seaweed that tends to be a hindrance to growth. On the other hand, if it exceeds 20 mm, the stems and roots of the seaweed / algae 2 are not easily entangled with the three-dimensional network structure, and the state of establishment of the seaweed / algae 2 becomes unstable and easily drops off.
次に、上記藻場造成装置1を用いる造成方法について、図3を参照しながら説明する。初めに、対象水域の環境条件を調査し、当該区域に適した海草・藻類2の種類を選定する。そして、透明度、濁度、光量子等の測定データから着生床3の設置水深D1を決定し、着生床3がその位置に係留されるように藻場造成装置1を設置する[図3(A)]。そして、着生床3上の海草・藻類2の成育に伴う水域浄化機能によって着生床3の周囲の水質が改善され、光の透過度が上がると、その光量に見合った水深D2にまで着生床3の位置を下げる[図3(B)]。さらに時間が経過して、着生床3の周囲の水質が改善されると、その光量に見合った水深D3に着生床3の位置を下げる[図3(C)]。   Next, the creation method using the said seaweed bed creation apparatus 1 is demonstrated, referring FIG. First, the environmental conditions of the target water area are investigated, and the type of seaweed / algae 2 suitable for the area is selected. And the installation water depth D1 of the settlement floor 3 is determined from measurement data, such as transparency, turbidity, and a photon, and the seaweed formation apparatus 1 is installed so that the settlement floor 3 may be moored in the position [FIG. A)]. And the water quality around the settlement floor 3 is improved by the water purification function accompanying the growth of the seaweed and algae 2 on the settlement floor 3, and when the light transmission increases, the water depth reaches the depth D 2 corresponding to the amount of light. The position of the raw bed 3 is lowered [FIG. 3 (B)]. When time further elapses and the water quality around the landing floor 3 is improved, the position of the landing floor 3 is lowered to a water depth D3 corresponding to the amount of light [FIG. 3 (C)].
このように、水質の改善に合わせて着生床3の位置を段階的に下げるので、移植した海草・藻類2は常に良好な環境条件の下で生育することになるから、母草・母藻としての生存率が高まり、藻場造成の成功率向上につながる。さらに、着生床3上に移植する海草・藻類2は、栄養繁殖性であることから、着生床3上に直立した葉部が失われても茎部・根部が着生床3の内部に残り、そこで新たな葉部を再生し、種子や胞子を長期に渡って供給し続けることが可能になる。したがって、拡散した種子や胞子を介して着生床3の近くの海底に定着した海草・藻類2が何かの原因で消失した場合でも、引き続き着生床3上にある海草・藻類2から種子や胞子が供給されるので、藻場を復活させる上で大きな役割を果たす。なお、本実施例では着生床3を海底に下ろさずに途中の位置にとどめているが、もちろん海底に下ろしてもよく、また水深や設置海域の状況によっては段階的ではなく、一度に目的の位置まで下げることも可能である。 As described above, since the position of the settlement bed 3 is lowered step by step in accordance with the improvement of water quality, the transplanted seaweed / algae 2 always grows under good environmental conditions. As a result, the survival rate will increase and the success rate of seaweed bed construction will increase. Furthermore, since seaweeds and algae 2 transplanted on the settlement floor 3 are vegetatively proliferating, even if the upright leaves on the settlement floor 3 are lost, the stems and roots are inside the settlement floor 3. It is then possible to regenerate new leaves and continue to supply seeds and spores for a long time. Therefore, even if the seagrass / algae 2 settled on the seabed near the settlement bed 3 disappears due to diffused seeds or spores, the seeds from the seaweed / algae 2 on the settlement bed 3 continue to be seeds. Since it is supplied with spore, it plays a big role in reviving the seaweed bed. In this embodiment, the settlement floor 3 is not moved down to the seabed, but is kept in the middle. Of course, it may be lowered to the seabed, and it is not a step depending on the water depth and the conditions of the sea area. It is also possible to lower to the position.
図4は、本発明に係る藻場造成装置の第2実施例である。図示の藻場造成装置10において、着生床11の形態は前記実施例と異なり、三次元網目状構造の紐状体12が格子状に織成され、全体として平面視矩形状を呈している。そして、着生床11の最外周に位置する4本の紐状体12と、それらの内側にあってこれに直交する紐状体12の各交点部分に、それぞれフロート13が取り付けられている。アンカー14は、着生床11の四隅に設けられている。図5にその一部を拡大して示すように、ここで使用する着生床11は、前記第1実施例におけるマット状の着生床3と同様な素材を適宜の幅に裁断した紐状体12を用意し、これを格子状に織成したものである。この場合、着生床11に対する海草・藻類15の着生作業は、紐状体12を織成する前の単体の状態、あるいは織成後の格子状になった状態のいずれの段階でもよい。このような形態の着生床11を適用した場合には、紐状体12間にある隙間の存在により、浮遊物の沈着や堆積が生じ難いという利点がある。   FIG. 4 is a second embodiment of the seaweed bed creation device according to the present invention. In the illustrated seaweed bed creation device 10, the form of the settlement floor 11 is different from that of the above embodiment, and the string-like bodies 12 having a three-dimensional network structure are woven in a lattice shape, and have a rectangular shape in plan view as a whole. . And the float 13 is each attached to each intersection part of the four string-like bodies 12 located in the outermost periphery of the settled floor 11, and the string-like body 12 inside and orthogonal to this. Anchors 14 are provided at the four corners of the landing floor 11. As shown in an enlarged view in FIG. 5, the setting floor 11 used here is a string-like shape obtained by cutting the same material as the mat-shaped setting floor 3 in the first embodiment into an appropriate width. A body 12 is prepared and woven in a lattice shape. In this case, the seagrass / algae 15 may be deposited on the settlement floor 11 in a single state before weaving the string-like body 12 or in a grid-like state after weaving. When such a form of the floor 11 is applied, there is an advantage that deposits and accumulation of suspended matter are less likely to occur due to the presence of a gap between the string-like bodies 12.
図6は、第3実施例の藻場造成装置で用いる着生床を拡大して示した図である。なお、フロートやアンカー等の他の構成部材は、基本的に上記第2実施例と共通している。図示の着生床21は、格子状に織成された形態も第2実施例と同様であるが、三次元網目状構造の紐状体22が連続せずに、ロープ24の所々に設置されている点が異なる。すなわち、図7(A)に示すように、適宜長さの紐状体22に対して予め海草・藻類23を着生させたものを用意し、これを結束バンド(図示せず)等によりロープ24の長手方向に沿って一定の間隔で取り付けた後[図7(B)]、図6のように格子状に織成する。斯かる構成の藻場造成装置であっても同様な効果が得られる。   FIG. 6 is an enlarged view of the setting bed used in the seaweed bed creation device of the third embodiment. Other components such as floats and anchors are basically the same as those in the second embodiment. The illustrated floor 21 is woven in a lattice shape in the same manner as in the second embodiment. However, the three-dimensional network structure string-like body 22 is not continuous and is installed in places of the rope 24. Is different. That is, as shown in FIG. 7 (A), a cord having a suitable length is prepared in advance with seaweed and algae 23 formed on a string-like body 22, and this is roped by a binding band (not shown) or the like. After being attached at regular intervals along the longitudinal direction 24 [FIG. 7 (B)], it is woven into a grid as shown in FIG. The same effect can be obtained even with the seaweed bed generating device having such a configuration.
本発明による藻場造成装置の第1実施例を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows 1st Example of the seaweed bed creation apparatus by this invention. 第1実施例で使用する着生床を拡大した斜視図である。It is the perspective view which expanded the accretion floor used in the 1st example. 第1実施例の藻場造成装置による藻場造成方法の説明図である。It is explanatory drawing of the algae field creation method by the algae field creation apparatus of 1st Example. 藻場造成装置の第2実施例を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows 2nd Example of a seaweed bed creation apparatus. 第2実施例で使用する着生床を拡大した斜視図である。It is the perspective view which expanded the accretion floor used in the 2nd example. 藻場造成装置の第3実施例で使用する着生床の斜視図である。It is a perspective view of the accretion floor used in the 3rd example of a seaweed bed creation device. 第3実施例の着生床を拡大した斜視図である。It is the perspective view which expanded the settlement floor of 3rd Example.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1,10…藻場造成装置、2,15,23…海草・藻類、3,11,21…着生床、4,13…フロート、5,12,24…ロープ、6,14…アンカー   DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1,10 ... Algae field creation device, 2,15,23 ... Seaweed / algae, 3,11,21 ... Settling floor, 4,13 ... Float, 5,12,24 ... Rope, 6,14 ... Anchor

Claims (6)

  1. 栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類が着生した三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床、この着生床に浮力を与えるフロート、このフロートと協働して前記着生床を海面下の所定位置に係留するロープおよびアンカーとを備えることを特徴とする藻場造成装置。   An agglomeration floor composed of a three-dimensional network structure with vegetatively breeding seaweeds and algae, a float that provides buoyancy to the agglomerated floor, and the aforesaid agglomeration floor in a predetermined position under the sea surface A seaweed bed construction device comprising a rope and an anchor moored to the seaweed.
  2. 前記着生床が、紐状に形成された三次元網目状構造体を格子状に織成したものであることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の藻場造成装置。   The seaweed bed creation device according to claim 1, wherein the settlement floor is a lattice-shaped three-dimensional network structure formed in a string shape.
  3. 前記三次元網目状構造体の開口部分の大きさが、5〜20mmであることを特徴とする請求項1または2に記載の藻場造成装置。   The size of the opening part of the said three-dimensional network structure is 5-20 mm, The seaweed bed creation apparatus of Claim 1 or 2 characterized by the above-mentioned.
  4. 前記海草・藻類が、アマモ類、ホンダワラ類、アミジグサ類、テングサ類、イワヅタ類およびツルアラメから選ばれた少なくとも1種であることを特徴とする請求項1ないし3のいずれか一項に記載の藻場造成装置。   The algae according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the seaweed / algae is at least one selected from sea cucumbers, hondaidae, amygusas, primroses, scallops, and vines. Field creation device.
  5. 栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類が着生した三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床、この着生床に浮力を与えるフロート、このフロートと協働して前記着生床を海面下の所定位置に係留するロープおよびアンカーを備える藻場造成装置を対象水域に設置した後、当該水域における透明度の改善状況に応じて前記着生床の設置水深を下げながら海草・藻類を育成し、これを核として周囲に海草・藻類を繁茂させることを特徴とする藻場造成方法。   An agglomeration floor composed of a three-dimensional network structure with vegetatively breeding seaweeds and algae, a float that provides buoyancy to the agglomerated floor, and the aforesaid agglomeration floor in a predetermined position under the sea surface After installing a seaweed formation device equipped with ropes and anchors moored to the target water area, seaweeds and algae are grown while lowering the depth of installation of the settlement floor according to the state of transparency improvement in the water area. A method for constructing a seaweed basin characterized by allowing seaweed and algae to thrive around.
  6. 栄養繁殖性の海草・藻類が着生した三次元網目状構造体からなる着生床、この着生床に浮力を与えるフロート、このフロートと協働して前記着生床を海面下の所定位置に係留するロープおよびアンカーを備える藻場造成装置を対象水域に設置した後、当該水域における透明度の改善状況に応じて前記着生床の設置水深を下げながら海草・藻類を育成し、海底に下ろした着生床の海草・藻類を核として周囲に海草・藻類を繁茂させることを特徴とする藻場造成方法。

    An agglomeration floor composed of a three-dimensional network structure with vegetatively breeding seaweeds and algae, a float that provides buoyancy to the agglomerated floor, and the aforesaid agglomeration floor in a predetermined position under the sea surface After installing a seaweed bed creation device equipped with ropes and anchors moored in the target water area, grow seaweeds and algae while lowering the water depth of the settlement floor according to the improvement of transparency in the water area, and lower it to the sea floor A method for constructing a seaweed basin characterized by causing seagrass and algae to flourish around the seagrass and algae on a fixed floor.

JP2006239494A 2006-09-04 2006-09-04 Apparatus for forming seaweed bed and method for forming sea weed bed using the same Pending JP2008061509A (en)

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CN102668967A (en) * 2012-05-04 2012-09-19 中国科学院海洋研究所 Adjustable deep sea algae aquaculture floating bed
WO2012174983A1 (en) * 2011-06-22 2012-12-27 上海太和水环境科技发展有限公司 Method for planting aquatic weeds by underwater suspension and suspended aquatic weed bed apparatus for recovery of aquatic ecology
CN102870711A (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-01-16 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所 Device and method for recovering and rebuilding spawning sites of fishes in natural waters
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CN107232051A (en) * 2017-07-21 2017-10-10 山东省海洋生物研究院 It is a kind of based on the fast numerous Sargassum horneri method for massively culturing of nutrition
KR101817205B1 (en) * 2017-07-28 2018-01-10 주식회사 메이텍엔지니어링 Floating artificial reefs for marine forest formation
CN108668880A (en) * 2018-03-28 2018-10-19 广西壮族自治区海洋环境监测中心站 A kind of semi-submersible type sea grass breeding apparatus and breeding method

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JP2011200121A (en) * 2010-03-24 2011-10-13 Nippon Zenith Pipe Co Ltd Aquatic vegetation device
WO2012174983A1 (en) * 2011-06-22 2012-12-27 上海太和水环境科技发展有限公司 Method for planting aquatic weeds by underwater suspension and suspended aquatic weed bed apparatus for recovery of aquatic ecology
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CN102870711A (en) * 2012-09-14 2013-01-16 中国水产科学研究院东海水产研究所 Device and method for recovering and rebuilding spawning sites of fishes in natural waters
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CN107232051A (en) * 2017-07-21 2017-10-10 山东省海洋生物研究院 It is a kind of based on the fast numerous Sargassum horneri method for massively culturing of nutrition
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CN108668880A (en) * 2018-03-28 2018-10-19 广西壮族自治区海洋环境监测中心站 A kind of semi-submersible type sea grass breeding apparatus and breeding method

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