JP2006516065A - Scatter measurement alignment for imprint lithography - Google Patents

Scatter measurement alignment for imprint lithography Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2006516065A
JP2006516065A JP2004526254A JP2004526254A JP2006516065A JP 2006516065 A JP2006516065 A JP 2006516065A JP 2004526254 A JP2004526254 A JP 2004526254A JP 2004526254 A JP2004526254 A JP 2004526254A JP 2006516065 A JP2006516065 A JP 2006516065A
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template
substrate
alignment
liquid
light
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JP2004526254A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
シューメーカー,ノーマン・イー
スリニーヴァッサン,シトルガタ・ヴイ
チョイ,ビュン−ジン
ボイシン,ロナルド・ディ
マックマキン,イアン
ワッツ,マイケル・ピイ・シイ
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モレキュラー・インプリンツ・インコーポレーテッド
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Priority to US10/210,894 priority Critical patent/US7070405B2/en
Priority to US10/210,780 priority patent/US6916584B2/en
Priority to US10/210,785 priority patent/US7027156B2/en
Application filed by モレキュラー・インプリンツ・インコーポレーテッド filed Critical モレキュラー・インプリンツ・インコーポレーテッド
Priority to PCT/US2003/023948 priority patent/WO2004013693A2/en
Publication of JP2006516065A publication Critical patent/JP2006516065A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/0002Lithographic processes using patterning methods other than those involving the exposure to radiation, e.g. by stamping
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y10/00Nanotechnology for information processing, storage or transmission, e.g. quantum computing or single electron logic
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y30/00Nanotechnology for materials or surface science, e.g. nanocomposites
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y40/00Manufacture or treatment of nanostructures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F9/00Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically
    • G03F9/70Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically for microlithography
    • G03F9/7049Technique, e.g. interferometric
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F9/00Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically
    • G03F9/70Registration or positioning of originals, masks, frames, photographic sheets or textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. automatically for microlithography
    • G03F9/7065Production of alignment light, e.g. light source, control of coherence, polarization, pulse length, wavelength

Abstract

A method for patterning a substrate by imprint lithography is disclosed. Imprint lithography is a process that dispenses liquid onto a substrate. The template is contacted with the liquid and the liquid is cured. The cured liquid includes a pattern imprint formed in the template. In one embodiment, alignment of the template with a preformed layer on the substrate is performed using scatterometry.

Description

  The embodiments presented herein relate to methods and systems for imprint lithography. More specifically, embodiments relate to methods and systems for microimprint and nanoimprint lithography processes.

  Currently, photolithographic techniques are used to produce the majority of microelectronic devices. However, it is believed that such methods are reaching their limits in terms of resolution. Submicron scale lithography is an important process in the microelectronics industry. By using sub-micron scale lithography, manufacturers can address the increased demand to form smaller and denser electronic circuits on the chip. The microelectronics industry is expected to pursue structures that are about 50 nm or smaller than about 50 nm. Furthermore, nanometer-scale lithography applications are emerging in the areas of optoelectronics and magnetic storage. For example, a photonic crystal of about terabytes per square inch or a densely patterned magnetic memory will require lithography on a scale of 100 nanometers or less.

  To make structures below 50 nm, photolithography techniques require the use of light with very short wavelengths (eg, about 13.2 nm). At such short wavelengths, many of the common materials are not optically transmissive, so imaging systems typically need to be constructed using complex reflective optics. Furthermore, it is difficult to obtain a light source having sufficient output intensity at these wavelengths. Such a system becomes an extremely complex device and a very expensive process. High resolution electron beam lithography techniques are highly accurate but are too slow for mass commercial applications.

  Several imprint lithography techniques are being investigated as low-cost and mass-productive alternatives to conventional photolithography for high-resolution patterning. Both imprint lithography techniques are similar in that they use a template that includes a topography to replicate the surface relief on the film on the substrate. One form of imprint lithography is known as hot embossing.

Hot embossing technology faces several challenges: i) Pressures in excess of 10 MPa are generally required to imprint the relief structure. ii) The temperature must be higher than the T g of the polymer membrane. iii) Limited to separation grooves or dense features resembling lines and spaces where the pattern (in the substrate film) is repeated. Hot embossing separates lines and dots and is not suitable for printing raised structures. This is due to the very high pressure and long time required to move the highly viscous liquid resulting from raising the temperature of the substrate film, as much liquid as necessary to form a separate structure. It is necessary. This pattern dependency makes hot embossing unattractive. High pressures and temperatures, thermal expansion, and material deformation also create significant technical problems in developing layer-to-layer alignment with the accuracy required for device fabrication. Such pattern placement distortion is problematic in applications such as patterned magnetic media for storage. If the pattern placement distortion cannot be kept to a minimum, it becomes very difficult to address the bits of the patterned media by the read / write head. Inventions related to hot embossing are included.

  In one embodiment, the patterned layer is formed by curing an activated photocuring liquid disposed on the substrate in the presence of a patterned template. This patterned template is placed on a predetermined portion of the substrate. Typically, the predetermined portion of the substrate includes a pre-formed patterning region. The alignment of the template with respect to the substrate is accomplished using alignment marks on both the template and the substrate.

  In one embodiment, the patterned template is placed away from the substrate. The patterned template includes alignment marks. The alignment mark of the template includes a diffraction grating that matches the alignment mark of the corresponding substrate. A scatterometry alignment system is coupled to the body and the alignment of the template grating relative to the substrate grating is analyzed using the system. Alignment is performed by illuminating the alignment mark on the template and the alignment mark on the substrate using light at an angle substantially perpendicular to the plane defined by the substrate. Light reflected along a non-zero order from the template and substrate alignment marks is measured. Optical measurements include analyzing the light intensity at multiple wavelengths. The average alignment error is determined by averaging the light intensity readings at multiple wavelengths. This average alignment error can be used to change the position of the template relative to the substrate prior to forming the patterned layer.

  In another embodiment, the patterned template is placed away from the substrate. The patterned template includes alignment marks. The template alignment mark includes a diffraction grating that matches the corresponding substrate alignment mark. Alignment is achieved by illuminating the template alignment mark and the substrate alignment mark with two incident light beams at an angle that is not substantially perpendicular to the plane defined by the substrate. The light reflected along the zero order from the template and substrate alignment marks is measured. Measuring light includes analyzing the light intensity at multiple wavelengths. The average alignment error is determined by averaging the light intensity readings at multiple wavelengths. This average alignment error can be used to change the position of the template relative to the substrate prior to forming the patterned layer.

  In another embodiment, the patterned template is placed away from the substrate. The patterned template includes alignment marks. The patterned template includes alignment marks. The alignment mark of the template includes a diffraction grating that matches the alignment mark of the corresponding substrate. Alignment is accomplished by illuminating the template alignment mark and the substrate alignment mark with two incident light beams at an angle that is not substantially perpendicular to a plane defined by the substrate. Light reflected along a non-zero order from the template and substrate alignment marks is measured. Optical measurements include analyzing the light intensity at multiple wavelengths. The average alignment error is determined by averaging the light intensity readings at multiple wavelengths. This average alignment error can be used to change the position of the template relative to the substrate prior to forming the patterned layer.

  Other objects and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon reading the following detailed description and upon reference to the accompanying drawings.

  While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the accompanying drawings and are described in detail herein. However, the drawings and detailed description thereof are not intended to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the invention is defined by the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. It should be understood that it is intended to encompass all variations, equivalents, and alternatives in scope.

  The embodiments presented herein generally relate to systems, devices, and related processes for manufacturing small devices. More specifically, the embodiments presented herein relate to imprint lithography systems, devices, and related processes. For example, these embodiments are used to imprint sub-100 nm features on a substrate such as a semiconductor wafer. These embodiments include, but are not limited to, patterned magnetic media for data storage, micro-optical devices, microelectromechanical systems, biological testing devices, chemical analysis / chemical reaction devices, X-ray optical devices. It should be understood that other types of devices may be used to manufacture.

  The imprint lithography process has demonstrated the ability to replicate high resolution (50 nm or less) images on a substrate using a template containing the image as a topography on the surface. Imprint lithography can be used to pattern substrates in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, optical devices, MEMS, optoelectronics, patterned magnetic media for storage applications, and the like. Imprint lithography techniques are superior to optical lithography for producing three-dimensional structures such as micro lenses and T-gate structures. Imprints including templates, substrates, liquids, and any other material that affects physical properties including, but not limited to, surface energy, boundary energy, Hamacker constant, van der Waals force, viscosity, density, opacity, etc. The lithography system components are designed to properly handle reproducible processes.

  A method and system for imprint lithography is discussed in US Pat. No. 6,334,960 to Willson et al. Entitled “Step and Flash Imprint Lithography”, incorporated herein by reference. Yes. Further methods and systems for imprint lithography are further discussed in the following US patent application: “Method and System of Automatic Fluid Dispensing for Imprint, filed July 17, 2001, granted to Voison”. US Patent Application No. 09 / 908,455 entitled “Lithography Processes”, “High-Resolution Overlay Alignment Methods and Systems for Imprint US Patent Application No. 9” filed July 16, 2001 / Methods for High-Pre filed on Aug. 1, 2001, No. 907,512. US Patent Application No. 09 / 920,341 entitled “TransMetFraction”, filed on August 21, 2001, entitled “Cition Gap Orientation Sensation Between a Transparent Template and Substitute for Imprint Lithography”. No. 09 / 934,248, U.S. Patent Application No. 09/698, entitled "High-Precision Orientation Alignment and Gap Control Stages for Imprint Lithography Processes" filed Oct. 27, 2000. No. 7, US patent application Ser. No. 09 / 976,681, entitled “Template Design for Room Temperature, Low Pressure micro-and Nano-Imprint Lithography” filed Oct. 12, 2001, May 1, 2002. U.S. Patent Application No. 10 / 136,188 entitled "Methods of Manufacturing a Lithography Template" filed on the same day, and "Method and System for" filed May 16, 2001 to Willson et al. Fabricating Nanoscale Patterns in Light Curable Compositions Using a n. Electric Field, entitled “Electric Field”, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Further methods and systems are discussed in the following publications, all of which are incorporated herein by reference: Precision Engineering, B.C. J. et al. Choi, S .; Johnson, M.C. Colburn, S.M. V. Srenivasan, C.I. G. Willson's “Design of Orientation Stages for Step and Flash Imprint Lithography”, J. Am. Vac Sci Technol B 16 (6) 3825-3829 1998-December 1998, W.S. Wu, B.W. Cui, X. Y. Sun, W.H. Zhang, L.M. Zhunag, and S.H. Y. Chou's "Large area high density quantified magnetic disks fabricated using nanoimprint lithography", J Vac Sci Tech B 17 (6), 3197-3202. Y. Chou, L.C. Zhuang, “Lithographically-induced Self-assembly of Periodic Polymer Microarray Arrays”, and Macromolecules 13, 4399 (1998), p. Mansky, J.M. DeRouchey, J.A. Mays, M.M. Pitsikalis, T .; Molkved, H.M. Jaeger and T.W. Russell's "Large Area Domain Alignment in Block Polymer Thin Films Using Electric Fields".

  FIG. 1 illustrates one embodiment of a system 3900 for imprint lithography. The system 3900 includes an imprint head 3100. The imprint head 3100 is attached to an imprint head support 3910. The imprint head 3100 is configured to hold a patterned template 3700. The patterned template 3700 includes a plurality of recesses that define an etch of a pattern that is imprinted on the substrate. The imprint head 3100 or motion stage 3600 is also configured to move the patterned template 3700 toward and away from the substrate to be imprinted during use. System 3900 includes a motion stage 3600. Motion stage 3600 is attached to motion stage support 3920. The motion stage 3600 is configured to hold the substrate and to move the substrate on the motion stage support 3920 in a substantially planar motion. System 3900 further comprises a curing light system 3500 coupled to imprint head 3100. The activation light system 3500 is configured to generate curing light and direct the generated curing light through a patterned template 3700 coupled to the imprint head 3100. The curing light includes light of a suitable wavelength to cure the polymerizable liquid. Curing light includes ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, emitted X-rays, and emitted electron beams.

  Imprint head support 3910 is coupled to motion stage support 3920 by bridging support 3930. In this way, the imprint head 3100 is placed on the motion stage 3600. Imprint head support 3910, motion stage support 3920, and bridge support 3930 are collectively referred to herein as the "body" of the system. The system body components are formed of a thermally stable material. The thermally stable material has a coefficient of thermal expansion of less than about 10 ppm / ° C. at about room temperature (eg, 25 ° C.). In some embodiments, the construction material may have a coefficient of thermal expansion that is less than about 10 ppm / ° C. or less than about 1 ppm / ° C. Examples of such materials include certain iron alloys, including but not limited to certain alloys of silicon carbide, steel, nickel (eg, alloys marketed under the name INVAR®), In addition, there are certain steel, nickel and cobalt alloys (eg, alloys marketed under the name SUPER INVAR ™). Still other examples of such materials include certain ceramics including, but not limited to, ZERODUR® ceramics. Motion stage support 3920 and bridging support 3930 are coupled to support table 3940. Support table 3940 provides substantially vibration free support for the components of system 3900. Support table 3940 insulates system 3900 from ambient vibration (eg, due to work, other mechanical devices). Motion stages and vibration isolation support tables are commercially available from Newport Corporation, Irvine, California.

  In this specification, the “X-axis” means an axis that crosses between the cross-linking supports 3930. In the present specification, the “Y axis” means an axis orthogonal to the X axis. In this specification, the “XY plane” means a plane defined by the X axis and the Y axis. In this specification, the “Z axis” means an axis orthogonal to the XY plane and crossing from the motion stage support 3920 to the imprint head support 3910. In general, the imprint process involves moving the substrate or imprint head along the XY plane until the proper position of the substrate with respect to the patterned template is achieved. Movement of the template or motion stage along the Z axis brings the patterned template into a position where contact is possible between the patterned template and the liquid placed on the surface of the substrate.

  System 3900 is housed within enclosure 3960 as shown in FIG. Enclosure 3960 covers imprint lithography system 3900 and provides a thermal and air barrier to lithographic components. As shown in FIG. 2, the enclosure 3960 includes a movable access panel 3962 that allows access to the imprint head and motion stage when moved to the “open” position. When in the “closed” position, the components of the system 3900 are at least partially isolated from the surrounding environment. Access panel 3962 also functions as a thermal barrier to reduce the effect of room temperature changes on the temperature of components in enclosure 3960. Enclosure 3960 includes a temperature control system. A temperature control system is used to control the temperature of the components within enclosure 3960. In one embodiment, the temperature control system is configured to prevent temperature changes in enclosure 3960 above about 1 ° C. In some embodiments, the temperature control system prevents changes greater than about 0.1 ° C. In one embodiment, a thermostat or other temperature measurement device combined with one or more fans is used to maintain a substantially constant temperature within the enclosure 3960.

  Various user interfaces may be provided on the enclosure 3960. A computer controlled user interface 3964 is coupled to the enclosure 3960. User interface 3964 displays operating parameters, diagnostic information, job progress information, and other information related to the functions of the enclosed imprint system 3900. User interface 3964 is also configured to receive operator instructions and change operating parameters of system 3900. A staging support 3966 is coupled to the enclosure 3960. The staging support 3966 is used by an operator to place substrates, templates, and other equipment during the imprint lithography process. In some embodiments, staging support 3966 includes one or more indentations 3967 for supporting a substrate (eg, a circular indentation for a semiconductor wafer). Staging support 3966 also includes one or more indentations 3968 for template support.

  There may be additional components depending on the process that the imprint lithography system is designed to perform. For example, a semiconductor processing apparatus including but not limited to an automatic wafer loader, an automatic template loader, and an interface to a cassette loader (all not shown) may be coupled to the imprint lithography system 3900. .

  FIG. 3 shows an embodiment of a portion of imprint head 3100. The imprint head 3100 includes a pre-calibration system 3109 and a high precision orientation system 3111 coupled to the pre-calibration system. Template support 3130 is coupled to high precision orientation system 3111. Template support 3130 is designed to support template 3700 and couple it to high precision orientation system 3111.

  Referring to FIG. 4, a disc-shaped flexure ring 3124 that forms part of the pre-calibration system 3109 is coupled to the imprint head housing 3120. The imprint head housing 3120 is coupled to the intermediate frame 3114 using guide shafts 3112a, 3112b. In one embodiment, three guide shafts (the rear guide shaft is not visible in FIG. 4) are used to support the housing 3120. In order to promote the vertical movement of the housing 3120, sliders 3116a and 3116b coupled to the corresponding guide shafts 3112a and 3112b are used in the periphery of the intermediate frame 3114. A disc-shaped base plate 3122 is coupled to the bottom portion of the housing 3120. Base plate 3122 is coupled to flexible ring 3124. The flex ring 3124 supports the components of the high precision orientation system that includes a first flex member 3126 and a second flex member 3128. The operation and configuration of the flexure members 3126, 3128 will be discussed in detail below.

  FIG. 5 shows an exploded view of the imprint head 3100. As shown in FIG. 5, actuators 3134 a, 3134 b, 3134 c are fixed to the housing 3120 and coupled to the base plate 3122 and the flexible ring 3124. In operation, the operation of actuators 3134a, 3134b, 3134c controls the movement of the flex ring 3124. The operation of actuators 3134a, 3134b, 3134c facilitates rough pre-calibration. In some embodiments, the actuators 3134a, 3134b, 3134c are evenly spaced around the housing 3120. Actuators 3134a, 3134b, 3134c and flexure ring 3124 together form a pre-calibration system. Actuators 3134a, 3134b, 3134c move the flexure ring 3124 along the Z axis to accurately control the air gap.

  The imprint head 3100 also includes a mechanism for highly precise orientation control of the template 3700 so that proper alignment is achieved and a uniform gap is maintained by the template relative to the substrate surface. . In one embodiment, alignment and clearance control is achieved by using first and second flexure members 3126, 3128, respectively.

  Figures 6 and 7 show embodiments of the first and second flexure members 3126 and 3128, respectively, in more detail. As shown in FIG. 6, the first flexure member 3126 includes a plurality of flexure joints 3160 coupled to corresponding rigid portions 3164, 3166. The flexure joint 3160 may be a notch that allows the rigid body portions 3164, 3166 to move around a pivot axis along the thinnest cross-section of the flexure joint. The flexible joint 3160 and the rigid body portion 3164 together form an arm 3172, while the other flexible joint 3160 and the rigid body portion 3166 together form an arm 3174. The arms 3172, 3174 are coupled to and extend from the first flexible frame 3170. The first flexible frame 3170 has an opening 3182. Thereby, curing light (for example, ultraviolet rays) can pass through the first flexible member 3126. In the illustrated embodiment, four flexure joints 3160 allow operation with respect to the first orientation shaft 3180 of the first flexure frame 3170. However, it should be understood that more or less flexible joints are used to achieve the desired control. As shown in FIG. 8, the first flexible member 3126 is coupled to the second flexible member 3128 by a first flexible frame 3170. The first flexible member 3126 also includes two coupling members 3184, 3186. The coupling members 3184, 3186 include openings that attach the coupling member to the flex ring 3124 using any suitable fastening means. The coupling members 3184 and 3186 are coupled to the first flexible frame 3170 via arms 3172 and 3174 as shown.

  As shown in FIG. 7, the second flexible member 3128 includes a pair of arms 3202 and 3204 extending from the second flexible frame 3206. The flexible joint 3162 and the rigid body portion 3208 together form the arm 3202, and at the same time, the other flexible joint 3162 and the rigid body portion 3210 form the arm 3204. The flexure joint 3162 may be a notch that allows the rigid portions 3210, 3204 to move around a pivot axis along the thinnest cross-section of the flexure joint. Arms 3202 and 3204 are coupled to and extend from template support 3130. Template support 3130 is configured to support and hold at least a portion of the patterned template. The template support 3130 also has an opening 3212 through which curing light (eg, ultraviolet light) passes through the second flexible member 3128. In the illustrated embodiment, four flexure joints 3162 allow the template support 3130 to operate with respect to the second orientation shaft 3200. However, it should be understood that more or less flexible joints are used to achieve the desired control. Second flexure member 3128 also includes braces 3220, 3222. Braces 3220, 3222 include openings for attaching braces to first flexure member 3126.

  In one embodiment, the first flexible member 3126 and the second flexible member 3128 are joined as shown in FIG. 8 to form a high precision orientation 3111. The braces 3220, 3222 have a first deflection such that the first orientation axis 3180 of the first flexure member 3126 and the second orientation axis 3200 of the second flexure member are substantially perpendicular to each other. Coupled to frame 3170. In such a configuration, the first orientation axis 3180 and the second orientation axis 3200 intersect at a pivot point 3252 in a substantially central region of the patterned template 3700 disposed within the template support 3130. This combination of the first and second flexure members allows for highly accurate alignment and gap control of the template 3700 patterned during use. Although the first and second flexure members are illustrated as separate elements, the first and second flexure members may be formed from a single machined part into which the flexure members are integrated. Should be understood. The flexure members 3126, 3128 will shear the imprinted features after imprint lithography since the surfaces are combined and coupled so that movement of the patterned template 3700 occurs around the pivot point 3252. Wax “swing” and other movements can be substantially reduced. Since the structural rigidity of the flexure joint is selectively restricted, the lateral movement of the template surface can be ignored by the high-precision orientation, and the torsional movement around the perpendicular to the template surface can be ignored. become. Another advantage of using a flexure member as described herein is that the flexure member does not produce a significant amount of particulates, especially as compared to a frictionally moving joint. This provides a significant advantage to the imprint lithography process because the particulates disturb the imprint lithography process.

  FIG. 9 shows an assembled high precision orientation system coupled to a pre-calibration system. A patterned template 3700 is located in a template support 3130 that is part of the second flexure member 3128. The second flexible member 3128 is coupled to the first flexible member 3126 in a direction substantially perpendicular to the first flexible member 3126. The first flexible member 3126 is coupled to the flexible ring 3124 via coupling members 3186 and 3184. As described above, the flexible ring 3124 is coupled to the base plate 3122.

  FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of a pre-calibration system showing a cross-section 3260. As shown in FIG. 10, the flex ring 3124 is coupled to a base plate 3122 having an actuator 3134. Actuator 3134 includes an end 3270 coupled to a force detector 3135 that abuts flexure ring 3124. In use, activating actuator 3134 causes end 3270 to move toward or out of flex ring 3124. Movement of the end 3270 toward the flex ring 3124 deforms the flex ring and translates the high precision orientation system toward the substrate along the Z axis. Movement of the end 3270 away from the flexure ring allows the flexure ring to return to its original shape, and during the process, the high precision orientation stage is moved away from the substrate.

  In a typical imprint process, the template is placed in a template holder coupled to a high precision orientation system as shown in the previous figure. This template contacts the liquid on the surface of the substrate. By pressing the liquid onto the substrate when the template approaches the substrate, a resistance force by the liquid is applied to the template. This resistance force is transmitted to the flexible ring 3124 as shown in FIGS. The force applied to the deflection ring 3124 is transmitted to the actuator 3134 as a resistance force. A resistance force applied to the actuator 3134 is determined by the force sensor 3135. Force sensor 3135 is coupled to actuator 3134 so that the resistance force applied to actuator 3135 during use is determined and controlled.

FIG. 11 shows a deflection model indicated as a whole by 3300, which makes it easy to understand the operating principle of a decoupled high-precision orientation stage such as the high-precision orientation unit described in this specification. The deflection model 3300 includes four parallel joints, ie, joints 1, 2, 3, 4 that make up a 4-bar link system in nominal and rotational configurations. Line 3310 represents the axis of alignment of joints 1 and 2. Line 3312 indicates the axis of alignment of joints 3 and 4. Angle α 1 represents the angle between the vertical axis passing through the center of template 3700 and line 3310. Angle α 2 represents the angle between the vertical axis passing through the center of template 3700 and line 3312. In some embodiments, angles α 1 and α 2 are selected such that a compliant alignment axis (or orientation axis) is substantially present on the surface of template 3700. The rigid body portion 3314 between the joints 2 and 3 rotates about the axis indicated by the point C in response to the change in the high-precision orientation. The rigid portion 3314 represents the template support 3130 of the second flexible member 3128.

  The high precision orientation system simply produces tilting motion without causing substantial lateral movement at the surface of the template coupled to the high precision orientation system. The use of a flex arm provides high stiffness in directions where lateral or rotational movement is not desired, and provides lower stiffness to the high precision orientation system when phrasing motion is required. Thus, the high precision orientation system allows rotation of the template support, i.e. rotation of the template around the pivot point of the template surface, while at the same time providing sufficient resistance in the direction perpendicular to the template and parallel to the template. Apply force to maintain proper position with respect to the substrate. In this way, a passive orientation system is used to direct the template in a direction parallel to the template. The term “passive” refers to movement that occurs without a user or programmable controller, that is, the system self-corrects in the appropriate direction upon contact with the template liquid. Another embodiment may be implemented in which the movement of the flexure arm is controlled by a motor to generate active deflection.

  The movement of the high precision orientation stage may be caused by direct or indirect contact with the liquid. If the high precision orientation stage is passive, in one embodiment it is designed to have the most powerful compliance around the two orientation axes. The two orientation axes exist perpendicular to each other and on the imprint surface of the imprint member arranged on the high precision orientation stage. The compliance values for two orthogonal twists are set to be the same for a symmetric imprint member. A passive precision orientation stage is designed to change the orientation of the template when the template is not parallel to the substrate. When the template contacts the liquid on the substrate, the flexure member corrects for the resulting non-uniform liquid pressure on the template. Such correction would be done with minimal overshoot or no overshoot. Furthermore, a high precision orientation stage as described above will maintain a substantially parallel orientation between the template and the substrate for a sufficiently long time to allow the liquid to cure.

  As shown in FIG. 1, imprint head 3100 is attached to imprint head support 3910. In this embodiment, the imprint head 3910 is mounted so that the imprint head always remains in a fixed position. In use, all movement along the XY plane is performed on the substrate by motion stage 3600.

  In use, the substrate to be imprinted is supported using motion stage 3600 and the substrate is moved along the XY plane. In some embodiments, the motion stage can move the substrate beyond a maximum of several hundred mm with an accuracy of at least ± 30 nm, preferably with an accuracy of about ± 10 nm. In one embodiment, the motion stage includes a substrate chuck 3610 coupled to a carriage 3620, as shown in FIG. The carriage 3620 moves over the base 3630 on a friction bearing system or a frictionless bearing system. In one embodiment, a frictionless bearing system with an air bearing is used. The carriage 3620 is suspended over the motion stage base 3630 using an air layer (ie, an “air bearing”) in one embodiment. A counterbalancing force may be applied to the air bearing level using a magnetic or vacuum system. Both magnetic and vacuum based systems are commercially available from a variety of sources, and any such system can be used in an imprint lithography process. An example of a motion stage applicable to an imprint lithography process is the Dynam YX motion stage, which is commercially available from Newport Corporation, Irvine, California. The motion stage may comprise a tip tilt stage similar to the calibration stage, designed to bring the substrate approximately level with the XY motion plane. The motion stage may comprise one or more θ stages for directing the pattern on the substrate to the XY motion axis.

  The system 3900 also includes a liquid distribution system that distributes the curable liquid onto the substrate. The liquid distribution system is coupled to the system body. In one embodiment, the liquid dispensing system is coupled to the imprint head 3100. FIG. 3 shows the liquid dispensing head 2507 of the liquid dispensing system extending from the cover 3127 of the imprint head 3100. Various components of the liquid distribution system 3125 may be provided within the cover 3127 of the imprint head 3100.

  FIG. 13 shows a schematic diagram of a liquid distribution system. In one embodiment, the liquid dispensing system includes a liquid container 2501. The liquid container 2501 is configured to hold the activated photocuring liquid. Liquid container 2501 is coupled to pump 2504 via infusion conduit 2502. An inlet valve 2503 is provided between the liquid container 2501 and the pump 2504 to control the flow through the injection conduit 2502. Pump 2504 is coupled to liquid dispensing head 2507 via outlet conduit 2506.

  The liquid dispensing system is configured to allow precise volume control of the amount of liquid dispensed on the substrate. In one embodiment, liquid control is achieved using a piezoelectric valve as pump 2504. Piezoelectric valves are commercially available from Lee Company, Westbrook, Connecticut. In use, the curable liquid is directed to pump 2504 through infusion conduit 2502. When the substrate is properly positioned, the pump 2504 is activated to flow a predetermined amount of liquid through the outlet conduit 2506. The liquid is then dispensed onto the substrate via a liquid dispensing head 2507. In this embodiment, control of the liquid volume is achieved by control of pump 2504. By quickly switching the pump from the open state to the closed state, the amount of liquid sent to the dispensing head 2507 can be controlled. Pump 2504 is configured to dispense liquid in an amount less than about 1 μL. The operation of the pump 2504 can dispense liquid on the substrate either in droplets or in a continuous pattern. Liquid droplets are applied by rapidly cycling the pump from an open state to a closed state. A liquid flow is created on the substrate by leaving the pump open and moving the substrate under the liquid dispensing head.

  In another embodiment, the amount of liquid may be controlled using a liquid dispensing head 2507. In such a system, the pump 2504 is used to supply a curable liquid to the liquid dispensing head 2507. Liquid droplets that will be accurately specified in volume are dispensed using a liquid dispensing actuator. Examples of liquid dispensing actuators include micro solenoid valves or piezoelectric actuated distributors. Piezoelectric starter distributors are available from MicroFab Technologies Inc. of Plano, Texas. Commercially available. A liquid dispensing actuator is incorporated into the liquid dispensing head to allow control of liquid dispensing. The liquid dispensing actuator is configured to dispense about 50 pL to about 1000 pL of liquid for each dispensed droplet. Advantages of systems with liquid dispensing actuators are faster dispensing times and more accurate volume control. A liquid dispensing system is described in US patent application Ser. No. 09 / 908,455 entitled “Method and System of Automatic Fluid Dispensing for Imprint Lithography Processes” filed Jul. 17, 2001, incorporated herein by reference. Are further described.

  Coarse determination of template and substrate positions is determined using a linear encoder (eg, an exposed linear encoder). The encoder provides a coarse measurement of about 0.01 μm. The linear encoder comprises a scale coupled to the moving object and a reader coupled to the body. The scale may be formed from a variety of materials including glass, glass ceramic, and steel. The scale includes a number of marks that are read by a reader to determine the relative and absolute positions of the moving object. The scale is coupled to the motion stage using means known in the art. The reader is coupled to the body and optically coupled to the scale. In one embodiment, an exposed linear encoder may be used. The encoder is configured to determine the position of the motion stage either along a uniaxial plane or in a biaxial plane. An example of an exposed two-axis linear encoder is a PP model encoder available from Heidenhain Corporation, Schaumburg, Illinois. In general, encoders are incorporated into many commercially available XY motion stages. For example, the Dynam XY motion stage available from Newport Corp has a two-axis encoder built into the system.

  The approximate position of the template along the Z axis is also determined using a linear encoder. In one embodiment, the position of the template is measured using an exposed linear encoder. In one embodiment, the linear encoder scale is coupled to the pre-calibration ring of the imprint head. In other cases, the scale may be directly coupled to the template support 3130. The reader is coupled to the body and optically coupled to the scale. The position of the template is determined along the Z axis using an encoder.

  In some embodiments, detection of template and substrate positions during an imprint lithography process needs to be known to an accuracy of less than 100 nm. Since many features on a template patterned with a high resolution semiconductor process are smaller than 100 nm, such control is important to properly align the features. In one embodiment, high accuracy position detection can be determined using an interferometer (eg, a laser interferometer).

FIG. 42 shows the axis of rotation and motion determined during the imprint lithography process. Substrate position X W axis, Y W-axis, and is determined along the Z W axis. The rotation of the substrate is determined about the X axis (α W ), the Y axis (β W ), and the Z axis (θ W ). Similarly, the position of the template is determined along the X, Y, and Z axes. Template rotation is determined about the X axis (α T ), the Y axis (β T ), and the Z axis (θ T ). In order to align the position of the template with respect to the substrate, in addition to the X, Y, and Z coordinates, the angles of α and β should match the angle of θ.

  The positions of the X axis, Y axis, and Z axis of the template and the substrate are determined using a linear encoder. However, such encoders typically do not provide rotational information about their axes. In one embodiment, an interferometer is used to determine the X and Y axis positions of the template and substrate and the rotation angles of the angles α, β, θ. A schematic diagram of an interferometer-based position detection system is shown in FIG. Interferometer system 4300 includes a first three-axis laser interferometer 4310 and a second three-axis laser interferometer 4320. Mirror 4330 and mirror 4335 are coupled to the substrate and / or template. Mirror 4330 and mirror 4335 are optically coupled to the first and second laser interferometers, respectively. The mirror 4330 is disposed on a portion of the template and / or substrate that is perpendicular to the side on which the mirror 4335 is placed on the template and / or substrate. As shown in FIG. 43, this allows the 5 ° movement to be determined substantially simultaneously. The first laser interferometer 4310 senses the position of the substrate and / or template along the X axis and the rotation angles β and θ. Second laser interferometer 4320 senses the position of the substrate and / or template along the Y axis and rotation angles α, θ.

  One embodiment of an interferometer-based position detector 4400 used in the imprint lithography system 3900 is shown in FIG. Position detector 4400 is attached to a portion of the body of system 3900. For example, the position detector may be attached to the support 3930 of the body. In one embodiment, the position detector 4400 includes four interferometers. In one embodiment, the interferometer is laser type. Either a differential interferometer or an absolute interferometer may be used. Two interferometers 4410, 4415 are used for template positioning. The other two interferometers 4420, 4425 are used for substrate positioning. In one embodiment, all interferometers are three axis interferometers. By using this arrangement of interferometers, 5 ° movement of both the template and the substrate (eg, X, Y position and α, β, θ rotation) is possible. Laser 4430 provides light to the interferometer. The light from this laser is directed to interferometers 4410, 4415, 4420, 4425 via optical component 4440 (note: not all optical components are referenced). The optical component includes a beam splitter and mirror system to direct light from the laser to the interferometer. Interferometer systems and suitable optical systems are commercially available from several sources.

  In one embodiment, a barometer 3135 is coupled to the imprint head 3100 as shown in FIG. A barometer 3135 is used to determine whether the substrate provided on the motion stage is substantially parallel to the reference plane. As used herein, “barometer” means a device that measures the pressure of a stream of air directed toward a surface. If a substrate is provided below the outlet of the barometer 3135, the distance of the substrate from the outlet of the barometer 3135 will affect the pressure sensed by the barometer. In general, the farther the substrate is from the barometer, the weaker the pressure.

  In such a configuration, the barometer 3135 is used to determine the pressure difference from the change in distance between the substrate surface and the barometer. By moving the barometer 3135 along the surface of the substrate, the barometer can determine the distance between the barometer and the substrate surface at various measurement points. The surface area of the substrate relative to the barometer is determined by comparing the distance between the barometer and the substrate at various measurement points. The distance between at least three points on the substrate and the barometer is used to determine whether the substrate is a surface. If the distance is substantially the same, the substrate is considered a surface. A significant difference in the measured distance between the substrate and the barometer indicates that the relationship between the substrate and the barometer is a non-surface relationship. This non-planar relationship may be caused by substrate non-planarity or substrate tilt. Prior to use, the tilt of the substrate is corrected using a chip tilt stage attached to the XY stage to establish a surface relationship between the substrate and the template. A suitable barometer is available from Senex Inc. Available from

  While using the barometer, the substrate or template is placed within the measurement range of the barometer. The movement of the substrate toward the barometer is performed by either the Z-axis movement of the imprint head or the Z-axis movement of the motion stage.

  In some imprint lithography processes, the photocuring liquid is placed on the surface of the substrate. The patterned template comes into contact with the photocuring liquid and activation light is added to the photocuring liquid. As used herein, “activating light” means light that will affect chemical changes. The activation light includes ultraviolet light (eg, light having a wavelength of about 200 nm to about 400 nm), photochemical action light, visible light, or infrared light. In general, any wavelength of light that can affect chemical changes is classified as activated. Chemical changes will appear in many forms. A chemical change may include, but is not limited to, any chemical reaction that causes a polymerization or crosslinking reaction. In one embodiment, the activation light reaches the composition through the template. By such a method, the photocurable liquid is cured to form a structure complementary to the structure formed on the template.

  In some embodiments, the activation light source 3500 is an ultraviolet light source that can generate light having a wavelength of about 200 nm to about 400 nm. As shown in FIG. 1, the activation light source 3500 is optically coupled to the template. In one embodiment, the activation light source 3500 is provided proximate to the imprint head 3100. The imprint head 3100 includes a mirror 3121 (shown in FIG. 4) that reflects the light from the activation light source to the patterned template. The light passes through an opening in the body of the imprint head 3100 and is reflected toward the 3700 by the mirror 3121. In this way, the activation light source irradiates the patterned template without being placed in the imprint head 3100.

  Most activated light sources generate a significant amount of heat during use. If the activation light source 3500 is in close proximity to the imprint system 3900, heat from that light source will be radiated toward the body of the imprint system and will cause the temperature of some parts of the body to Will raise. Since many metals expand when heated, a temperature rise in certain parts of the body of the imprint system will increase the expansion of the body. When features below 100 nm are produced, this expansion will affect the accuracy of the imprint system.

  In one embodiment, the activation light source is sufficiently spaced from the body such that the system body is insulated from the heat generated by the activation light source 3500 by the intervening air between the activation light source 3500 and the imprint head 3100. Provided. FIG. 14 shows an activation light source 3500 optically coupled to the imprint head 3100. The activation light source 3500 includes an optical system 3510 that projects the light generated by the light source toward the imprint head 3100. Light enters the imprint head 3100 through the optical system 3510 and through the opening 3123. The light is then reflected by a mirror 3121 provided within the imprint head toward a template coupled to the imprint head 3110 (see FIG. 4). In this way, the light source is thermally insulated from the body. A suitable light source is OAI Inc. of Santa Clara, California. May be obtained from

  One or more optical measurement devices may be coupled to the imprint head 3910 and / or the motion stage 3920. In general, an optical measurement device is any device that determines the position and / or orientation of a template relative to a substrate.

  Referring to FIG. 14, a through-the-template optical imaging system 3800 is optically coupled to the imprint head. The optical imaging system 3800 includes an optical imaging element 3810 and an optical system 3820. In one embodiment, optical imaging element 3810 is a CCD microscope. The optical imaging system 3800 is optically coupled to the template through the imprint head. If the substrate is placed under a patterned template, the optical imaging system 3800 is also optically coupled to the substrate. An alignment error between a template patterned using the optical imaging system 3800 and the underlying substrate as described herein is determined. In one embodiment, mirror 3121 (shown in FIG. 4) is movable within the imprint head. During the alignment process or engineering inspection process, the mirror 3121 is moved out of the optical path of the optical imaging system.

  During use of the optical alignment device, the substrate or template is placed within the measurement range (eg, field of view) of the optical imaging system. The movement of the substrate towards the optical imaging system is effected by either the Z-axis movement of the imprint head or the Z-axis movement of the motion stage.

  An additional optical imaging system may be coupled to the imprint head to view the off-axis substrate. The off-axis position is defined herein as a position that is not in the optical path of the activation light source. Off-axis optical imaging system 3830 is coupled to imprint head 3100 as shown in FIG. Off-axis optical imaging system 3830 includes an optical imaging element 3832 and an optical system 3834. In one embodiment, optical imaging element 3810 is a CCD microscope. An off-axis optical imaging system 3830 can be used to scan the substrate without placing the template in the optical path. The off-axis optical imaging system 3830 is used in an off-axis alignment process as described herein. Further, off-axis optical imaging system 3830 can be used to perform rough alignment of the template with respect to the substrate, while through-the-template optical imaging system 3830 is used for high-precision alignment of the template with respect to the substrate. Additional off-axis optical systems may be coupled to the imprint head 3100. FIG. 12 shows an additional off-axis optical system 3840 coupled to the imprint head 3100.

  Additional optical imaging elements may be coupled to the motion stage to view the template. A template optical imaging system 3850 is coupled to a motion stage 3600 as shown in FIG. The template optical imaging system 3850 includes an optical imaging element 3852 and an optical system 3854. In one embodiment, the optical imaging element 3852 is a CCD microscope. A template optical imaging system 3850 is used to scan the surface of the template without scanning the majority of the template. A template optical imaging system 3830 may be used in an off-axis alignment process as described herein.

  It should be understood that the optical imaging system may be located within the alternative system embodiments described herein. For example, in an alternative system embodiment, the optical imaging system may be coupled to a motion stage configured to move the imprint head. In such embodiments, the substrate is attached to a substrate support that also includes an optical imaging element.

  As previously mentioned, the photocuring liquid is placed on the substrate and the template is brought into contact with the liquid during the imprint lithography process. The curable liquid is a low viscosity liquid monomer solution. Suitable solutions have viscosities ranging from about 0.01 cps to about 100 cps (measured at 25 ° C.). Low viscosity is particularly desirable for high resolution structures (eg, 100 nm or less). Low viscosity also leads to closing the voids faster. Furthermore, the low viscosity will cause the void area to be filled with liquid more quickly at low pressure. In particular, for regimes below 50 nm, the viscosity of the solution should be below about 30 cps, or more preferably below about 5 cps (measured at 25 ° C.).

  Many of the problems encountered with other lithographic techniques may be solved by using a low viscosity photocuring liquid in the imprint lithography process. The patterning of the low viscosity photo-curing solution solves each of the problems facing hot embossing technology by utilizing a low viscosity photosensitizing solution. Also, the possibility of easier layer-to-layer alignment is provided by using a thick and rigid permeable template. In general, the rigid template is transparent to both the liquid activation light and the alignment mark measurement light.

  The curable liquid may be composed of various polymerizable materials. In general, any photopolymerizable material can be used. The photopolymerizable material may include a mixture of monomers and photopolymerization initiators. In some embodiments, the curable liquid may include one or more commercially available negative photoresist materials. The viscosity of the photoresist material can be lowered by diluting the liquid photoresist with a suitable solvent.

  In one embodiment, a suitable curable liquid includes a monomer, a silicate monomer, and a polymerization initiator. Crosslinkers and dimethylsiloxane derivatives may also be included. Monomers include, but are not limited to, acrylate and methacrylate monomers. Examples of monomers include, but are not limited to, butyl acrylate, methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, or mixtures thereof. The monomer makes up about 25 to about 50% by weight of the curable liquid. It is believed that the monomer ensures adequate solubility of the photopolymerization initiator in the curable liquid. Monomers also provide adhesion to the underlying organic transfer layer when used.

  The curable liquid may be a silicate monomer. Silinate monomers are generally polymerizable compounds containing a group of silicon. Silinate monomers include, but are not limited to, silane acrylyl and silane methacrylyl derivatives. Specific examples include methacryloxypropyl tris (tri-methylsiloxy) silane and (3-acryloxypropyl) tris (tri-methoxysiloxy) -silane. Silinate monomers may be present in an amount of 25-50% by weight. The curable liquid may contain a dimethylsiloxane derivative. Examples of dimethylsiloxane derivatives include, but are not limited to, (acryloxypropyl) methylsiloxane dimethylsiloxane copolymer, acryloxypropylmethylsiloxane homopolymer, acryloxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane. The dimethylsiloxane derivative is present in an amount of about 0-50% by weight. Silinate monomers and dimethylsiloxane derivatives impart high oxygen etch resistance to the curing solution. Furthermore, both the silicate monomer and the dimethylsiloxane derivative reduce the surface energy of the curable liquid, thus increasing the ability of the template to leave the surface. Silinate monomers and dimethylsiloxane derivatives described herein are available from Gelest Inc. Are all commercially available.

  Any material that will initiate a free radical reaction can be used as the polymerization initiator. In order to initiate photocuring of the curable material, the polymerization initiator is preferably a photopolymerization initiator. Examples of polymerization initiators include α-hydroxy ketones (eg, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone sold by Ciba-Geigy Specialty Chemical Division as Irgacure 184), acylphosphine oxide polymerization initiators (eg, Ciba as Irgacure 819). -Phenyl bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide, which is commercially available from Geigy Specialty Chemical Division), but is not limited thereto.

  The curable liquid may contain a crosslinking agent. Crosslinkers are monomers that contain two or more polymerizable groups. In one embodiment, a multifunctional siloxane derivative may be used as a crosslinker. An example of a polyfunctional siloxane derivative is 1,3-bis (3-methacryloxypropyl) -tetramethyldisiloxane.

  In one example, the curable liquid may comprise a mixture of 50% by weight n-butyl acrylate and 50% by weight (3-acryloxypropyl) tris-trimethylsiloxane-silane. To this mixture, a 3 wt% mixture of Irgacure 819 to Irgacure 184 1: 1 and 5 wt% of the crosslinker 1,3-bis (3-methacryloxypropyl) -tetramethyldisiloxane may be added. The viscosity of this mixture is less than 30 cps measured at about 25 ° C.

In another embodiment, the curable liquid is composed of a monomer, a photoacid generator, and a photobase generator. Examples of monomers include, but are not limited to, phenolic polymers and epoxy resins. Photoacid generators are compounds that release acid when treated with activating light. The acid produced catalyzes the polymerization of the monomer. Those skilled in the art are aware of such acid generating additives and the specific acid generating additive used depends on the monomer and the desired curing conditions. In general, the acid generating additive is selected to respond to irradiation at a first wavelength λ 1, which in some embodiments is in the visible or near ultraviolet (near UV) range. For example, in some embodiments, the first wavelength λ 1 is selected to be about 400 nm or greater. A photobase generator is also added to the monomer. This photobase generator may prevent the monomer from curing near the template boundary. The photobase generator may be responsive to irradiation at the second wavelength λ 2 , but is inactive or substantially inert to irradiation at the first wavelength λ 1 . In addition, the second wavelength λ 2 is selected so that irradiation at the second wavelength is first absorbed near the surface of the monomer at the boundary with the template and does not penetrate deeply into the curable liquid. Should be. For example, in some embodiments, a base generating additive may be used that is responsive to radiation having a wavelength λ 2 in the deep ultraviolet region, ie, having a wavelength in the range of about 190-280 nm.

According to one embodiment, a curable liquid containing a monomer, a photoacid generator, and a photobase generator is deposited on the substrate. A template is contacted with this curable liquid. Next, the curable liquid is exposed to light radiation of the first wavelength λ 1 and the second wavelength λ 2 at substantially the same time. In another case, the curable liquid is exposed to radiation of the second wavelength λ 2 and then to radiation of the first wavelength λ 1 . Excess base is generated at the boundary with the template by exposing the curable liquid to radiation of the second wavelength λ 2 . Excess base serves to neutralize the acid generated by exposure of the curable liquid to radiation of the first wavelength λ 1 , thereby preventing the acid from curing the curable liquid. The radiation of the second wavelength λ 2 has a shallow penetration depth into the curable liquid, so that the base generated by the radiation only prevents the curable liquid from curing at or near the template boundary. It is. The remainder of the curable liquid is cured by exposure to longer wavelength radiation (λ 1 ) that penetrates the entire curable liquid. US Pat. No. 6,218,316 entitled “Planarization of Non-Planar Surfaces in Device Fabrication” provides further details regarding this process and is incorporated herein by reference.

In another embodiment, the curable liquid decomposes when exposed to, for example, deep UV radiation to form hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), sulfur trioxide (SO 3). ), Acetylene (C 2 H 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), or methane (CH 4 ). Irradiation at a first wavelength λ 1 , such as visible or near UV, is used to cure the curable liquid, and deep UV irradiation (λ 2 ) is used to generate one or more of the above gases. The generation of the gas generates a local pressure near the boundary between the curable liquid and the template to promote separation of the template from the curable liquid. US Pat. No. 6,218,316 describes further details regarding this process and is incorporated herein by reference.

In another embodiment, the curable liquid may be composed of monomers that form a polymer that will cure and degrade upon exposure to light. In one embodiment, a polymer having a doubly substituted carbon backbone is deposited on the substrate. After contacting the template with the curable liquid, the curable liquid is exposed to radiation at a first wavelength λ 1 (eg, greater than 400 nm) and radiation at a second wavelength λ 2 in the deep UV range. The radiation of the first wavelength serves to cure the curable liquid. When the curable liquid is exposed to the second wavelength λ 2 , cleavage occurs at the substituted carbon atoms. Since deep UV irradiation does not penetrate deeply into the curable liquid, the polymer only decomposes near the boundary with the template. The decomposed surface of the curable liquid facilitates separation from the template. Other functional groups that promote photodegradation of the polymer can also be used. US Pat. No. 6,218,316 describes further details of this process and is incorporated herein by reference.

  In various embodiments, the imprint lithography template is optical lithography, electron beam lithography, ion beam lithography, X-ray lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography, scanning probe lithography, focused ion beam milling, interference lithography, epitaxial growth. Manufactured using processes including, but not limited to, processes, thin film deposition, chemical etching, plasma etching, ion milling, reactive ion etching, or combinations thereof. A method for producing a patterned template is described in U.S. patent application entitled “Methods of Manufacturing a Lithography Template” filed May 1, 2002, issued to Voison, incorporated herein by reference. 10 / 136,188.

  In one embodiment, the imprint lithography template is substantially transparent to the activation light. The template includes a body having a lower surface. The template further includes a plurality of recesses on the lower surface extending toward the upper surface of the main body. The recess may be any suitable dimension, but typically at least a portion of the recess has a feature size of less than about 250 nm.

Regarding the imprint lithography process, the durability of the template and its release characteristics may be a concern. In one embodiment, the template is formed from quartz. Templates may be formed using other materials such as silicon germanium carbon, gallium nitride, silicon germanium, sapphire, gallium arsenide, epitaxial silicon, polysilicon, gate oxide, silicon dioxide, or their Combinations may be included, but are not limited thereto. The template may include a material used to form a detectable feature such as an alignment mark. For example, the detectable feature may be formed from SiO x . Here, X is less than 2. In some embodiments, X is about 1.5. In another example, the detectable feature may be formed from molybdenum silicide. Both SiO x and molybdenum silicide are optically transparent to the light used to cure the polymerizable liquid. However, both materials are substantially opaque to visible light. By using these materials, it is possible to form an alignment mark on the template that does not interfere with the curing of the underlying substrate.

  As previously mentioned, the template is treated with a surface treatment material to form a thin layer on the surface of the template. The surface treatment process is optimized to provide a low surface energy coating. Such a coating is used in preparing an imprint template for imprint lithography. The processed template has desirable release characteristics compared to the unprocessed template. The surface of the untreated template has a surface free energy of about 65 dynes / cm or more. The surface treatment procedure described herein results in a surface treatment layer that exhibits a high level of durability. Due to the durability of the surface treatment layer, it is possible to use the template for a very large number of imprints without exchanging the surface treatment layer. In some embodiments, the surface treatment layer reduces the lower surface free energy measured at 25 ° C. to less than about 40 dynes / cm, or in some embodiments, less than about 20 dynes / cm. Reduce until it gets smaller.

In one embodiment, the surface treatment layer is formed from a reaction product of alkyl silane, fluoroalkyl silane, or fluoroalkyl trichlorosilane and water. This reaction forms a silicated coating layer on the surface of the patterned template. For example, the silinate surface layer is formed from the reaction product of tridecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrooctyltrichlorosilane and water. The surface treatment layer may be formed using either a liquid phase process or a gas phase process. In a liquid phase process, the substrate is immersed in a precursor or solvent solution. In the gas phase, the precursor is carried using an inert carrier gas. It can be difficult to obtain a pure anhydrous solvent for use in liquid phase processing. The presence of water in the bulk phase during processing results in the accumulation of lumps, which adversely affects the final quality or coverage of the coating. In one embodiment of the gas phase process, the template is placed in a vacuum chamber, and then the vacuum chamber is cycle purged to remove excess water. However, some absorbed water remains on the surface of the template. However, a small amount of water is considered necessary to initiate the surface reaction that forms the coating. This reaction may be described as:
R-SiCl 3 + 3H 2 O => R-Si (OH) 3 + 3HCl
To facilitate the reaction, the template is brought to the desired temperature using a temperature controlled chuck. The precursor is then fed into the reaction chamber for a predetermined time. Reaction parameters such as template temperature, precursor concentration, flow geometry, etc. are adjusted to the specific precursor and template substrate combination. By controlling such conditions, the thickness of the surface treatment layer is controlled. In order to minimize the interference of the surface treatment layer on the feature size, the thickness of the surface treatment layer is maintained at a minimum value. In one embodiment, a single layer of surface treatment layer is formed.

  In one embodiment, there are at least two different depths associated with the recesses on the lower surface of the template. 20A and 20B show a plan view and a cross-sectional view, respectively, of a template patterned with recesses having two types of depths. With reference to FIGS. 20A and 20B, the template includes one or more patterning regions 401. In such an embodiment, the first relatively shallow depth is associated with a recess in the patterning region of the template, as shown in FIG. 20B. This patterning region includes regions that are repeated during patterning of the template. This patterning region is provided within the region defined by the template edge 407. The outer region 409 is defined as a region extending from the outer end of any patterning region to the end of the template. The outer region has a depth that is substantially greater than the recess in the patterning region. Here, the periphery of the template is defined as a patterning region limited by the outer region 409. As shown in FIG. 20A, four patterning regions are provided in the region defined by the template. This patterning region is separated from the end 407 of the template by the outer region 409. The “boundary portion” of the template is defined by the end portions 403a, 403b, 403c, 403d, 403e, 403f, 403g, and 403h of the patterning region.

  Patterning regions are separated from each other by a boundary region 405. The boundary region is a recess provided between the patterning regions deeper than the recess of the patterning region. As will be described below, both the boundary region and the patterning region respectively block liquid flow between the patterning region and the patterning region, i.e., beyond the boundary of the patterning region.

The template design is selected based on the type of lithography process used. For example, a template for positive imprint lithography has a design that is advantageous for forming a discontinuous film on a substrate. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 15, the template 12 is such that the depth of one or more structures is relatively large compared to the depth of the structures used to form the patterning region. It is formed. In use, the template 12 is placed in a desired spaced relationship with the substrate. In such an embodiment, the gap (h 1 ) between the lower surface 536 of the template 12 and the substrate 20 is significantly smaller than the gap (h 2 ) between the recessed surface 534 and the substrate. For example, h 1 will be less than about 200 nm and h 2 will be greater than about 10,000 nm. When the template contacts the liquid 40 on the substrate 20, it fills the gap between the lower surface 536 and the substrate 20 leaving a region below the recessed surface 534 (shown in FIG. 16). It is believed that the combination of surface energy and capillary force guides liquid from a large recess to a narrower region. As h 1 decreases, the force applied to the liquid by the template 12 may outweigh the capillary force that draws the liquid under the lower surface 536. Such a force may diffuse the liquid into the region below the recess surface 534. The minimum value of h 1 at which the liquid is prevented from diffusing into the recess 532 is referred to as “minimum film thickness” in this specification. Furthermore, as h 1 increases, the capillary force decreases and eventually the liquid spreads into deeper recessed areas. The maximum value of h 1 that is sufficient to prevent the flow of liquid into the recessed area where the capillary force is deeper is referred to herein as the “maximum film thickness”.

As shown in FIGS. 17 and 18, in various embodiments, the template 12 is formed to prevent the curable liquid placed on the substrate 20 from flowing beyond the boundary 412 of the template 12. In one embodiment shown in FIG. 17, the height h 1 is from the substrate 20 to the surface 552 of the shallow recess. The surface 552 of the shallow recess extends to the boundary of the template 12. Thus, the end of the template forms a height h 2 and is virtually infinite compared to the height h 1 . In one embodiment shown in FIG. 18, a deep recess is formed at the outer end of the template 12. The height h 2 is from the substrate 20 to the surface 554 of the deep recess. Again, the height h 1 is from the substrate 20 to the surface 552 of the shallow recess. In any embodiment, the height h 2 is significantly greater than the height h 1 . If the height h 1 is sufficiently small, the activated light curable liquid remains in the gap between the template 12 and the substrate 20 while the curable liquid is applied. Deep recessed portions are particularly useful for liquid confinement in a step-and-repeat process as described herein.

  In one embodiment, template 12 and substrate 20 each have one or more alignment marks. The template 12 and the substrate 20 are aligned using the alignment mark. For example, one or more optical imaging devices (eg, microscope, camera, imaging array, etc.) are used for alignment mark alignment.

In one embodiment, the alignment mark of the template is substantially transparent to the activation light. In other cases, the alignment mark is substantially opaque to the alignment mark detection light. As used herein, alignment mark detection light and light for other measurement and analysis processes is referred to as “analysis light”. In one embodiment, the analysis light includes, but is not limited to, visible light and / or infrared light. The alignment mark may be formed from a material different from the material of the body. For example, the alignment mark may be formed from SiO x , where X is about 1.5. In another embodiment, the alignment mark may be formed from molybdenum silicide. In other cases, the alignment mark may include a plurality of lines etched into the surface of the body. This line is substantially configured to scatter the activation light, but is configured to produce a mark that can be analyzed under analysis light.

In various embodiments, one or more deep recesses as described above penetrate completely through the template body to form an opening in the template. One advantage of such an opening is that it virtually guarantees that the height h 2 is very large relative to h 1 at each opening. Further, in some embodiments, a pressurized gas or vacuum may be applied to the opening. After curing the liquid, a pressurized gas or vacuum may be applied to the one or more openings. For example, a pressurized gas after curing is added as part of a peeling or pulling process that helps separate the template from the cured liquid.

  In one embodiment, one or more alignment marks may be formed in the patterned template. As described herein, the template may be aligned with respect to patterned areas on the substrate using alignment marks formed in the template. One embodiment of a template including alignment marks is shown in FIG. The patterned template 4500 includes a patterning region 4510, an alignment mark 4520, and an alignment mark / patterning region 4530. Alignment mark 4520 is separated from patterning regions 4510 and 4512 by boundaries 4540 and 4542, respectively. The boundaries 4540, 4542 have a depth that is substantially greater than the depth of the alignment mark. As shown in FIG. 45, when the template 4500 is brought into contact with the activating light curable liquid 4560, the liquid spreads to the patterning regions 4510 and 4512, but is prevented from spreading to the region of the alignment mark 4520 by the boundary.

  By keeping the activated light curable liquid from entering the alignment region, an advantage is provided when alignment measurements are made. During a typical alignment procedure, optical measurements are made through the template to the underlying substrate alignment mark (eg, alignment mark 4550) to determine if there is an alignment mark. The presence of liquid between the template and the substrate during the alignment measurement can interfere with the optical measurement. Typically, the refractive index of the liquid is substantially similar to the template material. By keeping liquid out of the alignment area, the optical alignment technique can be simplified and the optical requirements of the alignment system are reduced.

  When the template is used to imprint one of the plurality of layers formed on the substrate, it is advantageous that the template includes not only alignment marks for alignment with the underlying substrate, but also an alignment patterning region. It is. As shown in FIG. 10, the alignment mark patterning region 4530 is in contact with a portion of the applied activating light curable liquid. During curing, alignment marks defined by alignment mark patterning region 4530 are imprinted in the cured layer. During the next process, alignment marks formed in alignment mark patterning region 4530 are used to assist in alignment of the template with respect to the substrate.

  The above imprint lithography system is modified according to the following alternative embodiments. Any of the described alternative embodiments may be combined with other systems described herein, either alone or in combination.

  As described above, the imprint head includes a high precision orientation system that allows for “passive” orientation of the template relative to the substrate. In another embodiment, the high precision directing system comprises an actuator coupled to the flexure arm. This actuator allows "active" control of the high precision orientation system. In use, the user or programmable controller also monitors the orientation of the template against the substrate. The user or programmable controller then modifies the orientation of the template relative to the substrate by manipulating the actuator. As the actuator moves, the movement of the flexure arm modifies the orientation of the template. In this way, “active” control of fine positioning of the template relative to the substrate can be performed. One active high-precision orientation system, “Methods for High-Precision Gap Orientation Sensation Between a Transient Template and Substrain, which was incorporated herein by reference, was filed on August 1, 2001. Further described in US patent application Ser. No. 09 / 920,341.

  In an alternative embodiment, as described above, the imprint head includes a pre-calibration system. The pre-calibration system includes a flex ring 3124 as shown in FIG. Instead of a high precision orientation system, a template support system 3125 is coupled to the precalibration ring. In contrast to the high precision orientation system, the template support system 3125 is formed from a substantially rigid and non-compliant member 3127. These members provide a substantially rigid support for the template 3700 disposed within the template support 3130. In this embodiment, high precision orientation is performed using a motion stage instead of a template support.

  In the embodiments described so far, the imprint head 3100 is coupled to the body in a fixed position. In another embodiment, the imprint head 3100 may be attached to a motion system that moves the imprint head along the XY plane, as shown in FIG. The imprint head 3100 is configured to support a patterned template as described in any one of the embodiments herein. The imprint head 3100 is coupled to a motion system that includes an imprint head chuck 3121 and an imprint motion stage 3123. The imprint head 3100 is attached to the imprint head chuck 3121. The imprint head chuck moves the imprint head along the XY plane together with the imprint motion stage 3123. In this case, a mechanical or electromagnetic motion system is used. The electromagnetic system generates an XY plane movement of the imprint chuck by using a magnet. In general, the electromagnetic system incorporates permanent magnets and electromagnetic magnets in the imprint motion stage 3123 and the imprint head chuck 3121. The attractive forces of these magnets are overcome by an air cushion between the imprint head chuck 3121 and the imprint motion stage 3123 resulting in an “air bearing”. The imprint head chuck, and hence the imprint head, is moved along the XY plane on the air cushion. An electromagnetic XY motion stage is described in US Pat. No. 6,389,702 entitled “Method and Apparatus for Motion Control” and is incorporated herein by reference. In a mechanical motion system, an imprint head chuck is attached to the motion stage. The motion stage is then moved by using various mechanical means to correct the position of the imprint head chuck along the XY plane and hence the imprint head. In this embodiment, as described herein, the imprint head may comprise a passive compliant high precision orientation system, an operational high precision orientation system, or a rigid template support system.

  An imprint head 3100 may be coupled to the moving support and the substrate may be attached to the stationary support. Thus, in an alternative embodiment, the imprint head 3100 is attached to an XY axis motion stage as shown herein. The substrate is attached to a substantially stationary substrate support. A stationary substrate support is shown in FIG. The stationary substrate support 3640 includes a base 3642 and a substrate chuck 3644. The substrate chuck 3644 is configured to support the substrate during the imprint lithography process. The substrate chuck can use any suitable means for holding the substrate on the substrate chuck. In one embodiment, the substrate chuck 3644 includes a vacuum system that applies a vacuum to the substrate to couple the substrate to the substrate chuck. Substrate chuck 3644 is coupled to base 3642. Base 3642 is coupled to an imprint lithography system support 3920 (see FIG. 1). In use, the stationary substrate support 3640 remains in a fixed position on the support 3920 and the position of the imprint head is changed to approach various parts of the substrate.

  Coupling the imprint head to the motion stage provides advantages over techniques where the substrate is on the motion stage. Motion stages generally rely on air bearings to allow motion stage operation with substantially no friction. In general, motion stages are not designed to accept large pressures along the Z axis. As pressure is applied to the motion stage chuck along the Z axis, the position of the motion stage chuck varies slightly in response to this pressure. During the step-and-repeat process, a plurality of imprint regions are formed using a template having an area that is smaller than the area of the substrate. The substrate motion stage is relatively large compared to the template to accommodate larger substrates. As the template touches the substrate motion stage at an off-center location, the motion stage tilts to accommodate increasing pressure. This tilt is compensated by tilting the imprint head to ensure proper alignment. However, when the imprint head is coupled to the motion stage, all of the forces along the Z axis are collected on the template regardless of the location on the substrate where the imprint is performed. This will make alignment easier and increase the throughput of the system.

  In one embodiment, the substrate tilt module is formed in a substrate support as shown in FIG. The substrate support 3650 includes a substrate chuck 3652 coupled to a substrate tilt module 3654. Substrate tilt module 3654 is coupled to base 3656. In one embodiment, the base 3656 is coupled to a motion stage that allows XY movement of the substrate support. In another case, the base 3656 is coupled to a support (eg, 3920) such that the substrate support is attached to the imprint system in a fixed position.

  The substrate chuck 3652 can use any means for holding the substrate with respect to the substrate chuck. In one embodiment, the substrate chuck 3654 includes a vacuum system that applies a vacuum to the substrate to couple the substrate to the substrate chuck. The substrate tilt module 3654 includes a flex ring 3658 coupled to a flex ring support 3660. A plurality of actuators 3662 are coupled to the flex ring 3658 and the flex ring support 3660. Actuator 3662 is operated to vary the tilt of flexure ring 3658. In one embodiment, the actuator uses a differential gear mechanism that is operated manually or automatically. In an alternative embodiment, the actuator uses an eccentric roller mechanism. The eccentric roller mechanism generally provides the substrate support with greater vertical stiffness than the differential gear mechanism. In one embodiment, the substrate tilt module is rigid to prevent tilting of the substrate when the template applies a force of about 1 pound to about 10 pounds to the liquid disposed on the substrate. Specifically, the substrate tilt module is configured to tilt by only 5 micro radians when a pressure of up to 10 pounds is applied to the substrate through the liquid on the template.

  In use, the tilt of the substrate is determined using a sensor coupled to the substrate chuck. The tilt of the substrate is adjusted by an actuator 3662. In this way, the tilt of the substrate can be corrected.

  The substrate tilt module may comprise a high precision orientation system. A substrate support with a high precision orientation system is shown in FIG. To achieve high precision orientation control, the flex ring 3658 includes a central recess in which the substrate chuck 3652 is disposed. The depth of the central recess is such that the upper surface of the substrate provided on the substrate chuck 3652 is equal in height to the upper surface of the flexure ring 3658. High-precision orientation can be performed using an actuator 3662. High precision orientation is performed using an actuator 3662 that can control operation in the nanometer range. In other cases, high precision orientation can be performed passively. The actuator is substantially compliant. Actuator compliance allows the substrate to self-compensate for tilt variations when the template is contacted with the liquid disposed on the substrate. By placing the substrate at a height substantially equal to the flex ring, high precision orientation will occur at the substrate-liquid interface during use. Actuator compliance is thus transferred to the top surface of the substrate, allowing for high precision orientation of the substrate.

  The system described above is configured as a system in which the activated photocuring liquid is distributed on the substrate and on the substrate, and the substrate and the template are brought close to each other. However, it should be understood that the system may be modified so that the activated light curable liquid can be applied to the template rather than the substrate. In such embodiments, the template is placed under the substrate. FIG. 41 shows a schematic diagram of an embodiment of a system 4100 configured such that a template is placed under a substrate. The system 4100 includes an imprint head 4110 and a substrate support 4120 disposed on the imprint head 4110. The imprint head is configured to hold a template 3700. The imprint head is similar in design to any of the imprint heads described herein. For example, the imprint head 4110 includes a high precision orientation system as described herein. The imprint head is coupled to an imprint head support 4130. The imprint head is coupled to a fixed position and remains substantially stationary during use. In another case, the imprint head may be placed on a motion stage that allows XY plane movement of the imprint head 4130 during use.

  The substrate to be imprinted is placed on the substrate support 4120. The substrate support 4120 has a design similar to any support described herein. For example, the substrate support 4120 includes a high precision orientation system as described herein. The substrate support 4120 is coupled to the support 4140 in a fixed position and remains substantially stationary during use. In another case, the substrate support 4120 may be placed on a motion stage that allows XY plane movement of the substrate support during use.

  In use, the activated light curable liquid is placed on a template 3700 disposed in the imprint head. This template may be patterned according to the type of operation being performed, or it may be a plane. The patterned template is configured to be used in a positive, negative, or a combination of positive and negative imprint lithography systems as described herein.

  A typical imprint lithography process is shown in FIGS. As shown in FIG. 23A, the template 12 is positioned in a relationship apart from the substrate 20 so that a gap is formed between the template 12 and the substrate 20. Template 12 includes a surface provided with one or more desired features. This template is moved to the substrate 20 during patterning. As used herein, “feature size” generally refers to the desired feature width, length, and / or depth. In various embodiments, the desired features are provided on the surface of the template 12 as recesses or conductive patterns formed on the surface of the template. The surface 14 of the template 12 is treated with a thin layer 13 that reduces the surface energy of the template and assists in separating the template 12 from the substrate 20. A surface treatment layer for the template is described.

  In one embodiment, material 40 is placed on substrate 20 prior to moving template 12 to a desired position relative to substrate 20. The substance 40 is a curable liquid that follows the shape of the desired features of the template 12. In one embodiment, the material 40 is a low viscosity liquid that at least partially fills the space of the void 31 without using high temperatures. A low viscosity liquid can close the gap between the template and the substrate without requiring high pressure. As used herein, “low viscosity liquid” means a liquid having a viscosity of about 30 centipoise at about 25 ° C. Further details regarding the appropriate selection of material 40 are discussed below. The template 12 interacts with the curable liquid 40 to bring the liquid into a desired shape. For example, the curable liquid 40 follows the shape of the template 12 as shown in FIG. 23B. The position of the template 12 is adjusted so as to create a desired gap distance between the template 12 and the substrate 20. Similarly, the position of the template 12 is adjusted so that the template 12 is properly aligned with respect to the substrate 12.

  After the template 12 is properly placed, the material 40 is cured to form a mask layer 42 on the substrate. In one embodiment, material 40 is cured using activation light 32 to form mask layer 42. The process of applying activation light through the template 12 to cure the liquid is shown in FIG. 23C. As shown in FIG. 23D, after the liquid is substantially cured, the template 12 is removed from the mask layer 42 leaving a cured mask layer on the surface of the substrate 20. The mask layer 42 is a pattern complementary to the pattern of the template 12. Mask layer 42 includes a “base layer” (also referred to as a “residual layer”) between one or more desired features. Separation of the template 12 from the mask layer 42 is performed so that the desired features remain intact from the surface of the substrate 20 without shearing or cracking. The separation of the template 12 from the substrate 20 after imprinting is described below.

  The mask layer 42 is used in various ways. For example, in some embodiments, the mask layer 42 is a functional layer. In such embodiments, the curable liquid 40 is curable to form a conductive layer, a semiconductor layer, a dielectric layer, and / or a layer having desired mechanical or optical properties. In another embodiment, the mask layer 42 may be used to cover a portion of the substrate 20 as the substrate 20 is further processed. For example, the mask layer 42 is used to prevent material deposition on certain portions of the substrate during the material deposition process. Similarly, the mask layer 42 is also used as a mask for etching the substrate 20. In order to simplify the further description of the mask layer 42, only its use as a mask for the etching process will be described below. However, the mask layers of the embodiments described herein are used in various processes as described above.

  When used in an etching process, the mask layer 42 is etched using an etching process until portions of the substrate 20 are exposed through the mask layer 42, as shown in FIG. 23E. That is, this base layer portion is removed by etching. A portion 44 of the masking layer 42 is left on the substrate 20 to be used to prevent etching of portions of the substrate 20. After the mask layer 42 has been etched, the substrate 20 is etched using a known etching process. The portion of the substrate 20 below the portion 44 of the mask layer 42 is not substantially etched while the exposed portion of the substrate 20 is etched. In this way, a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the template 12 is transferred to the substrate. As shown in FIG. 23F, the remaining portion 44 of the mask layer 42 may be removed while leaving the patterned substrate 20 left.

  Figures 24A-24D illustrate one embodiment of an imprint lithography process using a transfer layer. A transfer layer 18 is formed on the upper surface of the substrate 20. The transfer layer 18 is formed of a material having etching characteristics different from those of the mask layer formed from the underlying substrate 20 and / or the curable liquid 40. That is, each layer (eg, transfer layer 18, mask layer, and / or substrate 20) is etched at least somewhat selectively with respect to the other layers.

  A mask layer 42 is formed on the transfer layer 18 by depositing a curable liquid on the surface of the transfer layer 18 and curing the mask layer described with respect to FIGS. The mask layer 42 is used as a mask for etching the transfer layer 18. As shown in FIG. 24B, the mask layer 42 is etched using an etching process until portions of the transfer layer 18 are exposed through the mask layer 42. The portion 44 of the mask layer 42 remains on the transfer layer 18 and is used to prevent etching of a portion of the transfer layer. After the etching of the mask layer 42 is complete, the transfer layer 18 is etched using a known etching process. The portion of the transfer layer 18 disposed below the portion 44 of the mask layer 42 is not substantially etched while the exposed portion of the transfer layer 18 is etched. In this way, the pattern of the mask layer 42 is replicated in the transfer layer 18.

  In FIG. 24C, the portion 44 and the etched portion of the transfer layer 18 together form a mask stack 46 that is used to prevent etching of the underlying portion of the substrate 20. Etching the substrate 20 may be performed using known etching processes (eg, plasma etching process, reactive ion etching process, etc.). This mask stack prevents etching of the underlying portion of the substrate 20, as shown in FIG. 24D. Etching of the exposed portion of the substrate 20 is continued until a predetermined depth is reached. The advantage of using a mask stack as a mask for etching the substrate 20 is that the combined stack forms a high aspect ratio mask (ie, a mask that is greater in height than width). A high aspect ratio mask layer is desirable to prevent undercutting of the mask portion during the etching process.

  The process illustrated in FIGS. 23A-23F and FIGS. 24A-24D is an embodiment of a negative imprint lithography process. As used herein, a “negative imprint lithography” process generally refers to a process in which the curable liquid follows the template topography before curing. That is, a negative image of the template is formed in the cured liquid. As shown in these drawings, a portion of the template that is not a concave portion becomes a concave portion of the mask layer. Therefore, the template is designed to have a pattern that represents a negative image of the pattern to be formed on the mask layer.

  As used herein, “positive imprint lithography” process generally refers to a process in which the pattern formed in the mask layer is a mirror image of the pattern of the template. As described further below, the non-recessed portion of the template becomes the non-recessed portion of the mask layer.

  A typical positive imprint lithography process is shown in FIGS. As shown in FIG. 25A, the template 12 is located in a state of being separated from the substrate 20 so that a gap is formed between the template 12 and the substrate 20. The surface of the template 12 is treated with a thin surface treatment layer 13 that lowers the surface energy of the template and assists in separating the template 12 from the cured mask layer.

  A curable liquid 40 is placed on the surface of the substrate 20. The template 12 is brought into contact with the curable liquid 40. As shown in FIG. 25B, the curable liquid fills the gap between the lower surface of the template and the substrate. In contrast to the negative-type imprint lithography process, the curable liquid 40 is not present in the region of the substrate that is substantially below at least a portion of the template recess. Accordingly, the curable liquid 40 is maintained as a discontinuous film on the substrate defined by the location of at least a portion of the recess of the template 12. After the template 12 is properly positioned, the curable liquid 40 is cured to form a mask layer 42 on the substrate. As shown in FIG. 25C, the template 12 is removed from the mask layer 42 while leaving the cured mask layer on the surface of the substrate 20. The mask layer 42 has a pattern complementary to the pattern of the template 12.

  A mask layer 42 is used to prevent the portions of the substrate 20 from being etched. After the formation of the mask layer 42 is complete, the substrate 20 is etched using a known etching process. As shown in FIG. 25D, the portion of the substrate 20 disposed below the portion of the mask layer 42 remains substantially unetched while the exposed portion of the substrate 20 is etched. In this way, the pattern of the template 12 is replicated in the substrate 20. The remaining portion of the mask layer 42 is removed to form a patterned substrate 20.

  26A-26C illustrate one embodiment of a positive imprint lithography process using a transfer layer. The transfer layer 18 is formed on the upper surface of the substrate 20. The transfer layer 18 is formed from a material having different etching characteristics than the underlying transfer layer and / or the substrate 20. A mask layer 42 is formed on the surface of the transfer layer 18 by depositing a curable liquid on the surface of the transfer layer 18 and curing the mask layer as described with respect to FIGS.

  The mask layer 42 is used as a mask for etching the transfer layer 18. The mask layer 42 prevents etching of a part of the transfer layer 18. The transfer layer 18 is etched using a known etching method. The portion of the transfer layer disposed under the mask layer 42 remains substantially unetched while the exposed portion of the transfer layer 18 is etched. In this way, the pattern of the mask layer 42 is replicated in the transfer layer 18.

  In FIG. 26B, the etched portions of mask layer 42 and transfer layer 18 together form a mask stack 46 that is used to prevent etching of the underlying portion of substrate 20. Etching the substrate 20 is performed using a known etching process (eg, a plasma etching process, a reactive ion etching process, etc.). This mask stack prevents etching of the underlying portion of the substrate 20, as shown in FIG. 26C. Etching of the exposed portion of the substrate 20 is continued until a predetermined depth is reached.

In one embodiment, a process can combine positive and negative imprint lithography. The template for the combined positive and negative imprint lithography process includes a recess suitable for positive lithography and a recess suitable for negative lithography. For example, one embodiment of a template for a combined positive and negative imprint lithography process is shown in FIG. 27A. As shown in FIG. 27A, the template 12 includes a lower surface 566, at least one first recess 562, and at least one second recess 564. The first recess 562 is configured to form a discontinuous portion of the curable liquid 40 when the template contacts the curable liquid. The height (h 2 ) of the first recess is considerably higher than the height (h 1 ) of the second recess.

  A typical combined imprint lithography process is shown in FIGS. As shown in FIG. 27A, the template 12 is positioned in a state of being separated from the substrate 20 so that a gap is formed between the template 12 and the substrate 20. At least the lower surface 566 of the template 12 is treated with a thin surface layer (not shown) that lowers the surface energy of the template and assists in separating the template 12 from the cured mask layer. Further, the surface of the first recess 562 and / or the second recess 564 may be processed using the thin surface treatment layer.

  A curable liquid 40 is disposed on the surface of the substrate 20. The template 12 is brought into contact with the curable liquid 40. As shown in FIG. 27B, the curable liquid fills the gap between the lower surface of the template 566 and the substrate 20. The curable liquid 40 also fills the first recess 562. However, the curable liquid 40 is not present in the region of the substrate that is substantially below the second recess 564. Accordingly, the curable liquid is maintained as a discontinuous film on the substrate including the surface topography corresponding to the pattern formed by the first recess 562. After the template 12 is properly disposed, the curable liquid 40 is cured to form a mask layer 42 on the substrate. As shown in FIG. 27C, the template 12 is removed from the mask layer 42 while leaving the cured mask layer on the surface of the substrate 20. Mask layer 42 includes a region 568 similar to a mask formed by negative imprint lithography. Furthermore, the mask layer 42 also includes a region 569 that does not include a mask material.

  In one embodiment, the mask layer 42 is composed of a material that has the same or similar etch rate as the underlying substrate. An etching process is applied to the mask layer 42 to remove the mask layer and the substrate at substantially the same etch rate. In this manner, as shown in FIG. 27D, the multilayer pattern of the template is transferred to the substrate. This process may be performed using a transfer layer as described in other embodiments.

  The combination of positive and negative lithography is also useful for patterning multiple regions of the template. For example, the substrate includes multiple regions that require patterning. As shown in FIG. 27C, a template having a plurality of depths of recesses includes two patterning regions 568 having “boundary” regions 569 between them. The boundary region 569 blocks the flow of liquid over the patterning region of the template.

  As used herein, a “step and repeat” process means forming a plurality of patterned regions on a substrate using a template that is smaller than the substrate. The step-and-repeat imprint process deposits a photo-curing liquid on a portion of the substrate, aligns the pattern in the cured liquid with the previous pattern on the substrate, presses the template against the liquid, and cures this liquid And separating the template from the cured liquid. Separation of the template from the substrate leaves a topographic image of the template in the cured liquid. Since this template is smaller than the total surface area of the substrate, only a portion of the substrate contains a patterned curable liquid. The “repeat” part of this process involves depositing a photo-curing liquid on different parts of the substrate. The patterned template is then aligned with the substrate and contacted with the cured liquid. The curable liquid is cured using activating light to form a second region of the cured liquid. This process is repeated continuously until most of the substrate is patterned. The step-and-repeat process can be used with a positive, negative, or positive / negative imprint process. The step and repeat process may be performed using any of the embodiments of the apparatus described herein.

  The step-and-repeat imprint process provides a number of advantages over other technologies. The step-and-repeat process described herein is based on imprint lithography using a low viscosity photocuring liquid and a rigid transmissive template. The template is transparent to liquid activation light and alignment mark detection light, thus providing the potential for layer-to-layer alignment. For production scale imprint lithography of multilayer devices, it is advantageous to have very high resolution layer-to-layer alignment (eg, as low as 1/3 of the minimum feature size (MFS)).

  There are various sources of distortion error when creating a template. The step and repeat process processes only a portion of the substrate during a given step. The dimensions of the location processed during each step should be small enough to have a pattern distortion less than 1/3 of the MFS. This requires high resolution imprint lithography step and repeat patterning. This is why most optical lithography tools are step-and-repeat systems. Also, as discussed above, the low CD variation and the need for defect inspection / repair support the processing of small locations.

  It is important that the lithographic apparatus have a sufficiently high throughput in order to keep the process costs low. Throughput requirements place strict limits on the patterning time allowed per field. A photocurable low viscosity liquid is attractive from a throughput perspective. Such liquids move very quickly to properly fill the gap between the template and the substrate, and the lithographic capabilities are pattern independent. The resulting low pressure, room temperature process is suitable for high throughput while maintaining the advantages of layer-to-layer alignment.

  Although the prior invention focuses on the patterning of low viscosity photocuring liquids, they do not focus on patterning for step and repeat processes. In photolithography as well as hot embossing, the film is spin-coated and hard baked onto the substrate prior to its patterning. When such an approach is used with a low viscosity liquid, there are three major problems. Low viscosity liquids are easy to dewet and cannot stay in a continuous film form and are therefore difficult to spin coat. Also, in the step-and-repeat process, this liquid is subject to evaporation, which will vary the amount of liquid left on the substrate when the template is step-and-repeat on the substrate. . Eventually, the overall light exposure is likely to scatter beyond the specific location where it is patterned. This tends to cause incomplete curing of the next location, which affects the fluidity of the liquid prior to imprinting. The approach of simultaneously dispensing a suitable liquid on a substrate in one place at a single location would solve the above three problems. However, it is important to limit the liquid to that particular location to avoid loss of usable area on the substrate.

  In general, lithography is one of many unit processes used in the production of devices. Particularly in multilayer devices, it is highly desirable to provide patterning regions as close as possible to each other without interfering with the next pattern in terms of the cost of all these processes. This effectively maximizes the usable area and hence the use of the substrate. Imprint lithography is also used in a “mix and match” mode with other types of lithography (such as optical lithography) in which different levels of the same device are manufactured from different lithographic techniques. It is advantageous to adapt the imprint lithography process to other lithographic techniques. The boundary region is a region that separates two adjacent fields on the substrate. In modern optical lithography tools, this boundary region is on the order of 50-100 microns. The size of the boundary area is typically limited by the size of the blade used to separate the patterned areas. This small boundary becomes smaller as the dicing blade for dicing individual chips becomes thinner. In order to meet this stringent boundary dimension requirement, the location of excess liquid excluded from the patterning region should be sufficiently limited and repeatable. In this way, templates, substrates, liquids, etc. that affect the physical properties of the system, including but not limited to surface energy, boundary energy, Hamacker constant, van der Waals force, viscosity, density, opacity, etc. Individual components including any of these materials are designed to properly handle a reproducible process.

  As discussed above, the discontinuous film is formed using an appropriately patterned template. For example, a template having a high aspect ratio that defines a boundary region prevents liquid flow across the boundary region. Blocking within the boundary region depends on a number of factors. As discussed above, template design plays a major role in liquid containment. Furthermore, the process of contacting the template with the liquid also affects liquid confinement.

  19A-C show cross-sectional views of a process in which a discontinuous film is formed on the surface. In one embodiment, as shown in FIG. 19A, the curable liquid 40 is dispensed on the substrate 20 as a line pattern or as a droplet. Accordingly, the curable liquid 40 does not cover the entire area of the substrate 20 to be imprinted. As shown in FIG. 19B, when the lower surface 536 of the template 12 comes into contact with the liquid 40, the liquid spreads on the surface of the substrate 20 by applying the force of the template to the liquid. The greater the force applied to the liquid by the template, the more liquid will spread over the substrate. Thus, as shown in FIG. 19C, when sufficient force is applied, the liquid will exceed the perimeter of the template. By controlling the force applied to the gas by the template, the liquid is confined within the predetermined boundaries of the template, as shown in FIG. 19D.

  The amount of force applied to the liquid is related to the amount of liquid dispensed on the substrate and the distance of the template from the substrate being cured. For negative imprint lithography processes, the amount of liquid dispensed on the substrate is the amount of liquid required to substantially fill the recesses in the patterned template, the area of the patterned substrate Should be less than or equal to the amount determined by the desired thickness of the layer to be cured. If the amount of curable liquid exceeds this amount, the liquid will move away from the template border when the template is placed at an appropriate distance from the substrate. For a positive imprint lithography process, the amount of liquid dispensed on the substrate depends on the desired thickness of the layer to be cured (ie, the distance between the non-recessed portion of the template and the substrate), the pattern Should be less than the amount determined by the surface area of the portion of the substrate to be converted.

  For imprint lithography using a template that includes one or more boundaries, as noted above, the distance between the non-recessed surface of the template and the substrate is between the minimum and maximum thickness. Set to By setting the height between these values, the liquid can be contained within the boundary where the appropriate capillary force is defined in the region of the template. Furthermore, the layer thickness should be approximately comparable to the height of the patterned features. If the hardened layer is too thick, features formed in the hardened layer can be eroded before the features are imprinted on the underlying substrate. Therefore, it is desirable to control and lower the size as described above so that an appropriate film thickness can be used.

  The force applied to the liquid by the template is also affected by the speed at which the template is in contact with the liquid. In general, the faster the template is contacted, the greater the force applied to the liquid. Thus, some means of controlling the spread of the liquid on the surface of the substrate is also done by controlling the rate at which the template is contacted with the liquid.

  All of these features are taken into account when placing a template on a substrate for an imprint lithography process. By controlling these variables in a predetermined manner, the liquid flow is controlled to remain confined within a predetermined region.

  Overlay alignment schemes include measuring alignment errors and then correcting for these errors to accurately align the patterned template and the desired imprint location on the substrate. Accurate placement of the template on the substrate is important for proper alignment of the patterned layer to any layer previously formed on the substrate. As used herein, installation error generally refers to an XY positioning error between the template and the substrate (ie, translation along the X and / or Y axis). In one embodiment, the installation error is determined and corrected using a template optical device, as shown in FIG.

  FIG. 28 shows a schematic diagram of the optical system 3820 of the through-the-template optical imaging system 3800 (see also FIG. 14). The optical system 3820 is configured to focus the two alignment marks from different planes onto a single focal plane. The optical system 3820 uses the change in focal length obtained from different wavelengths of light to determine the alignment of the template to the underlying substrate. The optical system 3820 includes an optical imaging device 3810, an illumination source (not shown), and a focus adjustment device 3805. Light with different wavelengths is generated either by using individual light sources or by using a single broadband light source and inserting an optical bandpass filter between the imaging plane and the alignment mark. Depending on the gap between the template 3700 and the substrate 2500, the focal length is adjusted by selecting different wavelengths. Under each wavelength of light used, each overlay mark produces two images on the imaging plane as shown in FIG. A first image 2601 using light of a specific wavelength is an image that is clearly focused. A second image 2602 using light of the same wavelength is an image out of focus. Several methods can be used to remove each out-of-focus image.

  In the first method, two images are received by the optical imaging element 3810 under light of a first wavelength. The image is shown in FIG. 29 and denoted as 2604 as a whole. Although the image is shown as a square, it should be understood that any other shape, such as a cross, can be used. Image 2602 corresponds to an overlay alignment mark on the substrate. Image 2601 corresponds to an overlay alignment mark on the template. When the image 2602 is in focus, the image 2601 is out of focus. In one embodiment, image processing techniques are used to erase the geometric data corresponding to the pixels associated with image 2602. Accordingly, the image with the substrate mark out of focus is removed while only the image 2601 remains. An image 2605 and an image 2606 are formed on the optical imaging element 3810 using the same procedure and light of the second wavelength. With the image 2605 left, the image 2606 out of focus is removed. Next, the two remaining focused images 2601 and 2605 are combined onto one image plane 2603 to perform overlay error measurements.

  As shown in FIG. 30, the second method utilizes two coplanar polarization arrays and a polarized illumination source. FIG. 30 shows an overlay mark 2701 and an orthogonal polarization array 2702. Polarizing array 2702 is formed on the template surface and placed on the surface. Under the two polarized illumination sources, focused images 2703 (corresponding to different wavelengths and polarizations) appear on the image plane. Thus, the defocused image is filtered out by polarizing array 2702. One advantage of this method would be that it does not require image processing techniques to remove out-of-focus images.

  Overlay measurements based on moire patterns were used for the optical lithography process. For an imprint lithography process, if two layers of moire patterns are not coplanar, but still overlap in the imaging array, acquire two individual focused images Will be difficult. However, if the gap between the template and the substrate is controlled within the depth of focus of the optical measuring instrument and without direct contact between the template and the substrate, the moire pattern 2 is minimized with minimal focusing problems. One layer could be obtained at a time. Other standard overlay schemes based on moire patterns are implemented directly in the imprint lithography process.

  Another concern regarding overlay alignment for imprint lithography processes using UV curable liquid material will be the visibility of alignment marks. For overlay placement error measurement, in some embodiments, two overlay marks are used, one on the template and the other on the substrate. However, because it is desirable for the template to be transparent to the curing agent, in some embodiments the template overlay marks are non-opaque lines. Rather, the template overlay marks are topographic features on the template surface. In some embodiments, this mark is made from the same material as the template. Further, UV curing may have a refractive index that is similar to the refractive index of the template material (eg, quartz). Thus, when the UV curable liquid fills the gap between the template and the substrate, it will be very difficult to recognize the overlay marks on the template. If the template overlay mark is made of an opaque material (eg, chrome), the UV curable liquid under the overlay mark may not be properly exposed to UV light.

  In one embodiment, overlay marks are used on the template that are seen by optical imaging system 3800 but are opaque to curing light (eg, UV light). One embodiment of this approach is shown in FIG. In FIG. 31, instead of a completely opaque line, the overlay mark 3102 on the template is formed from fine polarization lines 3101. For example, a suitable fine polarization line has a width of about 1/2 to 1/4 of the wavelength of the activation light used as the curing agent. This line width of the polarizing line 3101 should be small enough so that the activation light passing between the two lines is diffracted sufficiently to cure all of the liquid under the line. In one such embodiment, the activation light is polarized according to the polarization of overlay mark 3102. By polarizing the activation light, a relatively uniform exposure is provided to the template region including the region having the overlay mark 3102. The light used to position the overlay mark 3102 on the template may be broadband light or a specific wavelength that will not cure the liquid material. This light does not need to be changed. Since the polarized line 3101 is substantially opaque to the measurement light, the overlay mark is visualized using a conventional overlay error measurement instrument. Finely polarized overlay marks are created on the template using existing techniques such as electron beam lithography.

In another embodiment, the overlay mark is made from a different material than the template. For example, the material selected to form the template overlay mark is substantially opaque to visible light, but transparent to activation light (eg, UV light) used in curing agents. It is sex. For example, SiO x where X is less than 2 is used as such a material. In particular, a structure formed of SiO x with X of about 1.5 is substantially opaque to visible light, but transparent to UV curing light.

  In one embodiment, the one or more template alignment marks can be made using an off-axis alignment process. As described above, the system includes an off-axis optical imaging device coupled to the imprint head and the motion stage. Although the following description is directed to a system having a substrate attached to a motion stage, it is understood that the process can be easily modified for a system having an imprint head attached to the motion stage. Should. Further, it should be understood that the following description assumes that the magnification error is corrected before performing the alignment process. A magnification error occurs when the material expands or contracts due to temperature changes. Techniques for correcting magnification errors are described in US patent application Ser. No. 09 / 907,512, “High-Resolution Overlay Alignment Methods for Systems Lithography”, filed Jul. 16, 2001, which is incorporated herein by reference. In the issue. Also, different magnification corrections in the two vertical directions in the plane in the patterning area of the template may be required before alignment.

  46A-D show a schematic diagram of a system for off-axis alignment of a template with respect to a substrate. The imprint head 3100 includes a template 3700 and an off-axis imaging device 3840. A substrate 4600 is attached to a substrate chuck 3610 that is coupled to a motion stage 3620. Motion stage 3620 is configured to control the movement of the substrate in a direction substantially parallel to the template. A template optical imaging system 3850 is coupled to the motion stage 3620 for movement with the motion stage. The system also includes a system alignment target 4630. System alignment target 4630 is optically aligned with the optical imaging system and coupled to a fixed portion of the system. System alignment target 4630 is coupled to the body of an imprint lithography system or a stationary optical imaging system (eg, optical imaging system 3840). The system alignment target is used as a fixed reference point for alignment measurements.

  Template 3700 and substrate 4600 include at least one, and preferably two, alignment marks as shown in FIG. 46A. During the imprint process, the alignment marks on the template are aligned with the corresponding alignment marks on the substrate prior to curing the liquid placed on the substrate. In one embodiment, the alignment is performed by using an off-axis optical image sensor. FIG. 46A shows the system in an initialized state. In this initialized state, the alignment mark of the template is not aligned with the alignment mark of the substrate. However, the optical alignment systems 3840, 3850 are aligned with the system alignment target 4630. Thus, the starting position of each operation relative to a certain fixed position in the system is known.

  In order to perform alignment of the template and substrate alignment marks, the position of the alignment marks relative to the system alignment target is determined. As shown in FIG. 46B, the motion stage 3610 is moved until the template alignment target enters the field of view of the optical imager 3850 to determine the position of the template alignment mark relative to the system alignment target. The motion stage motion necessary to find the alignment mark (in the XY plane) is used to determine the position of the template alignment mark relative to the system alignment target. As shown in FIG. 46C, the position of the substrate alignment mark is determined by moving the substrate relative to the motion stage 3610 until the substrate alignment mark is off-axis and enters the field of view of the optical imaging system 3840. The The motion stage motion necessary to find the alignment mark (in the XY plane) is used to determine the position of the template alignment mark relative to the system alignment target. In one embodiment, the motion stage is returned to the initialization position (eg, as shown in FIG. 46A).

  Once the position of the alignment mark on the template and substrate is determined, alignment is performed by moving the substrate to the appropriate position. FIG. 46D shows the final alignment of the template and the substrate.

  In order to properly align the template with respect to an area on the substrate, the position of the substrate relative to the template is selected to align the alignment marks on the template and the substrate. Typically, two or more alignment marks are formed on the template. Corresponding alignment marks are also formed on the substrate. Once the template alignment marks are all properly aligned with the substrate alignment marks, the imprint process is performed.

  In some embodiments, the template is rotated about the Z axis relative to the substrate. In such an embodiment, it may not be possible to align the alignment marks of the template with the corresponding alignment marks on the substrate using simple XY movement of the substrate. In order to properly align the template with respect to a selected field on the substrate, the substrate (or template) is rotated about the Z axis. In this specification, this rotation correction is referred to as “θ alignment”.

  FIG. 47A shows an overhead view of a template 4710 placed on a substrate 4720. Template 4710 includes at least two alignment marks, and substrate 4720 includes at least two corresponding alignment marks. When properly aligned, all of the template alignment marks should be aligned with all of the corresponding substrate alignment marks.

  As shown in FIG. 47B, the initial alignment is performed by moving the substrate (or template) to a position such that at least one of the alignment marks on the template is aligned with at least one of the alignment marks on the substrate. If there is no θ alignment error (and magnification error), the other alignment mark should match without further arbitrary movement of the substrate. However, as shown in FIG. 47B, the θ alignment error will cause the template and the other alignment mark on the substrate to be misaligned. The θ error is corrected before further imprinting is performed.

  θ error correction is performed by rotating the substrate (or template) about the Z axis (ie, the axis extending from the page perpendicular to the X and Y axes of the page). As shown in FIG. 47, the alignment of the alignment mark between the template and the substrate becomes possible by rotating the substrate.

  The θ error is detected (and corrected) using either an off-axis alignment procedure or a through-the-template alignment procedure. As described herein, off-axis techniques can determine the position of various alignment marks relative to a fixed reference point (eg, a system alignment target). FIG. 47D shows an overhead view of template 4710 placed on substrate 4720. Template 4710 includes at least two alignment marks, and substrate 4720 includes at least two corresponding alignment marks.

  First, the positions of the two template alignment marks and the two substrate alignment marks are determined relative to the system alignment target 4730 using an off-axis imaging device. The system alignment target 4730 is defined by the vertices of the reference X axis and the reference Y axis. The directions of the X and Y reference axes relative to the system alignment target are determined by the X and Y motion directions of the motion stage, respectively. The position of the template alignment mark is used to determine the angle of line 4740 through the template alignment mark relative to the reference XY axis. The position of the substrate alignment mark is used to determine the angle of line 4750 through the substrate alignment mark relative to the reference XY axis. The angles of lines 4740 and 4750 are determined using standard geometric functions. The difference in angle between 4740 and 4750 determined with respect to the reference XY axis represents the θ alignment error.

  After determining the θ error, the motion stage is rotated by an appropriate amount to correct this error. If corrected, the angle of the line 4740 drawn through the template alignment mark and the angle of the line 4750 drawn through the substrate alignment mark should be substantially the same with respect to the X and Y reference axes. . After the θ correction is completed, the alignment mark between the template and the substrate is finally aligned by the XY movement of the motion stage. Thereafter, an imprint process is performed using the aligned template and substrate.

  In another embodiment, the θ error is corrected using a through-the-template alignment method and the template is aligned with respect to the substrate. The through-the-template alignment technique is performed by observing both marks and observing the alignment of the template alignment marks relative to the corresponding substrate alignment marks. As described herein, this is done by using an optical system that allows the template and substrate alignment marks to be viewed through the template.

  FIG. 47E shows an overhead view of the template 4710 placed on the substrate 4720. Template 4710 includes at least two alignment marks, and substrate 4720 includes at least two corresponding alignment marks.

  As shown in FIG. 47E, the motion stage is first moved using the through the template optical imaging device so that the alignment mark of the first template is aligned with the alignment mark of the first substrate. It is done. The position of the second template alignment mark and the second substrate alignment mark is determined by moving the optical imaging device across the template until the alignment mark is found. Once the location of the alignment mark is found, the imaginary lines 4740 (between the template alignment marks) and 4750 (between the substrate alignment marks) are calculated and used to determine the θ angle between the two lines. It is done. This angle represents the θ error.

  In one embodiment, the position of the second template and substrate alignment marks is determined by the motion of the motion stage. First, the alignment marks of the first template and the substrate are aligned as shown in FIG. 47E. The optical imaging element is moved to find the alignment mark of the second template. After finding this mark, the motion stage is moved, but the optical imaging element is kept in the same position until the alignment mark of the first template is returned to the field of view of the optical conjugation element. The motion stage motion is monitored and the motion is used to calculate the position of the second template alignment mark relative to the first template alignment mark. The position of the second template alignment mark relative to the first template alignment mark is determined based on an XY reference plane defined by the direction of the X and Y motions of the motion stage. Similarly, an alignment mark on the second substrate is determined relative to the alignment mark on the first substrate.

  After determining the θ error, the error is corrected by rotating the motion stage by an appropriate amount. When the θ correction is completed, the alignment mark between the template and the substrate is finally aligned by the XY movement of the motion stage. Thereafter, an imprint process is performed using appropriately aligned templates and substrates.

  In another embodiment, both off-axis alignment and through-the-template alignment are used together to align the template with respect to the substrate. In this embodiment, the initial alignment is performed using an off-axis method and the template is accurately aligned with respect to the substrate using through-the-template alignment. Both θ error correction and XY error correction are performed using both techniques.

  The θ correction alignment process described above is used in a step and repeat process. Step-and-repeat alignment may be performed by either global alignment or field-by-field alignment. For global alignment, two or more fields of the substrate will contain at least two alignment marks. Off-axis alignment or through-the-template alignment is performed in more than one field, and the θ alignment error and XY alignment error in each field is determined. Optionally, the alignment in each field may involve an imprint process. Next, the average alignment error is determined by averaging the θ alignment error and the YX alignment error in each field. This average alignment error is used to determine the correction required to apply to any field on the substrate.

  The average alignment error is then used in the step and repeat process. In the step-and-repeat process, each field position is predetermined and stored in the lithography system database. During imprinting, the motion stage is moved so that the template is oriented at the desired location on the substrate based on the coordinates stored in the database. The template and substrate are then subjected to alignment correction based on the average alignment error. The activated photocuring liquid is placed on the substrate before or after alignment correction. Activating light is applied to cure the activating light curable liquid, and the template is separated from the cured liquid. The motion stage is moved to direct the template on another part of the substrate and the process is repeated.

  In other cases, a field-by-field alignment process can be used. During imprinting, the motion stage moves the motion stage so that the template is oriented at the desired location on the substrate based on the coordinates stored in the database. Each field of the substrate includes two or more alignment marks corresponding to the alignment marks of the template. The alignment mark of the template is then aligned with the alignment mark of the substrate in the particular field being imprinted using with-axis off-axis, through-the-template, or a combination of these alignment techniques. The activated light curable liquid may be placed on the substrate before or after alignment. Activating light is applied to cure the activating light curable liquid, and the template is separated from the cured liquid. The motion stage is moved to orient the template over different fields of the substrate and template. Alignment is performed for each individual field of the substrate.

  In one embodiment, the alignment is performed using scatterometry. Scatterometry is a technique used to measure the properties of light scattered from a surface. For alignment of the template to the substrate, scatterometry uses a substrate and a diffraction grating on the template. In imprint lithography, the alignment mark of the template and the alignment mark of the substrate may be separated from each other by less than 200 nm. Thus, the alignment system can see both alignment marks simultaneously. In general, incident light on the alignment mark is scattered from the alignment mark in a predetermined form depending on the orientation of the alignment mark relative to each other. In one embodiment, the scattering profile is generated by calculating the scattering of light when the alignment marks are aligned. In use, alignment is performed by moving either the substrate or the template until the scattered light profile from the alignment mark substantially matches the predetermined scattering profile.

  During patterning of a substrate using imprint lithography, the patterned template is placed on a predetermined portion of the substrate. Typically, the portion of the substrate being imprinted will have a previously formed structure. Prior to imprinting, the patterned template needs to be aligned with the structure previously formed on the substrate. For imprint lithography of 100 nm or less, template alignment to features on the substrate should be possible with an accuracy of less than about 25 nm and for some embodiments with an accuracy of less than 10 nm. Alignment of the template with respect to the substrate is typically performed using alignment marks. That is, the alignment mark formed in the substrate and the template and arranged at a predetermined position is matched. If the alignment marks are properly aligned, the template is properly aligned with the substrate and the imprint process is performed.

  In general, the alignment may be performed using a high power microscope. Such a microscope collects images of alignment marks. The collected image is analyzed by the user and the user changes the position of the template relative to the substrate to align the images, so that the underlying substrate and template are aligned. High power microscopes that can achieve alignment accuracy of less than 10 nm are very expensive and difficult to implement in an imprint lithography system.

  Scatterometry provides a technique for collecting image data without having to image features. In general, scatterometry tools include optical hardware, such as an ellipsometer or reflectometer, and a data processing unit with a scatterometry software application that processes the data collected by the optical hardware. The scatterometry tool typically comprises an analytical light source and detector that can be placed near the alignment mark of the substrate and template. The light source illuminates at least a portion of the alignment mark diffraction grating structure. The detector makes an optical measurement such as the intensity or phase of the reflected light. The data processing unit receives optical measurements from the detector and processes the data to determine the scattering profile from the diffraction grating.

  The scatterometry tool can use monochromatic light, white light, or some other wavelength or combination of wavelengths, depending on the particular embodiment. The angle of incident light may also be varied depending on the particular embodiment. The light analyzed by the scatterometry tool typically includes a reflection component (ie, the incident angle is equal to the reflection angle) and a scattering component (ie, the incident angle is not equal to the reflection angle). As discussed below, the term “reflection” is meant to encompass both components.

  When the alignment mark of the template is aligned with the alignment mark of the substrate, the light reflects from the substrate in a manner that characterizes the reflection profile. If the template alignment mark is misaligned with respect to the substrate alignment mark, it is measured by the scatterometry tool compared to the light reflection profile that would be present when the alignment mark is aligned. Changes in the reflection profile (eg, intensity, phase, polarization, etc.). In use, the scatterometry tool measures the reflection profile for the alignment mark. The difference in reflection profile measured against the alignment mark during use indicates that the template is misaligned with respect to the substrate.

  The data processing unit of the scatterometry tool compares the measured reflection profile with a reference reflection profile library. The difference between the measured reflection profile and the reference reflection profile is used to determine the alignment of the template alignment mark with respect to the substrate alignment mark. In other cases, when the two gratings are aligned, the scattering pattern from the normal incident beam is symmetric, ie, + and −1 orders, identical, or two opposite low Any order from the incident light at an angle (including zero) should be the same. Symmetric signals from multiple wavelengths will be subtracted and the differences will be summed to determine alignment, and moving the substrate or template will minimize the sum.

  Scatterometry offers advantages over optical imaging processes. The optical requirements for scatterometry tools are much less than for imaging systems. In addition, scatterometry allows the collection of additional optical information (such as light phase and polarization) that cannot be collected using magnification in optical imaging such as a microscope.

  An exemplary alignment mark is shown in FIG. 48A. The alignment mark 4800 is formed in a substrate 4820 (eg, a substrate on which a template or transfer layer is formed) and includes a plurality of trenches 4810 that together become a diffraction grating (eg, 4825, 4827). FIG. 48B shows an alignment mark 4800 in a cross-sectional view. Typically, the diffraction grating is formed by etching a plurality of grooves in the substrate. The grooves have substantially the same width and depth and are equally spaced. At least two sets of diffraction gratings are used so that they can be aligned along the X and Y axes. As shown in FIG. 48A, the first group of trenches 4825 provide a diffraction grating for alignment along a first axis (eg, the X axis). A second group of trenches 4827 provides a diffraction grating for alignment along a second axis (eg, the Y axis).

  An alternative embodiment of the alignment mark is shown in FIG. 48C. At least four sets of diffraction gratings are used for template alignment to the substrate. The diffraction grating is formed from a plurality of trenches etched into the substrate as described above. Two diffraction gratings 4830, 4840 are used for coarse alignment of the template to the substrate. The coarse alignment grid is formed from a plurality of equally spaced trenches having substantially the same width and depth. The coarse alignment grating trenches are spaced at a distance of between about 1 μm and about 3 μm. Using diffraction gratings with spacing in this range, the template is aligned with respect to the substrate with an accuracy of up to about 100 nm. The diffraction grating 4830 is used for alignment along a first axis (eg, the X axis). The diffraction grating 4840 is used for alignment along a second axis (eg, the Y axis).

  When a structure having a feature size of less than about 100 nm is imprinted on the surface, the accuracy is not sufficient to allow proper orientation of the various patterned layers. Additional grid structures 4850, 4860 are used for high precision alignment. A high precision diffraction grating is formed from a plurality of equally spaced trenches having substantially the same width and depth. The high precision alignment diffraction gratings are separated by a distance of about 100 nm to about 1000 nm. Using diffraction gratings with spacing in this range, the template can be aligned with respect to the substrate with an accuracy of up to about 5 nm. The diffraction grating 4850 is used for alignment along a first axis (eg, the X axis). The diffraction grating 4860 is used for alignment along a second axis (eg, the Y axis).

  FIG. 49 shows one configuration of the scatterometry tool used to determine the alignment between the template alignment mark 4910 and the substrate alignment mark 4920. The scatterometry tool generates an incident light beam 4930 that is directed to an alignment mark as shown. Incident light beam 4930 is generated from a white light source or any other light source capable of generating multiple wavelengths of light. The light source used to generate this light is placed in the imprint head of an imprint system as described herein. In another case, the light source may be coupled to a body external to the imprint head and an optical system is used to direct the light to the template.

  When light from the light source enters the alignment mark, the light is scattered as shown in FIG. As is known in the art, light scattering occurs to produce maximum light intensity at different angles. The angle at which the maximum value of the different light intensity is generated corresponds to a different diffraction order. Typically, multiple orders occur when light is reflected from the diffraction grating. As used herein, zero order means light that is re-reflected by a light source along the same optical path as incident light. As shown in FIG. 49, the light re-reflected by the light source along the incident light beam 4930 is zero order. The primary light is reflected from the diffraction grating along an angle different from the incident angle. As shown in FIG. 49, rays 4942 and 4944 represent light generated along the positive first order (ie, order +1), and rays 4952 and 4954 are generated along the negative first order (ie, order −1). Represents light. Although +1 and −1 orders are shown, it should be understood that other orders of light (eg, N order, where n is 1 or greater) are used.

  In use, light reflected from the substrate (and through the template) is collected by detector 4960. In one embodiment, detector 4960 is an array detector that can simultaneously measure optical properties at multiple locations. When light is scattered from the diffraction grating, the light of each wavelength is scattered differently. In general, all wavelengths are scattered along one of the diffraction orders, but light of different wavelengths is scattered at slightly different angles. FIG. 49 shows how light of two different wavelengths is reflected along the + 1st order and the −1st order. It should be noted that the scattering angle difference is exaggerated for this explanation. Referring to the + 1st order, the light beam 4942 represents red light and the light beam 4944 represents blue light. For the minus first order, light beam 4952 represents red light and light beam 4954 represents blue light. As shown, the red and blue light beams are incident on different portions of the detector. The detector 4960 includes an array of light detection elements. The size and location of the light detection element is such that light of various wavelengths can be used. As shown in FIG. 49, the red light 4942 is incident on a light detection element different from the blue light 4944. Therefore, the scattering measurement tool can simultaneously measure the characteristics of light having a plurality of wavelengths.

  The advantage of measuring scattering with multiple wavelengths of light is that the phase error is averaged. The phase error results from irregular etching of the trenches that form the diffraction grating. For example, if the walls are not parallel or if the bottom of the trench is bent, light scattering will not be the expected model. Such an error is likely to vary depending on the wavelength of light used for analysis. For example, the processing error when forming the trench is more shifted in the case of red light than in the case of blue light. By considering readings at multiple wavelengths, the signals are averaged to create a more accurate alignment guideline.

  In an alternative embodiment, as shown in FIG. 50, the reflected light from the alignment mark is scattered as shown for FIG. Instead of relying on detector resolution to capture light of various wavelengths, optical element 5070 is used to separate the reflected light. As described above, the alignment mark 5010 of the template and the alignment mark 5020 of the substrate are irradiated with the incident light 5030. Incident light 5030 is directed in a direction that is perpendicular to the plane defined by the template. The light reflected from the diffraction grating of the alignment mark is analyzed along the + 1st order (5040) and the -1st order (5050). In this embodiment, optical element 5070 is placed in the optical path between the substrate and detector 5060. The optical element 5070 is configured to diffract light at different angles based on the wavelength of the light. For example, the optical element 5070 may be a diffraction grating or a prism (eg, part of a spectrophotometer). Both prisms and diffraction gratings disperse light at different angles based on the wavelength of the light. As shown in FIG. 50, red light is dispersed at a different angle from blue light. Although shown as a single element in FIG. 50, it should be understood that optical element 5070 is comprised of two individual elements. Further, although optical element 5070 and detector 5060 are shown as separate elements, it should be understood that these elements may be incorporated into a single device (eg, a spectrophotometer).

  In other cases, the optical element 5070 may be a lens. If the optical element 5070 is a lens, dispersion occurs when light passes through the lens. The degree of dispersion is based in part on the refractive index of the lens material. The degree of dispersion is also based on the wavelength of light. Different wavelengths of light will be dispersed at different angles. This results in an event known as “chromatic aberration”. Chromatic aberration is used to promote the separation of light into various wavelengths. In some embodiments, two lenses may be used, one for each order of light.

  Scatterometry as described above is used in imprint lithography processes. In one embodiment, a predetermined amount of activated curable liquid is placed on a portion of the substrate to be imprinted. A patterned template is placed in close proximity to the substrate. Generally, this template is separated from the substrate by a distance as small as 200 nm. A template alignment target is aligned with the substrate alignment target to ensure alignment of the patterned template with respect to the previously formed structure on the substrate. The template The template alignment target includes a diffraction grating to allow scattering techniques to be used for alignment. Initial alignment of the template alignment mark with respect to the substrate alignment mark is performed using optical imaging of the mark. The marks are aligned using pattern identification software. Using such an alignment, the alignment accuracy is within about 1 μm.

  Scatterometry is also used for the next iteration of alignment. In one embodiment, the alignment mark may include a coarse alignment diffraction grating such as an alignment mark as shown in FIG. 48C. Coarse alignment of alignment marks is performed using a coarse alignment diffraction grating. High-precision alignment of the alignment marks is performed using a high-precision alignment diffraction grating. All alignment measurements are made using an activated photocuring liquid placed between the template and the substrate. As described herein, initial alignment is performed using an optical imaging device. Prior to performing scatterometry, the optical imaging device is moved out of the optical path between the light source and the template. In other cases, light from the light source is directed when the optical imaging device is not in the optical path between the light source and the template.

  In one embodiment, the light is directed to the template and substrate alignment marks perpendicular to the plane defined by the template. Light scattered along the + 1st order and the -1st order is analyzed at multiple wavelengths. The intensity level of light scattered in the + 1st order is compared with the light intensity level of light scattered in the −1st order. If the template alignment mark and the substrate alignment mark are aligned, the intensities should be substantially the same at any given wavelength. If there is a difference in light intensity between the + 1st order and the −1st order, it indicates that the alignment mark is shifted. A comparison of the degree of misalignment at multiple wavelengths is used to generate an “average” misalignment of the alignment marks.

  The average misalignment of the template and substrate alignment marks is used to determine the correction required at the position of the template relative to the substrate in order to properly align the alignment marks. In one embodiment, the substrate is placed on a substrate motion stage. Alignment can be performed by moving the substrate in a suitable manner as determined by average misalignment calculated using scatterometry. After the template and substrate are properly aligned, the liquid is cured and then the template is separated from the cured liquid.

  FIG. 51 shows an alternative configuration of the scatterometry tool used to determine the alignment between the template alignment mark 5110 and the substrate alignment mark 5120. The scatterometry tool 5100 uses the two zero order reflections from the substrate to determine the alignment mark alignment. The two light sources generate two incident light beams 5130, 5135 that are directed to an alignment mark as shown. Incident light beams 5130 and 5135 are directed in directions that are not substantially perpendicular to the plane of the template (or substrate). Incident light beams 5130 and 5135 are generated from a white light source or any light source that generates light of multiple wavelengths. Incident light beams 5130 and 5135 are passed through beam splitters 5192 and 5194, respectively.

  When light from the light source enters the alignment mark, the light is scattered as described above. Zero-order light is light that is re-reflected by the light source along the same optical path as the incident light. Light re-reflected toward the light is further reflected by beam splitters 5192 and 5194 toward detectors 5160 and 5162. In one embodiment, detectors 5160 and 5162 are array detectors that can simultaneously measure light characteristics at multiple locations. When light scatters at a diffraction grating, light of individual wavelengths scatters differently. In general, all wavelengths scatter along one of the diffraction orders, but as mentioned above, light of different wavelengths scatters at slightly different angles. It should be noted that the scattering angle difference is exaggerated for illustrative purposes. In the case of incident light beam 5130, light beam 5142 represents red light and light beam 5144 represents blue light. In the case of incident light beam 5135, light beam 5152 represents red light and light beam 5154 represents blue light. As shown, the red and blue light beams are incident on different parts of the detector. Detector 5160 includes an array of detector elements. The size and location of the photodetection element enables analysis of light of various wavelengths. As shown in FIG. 51, red light 5142 is incident on a light detection element different from blue light 5144. Therefore, the scattering measurement tool simultaneously measures the light characteristics at a plurality of wavelengths. The use of an array detector has the advantage that it can detect any mechanical change that causes a small change in the orientation of the substrate or template or a change in the position of the order peak and can accurately detect the intensity.

  The wave scatter measurement system shown in FIG. 51 uses the strongest reflected signal (that is, the zero order signal) for alignment. In general, the difference in grating alignment is such that the zero order diffraction is not very large when the incident light is perpendicular to the grating. By using incident light at a non-normal angle, the zero order is more sensitive to grating alignment. This optical path of the wave scatter measurement system also allows the optical imaging device 5180 to be placed at the center of the system. As described herein, the optical imaging device 5180 is used for coarse alignment of template and substrate alignment marks. Movement of the optical imaging device may be required during template and substrate alignment using a wave scatterometry system.

  In an alternative embodiment, as shown in FIG. 52, the reflected light from the alignment mark is scattered as described for FIG. Instead of relying on detector resolution to capture light of different wavelengths, the reflected light is split using optical elements 5272, 5274. As described above, the alignment mark 5210 of the template and the alignment mark 5220 of the substrate are irradiated with two beams of incident light 5230 and 5235. Incident light 5230, 5235 is directed in a direction that is not perpendicular to the plane defined by the template. The light reflected from the alignment mark diffraction grating is analyzed along the zero order by reflecting the light using beam splitters 5292, 5294. In this embodiment, optical elements 5272, 5274 are placed in the optical path between the substrate and detector 5260. The optical elements 5272, 5274 are configured to disperse light at various angles based on the wavelength of the light. For example, the optical elements 5272, 5274 may be diffraction gratings or prisms (eg, part of a spectrophotometer). In another case, the optical elements 5272 and 5274 may be lenses having chromatic aberration.

  In an alternative embodiment, as shown in FIG. 53, the reflected light from the alignment mark is scattered as shown for FIG. Instead of relying on detector resolution to capture light of various wavelengths, the reflected light is split using optical elements 5372, 5374. Light reflected from the alignment mark is guided to fiber optic cables 5376 and 5378 by beam splitters 5392 and 5394, respectively. The fiber optic cable carries light from the imprint system to the academic elements 5372, 5374. The optical elements 5372 and 5374 are configured to disperse light at various angles based on the wavelength of the light. For example, optical elements 5372, 5374 are diffraction gratings or prisms (eg, part of a spectrophotometer). In another case, the optical elements 5372 and 5374 are lenses that exhibit chromatic aberration. The advantage of such an embodiment is that a portion of the optical system is separated from the imprint system. This allows the imprint system dimensions to be kept to a minimum.

  An alternative embodiment of the configuration of the scatterometry tool used to determine the alignment between the template alignment mark 5410 and the substrate alignment mark 5420 is shown in FIG. Two light sources generate two incident light beams 5430, 5435 which are directed to alignment marks as shown. Incident light beams 5430, 5435 are directed in a direction that is not substantially perpendicular to the plane of the template (or substrate). Incident light beams 5430, 5435 are generated from a white light source or any other light source capable of generating multiple wavelengths of light. Incident light beams 5430 and 5435 are passed through beam splitters 5492 and 5494, respectively.

  When the light from the light source enters the alignment mark, the light is scattered as shown in FIG. As shown in FIG. 54, the incident light beam 5430 and the light re-reflected by the light source along the incident light beam 5435 are of zero order. The primary light is reflected from the diffraction grating along an angle different from the incident angle. As shown in FIG. 54, light ray 5440 represents light generated along the + 1st order of incident light beam 5430. Ray 5450 represents +1 of the incident light beam 5440. The first order beam is not shown. Although the + 1st order is shown, it should be understood that other orders of light (eg, nth order, where n is greater than 1) can be used.

  Light reflected from the alignment mark is guided to fiber optic cables 5476 and 5478 by beam splitters 5492 and 5494, respectively. The fiber optic cable sends light from the imprint system to the optical elements 5472, 5474. Optical elements 5472 and 5474 are configured to disperse light at various angles based on the wavelength of the light. For example, optical elements 5472, 5474 are diffraction gratings or prisms (eg, part of a spectrophotometer). In other cases, the optical elements 5472, 5474 are lenses that exhibit chromatic aberration.

  Beam splitters 5492 and 5494 allow a part of the reflected light to pass through. A portion of the light passing through the beam splitter is analyzed using photodetectors 5462, 5464. A photodetector is used to determine the overall intensity of all light passing through beam splitters 5492, 5494. Data on the overall intensity of light is used to determine the alignment between the template and the substrate. In one embodiment, the alignment is determined as the average of the error measurement and the light intensity measurement determined by spectrophotometric analysis of the nth order (eg, +1) reflected light.

  It should be understood that any of the above embodiments can be combined for various configurations. Further, it should be understood that the characteristics of the light used to determine the alignment of the template and substrate alignment marks include light intensity and light polarization.

  In all embodiments of the imprint lithography process, liquid is dispensed onto the substrate. Although the following description is directed to dispensing liquid on a substrate, it should be understood that the same liquid dispensing technique is used when dispensing liquid onto a template. Liquid dispensing is a carefully controlled process. In general, liquid dispensing is controlled so that a predetermined amount of liquid is dispensed into the appropriate location on the substrate. Furthermore, the amount of liquid is also controlled. The combination of the appropriate amount of liquid and the appropriate location of the liquid is controlled using the liquid dispensing system described herein. In particular, the step-and-repeat process uses a combination of liquid volume and liquid placement to limit patterning to a specific field.

  Various liquid distribution patterns are used. In some embodiments, a pattern having substantially continuous lines is formed on a portion of the imprint member using relative movement between the discharge-based liquid dispenser tip and the imprint member. The Distribution and relative motion balance speeds are used to control line cross-sectional dimensions and line shape. During the dispensing process, the dispenser tip is fixed in close proximity to the substrate (ie about a few tens of microns). Two examples of continuous patterns are shown in FIGS. 32A and 32B. The patterns shown in FIGS. 32A and 32B are sine patterns, but other patterns are possible. As shown in FIGS. 32A and 32B, a continuous line pattern is drawn using either a single dispenser chip 2401 or a plurality of dispenser chips 2402. In another case, a drop pattern is used as shown in FIG. 32C. In one embodiment, a pattern of droplets with a larger central droplet than surrounding droplets is used. When the template contacts the droplet, the liquid spreads and fills the patterning area of the template as shown in FIG. 32C.

The distribution speed V d and the relative lateral speed V S of the imprint member are in the relationship:
V d = V d / t d (Distribution amount / Distribution time interval) (1)
V S = L / t d (line length / distribution time interval) (2)
V d = aL (“a” is the cross-sectional area of the line pattern) (3)
Therefore,
V d = aV S (4)

The width of the initial line pattern usually depends on the dimensions of the dispenser tip. The tip of this dispenser is fixed. In one embodiment, the amount of liquid dispensed (V d ) and the time required to dispense the liquid (t d ) are controlled using a liquid dispense controller. When V d and t d are fixed, the length of the cross section of the line to be patterned becomes lower if the length of the line is increased. Increasing the pattern length can be done by increasing the spatial frequency of the periodic pattern. As the pattern length becomes smaller, the amount of liquid dispensed during the imprint process increases. By using multiple chips connected to the same distribution line, a longer length line pattern is formed faster than in the case of a single dispenser chip. In other cases, a precise amount of lines is formed using a plurality of closely spaced droplets.

  After the liquid cure is complete, the template is separated from the cured liquid. Since the template and substrate are almost perfectly parallel, the three assemblies of template, transfer layer, and substrate provide a substantially uniform contact between the template and the cured liquid. Such a system would require a large separation force to separate the template from the cured liquid. In the case of a flexible template or substrate, in one embodiment, the separation is performed using a “peeling process”. However, the use of a flexible template or substrate may not be desirable for high resolution overlay alignment. In the case of quartz templates and silicon substrates, the stripping process will be difficult to implement. In one embodiment, a “peel and pull” process is performed to separate the template from the transfer layer. One embodiment of the peeling and pulling process is shown in FIGS. 33A, 33B, 33C.

  FIG. 33A shows the template 12 embedded in the cured layer 40 after curing. After the material 40 is cured, either the template 12 or the substrate 20 is tilted to intentionally form an angle 3604 between the template 12 and the substrate 20 as shown in FIG. 33B. A pre-calibration stage coupled to either the template or the substrate is used to tilt between the template and the cured layer 40. The relative lateral movement between the template 12 and the substrate 20 is not a problem when the tilt axis is located close to the template-substrate boundary. When the angle 3604 between the template 12 and the substrate 20 is sufficiently large, the template 12 can be separated from the substrate 20 using only Z-axis motion (ie, vertical motion). As a result of this stripping and pulling method, the desired features 44 can be obtained that remain intact on the transfer layer 18 and substrate 20 without undesirable shearing.

  In addition to the above embodiments, the embodiments described herein include forming a patterned structure using an electric field. A cured layer formed using an electric field to induce a pattern in the cured layer can be used in a single imprint process or a step-and-repeat process.

  FIG. 34 shows an embodiment of the template 1200 and the substrate 1202. In one embodiment, the template 1200 is formed from a material that is transparent to the activation light so that the activation light curable liquid can be cured by exposure to the activation light. Once the template 1200 is formed of a transmissive material, conventional optical techniques are used to measure the air gap between the template 1200 and the substrate 1202, and the overlay marks are measured to overlay alignment during formation of the structure. It is also possible to execute magnification correction. The template 1200 is thermally and mechanically stable and can form a pattern with nano-resolution. Template 1200 includes a conductive material and / or layer 1204 to generate an electric field at the template-substrate interface.

  In one embodiment, a fused silica blank is used as the material for the base 1206 of the template 1200. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is deposited on the base 1206. ITO is transparent to visible light and UV light and is a conductive material. ITO can be patterned using high resolution electron beam lithography. As previously mentioned, a low surface energy coating is applied over the template to improve the release characteristics between the template and the polymerized composition. The substrate 1202 is made of a standard wafer material such as Si, GaAs, SiGeC, or InP. A UV curable liquid and / or a heat curable liquid is used as the activated light curable liquid 1208. In one embodiment, the activated photocurable liquid 1208 is spin coated on the wafer 1210. In another embodiment, as described herein, a predetermined amount of activated photocurable liquid 1208 is dispensed in a predetermined pattern on a substrate. In some embodiments, a transfer layer 1212 is provided between the wafer 1210 and the activated photocurable liquid 1208. The material properties and thickness of the transfer layer 1212 are selected such that a low aspect ratio structure to a high aspect ratio structure can be formed into a cured liquid material. By connecting ITO to the voltage source 1214, an electric field is generated between the template 1200 and the substrate 1202.

  Two embodiments of the process are shown in FIGS. 35A-D and FIGS. 36A-C. Each embodiment maintains the desired uniform air gap between the template and the substrate. If an electric field of a desired magnitude is applied, as a result, the activated light curable liquid 1208 is attracted toward the raised portion 1216 of the template 1200. In FIGS. 35A to 35D, the size of the void and the field is such that the activated photocurable liquid 1208 directly contacts and adheres to the template 1200. The liquid is cured using a curing agent (eg, activation light 1218 and / or heat). Once the desired structure is formed, the template 1200 is separated from the substrate 1202 by methods as described herein.

  In FIGS. 36A-C, the size of the air gap and field is selected such that the activated photocuring liquid 1208 is substantially the same as the topography of the template 1200. This topography can be obtained without direct contact with the template. In the embodiment of FIGS. 35A-D and 36A-C where the liquid is cured using a curing agent (eg, activation light 1218), the cured material 1220 is removed using the following etching process. If a transfer layer 1212 is present between the curable material 1220 and the wafer 1210 as shown in FIGS. 35A-D and FIGS. 36A-C, further etching may be used.

  In another embodiment, FIG. 37A shows a conductive template that includes a continuous layer of conductive portions 1504 coupled to a non-conductive base 1502. As shown in FIG. 37B, the non-conductive portions 1502 of the template are separated from each other by conductive portions 1504. This template is used in the “positive” imprint process as described above.

  The use of an electric field makes it possible to form a lithographic patterned structure in less than about 1 second in some cases. This structure generally has dimensions of a few tens of nanometers. In one embodiment, a patterned layer is formed on the substrate by curing the activated photocuring liquid in the presence of an electric field. This pattern is formed by placing a template having a specific nanometer-scale topography at a controlled distance (eg, within nanometers) from the surface of the thin layer of curable liquid on the substrate. For patterns in which all or part of the desired structure is regularly repeating (such as an array of points), the pattern on the template is significantly larger than the dimensions of the desired repeated structure.

The pattern can be replicated on the template by applying an electric field between the template and the substrate. Since liquid and air (or vacuum) have different dielectric constants, and the electric field changes locally due to the presence of the template topography, an electrostatic force is generated that attracts the area of liquid toward the template. Surface tension or capillary pressure tends to stabilize the membrane. At high electric field strength, the activated photocuring liquid is attached to the template and dehumidified from the substrate at some point. However, liquid film adhesion will occur when the rate of electrostatic force measured by the dimensionless number Λ is comparable to the capillary force. The magnitude of the electrostatic force is approximately εE 2 d 2 , where ε is the dielectric constant of the vacuum, E is the magnitude of the electric field, and d is the feature size. The magnitude of the capillary force is approximately γd, where γ is the liquid-gas surface tension. The ratio of these two forces is Λ = εE 2 d / γ. In order to deform the boundary and attach it to the upper surface, the electric field needs to be substantially uniform in L. The exact value depends on the details of the topography of the plate and the liquid-gas dielectric constant and height ratio, but this number will be 0 (1). Thus, the electric field is approximately given by E˜ (γ / εd) 1/2 . This activated photocuring liquid is cured in place by polymerization of the composition. The template is treated with a low energy self-assembled monolayer (eg, a fluorinated surfactant) to assist in separating the template from the polymerized composition.

An example of the approximate value is shown below. In the case of d = 100 nm, γ = 30 mJ / m, and ε = 8.85 × 10 −12 C 2 / Jm, E = 1.8 × 10 8 V / m. This corresponds to a potential difference between a mild plate of 18 V and a plate of 180 V when the plate interval is 1000 nm. Note that feature size d˜γ / εE 2 means that the feature size decreases in proportion to the square of the electric field. Thus, for a 50 nm feature, about 25 to 250 volts would be required for 100 and 1000 nm plate spacing.

  It would be possible to control the electric field, the design of the template topography, and the proximity of the template to the liquid surface to form a pattern in the activated light curable liquid that is not in contact with the surface of the template. This technique would not require mechanical separation of the template from the polymerized composition. This technique will also eliminate the cause of pattern defects. However, in the absence of contact, the liquid does not form as sharp and high resolution structures as are defined when contacted. This is solved by first forming a partially defined structure in the activation light effect liquid with a predetermined electric field. The liquid is then "stretched" to increase the gap between the template and the substrate while simultaneously increasing the magnitude of the electric field to form a well-defined structure without contact. .

  The activated photocuring liquid is deposited on the top surface of the transfer layer as described above. Such a two-layer process can form a low aspect ratio, high resolution structure formed using an electric field, and then an etching process to form a high aspect ratio, high resolution structure. Using such a two-layer process to perform a “metal lift-off process” in which metal is deposited on the substrate such that the metal remains in the trench region of the structure that was originally formed after lift-off. May be.

  When an activation photocuring liquid having a low viscosity is used, pattern formation using an electric field becomes fast (for example, less than 1 second), and the structure is rapidly cured. Avoiding temperature changes between the substrate and the activating photocuring liquid avoids undesirable pattern deformations that make it impossible to perform nano-resolution layer-to-layer alignment. In addition, as described above, since it is possible to quickly form a pattern without making contact with the template, defects that occur in an imprint method that requires direct contact are removed.

  Specific US patents and US patent applications are incorporated herein by reference. However, the texts of such U.S. patents and U.S. patent applications are incorporated by reference to the extent that there is no discrepancy between such text and the other statements and drawings described herein. is there. Where there is such a conflict, any conflicting text in US patents and US patent applications incorporated by such reference is not specifically incorporated herein by reference.

  Although the present invention has been described with reference to various exemplary embodiments, the description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense. Various modifications and combinations of the exemplary embodiments of the present invention, as well as other embodiments, will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon review of this specification. Accordingly, the appended claims are intended to cover any such modifications and combinations.

FIG. 2 is a sketch illustrating an embodiment of a system for imprint lithography. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an imprint lithography system enclosure. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating one embodiment of an imprint lithography head coupled to an imprint lithography system. It is a projection figure which shows an imprint head. It is an exploded view showing an imprint head. It is a projection figure which shows a 1st bending member. It is a projection figure which shows a 2nd bending member. It is a projection figure which shows the 1st and 2nd bending member couple | bonded together. FIG. 6 is a projection view showing a high precision orientation system coupled to an imprint head pre-calibration system. It is sectional drawing which shows a pre-calibration system. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a deflection system. FIG. 3 is a projection view showing a motion stage and an imprint head of an imprint lithography system. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a liquid distribution system. FIG. 5 is a projection view showing an imprint head with a light source and a camera optically coupled to the imprint head. It is sectional drawing which shows the boundary between a droplet and a part of board | substrate. It is sectional drawing which shows the boundary between a droplet and a part of board | substrate. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a first embodiment of a template configured to restrict liquid at the boundary of the template. It is sectional drawing which shows 2nd Embodiment of the template comprised so that a liquid might be restrict | limited at the boundary part of a template. It is sectional drawing which shows the continuation of the process in which a template contacts the liquid arrange | positioned on a board | substrate. It is a top view which shows the template which has a some patterning area | region and a boundary. It is sectional drawing which shows the template which has a some patterning area | region and a boundary. FIG. 6 is a projection view showing a rigid template support system coupled to an imprint head pre-calibration system. FIG. 6 is a projection view showing an imprint head coupled to an XY motion system. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing a negative imprint lithography process. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view showing a negative imprint lithography process with a transfer layer. It is sectional drawing which shows positive type | mold imprint lithography process. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing a positive-type imprint lithography process including a transfer layer. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing a combination of negative and positive imprint lithography processes. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an optical alignment measurement device positioned on a template and a substrate. FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scheme for determining alignment of a template with respect to a substrate using alignment marks by successive observation and refocusing. FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scheme for determining alignment of a template to a substrate using alignment marks and polarized lines. It is a top view which shows the alignment mark formed from the polarization line. It is a top view which shows the pattern of the hardening liquid apply | coated to the board | substrate. It is sectional drawing which shows the scheme which removes a template from the board | substrate after hardening. FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view illustrating one embodiment of a template positioned on a substrate for electric field-based lithography. 1 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a first embodiment of a process for forming a nanoscale structure using contact with a template. FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a first embodiment of a process for forming a nanoscale structure without contacting a template. FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a template including a continuous patterned conductive layer disposed on a non-conductive base. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a motion stage with a substrate tilt module. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a motion stage with a high precision orientation system. 1 is a schematic diagram showing a substrate support. 1 schematically illustrates an imprint lithography system with an imprint head positioned under a substrate support. 1 is a schematic diagram showing the axis of movement of a template and a substrate. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an interferometer-based position detector. FIG. 6 is a projection view showing an interferometer-based position detector. FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view showing a patterned template including alignment marks surrounded by a boundary. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating an off-axis alignment method. FIG. 6 is an overhead view showing a θ alignment process. It is a top view which shows the alignment target containing a diffraction grating. It is sectional drawing which shows a diffraction grating. FIG. 6 is a plan view showing an alignment target including diffraction gratings having different intervals. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scattering measurement system that analyzes a plurality of wavelengths on Nth order scattered light. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scattering measurement system that analyzes a plurality of wavelengths on Nth order scattered light passing through an optical element. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scattering measurement system that analyzes zero-order scattered light at an angle that is not perpendicular. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scatterometry system that analyzes zero-order scattered light at non-perpendicular angles through an optical element. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scatterometry system that analyzes zero-order scattered light at non-perpendicular angles through an optical fiber. 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a scatterometry system that analyzes Nth order scattered light at non-vertical angles through an optical fiber.

Claims (29)

  1. A method for determining alignment between a template having a template alignment mark and a substrate having a substrate alignment mark, the method comprising:
    Installing the template and the substrate in a superimposed state;
    Obtaining a plurality of alignment measurements;
    Identifying a desired spatial orientation of the template alignment mark and the substrate alignment mark using the plurality of alignment measurements and determining misalignment;
    Determining an average misalignment based on the misalignment.
  2.   The method of claim 1, further comprising: changing the position according to information obtained from the average deviation to obtain the desired spatial orientation.
  3.   The step of obtaining a plurality of alignment measurements includes the step of causing light having first and second wavelengths to be incident on both the alignment mark of the template and the alignment mark of the substrate, and the step of identifying comprises Determining a first alignment error of the alignment mark of the template relative to the alignment mark of the substrate based on the alignment measurement collected in the light of the first wavelength, and light of the second wavelength The method of claim 1, further comprising: determining, by the photodetector, a second alignment error of the template relative to the alignment mark of the substrate based on the alignment measurements collected at.
  4.   4. The method of claim 3, wherein determining an average deviation further comprises averaging the first and second alignment errors to determine the average deviation.
  5.   The step of determining the first alignment error further includes sensing the first wavelength that is not zero order, and the step of determining the second alignment error is sensing the second wavelength that is not zero order. The method according to claim 3, further comprising:
  6.   A first grating having a plurality of features each spaced from adjacent features in the range of about 1 μm to about 3 μm is provided in the template to define an alignment mark for the template, and from about 1 μm to about 3 μm from the adjacent mark. The method of claim 1, further comprising: providing a second grating on the substrate having a plurality of marks, each spaced apart by a range, to define alignment marks on the substrate.
  7.   A first grating having a plurality of features each spaced less than about 1 μm from adjacent features is provided in the template to define alignment marks of the template and has a plurality of marks each spaced less than about 1 μm from adjacent marks The method of claim 1, further comprising providing a second grating on the substrate to define an alignment mark on the substrate.
  8.   A first grating having a plurality of features each spaced from adjacent features in a range of about 100 nm to 1000 nm is provided in the template to define an alignment mark for the template and in a range of about 100 nm to 1000 nm from the adjacent mark. The method of claim 1, further comprising: providing a second grating having a plurality of spaced apart marks on the substrate to define alignment marks on the substrate.
  9.   Providing a template with first and second gratings to define alignment marks of the template, the first and second gratings each including a plurality of features, wherein the features of the first grating Each of which is associated with a second diffraction grating spaced from adjacent features in the range of 1 μm to 3 μm and wherein the features are spaced in the range of 100-100 nm from the adjacent features; And a fourth grid to define alignment marks on the substrate, wherein the third and fourth grids each include a plurality of marks, and each of the marks of the third grid is a proximate feature. Each of the marks is associated with a fourth diffraction grating that is spaced from the adjacent mark in the range of 100 to 100 nm. The method of claim 1, further comprising a to and process.
  10.   The step of determining the first alignment error further includes sensing the first wavelength of the + 1st order and the −1st order, and the step of determining the second alignment error includes the step of determining the first order error and the −1st order. The method of claim 1, further comprising sensing the second wavelength.
  11.   Determining the first alignment error further comprises comparing a positive nth order alignment measurement at the first wavelength with a negative nth order alignment measurement at the first wavelength; The method of claim 3, wherein determining the alignment error of the method further comprises comparing a positive nth order alignment measurement at the second wavelength with a negative nth order alignment measurement at the second wavelength. .
  12.   The method further includes the step of applying an activation photocuring liquid to the substrate and bringing the activation photocuring liquid into contact with the template, and the step of changing the position comprises contacting the template with the activation photocuring liquid. The method of claim 2, further comprising establishing the template and the substrate in a desired spatial orientation while maintaining.
  13.   The method of claim 12, further comprising curing the activated photocuring liquid to form a cured liquid and separating the template from the cured liquid.
  14.   The step of changing the position further includes the step of changing the position in a state where the activation photocuring liquid is substantially absent in a region where both the alignment mark of the substrate and the alignment mark of the template are overlapped. The method of claim 12.
  15.   The template includes first and second opposing surfaces, the first surface having a plurality of features, extending from the first surface toward the second surface by a first distance. The method according to claim 1, wherein a plurality of recesses are formed.
  16.   Providing a boundary formed by the plurality of recesses in the template, the boundary extending from the first surface toward the second surface by a second distance larger than the first distance. The method of claim 15 further comprising:
  17.   The step of separating the template from the cured liquid further comprises moving the template and the substrate to an orientation that is not substantially parallel to each other, and separating the template and the substrate from each other. 14. The method according to 13.
  18.   Adding separation light before separating the template from the cured liquid, the separation light changing a chemical composition of a part of the cured liquid to reduce adhesion of the template to the cured liquid The method of claim 13, further comprising the step of:
  19. The body,
    A stage coupled to the body;
    A substrate coupled to the stage and having an alignment mark;
    An imprint head coupled to the body;
    A template coupled to the imprint head and having alignment marks;
    A light source that generates light having first, second, and third wavelengths, wherein the first and second wavelengths are incident on alignment marks of the substrate and the template;
    Sensing light having the first and second wavelengths reflected from the alignment mark of the substrate and the template, and obtaining a plurality of alignment measurement values therefrom, and aligning the alignment mark of the template with the alignment mark of the substrate An imprint lithography system comprising: a detection system that identifies a deviation from a mark from the plurality of alignment measurements, determines an alignment deviation, and determines an average deviation from the alignment deviation.
  20.   A liquid distributor coupled to the body for depositing a plurality of droplets of activated photocuring liquid on the substrate, wherein the activated photocuring liquid is responsive to the third wavelength and the activation The system of claim 19, further comprising a liquid dispenser that cures in response to the third wavelength incident on the photocuring liquid.
  21.   20. The template of claim 19, wherein the template has first and second opposing surfaces, and the patterning region includes a plurality of recesses extending from the first surface toward the second surface by a first distance. system.
  22.   21. The system of claim 19, wherein the substrate and template alignment marks each include a grating having a plurality of features each spaced in the range of about 1 [mu] m to about 3 [mu] m from adjacent features.
  23.   21. The system of claim 19, wherein the substrate and template alignment marks each comprise a grating having a plurality of features each spaced less than about 1 [mu] m from adjacent features.
  24.   20. The system of claim 19, wherein the substrate and template alignment marks each comprise a grating having a plurality of features each spaced in the range of about 100 nm to 1000 nm from adjacent features.
  25.   The substrate and template alignment marks each include first and second grids, each of the first and second grids including a plurality of features, and each of the features of the first grid is a proximate feature. 21. The system of claim 19, wherein the feature is associated with a second diffraction grating that is spaced in the range of 1 μm to 3 μm from and adjacent features are spaced in the range of 100 to 100 nm.
  26.   The system of claim 19, wherein the detection system further comprises a detector selected from an array camera, a spectrophotometer, a CCD array, a 2-axis interferometer, and a 5-axis interferometer.
  27.   21. The system of claim 20, further comprising a force detector coupled to the imprint head and for determining a force applied to the template by contacting the droplet.
  28.   The system of claim 19, further comprising a pre-calibration stage, wherein the imprint head is coupled to the pre-calibration stage.
  29.   The template further includes a boundary formed around the plurality of recesses, the boundary extending from the first surface toward the second surface by a second distance greater than the first distance. The described system.
JP2004526254A 2002-08-01 2003-07-31 Scatter measurement alignment for imprint lithography Pending JP2006516065A (en)

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US10/210,894 US7070405B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2002-08-01 Alignment systems for imprint lithography
US10/210,780 US6916584B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2002-08-01 Alignment methods for imprint lithography
US10/210,785 US7027156B2 (en) 2002-08-01 2002-08-01 Scatterometry alignment for imprint lithography
PCT/US2003/023948 WO2004013693A2 (en) 2002-08-01 2003-07-31 Scatterometry alignment for imprint lithography

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WO2004013693A3 (en) 2006-01-19
AU2003261317A8 (en) 2004-02-23
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WO2004013693A2 (en) 2004-02-12
KR20050026088A (en) 2005-03-14

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