JP4358833B2 - Planting base - Google Patents

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JP4358833B2
JP4358833B2 JP2006090891A JP2006090891A JP4358833B2 JP 4358833 B2 JP4358833 B2 JP 4358833B2 JP 2006090891 A JP2006090891 A JP 2006090891A JP 2006090891 A JP2006090891 A JP 2006090891A JP 4358833 B2 JP4358833 B2 JP 4358833B2
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planting base
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nutrient
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JP2007259790A (en
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昭太 袋
洋 久保田
義彦 島多
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株式会社フジタ
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本発明は植栽基盤に関し、特に、沈水植物の生育に適用して有効な技術に関するものである。   The present invention relates to a planting base, and more particularly to a technique effective when applied to the growth of a submerged plant.
車軸藻、クロモ、エビモ、フサモ等々の沈水植物群落には、栄養塩吸収作用や懸濁物の付着・沈降・再懸濁防止作用、ミジンコなどの動物プランクトンや付着微生物の増加等の様々な水質浄化作用があることが分かっている。また、小魚や底生動物が増加する等の生態系修復機能を持つことも知られている。   There are various water qualities in submerged plant communities such as axle algae, chromo, shrimp, fusamo, etc., such as nutrient absorption, suspension adhesion / sedimentation / resuspension prevention, zooplankton such as daphnia, and increased attached microorganisms. It is known that there is a purification effect. It is also known to have an ecosystem repair function such as an increase in small fish and benthic animals.
しかし、高度経済成長期の栄養塩の増大、過剰の除草剤の投入、草魚の放流等により、全国各地で沈水植物が絶滅、消失、衰退しているのが現状である。因に、日本では水草の1/3がレッドデータブックに記載されている。   However, the current situation is that submerged plants have become extinct, disappeared, or declined in various parts of the country due to the increase of nutrients during the high economic growth period, the introduction of excess herbicides, and the release of grass fish. In Japan, 1/3 of aquatic plants are listed in the Red Data Book.
かかる現状を受け、河川、湖沼等の水質改善や生物多様性保全の観点から、これらの沈水植物群落を水辺等に再生する試みが実施されている。   In response to this situation, attempts have been made to regenerate these submerged plant communities into watersides and the like from the viewpoint of improving the water quality of rivers, lakes and marshes and maintaining biodiversity.
例えば、非特許文献1には、土壌シードバンクを利用して過去に消失したその水域に在来の沈水植物群落を再生する方法が記載されている。
西廣 淳、他3名、「霞ヶ浦沿岸域の湖底土砂に含まれる沈水植物の散布体バンク」、2003年、保全生態学研究8巻、p.113−118
For example, Non-Patent Document 1 describes a method of regenerating a submerged plant community native to a water area that has disappeared in the past using a soil seed bank.
Satoshi Saijo and three others, "Sprinkler Bank of Submerged Plants in Lake Bottom Sediment along Kasumigaura Coast", 2003, Conservation Ecology Research Volume 8, p. 113-118
しかしながら、大規模湖沼等の波浪の影響を受けるような水域の水底に、土壌シードバンクを撒きだす方法や直接苗株を植えつけるような方法では、復元対象とする水底が軟弱な底泥の場合が多く、植物が根を伸張し水底に活着する前に波浪の影響で植物体が生育前に剥離してしまうとの指摘もある。   However, in the case of methods such as spreading a soil seed bank or directly planting seedlings on the bottom of water that is affected by waves such as large lakes, the bottom of the water to be restored is soft bottom mud. Many have pointed out that the plants will peel off before they grow due to the effects of waves before the plants stretch their roots and settle on the bottom of the water.
人工浮島に構成した場合も同様に、風波等の影響を受けるが、それ以外に、植栽基盤の栄養の面で問題がある。一般的に、沈水植物は水中で植物体の葉から窒素やリンなどの無機態の栄養素を取り込むと言われている。   Similarly, when constructed on an artificial floating island, it is also affected by wind waves, but there are other problems in terms of nutrition of the planting base. In general, it is said that submerged plants take up inorganic nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from the leaves of the plant body in water.
しかしながら、沈水植物を復元するような水域の多くは、アオコなどの植物プランクトンが大量に発生しており、窒素やリンなどの栄養素の多くはすぐに沈水植物が利用できるような無機態としてではなく、懸濁態(有機体)となっている。このため、植栽基盤に直接植えつける方法では利用可能な栄養素が少ないため初期の生育が悪くなり、根が伸張せずに植栽基盤への活着率が減少してしまう。   However, many of the water areas that restore submerged plants have large amounts of phytoplankton such as blue sea lions, and many nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are not in an inorganic state that can be used immediately by submerged plants. In a suspended state (organism). For this reason, in the method of planting directly on the planting base, the amount of nutrients that can be used is small, so the initial growth is worsened, and the roots do not grow and the survival rate on the planting base decreases.
一方、栄養素を含む底泥等の土砂を充填する場合は生育は良くなるが、植栽基盤自体が非常に重くなり扱い難くなる。さらに、浮体構造が大きくなるためコストがかさむという問題も発生する。浮体の規模を小さくすると言う点では、土砂を入れたポッドを充填する方法を採用すればその解決は図れるが、反面、地下茎を横方向に伸張する種(ランナーで増える種類)には適さない。   On the other hand, when soil such as bottom mud containing nutrients is filled, the growth is improved, but the planting base itself becomes very heavy and difficult to handle. In addition, the problem arises that the cost increases due to the large floating structure. In terms of reducing the size of the floating body, it is possible to solve this problem by adopting a method of filling a pod filled with earth and sand, but it is not suitable for species that extend the underground stem in the lateral direction (varies that increase with runners).
また、従来の植栽方法は植栽基盤や土砂に対して直立に植えつける方法であるが、この方法はミズニラ等のロゼット型の植物には適しているが、有茎種の場合は茎の節目から根を出すことが多いため、直立の植え付けかたでは根が水中に伸びてしまい基盤への活着が悪くなるという問題がある。   In addition, the conventional planting method is a method of planting upright with respect to the planting base and soil, but this method is suitable for rosette-type plants such as Mizunira, but in the case of pedunculated species, Since roots often come out from joints, there is a problem that the roots grow into the water in the upright planting and the establishment on the base becomes worse.
これらの沈水植物の生育に関しては、基盤の栄養と植物の根の活着という面から、新技術を開発することが必要と本発明者は考えた。   Regarding the growth of these submerged plants, the present inventor considered that it was necessary to develop a new technique from the viewpoint of the nutrition of the base and the rooting of the plant.
本発明の目的は、有茎種等を含めた沈水植物を再生する効果的な技術を提供することにある。   An object of the present invention is to provide an effective technique for regenerating a submerged plant including a stalk species.
本発明の前記ならびにその他の目的と新規な特徴は、本明細書の記述および添付図面から明らかになるであろう。   The above and other objects and novel features of the present invention will be apparent from the description of this specification and the accompanying drawings.
本願において開示される発明のうち、代表的なものの概要を簡単に説明すれば、次のとおりである。   Of the inventions disclosed in the present application, the outline of typical ones will be briefly described as follows.
本発明は沈水植物を根づかせる水面下に水中配置される植栽基盤であって、前記植栽基盤は、基盤本体と、植栽される前記沈水植物を上で生育させる前記沈水植物用の栄養物とを有し、前記基盤本体は3次元の空隙構造であり、前記栄養物は、前記基盤本体の3次元の空隙構造の表面側にのみ、前記3次元の空隙構造を利用して設けられていることを特徴とする。かかる構成において、前記3次元の空隙構造を利用して設けるとは、前記栄養物を前記3次元の空隙構造の少なくとも表面下5mm以上、20mm以内の深度範囲で塗り込み保持させて設けられていることを特徴とする。以上いずれかの構成において、前記栄養物は、前記空隙構造の表面側に塗り込まれた後に乾燥固化させられていることを特徴とする。以上いずれかの構成において、前記基盤本体は、その側面と底面とが、前記栄養物の空隙構造からの水流による離脱を防止するシート部材で囲まれていることを特徴とする。
The present invention is a planting base that is placed underwater under the surface of a submerged plant, wherein the planting base includes a base body and the nutrient for the submerged plant on which the submerged plant to be planted is grown. The base body has a three-dimensional gap structure, and the nutrient is provided only on the surface side of the three-dimensional gap structure of the base body using the three-dimensional gap structure. It is characterized by. In such a configuration, the provision using the three-dimensional void structure means that the nutrient is applied and held in a depth range of at least 5 mm and within 20 mm below the surface of the three-dimensional void structure. It is characterized by that. In any one of the configurations described above, the nutrient is dried and solidified after being applied to the surface side of the void structure. In any one of the configurations described above, the side surface and the bottom surface of the base body are surrounded by a sheet member that prevents detachment of the nutrient from the void structure.
以上いずれかの構成において、前記栄養物の上には、前記沈水植物の茎部分が横に寝かせた状態でピンで固定して設けられていることを特徴とする。 In any one of the configurations described above, the stalk portion of the submerged plant is fixed on the nutrient with a pin in a state of being laid sideways.
本願において開示される発明のうち、代表的なものによって得られる効果を簡単に説明すれば以下のとおりである。   Among the inventions disclosed in the present application, effects obtained by typical ones will be briefly described as follows.
本発明では、沈水植物の根がしっかりと張った植栽基盤となるため、波浪の影響をうける場所でも沈水植物の生育が可能となる。   In the present invention, since the roots of the submerged plant are firmly planted, the submerged plant can be grown even in a place affected by waves.
本発明では、植栽基盤表面に栄養物を塗りこむことにより、軽量かつ沈水植物の生長を向上させた植栽基盤とすることができる。   In this invention, it can be set as the planting base which improved the growth of the submerged plant lightly by coating a nutrient on the planting base surface.
本発明では、沈水植物を横に寝かせて植栽することで沈水植物の根の植栽基盤への活着率を増加させることができ、かつ植栽基盤表面からの栄養物の吸収を高め、植物の生育を向上させることができる。   In the present invention, it is possible to increase the survival rate of the submerged plant root to the planting base by planting the submerged plant sideways, and increase the absorption of nutrients from the planting base surface, Can improve growth.
本発明の植栽基盤を用いた植栽方法により、波浪の影響をうけるような沿岸帯における沈水植物の再生を可能とするとともに、水質浄化および自然再生を目的とした沈水植物植栽浮島において沈水植物の生育を向上させることができる。   By the planting method using the planting base of the present invention, it is possible to regenerate submerged plants in coastal zones that are affected by waves, and submerged in submerged plant planting floating islands for the purpose of water purification and natural regeneration. Plant growth can be improved.
以下、本発明の実施の形態を図面に基づいて詳細に説明する。尚、実施の形態を説明するための全図において、同一の部材には原則として同一の符号を付し、その繰り返しの説明は省略する場合がある。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Note that components having the same function are denoted by the same reference symbols throughout the drawings for describing the embodiment, and the repetitive description thereof may be omitted.
(実施の形態1)
図1は、本発明に係る植栽基盤と、その植栽基盤に沈水植物を根づかせる構成を模式的に示した断面図である。図2は、植栽基盤にフロートを設けて浮島に構成した場合を模式的に示す説明図である。
(Embodiment 1)
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view schematically showing a planting base according to the present invention and a configuration in which a submerged plant is rooted in the planting base. Drawing 2 is an explanatory view showing typically the case where a float is provided in a planting base and it constitutes on a floating island.
植栽基盤100は、図1に示すように、沈水植物200a等の植物200を植える基盤本体10と、植栽される植物200の栄養物20と、基盤本体10の外周を囲むシート部材30とから構成されている。   As shown in FIG. 1, the planting base 100 includes a base body 10 for planting a plant 200 such as a submerged plant 200 a, a nutrient 20 for the plant 200 to be planted, and a sheet member 30 that surrounds the outer periphery of the base body 10. It is composed of
基盤本体10は、3次元構造に形成され、植栽される植物200の根が、その3次元構造内に伸張できる空間を有するものである。かかる3次元構造の物質としては、例えば、繊維状の三次元網目構造を有するポリエチレン製や塩化ビニル製等の市販されているプラスチック性合成繊維マットや、ヤシ繊維マット等を例として挙げることができる。   The base body 10 is formed in a three-dimensional structure, and has a space in which the roots of the plant 200 to be planted can extend into the three-dimensional structure. Examples of the material having such a three-dimensional structure include commercially available plastic synthetic fiber mats such as polyethylene and vinyl chloride having a fibrous three-dimensional network structure, and palm fiber mats. .
かかる繊維マット類は、3次元構造内の空隙率が非常に大きいため、植栽する植物200の成長に合わせて、伸張する根が絡みやすく、容易に波浪等で基盤本体10から離れないようにすることができる。強固な植栽用の基盤を形成することができるのである。   Since such fiber mats have a very large void ratio in the three-dimensional structure, the roots that are stretched are easily entangled with the growth of the plant 200 to be planted, and are not easily separated from the base body 10 by waves or the like. can do. A strong planting base can be formed.
また、かかる構成の植栽基盤100を浮島に構成する場合も、植栽基盤100の材質にプラスチック性合成繊維等を使用することにより軽量化を図ることができる。さらには、繊維状物質自体が、3次元構造で空隙率が高く構成されているので、その素材自体の軽さのために浮体の構造自体も小さくすることができる。   Moreover, also when comprising the planting base | substrate 100 of this structure in a floating island, weight reduction can be achieved by using a plastic synthetic fiber etc. for the material of the planting base | substrate 100. FIG. Furthermore, since the fibrous substance itself has a three-dimensional structure and a high porosity, the structure of the floating body itself can be reduced due to the lightness of the material itself.
図1には、基盤本体10の構成として、3次元構造で繊維が絡み合って3次元の空隙構造が形成されている様子を示した。   In FIG. 1, as a configuration of the base body 10, a state in which a three-dimensional void structure is formed by intertwining fibers in a three-dimensional structure is shown.
かかる構成の基盤本体10には、植栽する植物200の生育に必要な栄養物20が設けられている。植栽基盤100の基盤本体10に、植物200の生育に必要な栄養物20を設けるに際しては、本発明の特徴点の一つでもあるが、極めてユニークな方法で設けるようにした。   The base body 10 having such a configuration is provided with nutrients 20 necessary for the growth of the plant 200 to be planted. When providing the nutrient 20 necessary for the growth of the plant 200 on the base body 10 of the planting base 100, although it is one of the features of the present invention, it is provided by a very unique method.
例えば、沈水植物200aを植栽対象の植物200とした場合には、その栄養物20は、湖沼や池底の土砂(砂質から泥質までを本明細書では、以下土砂と言う場合がある)に多く含まれている。   For example, when the submerged plant 200a is the plant to be planted 200, the nutrient 20 is a lake or pond bottom earth and sand (from sandy to mud in the present specification may be referred to as earth and sand hereinafter). ) Is included in many.
そこで、かかる栄養物20を如何にして空隙率の多い3次元構造下に保持させるかで、本発明者は、頭を悩ました。その結果、生育に必要な栄養物20は、沈水植物200aが根を張り出し、所定の長さまで伸張した段階まで保持されれば、少なくとも十分と考えた。完全に成長するまで、あるいは成長後の植物体を維持するまでの栄養物20は、植栽基盤100内に保持しえなくても、構わないのではないかとの着想を得た。   Therefore, the present inventor has been troubled by how to maintain such a nutrient 20 under a three-dimensional structure with a high porosity. As a result, it was considered that the nutrient 20 necessary for the growth was at least sufficient if the submerged plant 200a was maintained until it extended its roots and extended to a predetermined length. The idea was that the nutrient 20 until the plant body was completely grown or the plant body after the growth was maintained could not be held in the planting base 100.
植栽基盤100は、沈水植物200aに使用する場合には、沈水植物200aの生育状態に従って、漸次湖底側に沈め、植物本体が余り水面上に出ないようにする必要がある。
かかる水面下への沈潜に従って、植栽基盤に生育した沈水植物200aの根は、植栽基盤100を通過して、植栽基盤100外へ伸張することとなる。このように伸張した段階では、伸張した根が湖底の土砂に届くように植栽基盤100を沈潜させて行くので、成長に必要な栄養分は湖底等の土砂から直接とることができる筈だと考えた。
When the planting base 100 is used for the submerged plant 200a, it is necessary to gradually sink to the bottom of the lake according to the growing state of the submerged plant 200a so that the plant body does not come out on the water surface.
According to such submerged submergence, the roots of the submerged plant 200a grown on the planting base pass through the planting base 100 and extend out of the planting base 100. In this extended stage, the planting base 100 is submerged so that the extended root reaches the bottom of the lake, so the nutrients necessary for growth can be taken directly from the bottom of the lake. It was.
また、湖沼沿岸帯の沈水植物群落再生を目的とする場合は、植物を活着させた植栽基盤100を栄養物20の豊富な湖底等に直接沈設するため問題ないと考えた。   In addition, in the case of the purpose of regenerating a submerged plant community in the lake coastal zone, it was considered that there is no problem because the planting base 100 in which the plant is entrapped is directly laid on the bottom of the lake where nutrients 20 are abundant.
そこで、植栽基盤100には、当面の生育に必要な栄養物20だけを少なくとも保持させればよいのではないかと、考えたのである。種々の試みを試す中、3次元の空隙構造を生かして、かかる栄養物20を保持させる発想が思いついた。すなわち、3次元の空隙構造は、いわば3次元の網目構造のようなものであるから、かかる空隙構造に、栄養物20を含む湖底の泥状のものを塗り込む発想を得たのである。   Then, I thought that the planting base 100 should hold | maintain only the nutrient 20 required for growth for the time being at least. While trying various attempts, the idea of retaining such nutrients 20 by utilizing a three-dimensional void structure was devised. In other words, since the three-dimensional void structure is like a three-dimensional network structure, the idea of applying a mud on the bottom of the lake including the nutrients 20 to the void structure was obtained.
しかし、単に塗り込んだだけでは、植栽基盤100を水中下に沈潜させると、3次元構造の空隙構造から栄養物20が剥がれる場合が考えられる。そこで、かかる場合には、3次元の空隙構造に栄養物20を塗り込んだ後に、一旦乾燥させることで、栄養物20の3次元空隙構造からの抜け落ちを防止した。   However, if the planting base 100 is submerged underwater simply by painting, the nutrient 20 may be peeled off from the three-dimensional void structure. Therefore, in such a case, the nutrient 20 is applied to the three-dimensional void structure and then dried, thereby preventing the nutrition 20 from falling off the three-dimensional void structure.
水中下に沈潜させた状態で、栄養物20が全く抜け落ちない訳ではないが、乾燥を十分に行い固化させることで、その抜け落ちを極力少なくし、当初の根の伸張ができるまでは少なくとも3次元の空隙構造に保持させることができるようになった。   Although the nutrient 20 does not fall off at all when submerged in water, it is at least three-dimensional until the initial root can be stretched by sufficiently drying and solidifying the nutrient 20 as much as possible. It became possible to hold | maintain to the space | gap structure of this.
しかし、栄養物20の粘度が強い場合には、かかる乾燥固化等の抜け落ち防止策を施さないでも、空隙構造からの剥がれは抑えられ、空隙構造に塗り込んだだけでも十分に使用することができることも確認した。実際は泥を塗りこむだけでも生長可能ではあるが、固化させることでより良い生長量と生長期間を見込めるのである。   However, when the nutrient 20 has a high viscosity, peeling from the void structure can be suppressed without taking measures to prevent falling off such as drying and solidification, and it can be sufficiently used even if it is applied to the void structure. Also confirmed. In fact, it can be grown just by applying mud, but it can be expected to grow and grow longer by solidifying.
塗り込む箇所は、3次元の空隙構造の表面側である。表面側に塗りこむ栄養物として、例えば、沈水植物の生長に必要な栄養素が多く含まれている湖沼や池底の土砂が適しており、石や枝等の取り除いたものを基盤本体10の3次元空隙構造内に塗りこむとよい。特に、沈水植物200aの再生を図ろうとする湖底等の生育現場から採取した土砂等が好ましい。   The part to be painted is on the surface side of the three-dimensional void structure. As nutrients to be applied to the surface side, for example, lakes and ponds and soils that contain a large amount of nutrients necessary for the growth of submerged plants are suitable. It is good to paint in the dimensional void structure. In particular, earth and sand collected from a growing site such as a lake bottom where the submerged plant 200a is to be regenerated is preferable.
基盤本体10に塗りこむ栄養物20としての土砂の中には、水底から採取するものが多いため泥状のものが多く、そのままでは水中で脱離しやすいことが多い。その対策として表面に泥状の栄養物20を塗りこんだ後、天日等で乾燥処理をすることにより土砂を固化させて植栽基盤100から脱離しにくくなることを、上記の如く、本発明者は見出した。   Since the earth and sand as the nutrient 20 applied to the base body 10 is often collected from the bottom of the water, it is often mud-like and often easily detached in water. As described above, according to the present invention, as a countermeasure, the mud-like nutrient 20 is applied to the surface, and then the soil is solidified by drying the sun and the like, thereby making it difficult to separate from the planting base 100. Found.
また、かかる栄養物20は、珪藻土や製紙工場から発生するペーパースラッジ灰等の吸水性材料を泥状の土砂と混合すれば、泥状物質を素早く粘性を持たせた状態にすることができ、これを植栽基盤100の表面に塗りこむことで泥の保持力を高めるようにしても構わない。   In addition, the nutrient 20 can quickly make the mud substance viscous by mixing a water-absorbing material such as paper sludge ash generated from diatomaceous earth or a paper mill with mud earth and sand. You may make it raise the retention power of mud by coating this on the surface of the planting base | substrate 100. FIG.
天日での乾燥等を行う前者は時間と場所に余裕がある場合に、珪藻土等を混ぜる後者は現地の水底を採取してすぐに浮島等に施工する際に用いると効果的である。   The former, which is used for drying in the sun, is effective when the time and place are available, and the latter, which is mixed with diatomaceous earth, is effective when used on floating islands immediately after collecting the local water bottom.
湖沼や池底の水底の土砂を塗りこむ際は、沈水植物を生育させる場所の土砂を用いるとよい。これは土砂中にはその地域特有の植物の種子や胞子、根等やその地域固有の動物プランクトンやその卵が眠っているためで、他所からの移入による生態系の撹乱を防ぐことができる。   When smearing the bottom of lakes and ponds, it is recommended to use the soil where the submerged plants are grown. This is because the seeds, spores, roots, etc. peculiar to the region, zooplankton peculiar to the region, and eggs are sleeping in the earth and sand, and it is possible to prevent disturbance of the ecosystem due to transfer from other places.
また、他の栄養物としては、市販されている腐葉土や黒ボク土などの植物の栄養素を含む土を用いたり、栄養素が少ない土砂等に緩効性肥料を混合する等して、適宜調製するようにしても勿論構わない。   In addition, as other nutrients, use a soil containing plant nutrients such as commercially available humus or black-boiled soil, or mix appropriately with slow-release fertilizer in soil and sand with low nutrients, etc. Of course it does not matter.
かかる構成の植栽基盤100としては、その厚みは植物の根を張らすことを考えて10mm以上、100mm以内とすればよい。栄養物20の塗り込み範囲は、少なくとも表面下5mm以上の深度で、20mm以内の深度範囲で塗り込めばよい。かかる構成を採用することで、基盤本体10全体に土砂等を充填するのに比べて、かなりの軽量化を図ることができる。   The planting base 100 having such a configuration may have a thickness of 10 mm or more and 100 mm or less in consideration of stretching the roots of the plant. The nutrient 20 may be applied at a depth of at least 5 mm below the surface and within a depth range of 20 mm or less. By adopting such a configuration, it is possible to achieve a considerable weight reduction compared to filling the entire base body 10 with earth and sand.
また、かかる構成の植栽基盤100では、図1に示すように、基盤本体10の外周側を、シート部材30で囲う構成を有している。シート部材30を設ける構成は、一義的には、基盤本体10の3次元空隙構造に塗り込んだ栄養物20が、波等による水流の影響を受けて、3次元の空隙構造から離脱するのを防止する目的である。   Moreover, in the planting base | substrate 100 of this structure, as shown in FIG. 1, it has the structure which surrounds the outer peripheral side of the base | substrate main body 10 with the sheet | seat member 30. As shown in FIG. The configuration in which the sheet member 30 is provided is that the nutrient 20 applied to the three-dimensional void structure of the base body 10 is unaffected by the water flow caused by waves or the like and is separated from the three-dimensional void structure. The purpose is to prevent.
かかるシート部材30は、基盤本体10の側面と底面を覆うように設けられている。かかるシート部材30としては、ビニールシートや遮水シートなどを用いるとよい。あるいは、透水性で柔らかい不織布などを使用すると植物の根がシートを突き破って伸張し、植物の生育を高めることができて好ましい。   The sheet member 30 is provided so as to cover the side surface and the bottom surface of the base body 10. As the sheet member 30, a vinyl sheet, a water shielding sheet or the like may be used. Alternatively, it is preferable to use a water-permeable and soft non-woven fabric because the roots of the plant can break through the sheet and extend to enhance the growth of the plant.
シート部材30で基盤本体10を囲むことにより、前述の如く、表面に塗りこんだ栄養物20としての泥は長期的には徐々に基盤本体10の3次元空隙構造の内部へ沈降していくが、基盤本体10の下部では保持することができる。下部に届くようになった根の伸張度合いに応じて、栄養物20の利用が可能である。   By surrounding the base body 10 with the sheet member 30, as described above, mud as the nutrient 20 applied to the surface gradually settles into the inside of the three-dimensional void structure of the base body 10 in the long term. It can be held at the bottom of the base body 10. The nutrient 20 can be used according to the degree of elongation of the root that has reached the lower part.
また、浮島として基盤本体10を設置する際は、懸濁態の栄養素である植物プランクトン等が水中から沈降するが、基盤本体10がシート部材30で囲まれているため、これらを保持することもできる。これらの沈降した植物プランクトンは、微生物等に分解され最終的には沈水植物が利用可能な無機態の栄養素となるのである。   Moreover, when installing the base body 10 as a floating island, phytoplankton or the like, which is a suspended nutrient, settles out of the water, but the base body 10 is surrounded by the sheet member 30, so that these can be retained. it can. These settled phytoplankton are decomposed into microorganisms and the like, and finally become inorganic nutrients that can be used by submerged plants.
かかる構成の植栽基盤100は、図2に示すように、周囲にフロート110を設けて浮島のように構成しておけばよい。フロート110には、前記構成の植栽基盤100を、巻き上げ式にロープ等で係留し、漸次係留ロープ延ばすことにより植栽基盤100の設置深度を深くすることができるようにしておけばよい。   As shown in FIG. 2, the planting base 100 having such a configuration may be configured like a floating island by providing a float 110 around it. It is only necessary that the planting base 100 having the above-described configuration is moored with a rope or the like in a roll-up manner and the installation depth of the planting base 100 can be deepened by gradually extending the mooring rope.
このように構成しておけば、植栽基盤100に植栽した沈水植物200aの成長に従って、沈水植物200aの植物体本体が水面下に常に沈むようにさせることができる。最終的には、湖底等の底にまで沈めることができるように構成しておけばよい。   If comprised in this way, according to the growth of the submerged plant 200a planted in the planting base 100, the plant main body of the submerged plant 200a can be made to always sink below the water surface. Eventually, it may be configured so that it can sink to the bottom of a lake or the like.
(実施の形態2)
本実施の形態では、前記実施の形態で述べた植栽基盤100を用いて、沈水植物200aを植栽する方法を説明する。
(Embodiment 2)
In the present embodiment, a method for planting a submerged plant 200a using the planting base 100 described in the above embodiment will be described.
本発明の植栽方法では、沈水植物200aの植物体を、植栽基盤100を構成する基盤本体20の表面に寝かせて行うユニークな方法を採用する。例えば、沈水植物200aの植物体の茎部分を、図1に示すように、植栽基盤100の栄養物20を塗り込んだ3次元空隙構造の表面に横たえるように寝かせる。   The planting method of the present invention employs a unique method in which the plant body of the submerged plant 200a is laid on the surface of the base body 20 constituting the planting base 100. For example, as shown in FIG. 1, the stem part of the plant body of the submerged plant 200a is laid down so as to lie on the surface of the three-dimensional void structure coated with the nutrient 20 of the planting base 100.
かかる植栽方法では、沈水植物200aを植栽基盤100上に横倒しにしてピン固定する方法、もしくは植栽基盤100の表面に植栽する沈水植物200aを横倒しにして、その上をネット等の網状部材で植物体が動かないように覆う方法等が考えられる。   In such a planting method, the submerged plant 200a is laid down on the planting base 100 and pinned, or the submerged plant 200a to be planted on the surface of the planting base 100 is laid down, and a net such as a net is formed thereon. A method of covering the plant body so as not to move with the member is conceivable.
要は、植栽基盤100の表面に横たえただけでは、植物体が動く虞があって根づかない場合が十分に考えられるため、植物体を植栽基盤100の表面に効果的に留める手段を採用することか必要である。かかる手段としては、どのような構成のものでも基本的には構わない。   In short, there is a possibility that the plant body may move due to being laid on the surface of the planting base 100, and it is considered that the plant body does not take root. Therefore, a means for effectively keeping the plant body on the surface of the planting base 100 is adopted. It is necessary to do. As such means, any configuration may be basically used.
図1には、ピン40を使用した場合を例示した。ピン40は、図1、3に示すように、複数のピン先41が押さえ部材42で互いに接続された形状とした。植物体を押さえ部材42と植栽基盤100の表面との間に挟んだ状態で、ピン先41を3次元空隙構造内に向けて差し込み、植物体を押さえることができるようになっている。   FIG. 1 illustrates the case where the pin 40 is used. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 3, the pin 40 has a shape in which a plurality of pin tips 41 are connected to each other by a pressing member 42. In a state where the plant body is sandwiched between the pressing member 42 and the surface of the planting base 100, the pin tip 41 is inserted into the three-dimensional gap structure so that the plant body can be pressed.
ピン先41には、図3に示すように、それぞれ返し43が設けられており、3次元の空隙構造を形成する繊維等に引っかかって抜けにくいように構成されている。   As shown in FIG. 3, each pin tip 41 is provided with a barb 43 so that it is not easily pulled out by being caught by a fiber or the like forming a three-dimensional void structure.
かかるピン40を用いて沈水植物200aを植栽基盤100の表面に固定することで、
沈水植物の生育長さに応じて、植栽基盤100を水中に沈めるに際して、横倒しのままでいられるようにすることができる。水中に沈めた場合には、浮力で植物体が立ち上げられるため、ピン40は、かかる立ち上げ防止に効果的である。
By fixing the submerged plant 200a to the surface of the planting base 100 using the pin 40,
Depending on the growth length of the submerged plant, when the planting base 100 is submerged in water, it can be left on its side. When submerged in water, the plant body is raised by buoyancy, so the pin 40 is effective in preventing such rise.
ピンの材質はプラスチック製や金属製のものでもよいが、自然素材の竹等や生分解性プラスチックを用いることにより植物の根が活着後、ピンが自然に分解され、回収する手間や環境負荷を軽減することもできる。   The material of the pin may be plastic or metal. However, by using natural materials such as bamboo or biodegradable plastic, the root of the plant will be settled and the pin will be naturally decomposed, reducing the labor and environmental burden. It can also be reduced.
ピンの植物体を押さえる押さえ部材42の部分の厚みは、細すぎると植物を固定する際に植物の柔らかい茎が折れてしまうため1mm以上とし、厚すぎると植物を覆ってしまうため10mm以下とするとよい。   If the thickness of the holding member 42 that holds the pin plant is too thin, the soft stem of the plant will break when fixing the plant, and if it is too thick, it will cover the plant. Good.
ピン40の先端の形状は植栽基盤100の3次元空隙構造等の網目サイズや厚みによって異なるが、植栽基盤100を水中でゆすっても抜けない長さであればよい。また、図3に示すように、返し43を設ける等の抜けにくい構造にするとよい。   The shape of the tip of the pin 40 varies depending on the mesh size and thickness of the three-dimensional void structure of the planting base 100, but may be a length that does not come out even if the planting base 100 is shaken in water. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 3, it is good to make it the structure which is hard to come off, such as providing the return | turn 43.
かかる構成のピン40を用いて、植栽基盤100の表面に、特に栄養物20を塗り込んだ3次元空隙構造面に植物体を留めることで、例えば、エビモやクロモなどの茎の節から根をだす有茎種の沈水植物200aを、植栽基盤100に効率的に根付かせることができる。   By using the pin 40 having such a structure, the plant body is fastened on the surface of the planting base 100, particularly on the three-dimensional void structure surface coated with the nutrient 20, so that, for example, roots from the nodes of stems such as shrimp and chromo The submerged plant 200a of the stalk species that produces the root can be efficiently rooted in the planting base 100.
また、網状部材として金網やネットなどを用いることもできる。かかる場合には、水中に沈めるため水よりも重い比重のものがよい。植栽基盤100内部から伸張する沈水植物200aの新芽が網目を抜けやすいように網目サイズは0.5mm以上とすることが好ましい。網目サイズの上限は植栽する沈水植物の大きさによって設定すればよく、植物を横倒しに固定する必要があるため植物体の長さの半分程度とすればよい。   Further, a wire mesh or a net can be used as the mesh member. In such a case, a specific gravity that is heavier than water is preferable because it is submerged in water. The mesh size is preferably 0.5 mm or more so that the sprout of the submerged plant 200a extending from the inside of the planting base 100 can be easily removed. The upper limit of the mesh size may be set according to the size of the submerged plant to be planted, and since it is necessary to fix the plant on its side, it may be about half the length of the plant body.
以上のように本実施の形態で説明した植栽方法と、前記実施の形態で説明した植栽基盤100の構成を用いることで、前記の如く、植栽基盤100の表面の栄養物20を効率的に吸収して根を伸張させるように沈水植物200aを植栽することができる。   As described above, by using the planting method described in the present embodiment and the configuration of the planting base 100 described in the above-described embodiment, the nutrient 20 on the surface of the planting base 100 is efficiently used as described above. It is possible to plant the submerged plant 200a so as to absorb it and extend the roots.
すなわち、当初は、図1に示すように植栽基盤100上に留められた沈水植物200aは、数週間後には図4に示すように根210が少し生えてきて根づくようになる。さらに、根210は伸張し、最終的には、図5に示すように、強固な植栽基盤100を構成することができる。   That is, initially, the submerged plant 200a held on the planting base 100 as shown in FIG. 1 is rooted with a few roots 210 as shown in FIG. 4 after several weeks. Furthermore, the root 210 is extended, and finally, a strong planting base 100 can be formed as shown in FIG.
尚、図5に示す場合は、根が張った後で植物体を留めていたピン40は撤去した状況を示している。湖沼沿岸帯の植栽基盤100として出荷する場合は、沈水植物200aがある程度根づいた段階で、ピン40を取り除いて出荷すればよい。また、浮島に構成する場合には、取り除いておくか、あるいは生分解性のものを使用することで長期的に見て自然に消失させるようにしても構わない。   In addition, in the case shown in FIG. 5, the pin 40 which has fastened the plant body after the roots have been stretched is shown as being removed. In the case of shipping as a planting base 100 in the lake coastal zone, the pin 40 may be removed and shipped when the submerged plant 200a is rooted to some extent. Moreover, when it comprises in a floating island, you may make it lose | disappear naturally in the long term by removing or using a biodegradable thing.
このようにして、本発明に係わる植栽基盤100と、植栽方法とを用いることにより、前掲の図2に示すような沈水植物200aが良好に生育する植生浮島や、図6に示すような湖沼沿岸域に沈水植物200aの植生帯を復元することができる。   Thus, by using the planting base 100 and the planting method according to the present invention, a vegetation floating island where the submerged plant 200a as shown in FIG. The vegetation zone of the submerged plant 200a can be restored to the lake coastal area.
本実施例では、前記実施の形態1で説明した植栽基盤100と、実施の形態2で説明した植栽方法とについて、実際に植栽基盤を浮島構成にして実地検証した場合について説明する。   In this example, a case will be described in which the planting base 100 described in the first embodiment and the planting method described in the second embodiment are actually verified by setting the planting base to a floating island configuration.
本発明に係る植栽基盤100の効果を評価するために、栄養物20を含む池底から採取した土砂を、厚さ50mmの合繊マット表面に、10mm厚で塗り込んだ。さらに、かかる植栽基盤100の側面と底面を、図1に示すように、シート部材30として不織布で囲んだ。   In order to evaluate the effect of the planting base 100 according to the present invention, earth and sand collected from the pond bottom containing the nutrient 20 was applied to the surface of the synthetic fiber mat having a thickness of 50 mm to a thickness of 10 mm. Furthermore, as shown in FIG. 1, the side surface and the bottom surface of the planting base 100 were surrounded by a nonwoven fabric as the sheet member 30.
かかる構成の植栽基盤100と、栄養物20を塗り込まないただの合繊マットの植栽基盤とに、それぞれ沈水植物200aを横倒しにピン止め固定した。かかる構成の両植栽基盤を、植生浮島として公園池に設置して沈水植物200aの生育試験を行った。   The submerged plant 200a was pinned and fixed sideways on the planting base 100 having such a configuration and the planting base of a synthetic fiber mat that was not coated with the nutrient 20. Both planting bases having such a configuration were installed in a park pond as a vegetation floating island, and a growth test of the submerged plant 200a was performed.
試験は2005年9月9日〜11月30日まで実施し、沈水植物200aには湖沼や池、水田などで一般的にみられるクロモ、ヒロハノエビモ、ヤナギモ、キクモの4種を用いた。沈水植物200aの生育は、0〜4迄のランクで評価した。すなわち、0:消滅・消失、1:枯死・食害等の衰退、2:植栽した親株のみ残存の維持、3:新芽の長さが10cm未満の成長、4:新芽の長さが10cm以上の5段階で評価した。   The test was conducted from September 9th to November 30th, 2005. As the submerged plant 200a, four kinds of chromo, common yellow shrimp, willow, and chrysanthemum commonly found in lakes, ponds, paddy fields and the like were used. The growth of the submerged plant 200a was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 4. That is, 0: disappearance / disappearance, 1: decline of withering / feeding damage, 2: maintenance of only the planted parent strain, 3: growth of a sprout less than 10 cm, 4: sprout length of 10 cm or more Evaluation was made in 5 stages.
試験結果は、図7に示すようになった。図7からは、表面に底泥を塗りこんだ本発明に係わる植栽基盤100は、栄養物20の塗り込みのない植栽基盤のみの浮島よりも沈水植物200aの生育が良好であることが確認された。11月30日のヤナギモを除き、他の沈水植物は植物生育のボーダーラインのランク2(植物体の維持)よりも上であることが確認された。   The test results are as shown in FIG. From FIG. 7, the planting base 100 according to the present invention in which the bottom mud is coated on the surface has better growth of the submerged plant 200a than the floating island of only the planting base without the application of the nutrient 20. confirmed. With the exception of willows on November 30, other submerged plants were confirmed to be above the borderline rank 2 (maintenance of plants) for plant growth.
栄養物20の塗り込みのない植栽基盤の場合には、植物生育のボーダーラインであるランク2以下を示すことが多く、沈水植物200aがあまり良く育たないことが確認された。尚、11月30日のヤナギモの低い値は、気温も水温も低くなり植物体が枯れ始めたことが原因である。   In the case of a planting base without the application of the nutrient 20, it often shows rank 2 or lower, which is a borderline for plant growth, and it was confirmed that the submerged plant 200 a does not grow very well. In addition, the low value of the willow of November 30 is because the temperature and water temperature became low and the plant body began to wither.
次に植栽基盤100の3次元空隙構造である細密構造と、栄養物20を塗り込む栄養条件のどちらが、沈水植200aの生育に影響を与えるのかを調査した。すなわち、50mm厚の合繊マットのみの植栽基盤、栄養物20を含まない砂を合繊マット表面に充填した植栽基盤、栄養物20を含む底泥を合繊マット表面に塗りこんだ植栽基盤100の3種類を用意し、各々について沈水植物200aの生育試験を室内で行った。   Next, it was investigated which of the fine structure, which is the three-dimensional void structure of the planting base 100, and the nutrient conditions for applying the nutrient 20 affect the growth of the submerged plant 200a. That is, a planting base of only 50 mm thick synthetic fiber mat, a planting base in which sand containing no nutrients 20 is filled on the surface of the synthetic fiber mat, and a planting base 100 in which bottom mud containing nutrients 20 is applied to the surface of the synthetic fiber mat. These were prepared, and the growth test of the submerged plant 200a was conducted indoors for each.
試験では、バケツに各々の構成の植栽基盤を入れ、前記実験の池と同程度の栄養物20を含む水を約15リットル満たした。それぞれの植栽基盤に、沈水植物200aとしてのクロモとヒロハノエビモを横倒しに植栽し、室温20℃、照度1850〜2000ルクス、16時間の明条件、8時間の暗条件で2005年の1月24日〜3月8日まで栽培し、新鮮重量(湿重量)の増加量を測定した。   In the test, a planting base of each configuration was placed in a bucket, and about 15 liters of water containing nutrients 20 similar to the pond in the experiment was filled. On each planting base, black and yellow shrimp as submerged plants 200a are planted sideways, and the temperature is 20 ° C., the illuminance is 1850 to 2000 lux, the light condition is 16 hours, and the dark condition is 8 hours, January 24, 2005. Cultivated from Sunday to March 8, and the increase in fresh weight (wet weight) was measured.
試験結果を図8に示す。図8に示すように、試験前後の沈水植物200aの湿重量は、合繊マットのみの植栽基盤、あるいは栄養物20を含まない砂を充填した植栽基盤より、栄養物20の豊富な底泥を合繊マットに塗り込んだ植栽基盤100の方が、2倍以上の重量増加率を示すよい生育性を示すことが確認された。植栽基盤の細密構造よりも、植栽基盤に含まれる栄養物が沈水植物等の植物の生育を高めることが分かった。   The test results are shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 8, the wet weight of the submerged plant 200a before and after the test is the bottom mud rich in nutrients 20 from the planting base made only of synthetic fiber mat or the planting base filled with sand not containing the nutrient 20. It was confirmed that the planting base 100 coated with a synthetic fiber mat exhibits a good growth property showing a weight increase rate of 2 times or more. It was found that the nutrients contained in the planting base increase the growth of plants such as submerged plants rather than the fine structure of the planting base.
以上、本発明者によってなされた発明を実施の形態に基づき具体的に説明したが、本発明は前記実施の形態に限定されるものではなく、その要旨を逸脱しない範囲で種々変更可能であることはいうまでもない。   As mentioned above, the invention made by the present inventor has been specifically described based on the embodiment. However, the present invention is not limited to the embodiment, and various modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the invention. Needless to say.
本発明は沈水植物の再生における分野で有効に利用することができる。   The present invention can be effectively used in the field of submerged plant regeneration.
本発明に係る植栽基盤と、その植栽基盤に沈水植物を根づかせる構成を模式的に示した断面図である。It is sectional drawing which showed typically the planting base which concerns on this invention, and the structure which makes a submerged plant root in the planting base. 植栽基盤にフロートを設けて浮島に構成した場合を模式的に示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows typically the case where a float is provided in a planting base | substrate and it comprises on a floating island. ピンの構成を示す斜視図である。It is a perspective view which shows the structure of a pin. 植栽基盤に沈水植物を植栽し、根が出始めた様子を模式的に示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows typically a mode that the submerged plant was planted on the planting base | substrate, and the root began to come out. 植栽基盤に沈水植物を植栽して十分に成長した状態を模式的に示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows typically the state which planted the submerged plant on the planting base | substrate and fully grew. 湖沼沿岸域に沈水植物の植生帯を復元した状態を、模式的に示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows typically the state which restored the vegetation zone of the submerged plant in the lake shore area. (a)、(b)、(c)、(d)は、沈水植物の生育試験の結果を示す説明図である。(A), (b), (c), (d) is explanatory drawing which shows the result of the growth test of a submerged plant. 沈水植物の生育試験の結果を示す説明図である。It is explanatory drawing which shows the result of the growth test of a submerged plant.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
10 基盤本体
20 栄養物
30 シート部材
40 ピン
41 ピン先
42 押さえ部材
43 返し
100 植栽基盤
110 フロート
200 植物
200a 沈水植物
210 根
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Base body 20 Nutrition 30 Sheet member 40 Pin 41 Pin tip 42 Holding member 43 Return 100 Planting base 110 Float 200 Plant 200a Submerged plant 210 Root

Claims (5)

  1. 沈水植物を根づかせる水面下に水中配置される植栽基盤であって、
    前記植栽基盤は、基盤本体と、植栽される前記沈水植物を上で生育させる前記沈水植物用の栄養物とを有し、
    前記基盤本体は3次元の空隙構造であり、
    前記栄養物は、前記基盤本体の3次元の空隙構造の表面側にのみ、前記3次元の空隙構造を利用して設けられていることを特徴とする植栽基盤。
    A planting base that is placed underwater under the surface of a submerged plant,
    The planting base has a base body and a nutrient for the submerged plant on which the submerged plant to be planted is grown.
    The base body has a three-dimensional void structure;
    The planting base, wherein the nutrient is provided only on the surface side of the three-dimensional gap structure of the base body using the three-dimensional gap structure.
  2. 請求項1記載の植栽基盤において、
    前記3次元の空隙構造を利用して設けるとは、前記栄養物を前記3次元の空隙構造の少なくとも表面下5mm以上、20mm以内の深度範囲で塗り込み保持させて設けられていることを特徴とする植栽基盤。
    In the planting base according to claim 1,
    Providing using the three-dimensional void structure is characterized in that the nutrient is applied and held in a depth range of at least 5 mm and within 20 mm below the surface of the three-dimensional void structure. Planting base to be.
  3. 請求項1または2記載の植栽基盤において、
    前記栄養物は、前記空隙構造の表面側に塗り込まれた後に乾燥固化させられていることを特徴とする植栽基盤。
    In the planting base according to claim 1 or 2,
    The planting base, wherein the nutrient is dried and solidified after being applied to the surface side of the void structure.
  4. 請求項1〜3のいずれか1項に記載の植栽基盤において、
    前記基盤本体は、その側面と底面とが、前記栄養物の空隙構造からの水流による離脱を防止するシート部材で囲まれていることを特徴とする植栽基盤。
    In the planting base of any one of Claims 1-3,
    The planting base characterized in that the base body has a side surface and a bottom surface that are surrounded by a sheet member that prevents the nutrient from leaving the gap structure due to water flow.
  5. 請求項1〜のいずれか1項に記載の植栽基盤において、
    前記栄養物の上には、前記沈水植物の茎部分が横に寝かせた状態でピンで固定して設けられていることを特徴とする植栽基盤。
    In planting栽基machine according to any one of claims 1-4,
    A planting base, wherein a stem portion of the submerged plant is fixed with a pin in a state of being laid down on the nutrient.
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JP5345375B2 (en) * 2008-12-01 2013-11-20 株式会社フジタ How to regenerate a submerged plant, how to cultivate a submerged plant used for it, plant regeneration base, floating island
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