JP2000327470A - Production of fermented fertilizer using culture residue of mushroom bed culture mushroom and organic material or the like and method for calculating fertilizer component after fermentation - Google Patents

Production of fermented fertilizer using culture residue of mushroom bed culture mushroom and organic material or the like and method for calculating fertilizer component after fermentation

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Publication number
JP2000327470A
JP2000327470A JP11144612A JP14461299A JP2000327470A JP 2000327470 A JP2000327470 A JP 2000327470A JP 11144612 A JP11144612 A JP 11144612A JP 14461299 A JP14461299 A JP 14461299A JP 2000327470 A JP2000327470 A JP 2000327470A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
fertilizer
fermentation
materials
production
fermented
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP11144612A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Hiroshi Nagano
弘 永野
Original Assignee
Hiroshi Nagano
弘 永野
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Hiroshi Nagano, 弘 永野 filed Critical Hiroshi Nagano
Priority to JP11144612A priority Critical patent/JP2000327470A/en
Publication of JP2000327470A publication Critical patent/JP2000327470A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To produce a fertilizer which is nearly neutral in pH by simplifying moisture regulation in production of the organic fermented fertilizer, obviating the generation of an ammonia smell in a production process and making production indoors in a short period of time and to obtain a simple method for calculating the contents of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium after fermentation. SOLUTION: The culture residues of the mushroom bed culture mushrooms discharged from factories are used as the materials for the organic fermented fertilizer and are rested outdoors under conditions under which the materials are kept free from rainwater until the moisture content attains 45 to 50%. The materials are mixed within a room where air flows. The materials are turned at the fourth day and the seventh day. The materials are spread and air dried after 10 days. Thermophilic microorganisms which do not die in spite of the generation of fermentation heat of >=60 deg.C are used for the microorganisms. The fertilizer components after the production are analyzed and the change ratio of the component quantities during the fermentation are calculated.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
【0001】[0001]
【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は菌床栽培キノコの栽
培残さに有機質資材とチッ素肥料、カリ肥料を混合し、
好熱性の土壌微生物を使って空気の流通する屋内で発酵
させた肥料の製造方法と発酵肥料の成分(チッ素、リン
酸、カリ)含量の計算式である。
TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to a method for mixing organic materials, nitrogen fertilizer, and potassium fertilizer with the cultivation residue of fungal bed cultivated mushrooms.
It is a manufacturing method of the fertilizer fermented indoors which uses thermophilic soil microorganisms in the air circulation, and the calculation formula of the components (nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium) content of the fermented fertilizer.
【0002】[0002]
【従来の技術】従来の有機質発酵肥料は油カス、骨粉、
米ヌカなどの有機質資材に山土や粘土などを混ぜて発酵
させた肥料で、一般的に有機質の量と土の量を同じだけ
使い(表1 ぼかし肥のつくり方使い方 農文協編)、
ぼかし肥と言われてきた。農家では独自の資材と方法を
使って発酵肥料を製造し、化成肥料を使うより品質のよ
い作物の栽培に活用してきた。しかしこれまでの方法で
は土の量が多いため、資材と土を混合したものに水を加
え、土壌微生物が最も発酵しやすい水分含量の35〜4
0%に調節することがむずかしい。また有機質発酵肥料
はチッ素、リン酸、カリなどの肥料成分が少なく、肥料
として多量に施用しなければならない課題があった。さ
らに土を多く使う従来の製造方法では発酵過程での水分
の蒸発が少ないために、発酵中の温度が50℃以上にな
るとアンモニア発酵がすすみ、強いアンモニア臭がして
くる。このような発酵肥料は作物の生育に対して効果の
劣るものであり、害を与える場合もある。従来の方法で
良質の発酵肥料を製造するには50℃以上にならないよ
うに何回も切り返しをする必要があり、一度に1tとい
った多くの量を製造することは難しい。このため農家で
は作物を栽培しながら多量の発酵肥料を一度に製造する
ことは困難であった。
2. Description of the Related Art Conventional organic fermented fertilizers include oily residue, bone meal,
It is a fertilizer made by mixing mountain soil and clay with organic materials such as rice bran and fermenting. Generally, the same amount of organic matter and soil is used (Table 1 How to make blurred fertilizer, Agricultural Bunkyo)
It has been called blurred manure. Farmers have used their own materials and methods to produce fermented fertilizers and have used them to grow higher quality crops using chemical fertilizers. However, in the conventional methods, since the amount of soil is large, water is added to a mixture of the material and the soil, and a water content of 35 to 4 which is most easily fermented by soil microorganisms.
It is difficult to adjust to 0%. Organic fermented fertilizers have low fertilizer components such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium, and have a problem that they must be applied in large amounts as fertilizers. Further, in the conventional production method using a lot of soil, since the evaporation of water in the fermentation process is small, when the temperature during the fermentation becomes 50 ° C. or more, the ammonia fermentation proceeds and a strong ammonia smell is produced. Such fermented fertilizer is inferior to the growth of the crop and may cause harm. In order to produce a high-quality fermented fertilizer by a conventional method, it is necessary to repeatedly turn the fertilizer so that the temperature does not exceed 50 ° C., and it is difficult to produce a large amount such as 1 t at a time. For this reason, it was difficult for farmers to produce a large amount of fermented fertilizer at once while cultivating crops.
【0003】[0003]
【表1】 [Table 1]
【0004】一方このような発酵肥料の資材を大量に入
手し、工業的に製造する方法も試みられるようになっ
た。特開平7−187869では、湖沼や河川水のろ過
で排出される緑藻や食品工場などから廃棄物として排出
される汚泥を回収して米ヌカ等の栄養源を添加し、発酵
菌を接種して発酵肥料を製造する方法が示されている。
この方法は廃棄物の利用としては有効であるが、発酵さ
せるための資材の収集や水分の調整などに施設や設備が
必要であった。
On the other hand, a method of obtaining such fermented fertilizer material in large quantities and industrially producing it has been attempted. In JP-A-7-187869, green algae discharged from the filtration of lakes and rivers and sludge discharged as waste from food factories and the like are collected, a nutrient source such as rice bran is added, and fermentation bacteria are inoculated. A method for producing fermented fertilizer is shown.
Although this method is effective for the use of waste, it requires facilities and equipment for collecting materials for fermentation and adjusting moisture.
【0005】本発明は工業廃棄物としての菌床栽培キノ
コの栽培残さを有機質発酵肥料の資材として有効利用す
るものである。キノコ栽培はホダ木にキノコの種菌を接
種して山間地等で栽培する昔ながらの方法と、菌床と呼
ばれる培地(オガクズ、米ヌカ、おから、とうもろこし
の穂軸粉砕物等の混合物等)を水分含量60〜80%に
調整してポリプロピレンのビンに入れて種菌を接種し、
温度や湿度を調整した工場などの室内で栽培する方法が
あるが、近年は後者の割合が増加し、エノキタケ、ナメ
コやブナシメジ等の生産量も多くなっている。
[0005] The present invention is to effectively utilize the cultivation residue of fungal bed cultivated mushrooms as industrial waste as a material for organic fermentation fertilizer. Mushroom cultivation is based on the traditional method of inoculating mushroom seeds on a soda tree and cultivating it in mountainous areas, etc., and a medium called fungal bed (mixture of sawdust, rice bran, okara, corn cob crushed material etc.). Adjust the water content to 60-80%, put it in polypropylene bottle, inoculate the inoculum,
There is a method of cultivating indoors such as a factory where the temperature and humidity are adjusted, but in recent years, the ratio of the latter has increased, and the production of enokitake, nameko, bunashimeji and the like has also increased.
【0006】菌床栽培キノコの栽培後の残さ(商品とな
る可食部を除いたキノコの柄の基部と廃菌床)は堆肥化
されて利用されているものもあるが、そのままではpHが
5.0前後と低く、連年使用すると土壌の酸性化が進
む。その結果、作物の生育には適さず、土壌環境も劣悪
化する。またそのまま堆積して放置すればアンモニア発
酵が進み、悪臭を放って環境汚染源ともなる。
[0006] Bacterial bed cultivation Residue after cultivation of mushrooms (the base of the mushroom handle excluding the edible portion as a product and the waste fungus bed) is composted and used. It is as low as about 5.0, and acidification of the soil progresses when used continuously. As a result, it is not suitable for growing crops and the soil environment deteriorates. If left as it is, the ammonia fermentation will proceed, giving off a bad smell and becoming a source of environmental pollution.
【0007】特開平8−181ではこのようなキノコ栽
培後の廃培地を利用し、有用性微生物群(EM菌)を接
種し、ほぼ密閉状態で発酵処理して肥料を製造する方法
が示されている。この方法は発酵に1〜2ヶ月を要し、
密閉状態での嫌気発酵では水分が蒸発しないために2次
発酵であるアンモニア発酵が進み、開放状態に移行した
時の悪臭の発生は完全には防止できない。またアンモニ
ア発酵が進めば肥料としての効果が劣るものである。
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 8-181 discloses a method for producing a fertilizer by inoculating a useful microorganism group (EM fungus) using such a waste medium after cultivation of mushrooms and performing fermentation treatment in a substantially closed state. ing. This method takes 1-2 months for fermentation,
In the anaerobic fermentation in the closed state, since the water does not evaporate, the ammonia fermentation as the secondary fermentation proceeds, and the generation of offensive odor at the time of shifting to the open state cannot be completely prevented. Further, if the ammonia fermentation proceeds, the effect as a fertilizer is inferior.
【0008】特開平7−109191では嫌気性微生物
を使った発酵材の製造方法と装置が示されている。この
装置は密閉状態を作るものであり、好気性微生物を使う
より短時間で良質の発酵材ができるとされている。この
製造方法も特開8−181と同じように密閉状態から開
放状態に移行したときの悪臭の発生は防止できないと思
われる。
Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-109191 discloses a method and an apparatus for producing a fermentation material using anaerobic microorganisms. This device creates a closed state, and it is said that a high-quality fermented material can be produced in a shorter time than using aerobic microorganisms. It seems that this manufacturing method cannot prevent the generation of offensive odor when the state is shifted from the closed state to the open state, as in JP-A-8-181.
【0009】以上のような有機質発酵肥料の資材である
有機物の肥料成分はチッ素、リン酸、カリ等の含量が低
いものが一般的であり、有機質資材だけを発酵させた場
合は肥料としてよりも微生物の働きによる土壌改良材と
しての使用が多かった。また発酵肥料は製造後に化学分
析することにより、初めて肥料成分の含量を知ることが
できた。このため農家では目的とする作物の栽培に必要
な発酵肥料の量を設定することは困難であった。
The fertilizer component of the organic matter which is a material of the above-mentioned organic fermentation fertilizer generally has a low content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium, and the like. Also, many of them were used as soil improvement materials by the action of microorganisms. Fermenter fertilizers could be analyzed for the first time by chemical analysis after production to determine the content of fertilizer components. For this reason, it was difficult for farmers to set the amount of fermented fertilizer necessary for cultivation of the target crop.
【0010】[0010]
【発明が解決しようとする課題】昔から篤農家等で行わ
れてきた有機質発酵肥料の製造は油カス、骨粉、米ヌカ
などの有機質資材と山土や粘土などを同量混合する方法
で、発酵に適した水分量(35〜40%)に調整するこ
とが難しく、発酵熱が50℃以上になると嫌気発酵のた
めに強いアンモニア臭がする。また温度を下げるために
は何回も切り返しが必要であるが、土が多いために重く
て容易ではない。
The production of organic fermented fertilizers, which has been practiced by farmers for a long time, is a method of mixing the same amount of organic materials such as oily scum, bone meal and rice bran with mountain soil and clay. It is difficult to adjust the water content (35-40%) suitable for fermentation, and when the fermentation heat exceeds 50 ° C., a strong ammonia smell is produced due to anaerobic fermentation. In order to lower the temperature, it is necessary to turn over many times, but it is not easy because of the large amount of soil.
【0011】また資材として土に比較して軽量で空気の
流通がよく、キノコの柄の基部や菌糸などの養分を含
み、水分の蒸発もよいといった微生物の増殖しやすい条
件のそろった菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さを使っても発酵
過程で60℃以上の高温になると微生物群に生存できな
いものが多く、発酵せずに資材が腐敗してしまうことが
多い。
As a material, compared with soil, it is lighter in weight, has better air circulation, contains nutrients such as the base of a mushroom handle and mycelium, and has good evaporation of water. Even if mushroom cultivation residue is used, if the temperature of the mushrooms reaches 60 ° C. or higher during the fermentation process, many of the microorganisms cannot survive, and the material often rots without fermentation.
【0012】密閉状態で有機質資材等を発酵させると、
発酵過程で温度が上がるために蒸発する水分が水滴とな
って再び資材に混入し、ここから2次発酵であるアンモ
ニア発酵が始まる。このため悪臭が消えず、肥効の劣っ
た肥料となる。このような方法では発酵中に水分を減少
させる装置が必要である。
When fermenting organic materials and the like in a closed state,
As the temperature rises during the fermentation process, the water that evaporates becomes water droplets and mixes into the material again, from which ammonia fermentation, which is the secondary fermentation, starts. For this reason, the odor does not disappear, and the fertilizer is inferior in effectiveness. Such a method requires a device to reduce the water content during fermentation.
【0013】また有機質発酵肥料は製造前の個々の資材
に含まれる肥料成分の量については製造者の表示より知
ることができるが、発酵後には微生物の働きにより混合
した資材全体の肥料成分量が変わり、肥料の3要素と言
われるチッ素、リン酸、カリの量を知るには化学分析し
なければならなかった。さらに入手できる資材の種類や
配合量が変われば、発酵後の肥料成分量を知るのは容易
ではない。この肥料成分量がわからないと作物ごとの施
肥量を算出することができず、栽培農家にとっては適切
な施肥設計ができないことになる。
[0013] In addition, the amount of fertilizer components contained in individual materials before production of organic fermentation fertilizers can be known from the manufacturer's label, but after fermentation, the amount of fertilizer components in the whole materials mixed by the action of microorganisms is reduced. In turn, chemical analysis was needed to determine the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash, all three of the fertilizers. Furthermore, if the types and amounts of available materials change, it is not easy to know the amount of fertilizer components after fermentation. If the amount of the fertilizer component is not known, the amount of fertilization for each crop cannot be calculated, and a cultivation farmer cannot perform an appropriate fertilization design.
【0014】[0014]
【課題を解決するための手段】上記の課題を解決するた
め、土のかわりに軽量で水分が蒸発しやすい菌床栽培キ
ノコの栽培残さを使い、資材類の水分調整と切り返しを
簡単にした。菌床は米ヌカ、おから、とうもろこしの穂
軸の粉砕物を混合した物で、発酵に時間のかかり、木材
により性質の異なるオガクズは含んでいないものとし
た。栽培残さは廃菌床の他に栄養物としての価値もある
シメジやエノキの柄の基部、菌糸を含んでおり、資材類
とともに高温下で発酵させるために好熱性微生物(科研
E&BC製)を使った。科研E&BCの好熱性放線菌は
工業技術院生命工学工業技術研究所受託番号FERM
P−13598、好熱性繊維素分解菌は特平5−336
951に示されている。これらの微生物は60℃以上の
高温下でも活発に活動することが報告されている。特に
光合成細菌は有機低分子化合物を好んで資化するととも
に好熱性放線菌の増殖を促す。好熱性放線菌は強い静菌
作用と発酵肥料製造中の悪臭除去に効果がある。好熱性
繊維素分解菌は資材類の繊維質やたんぱく質をよく分解
する働きがあり、分解してできたアミノ酸や糖類は肥料
成分となるだけでなく、好熱性微生物を増殖させる。
Means for Solving the Problems To solve the above-mentioned problems, the cultivation residue of a fungus bed cultivated mushroom, which is lightweight and easily evaporates moisture, is used instead of the soil, and the water content of the materials is easily adjusted and cut back. The fungal bed was a mixture of pulverized material of rice bran, okara, and corn cob. It took a long time to ferment and did not contain sawdust having different properties depending on wood. The cultivation residue contains bases of shimeji and enoki patterns and mycelium that are valuable as nutrients in addition to waste bacterial beds, and uses thermophilic microorganisms (manufactured by Kaken E & BC) to ferment at high temperature with materials. Was. Kaken E &BC's thermophilic actinomycetes is the accession number FERM of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology.
P-13598, thermophilic fibrinolytic bacteria
951. It has been reported that these microorganisms are active even at a high temperature of 60 ° C. or higher. In particular, photosynthetic bacteria favor low organic compounds and promote the growth of thermophilic actinomycetes. Thermophilic actinomycetes have a strong bacteriostatic action and are effective in removing odors during fermentation fertilizer production. Thermophilic fibrinolytic bacteria have the function of degrading fibrous materials and proteins of materials well, and amino acids and saccharides formed by the decomposition not only become fertilizer components but also propagate thermophilic microorganisms.
【0015】菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さを使った発酵肥
料の製造方法は以下の通りである。キノコ工場から排出
される菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さは水分を60〜85%
含んでいるため、水分量が45〜50%になる(4〜5
日)まで降雨のかからない条件下の屋外に放置する。製
造場所は空気の流通する屋内が最もよいが、この条件が
なければ屋根がスレートやビニルなど、降雨が入らない
状態でも十分である。資材類を表2のような構成とし、
まず米ヌカとよく混ぜた微生物(科研E&BC製)をキ
ノコの栽培残さに散布し、さらに他の資材類とよく混合
する。この時水分量は自然と35〜40%に調整された
状態になり、散水による水分調整の必要はない。資材類
が発酵して60℃以上になるので、4日後に切り返す。
再び60℃以上の高温となるので7日後に切り返す。1
0日後に広げて冷やし、自然乾燥させた後に紙製の袋に
入れて室内に保存する。この方法では散水による水分の
調節の必要がなく、資材は2mの高さになってもよく発
酵する。菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さは土に比べて軽く、
空気の流通も良いため切り返しも小型のタイヤショベル
で十分であり、特別な発酵装置も必要なく、一度に多く
の量を製造できる。表2の量であればスコップを使って
人の力で十分切り返しができる。この方法では常に微生
物が活発に活動しており、製造中にアンモニア臭などの
悪臭は発生しない。
A method for producing a fermented fertilizer using the cultivation residue of fungal bed cultivated mushrooms is as follows. Bacterial bed cultivation residue of mushrooms discharged from mushroom factory 60-85% moisture
Water content is 45 to 50% (4 to 5%)
Until the sun), leave it outdoors under no rain. The best place to manufacture is indoors where air is circulated, but without this condition, it is sufficient even if the roof is slate or vinyl and rain-free. The materials are configured as shown in Table 2,
First, a microorganism (manufactured by Kaken E & BC) mixed well with rice bran is sprayed on the mushroom cultivation residue, and further mixed well with other materials. At this time, the water content is naturally adjusted to 35 to 40%, and there is no need to adjust the water content by watering. The materials are fermented to 60 ° C. or higher, and cut back after 4 days.
Since the temperature becomes 60 ° C. or higher again, it is cut back after 7 days. 1
After 0 days, it is spread, cooled, air-dried, put in a paper bag, and stored indoors. In this method, there is no need to adjust the water content by watering, and the material may be as high as 2 m and fermented. The cultivation residue of fungus bed cultivated mushrooms is lighter than soil,
Since the air circulation is good, a small excavator is sufficient for turning over, and a special fermentation device is not required, and a large amount can be produced at a time. With the amount shown in Table 2, a scoop can be used to switch back sufficiently with human power. In this method, microorganisms are always active, and no malodor such as ammonia smell is generated during production.
【0016】[0016]
【表2】 [Table 2]
【0017】発酵肥料を製造するとき、微生物の最もよ
く活動するpHは6.0〜8.0である。また作物のほと
んどはpHが中性に近い土壌で最もよく生育する。製造し
た発酵肥料のpHを6.5〜7.0のほぼ中性とするため
には、石灰質資材の炭酸苦土石灰と消石灰を表2に示す
割合で混合するとよい。
When producing fermented fertilizers, the most active pH of the microorganism is between 6.0 and 8.0. Most crops also grow best in soils with near neutral pH. In order to make the pH of the manufactured fermented fertilizer approximately neutral at 6.5 to 7.0, it is advisable to mix calcareous materials such as magnesite carbonate lime and slaked lime in the ratio shown in Table 2.
【0018】米ヌカや骨粉等の有機質資材だけを発酵さ
せた肥料はチッ素が約2%、カリが1%未満と少なく、
菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さを混用するとさらに少なくな
る。作物の生育に適したチッ素、リン酸、カリの量を含
む発酵肥料を製造するためには有機質資材に特に不足す
るチッ素、カリを含む肥料を加える必要があり、チッ素
肥料として硝安、カリ肥料として硫酸カリを資材として
使った。また表2で示しているキノコの栽培残さは風乾
重であり、工場からの排出時は水分を含んでいるため、
その時の重量は6〜8倍である。
Fertilizers obtained by fermenting only organic materials such as rice bran and bone meal have a low nitrogen content of about 2% and a potash content of less than 1%.
Mixing the cultivation residue of fungal bed cultivated mushrooms will further reduce. In order to produce fertilizer fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium suitable for growing crops, it is necessary to add fertilizers containing nitrogen and potassium, which are particularly insufficient in organic materials. Potassium sulfate was used as a potash fertilizer. In addition, the mushroom cultivation residue shown in Table 2 is air-dried and heavy, and contains moisture when discharged from the factory.
The weight at that time is 6 to 8 times.
【0019】発酵肥料の成分量を容易に算出するため、
混合する資材類の肥料成分を調べ、発酵後に分析したチ
ッ素、リン酸、カリの量と比べることにより、発酵過程
における肥料成分の変化を調べた。表2の個々の資材の
チッ素、リン酸、カリの含量の合計はチッ素14.16
kg、リン酸27.52kg、カリ9.76kgで、重
量%はチッ素3.11%、リン酸6.05%、カリ2.
15%である。菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さの成分は化学
分析し、その他の資材は製造者の表示した数字を使っ
た。これらの資材を混合し、本発明で示した方法で発酵
させ、製造した肥料のチッ素、リン酸、カリの量を化学
分析して重量%で表すとチッ素6.31%、リン酸5.
14%、カリ5.22%となる。発酵後の3成分の含量
は発酵前に比べて、チッ素は約2.03倍、リン酸は約
0.85倍、カリは約2.43倍となるが、上記の製造
と分析の操作を繰り返しても発酵後の成分の変化の割合
はほぼ同じであった。また表2の資材類の混合量を変え
ても、この割合は変わらなかった。
In order to easily calculate the amount of the components of the fertilizer,
Fertilizer components of the materials to be mixed were examined, and changes in fertilizer components during the fermentation process were examined by comparing the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium analyzed after fermentation. The sum of the contents of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium in the individual materials in Table 2 is 14.16 nitrogen.
kg, phosphoric acid 27.52 kg, potash 9.76 kg, weight percent is 3.11% nitrogen, 6.05% phosphoric acid, 2.
15%. The components of the cultivation residue of the fungus-grown mushrooms were subjected to chemical analysis, and other materials used the numbers indicated by the manufacturer. These materials were mixed and fermented by the method shown in the present invention, and the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium in the fertilizer produced were chemically analyzed to be expressed in terms of% by weight. .
It becomes 14% and 5.22% of potash. The contents of the three components after fermentation are about 2.03 times for nitrogen, about 0.85 times for phosphoric acid, and about 2.43 times for potash compared to before fermentation. The rate of change of the components after fermentation was almost the same even when was repeated. This ratio did not change even if the mixing amount of the materials shown in Table 2 was changed.
【0020】表2の資材類を使って分析した結果を基に
算出した発酵後のチッ素、リン酸、カリの倍率を使用し
て発酵後のチッ素、リン酸、カリの重量%を計算するこ
とにより、表3のようなチッ素とカリを多く含む発酵肥
料を製造する資材の配合例を知ることができる。
The weight percentage of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium after fermentation was calculated using the magnification of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium after fermentation calculated based on the results of analysis using the materials shown in Table 2. By doing so, it is possible to know examples of the mixing of materials for producing fermented fertilizers containing a large amount of nitrogen and potassium as shown in Table 3.
【0021】[0021]
【表3】 [Table 3]
【0022】[0022]
【発明の効果】菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さを使った発酵
肥料は製造過程における水分の調整がほとんど必要ない
ために、空気の流通する屋内だけでなく、降雨を防ぐ条
件下では屋外でも簡単に製造できる。発酵過程では水分
もよく蒸発するので切り返しの回数も3回と少なくてよ
く、製造のための特別な装置の必要もない。表2の混合
割合を基準に好熱性微生物を使って発酵させることで高
温下でも微生物は活発に活動し、発酵過程におけるアン
モニア臭もなく、一度に多くの量を製造できる。製造し
た発酵肥料は自然状態で乾燥させ、紙袋に入れて室内に
置くことで1年以上保存しても施肥の効果は十分であ
る。
EFFECTS OF THE INVENTION Fermentation fertilizers using mushroom residue grown on fungal bed cultivation require almost no adjustment of water during the manufacturing process, so they can be easily used not only indoors where air is circulated but also outdoors under conditions that prevent rainfall. Can be manufactured. In the fermentation process, since the water evaporates well, the number of times of turning back may be as small as three, and there is no need for a special device for production. By fermenting using a thermophilic microorganism based on the mixing ratio in Table 2, the microorganism can be actively activated even at high temperatures, and can produce a large amount at once without an ammonia smell in the fermentation process. Even if the manufactured fermented fertilizer is dried in a natural state, stored in a paper bag and placed indoors, the fertilizing effect is sufficient even if stored for one year or more.
【0023】表2に示した資材を基準として好熱性微生
物を使って発酵させると、資材のチッ素、リン酸、カリ
の重量%にチッ素約2.03、リン酸約0.85、カリ
約2.43を乗することにより、製造した肥料のチッ
素、リン酸、カリの含量を知ることができた。このこと
から発酵肥料を使って、作物ごとに施肥設計ができるよ
うになった。
When fermentation was performed using thermophilic microorganisms based on the materials shown in Table 2, the weight percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potassium in the materials were about 2.03 for nitrogen, about 0.85 for phosphoric acid, and about 0.85 for potassium. By multiplying about 2.43, it was possible to know the contents of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium in the manufactured fertilizer. This has made it possible to design fertilizers for each crop using fermented fertilizers.
【0024】有機質発酵肥料は遅効性であるが、表2で
はチッ素肥料としての硝安、リン酸肥料としての過リン
酸石灰、カリ肥料としての硫酸カリにより速効性の効果
もみられる。さらに石灰質資材の混合によりpHが6.0
〜7.2となり、微生物の活動しやすい条件となった。
The fermented organic fertilizer is slow-acting, but in Table 2, there is also a fast-acting effect due to ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen fertilizer, lime superphosphate as a phosphate fertilizer, and potassium sulfate as a potassium fertilizer. Further, the pH is adjusted to 6.0 by mixing calcareous materials.
-7.2, which is a condition under which microorganisms can easily be activated.
【0025】発酵肥料のチッ素、リン酸、カリの含量を
基にキュウリの施肥設計の例を以下に示した。ハウス抑
制キュウリの施肥例として10a当たり元肥はチッ素1
5.0kg、リン酸15.0kg、カリ15.0kg必
要で、表2の発酵肥料を240〜290kg施用すれば
よい。追肥は10aにチッ素8.0kg、リン酸3.2
kg、カリ6.4kg必要で、表3の発酵肥料を130
〜160kg施用するとよい。このように有機質発酵肥
料も作物の生育に合わせた施肥設計をすることができ
た。
An example of a cucumber fertilization design based on the contents of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium in fermented fertilizer is shown below. As a fertilization example of house suppression cucumber, the original manure per nitrogen is 1 nitrogen
5.0 kg, 15.0 kg of phosphoric acid and 15.0 kg of potassium are required, and 240 to 290 kg of the fermented fertilizer shown in Table 2 may be applied. Topdressing is 8.0 kg of nitrogen for 10a and 3.2 for phosphoric acid
kg, 6.4 kg of potash, and 130 fermented fertilizers in Table 3
It is good to apply ~ 160 kg. In this way, the fertilizer for organic fertilizer could be designed according to the growth of the crop.
【0026】このような方法で製造した発酵肥料を使っ
て作成した施肥基準を参考に栽培試験をした結果、化成
肥料と堆肥を使った栽培に比べ、以下のような効果が得
られた。 (1)キャベツやレタスなどの葉菜類の生育が早くな
り、葉は厚くて軟らかい。 (2)サトイモ、タマネギなど地下部を利用する作物が
大きくなる。 (3)アスパラガスの芽や茎が大きく、生育も早く、甘
味も多い。 (4)ナス、ピーマン、イチゴなどの果菜類の生産期間
が長く、生産量も多くなる。 (5)トマト、スイカなどの果菜類やモモ、ミカンなど
の果実の糖度が上がる。 (6)花類の芽が大きく、生育や開花が早く、日持ちも
良い。 (7)豆類の収量が多い。 (8)イネの収量が増え、炊飯後の甘味や粘りがよくな
る。 (9)イネの穂肥に施用し、肥切れを早くすることがで
きる。 (10)土が軟らかくなり、栽培土壌中のミミズが増加
するなど、土壌環境がよくなる。 (11)野菜、花、果樹の細根が多く、生育が早くな
り、どの作物も収穫後の日持ちがよい。
As a result of conducting a cultivation test with reference to a fertilization standard prepared using the fermented fertilizer manufactured by such a method, the following effects were obtained as compared with cultivation using a chemical fertilizer and compost. (1) Leafy vegetables such as cabbage and lettuce grow faster, and the leaves are thick and soft. (2) Crops that use the underground such as taro and onion are larger. (3) Asparagus has large buds and stems, grows quickly, and has a lot of sweetness. (4) The production period of fruit and vegetables such as eggplant, peppers and strawberries is long, and the production amount is large. (5) The sugar content of fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and watermelons and fruits such as peaches and mandarins are increased. (6) The buds of the flowers are large, the growth and flowering are quick, and the life is good. (7) High yield of beans. (8) The yield of rice is increased, and the sweetness and stickiness after cooking rice are improved. (9) It can be applied to rice ear manure to speed up the cutting. (10) The soil environment is improved, for example, the soil is softened and earthworms in the cultivated soil are increased. (11) Vegetables, flowers, and fruit trees have many fine roots, grow quickly, and all the crops have a long shelf life after harvest.

Claims (4)

    【特許請求の範囲】[Claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 菌床栽培キノコの栽培残さに有機質資材
    とチッ素肥料、カリ肥料等を混合し、好熱性の土壌微生
    物を使って空気の流通する屋内で発酵させた肥料の製造
    方法。
    1. A method for producing a fertilizer, comprising mixing an organic material, nitrogen fertilizer, potassium fertilizer and the like with the cultivation residue of fungal bed cultivated mushrooms, and fermenting the indoor air using thermophilic soil microorganisms.
  2. 【請求項2】 請求項1の肥料製造は発酵過程において
    60℃を越える高温になるため、高温下でも活発に活動
    する土壌微生物である好熱性微生物(好熱性放線菌、好
    熱性繊維素分解菌、光合成細菌)を使う肥料の製造方
    法。
    2. The fertilizer production according to claim 1, wherein the temperature is higher than 60 ° C. in the fermentation process, so that the thermophilic microorganisms (thermophilic actinomycetes, thermophilic fibrinolytic bacteria) which are soil microorganisms active even at high temperatures. , Photosynthetic bacteria).
  3. 【請求項3】 pHがほぼ中性になるように調整した請求
    項1の肥料の製造方法。
    3. The method for producing a fertilizer according to claim 1, wherein the pH is adjusted to be substantially neutral.
  4. 【請求項4】 請求項1の発酵肥料の肥料成分(チッ
    素、リン酸、カリ)含量を算出する計算式。
    4. A formula for calculating the fertilizer component (nitrogen, phosphoric acid, potassium) content of the fermented fertilizer of claim 1.
JP11144612A 1999-05-25 1999-05-25 Production of fermented fertilizer using culture residue of mushroom bed culture mushroom and organic material or the like and method for calculating fertilizer component after fermentation Pending JP2000327470A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006092984A1 (en) * 2005-02-28 2006-09-08 Yukiguni Maitake Co., Ltd. Pretreatment of waste mushroom bed and method of converting the same into sugars and ethanol
CN104016769A (en) * 2014-05-07 2014-09-03 合肥福泉现代农业科技有限公司 Shiitake culture medium prepared from poplar bark and preparation method thereof
WO2014116114A3 (en) * 2013-01-24 2014-09-04 Upcycling Gemert B.V. Method for composting spent mushroom compost
CN104860761A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-08-26 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for pollution-free tomato cultivation
CN104860763A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-08-26 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for flower culture
CN104892072A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-09-09 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for cultivating green cucumber

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006092984A1 (en) * 2005-02-28 2006-09-08 Yukiguni Maitake Co., Ltd. Pretreatment of waste mushroom bed and method of converting the same into sugars and ethanol
WO2014116114A3 (en) * 2013-01-24 2014-09-04 Upcycling Gemert B.V. Method for composting spent mushroom compost
CN104016769A (en) * 2014-05-07 2014-09-03 合肥福泉现代农业科技有限公司 Shiitake culture medium prepared from poplar bark and preparation method thereof
CN104860761A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-08-26 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for pollution-free tomato cultivation
CN104860763A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-08-26 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for flower culture
CN104892072A (en) * 2015-06-01 2015-09-09 吴迪 Microbial fertilizer for cultivating green cucumber

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