GB2528975A - Desalination and underground irrigation system - Google Patents

Desalination and underground irrigation system Download PDF

Info

Publication number
GB2528975A
GB2528975A GB1414078.4A GB201414078A GB2528975A GB 2528975 A GB2528975 A GB 2528975A GB 201414078 A GB201414078 A GB 201414078A GB 2528975 A GB2528975 A GB 2528975A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
water
desalination
pipes
underground irrigation
soil
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
GB1414078.4A
Other versions
GB2528975B (en
GB201414078D0 (en
Inventor
Ivan Mendez
Original Assignee
Ivan Mendez
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Ivan Mendez filed Critical Ivan Mendez
Priority to GB1414078.4A priority Critical patent/GB2528975B/en
Publication of GB201414078D0 publication Critical patent/GB201414078D0/en
Publication of GB2528975A publication Critical patent/GB2528975A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of GB2528975B publication Critical patent/GB2528975B/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/06Watering arrangements making use of perforated pipe-lines located in the soil
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/02Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating
    • C02F1/04Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating by distillation or evaporation
    • C02F1/14Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by heating by distillation or evaporation using solar energy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D1/00Evaporating
    • B01D1/0011Heating features
    • B01D1/0029Use of radiation
    • B01D1/0035Solar energy
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D5/00Condensation of vapours; Recovering volatile solvents by condensation
    • B01D5/0057Condensation of vapours; Recovering volatile solvents by condensation in combination with other processes
    • B01D5/006Condensation of vapours; Recovering volatile solvents by condensation in combination with other processes with evaporation or distillation
    • B01D5/0066Dome shaped condensation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/08Seawater, e.g. for desalination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/138Water desalination using renewable energy
    • Y02A20/141Wind power
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/124Water desalination
    • Y02A20/138Water desalination using renewable energy
    • Y02A20/142Solar thermal; Photovoltaics
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/20Controlling water pollution; Waste water treatment
    • Y02A20/208Off-grid powered water treatment
    • Y02A20/211Solar-powered water purification
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/20Controlling water pollution; Waste water treatment
    • Y02A20/208Off-grid powered water treatment
    • Y02A20/212Solar-powered wastewater sewage treatment, e.g. spray evaporation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/12Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries using renewable energies, e.g. solar water pumping
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/30Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies
    • Y02W10/37Wastewater or sewage treatment systems using renewable energies using solar energy

Abstract

A desalination system includes an evaporation chamber 47 for receiving, via an inlet 2, water from a salt water source. The chamber comprises a basin for filling with water and a canopy 11 arranged over the basin and adapted to direct solar energy onto the water. The canopy includes a plurality of condensate channels 34 formed on the internal surface thereof, which direct the condensate to a collecting channel 8. An outlet 13 directs collected condensate from the collecting channel, suitably to a storage tank 14 accessible for the supply of potable water, e.g. for drinking, agricultural or horticultural uses. The canopy can comprise one or more Fresnel lens. An underground irrigation system is also claimed wherein a plurality of pipes 16-22 of generally reducing diameter are connected to the storage tank of the desalination system. A soil composition of biodegradable organic materials can be located above the pipes, wherein the soil is layered with sand to form a top soil. A mesh blanket and a sand dune can be employed to prevent movement of sand particles by the wind. The irrigation system can be suitable for greening hot arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

Description

DESALINATION AND UNDERGROUND IRRIGATION SYSTEM
The present invention relates to a seawater desalination and underground irrigation system for the purposes of reversing desertification in arid and semi-arid regions. The system is intended to be self-sustaining and rely on renewal sources of energy, e.g. solar energy, oceanic currents, tidal power, gravity and transpiration forces.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART
For the purposes of the invention a review of the prior art falls into two main categories; those which relate to the Desalination process and secondly, those which consider Desert greening'.
Those which consider desalination can be further subdivided into proponents of 1. reverse osmosis 2. electrodialysis and 3. evaporation techniques which comprise, A. the use of steam multi-flash units, B. vapour compression evaporators, C. vapour compression evaporators of various arrangements, D. multiple effect evaporators.
Those which relate to Desert greening suggest various methods for halting Desert migration and afforestation including creating lakes, canals, mountains and artificial rain. The pumping of sea water deep underground and then tapping the condensed water has been proposed.
There appear to be no records in the Prior art known to the inventor which relate directly either to the construction of Artificial Dune Dams, spraying them with sea water or to the use of extensive pipe networks for Underground Irrigation purposes as described in this invention.
Processes which use Reverse osmosis and all other variations on this theme all rely on the use of semi-permeable membranes to desalinate the sea water. These membranes are very expensive and sensitive to the water quality; organic components, solids and micro-organisms can all have negative impacts on them. The Plants which use reverse osmosis techniques pre-heat the feed water. This system is very expensive, complex to construct, rely on fossil fuels and are fraught with problems associated with scalation in the form of insoluble compounds such as calcium and magnesium salts which adhere to the membranes and other parts of the plant when used over long periods. This is generally termed "scaling".
The operation and maintenance of these industrial size plants are extremely costly as they require highly skilled technicians to maintain, clean and repair them. The problems of scalation common to each of these processes are acute and have prompted suggestions for improvement contained in ZA8406827 A. As the numbers of advocates of various desalination methods and processes are numerous only a few are quoted from the extensive archive since all subscribe to one or other of the methods described.
The proponents of the principle of reverse osmosis are similar and all utilize semi permeable membranes for the separation of salts from sea water. U520l406ll29 Al, DE2653649, DE195O8822, U520l406ll29 Al, DE2653649, DE19508822, US2O13313196 Al, JP2013223855, CN1033873O8 A, KR2O13O1O3996 A, ZA79000243, W020050l6830 A2, and US4341629 Al all advocate the use of solar power in reverse osmosis process.
US2013/0264185A proposes a desalination method with particular emphasis on desalinating and cleaning water obtained from oil or gas wells. U52014/0061062 Al advocates the use of a heat exchanger to preheat the feed sea water which receives the heat from fresh water leaving the desalination plant, a pressure vessel which receives the heated sea water, a water distribution unit comprising a distribution platform and a plurality of silicone strips hanging below the platform. US2014/O0 54159A1 advocates the use of solar energy to evaporate and desalinate sea water using an outer transparent and inner black sheet that are aligned parallel to each other in the shape of a pyramid with the hot air concentrated at its apex. RU95100104 A suggests a rocking concave spherical surface on a floating base.
DE19620214 advocates evaporation in a stream of air heated by solar energy. It has been suggested in DE10333349 to use a pyramidal structure with a honeycomb shape for desalination. DE2650482 suggests the use of two parallel glass plates separated from each other. In US 2007/0193870 Al, the use of parallel glass plates is suggested, the feed sea water heated and pumps used at each stage. 1E20080537 proposes a system that can use both solar power and any other form of energy and works on the application of thermal energy to heat the sea water and then showering the heated water into another chamber of the plant which acts as a pressure vessel, to generate water vapour. CN 103449547 A. proposed the use of a serial multi-stage isothermal heating multiple effect heat return humidifying and dehumidifying solar powered system.
The use of greenhouses in the humidifying and dehumidifying process is suggested in DE102005003754. CN 103303990 advocates the use of mirrors to focus the Sun' energy onto a sea water still. Solar power is used in a device which comprises a rack made from pipes in CN 103332758.
CN 203307081 U employs solar power to desalinate sea water using a fresh water tank) a solar panel, a windmill, a sea water tank and a heater. The use of evaporation and condensation chambers, with tapered conical or pyramidal configurations, suggested in DE 10140015. The use of a boiler, advocated by DE 19649146, is heated by parabolic mirrors with the sea water flowing through a solar collector, to evaporate the sea water. AU 2012303366 Al and BO 1D61/02 have put forward Ultra-Filtration as a process. Flash Evaporation is advocated by CA 801970 whilst CA 02834163 proposes an electrochemical/ electrodialysis method for desalination. A combination of multiple-effect distillation and siphon effect is proposed by CA 02604132. Vapour compression distillation using a heat source to evaporate the sea water which is then fed into a compressor forming a steam stream is suggested by WO 2014004718.
Although there are many examples in the Prior art concerning suggestions for the greening of the desert regions there are none which advocates the precise formulation and application of a soil (IMSOIL) as advocated in this current invention. The best examples contained in the Prior Art archive are: -the suggestion made for creating artificial rain in the desert by W020091l6251 Al, US2010308124 Al and iP2009296997.
The transportation of prefabricated hot houses across the desert is suggested in JPH04360628 A. It has been suggested that huge channels and Lakes should be excavated linking the sea to sites in the deserts suitable for the construction of Dams and Lakes by JP 20012995239 A. JP2009247340 suggests the use of clay balls mixed with fertilizers and suitable seeds to be sprayed over a very large desert area. To prevent evaporation in desert regions KR200090120085 A suggests that sheets of rice straw sowed with seeds be used, laid one over the other, to cover the desert and sprinkled over with water. To do so would defeat the exercise as the water sprayed onto the sheets would evaporate instantly. It is a contention of CN201957525 that a layer of straw placed 300-900mm below the desert surface to form a water seepage impermeable blocking layer below one which is made from organic materials infused with seeds and watered would provide a permanent environment for desert greening but it does not contain any data as to the source or volume of water required. The proposals made in CN102499004 for desert greening suggests planting suitable desert hardy seedlings) burying a straw mat below the surface and use of a planting grid to overcome dune migration. The use of green chemical technologies to stop desert sand movement is in CN 101548595 as a method of restoring a verdant ecological environment. JPH 104780 A proposes to aerate sea water which has been pumped into the desert sub-soil in order to generate humid air which would condense into dew. The proposal for a comprehensive treatment from water conservation to forestation is contained in CN101491174. The above are some of the many suggestions for desert greening contained
in the Prior Art.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
1. The general purpose of the invention is to provide a universally unifying process which is a novel, innovative, inexpensive solution to the problems associated with Desalination of Sea water and the Floralization (reversing desertification) of hot Arid and Semi-arid regions of the world. The essential nature of the invention is defined by the appended claims.
2. The principal rationale for this invention is the Desalination of vast volumes of sea water for the express purpose for deploying in an underground irrigation system for Floralizing these regions using a soil deposit (referred to herein as IMSOIL), protected be an Artificial Dam.
3. The objects of the invention consist of four principal Symbiotic and interdependent components, namely: A. The provision of over 900 million litres of potable water per diem obtained from desalinating sea water; B. The use of this potable water in the underground irrigation process over thousands of square kilometres and, secondly for human consumption and animal husbandry; C. The Floralization (often referred to herein as "IMFLORA") with IMSOIL of the irrigated region which is covered with several layers of a thick Biodegradable mesh blanket with a gauge as small as possible to protect the top soil from direct exposure to sunlight and preventing the sand particles from being blown about by the hot arid winds. This bio-degradable blanket is itself prevented from being blown about by being weighted down by boulders sourced in the desert thus making it impossible for the wind to blow it about.
D. The construction of a Dune Dam downwind from the irrigated area to give added protection to it.
4. The primary purpose for producing such a copious volume of potable water is to provide the preconditions for greening the hot Arid and Semi-arid regions of the World, providing water for human consumption and in animal husbandry.
5. As these areas are basically located in tropical and semi-tropical regions close to or boarded by seas and oceans it is only apt that the volumes of water required to make this Invention viable should be extracted from those sources rather than from underground aquifers, with their ancient and limited supply, or surface fresh water systems which are susceptible to intermittent and unpredictable low annual rainfall which generally evaporates quickly.
6. Another salient characteristic of these regions is the constant movement of sand particles either through saltation accounts for 95% of sand; creep, when they collide with others causing them to move, accounts for 4% or from suspension, in which the lightest sand grains are blown high into the air and furthest away from the source, which accounts for 1%. These sand grains can range in size from 0.0625 to 2mm in diameter. The finest grains are transported constantly by the winds, can develop into sand storms and grow into dunes extending kilometres in length and several hundred metres in height. These harsh conditions contribute to preventing the establishment of arable lands suitable for large scale agronomic development, Including forestry.
7. The wild fluctuation in temperatures between extremely hot days and freezing nights contribute to the harsh environmental conditions which are added to by those brought about by overgrazing, global warming and the impact of climate change.
8. The hot arid and semi-arid regions occupying over a third of the Earth's land surface lie in Tropical and Sub-tropical zones and some of the poorest countries in the world are located there. These countries, whose socio-economic development have been prevented from developing by the colonial and neocolonial powers, have a combined population estimated by the W.H.O. to be over one billion people who suffer from a paucity of easy daily access to potable water and a further three billion afflicted by a severe water shortage due to draught results in increases in water demand and serious health problems as many resort to the use of contaminated water containing; pathogens, disease vectors, unacceptable degrees to toxins, suspended solids, bacteria, for drinking and in food preparation which leads to acute and chronic illnesses and deaths.
9. Although the people living in these countries are some of the poorest in the world, living subsistence lives, it has been proposed that desalination may be a solution for some areas but not "for places that are poor, deep in the interior of a continent, or at high elevation". It is precisely to dispel such prejudicial opinions that one of the main objectives of this invention is designed to achieve because it is the poorest people who are suffering from arrested economic development and caught in a low level equilibrium trap who are in most need of assistance to alleviate their unfortunate conditions.
10. This invention, therefore, has as one of its main principal objectives the provision of a global solution to the water shortage problem by providing a simple, inexpensive process for desalinating (often referred to herein as "IMDSAL") sea water on a vast industrial scale to provide potable water for millions of people on a daily basis and thereby obviating their needless suffering.
11. It is an important contention of this invention to provide the most efficient and inexpensive solution to the problems posed by arid and semi-arid conditions on the environment; barren soil, constant movement of sand, inhospitality and general inhabitability by providing copious volumes of potable water.
12. This invention is predicated on relying entirely upon the use of sustainable, renewable energy sources; Oceanic energy which moves currents at speeds approximately 2.6 metres p/s, Tidal force, Hydrostatic water pressure, Van Der Waal force which holds that water molecules will follow each other to replace those that have escaped into the atmosphere, Solar energy and the Transpiration action of vegetation to power all its aspects; Sea water intake, Desalination, Underground pipe network water transportation, Underground irrigation and Dune Dam wind cooling activity.
13. In order to compete with current industrial scale desalination projects, which average over ten (10) million litres per diem, it is necessary to produce three percent extra because sea water contains approximately 3% of dissolved solids, inor-ganic salts, suspended solids, organic matter and organisms, etc. 14. And although progress in our understanding of sea water desalination processes has increased dramatically in recent decades and research in this domain have given rise to analytical, methodical, theoretical and innovative methods on various aspects of desalination science; nevertheless, all the examples contained in the Prior Art give rise to a plethora of differing accents on differing solutions which do not lend themselves to or illustrate a universally uniform best solution to the acute fundamental problem of how to produce copious volumes of potable water while simultaneously greening desert regions, on a perpetual basis, without recourse to elaborate, complex, labour intensive systems and, in the majority of examples, dependent on fossil fuels.
15. It is the objective of this invention to create the opposite of this failure to formulate a cohesive, universal, inexpensive and unifying Desalination method that this invention is designed to achieve which is totally reliant on employing renewable sources of energy to perpetually sustain it and not to employ any of the systems in the Prior Art which rely on fossil fuels or on renewable energy except as that indicated in this invention.
16. The most universally popular desalination method is the of "reverse osmosis" which is prohibited to most countries which do not have huge fossil, oil, petrol, gas and nuclear energy and financial resources required to employ this system on an industrial scale thus making the availability of potable water on a daily basis inaccessible to millions of people.
17. Another principal objective of this invention is the use of a significant percentage of the potable water produced in the underground irrigation process which is the fundamental precondition for the successful and sustainable floralization, using IMSOIL, of those desert regions and, once the flora has been established, to encourage a transformation in the local weather pattern through cooling the atmosphere, increasing the humidity, hasten precipitation and transforming these regions into a well a watered bio diverse and agriculturally productive region.
18. It is an objective of this invention to produce vast quantities of potable water form desalinating sea water. This is achieved through the evaporation process by which liquid water is encouraged to enter a gaseous state, water vapour, this occurs at any temperature above 0°C. where, at the liquid surface, the kinetic energy in some molecules is transferred to others, which can then escape into a gaseous medium such as air. By increasing the heat in the Evaporation Trough the sea water temperature is increased towards boiling point which is 105.6°C thus accelerating the evaporation speed and the condensation rate within the Evaporation chamber.
19. The Evaporation Chamber is the space contained by the Desalination Tank and the cover Dome which encases it on all four sides. The cover Dome is made from an array of magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses moulded from thin transparent plastic which, when stretched tightly over its supporting frame, becomes a compound lens which amplifies the Sun's rays by 500/1 and diffuses them as Hot spots throughout the surface area of the water in the Desalination trough.
S
20. The primary source of renewable energy used to power the Desalination process accelerating evaporation in the Evaporation Chamber is Sunlight as it provides more than 1 kilowatt of energy per square metre of the Earth's surface. The Sun's rays striking the 10,000 sq.mt. surface of the Evaporation Trough, from any position, would provide 10,000 kilowatts of energy for evaporation. The Sun' rays are strengthened further as a result of their magnification by the compound Lens Dome Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses which collimates them into foci of short wave lengths to form Focal/Hot Spots heating the water surface. These ultra-violet Shortwave rays are reflected back into the Evaporation Chamber, as they come into contact with the black Evaporation Trough, as Infrared Long Waves which increases 1 0 heating the seawater.
21. The vapour in the Evaporation chamber rises up to the inside of the cover Dome where it condenses back into potable water and runs down the lattice of Runnels lining the inside of the Dome towards the main Runnel at the base of the Dome, in the Desalination Tank, where it collects. A percentage is then piped to the Underground Storage Tank and the remainder into the system designated for human use and in animal husbandry. The evaporation process continues long after sunset because of the daily heat time-lapse which is approximately three hours after sunset.
22. The magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lens Dome is manufactured in sheets which have to cover the complete supporting caged frame which spans the Desalination Tank plus one metre extra to secure it after it has been stretched around the frame. There are no lenses where the Dome is in contact with the sides of the Desalination Tank.
23. The supporting Dome frame is made from rigid clear plastic Perspex Ribs which span the width of the tank and have aligned sockets for holding the supporting Rods. The supporting Rods are made from either solid or tubular Perspex to fit into the Rib sockets and extend the entire length of the tank. Both Ribs and Rods are manufactured in sections with socket and plug ends for easy assembly in any length in situ. The Central Supporting Spine runs through the sockets in the Ribs apex the entire length of the Tank to strengthen further the cage frame, and is itself supported at both ends by sitting in the sockets of its perpendicular Support poles. At both ends of the Dome cover there are vertical support Rods of varying lengths from the shortest at the base closest to the corners of the Tank to the tallest at the middle rising to the apex of the Dome where the horizontal supporting Rods fit into their sockets.
24. Both Ribs and supporting end Rods are anchored to the Tank to prevent any movement. If it is necessary, the frame can be given added support. The door to the Evaporation Chamber is made from the same magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses and is supported by its frame which is anchored to the supporting Rib and the Tank. Both ends of the Dome, including the Door, are covered with magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel lenses.
25. The entire Desalination Tank sealed in by the compound lens Dome cover acts similar to that of a pressure cooker to maximise evaporation and recovery of the desalinated potable water. On the underside of the Dome is etched a lattice of Runnels, i.e. channels, which do not affect the performance of the Lenses, that channel the condensed water down towards the main runnel (i.e. trough, gutter, channel) located in the tank at the base of the Dome.
26. The objective of this invention is to achieve parity with the established desalination plants worldwide; the size of the Evaporation Trough, in this inventive example, is 200 x 50 x 3 metres which equals 30,000 cubic metres. And since one cubic meter equates to 1000 litres of water in order to accomplish the scale of potable water production necessary to compete with current desalination plants it is necessary to process over 900,000,000 litres of sea water per diem 97% of which is recoverable after the desalination process because 3% is residual salts, etc. This volume of sea water through put is easily achievable from constructing a minimum of 30 tanks.
27. The area of the desert given over to siting this number of tanks is equal to a minimum of 30,000 sq.m. The occupation of such a small area of land would have little or no significant visual impact on the vastness of deserts which is remote, devoid of substantial human populations and would pose no aesthetic restrictions on limiting their size as it is not necessary to erect all the Desalination plants in one locality as, given that the Inflow Cylinder can extend for hundreds of miles into the interior without losing any water pressure, they can be sited considerable distances apart from each other and spread out over the entire area selected for Floralization. Once the Desalination Tank begins to produce potable water vegetation which would not obstruct the Sunlight could be planted around it; for example, herbs, shrubs and grasses.
28. In this present invention, due to the height difference between the monopodial joint at the top of the Vertical Distribution Cylinder and the Low and High Tidal Levels, the hydrostatic pressure caused by the hydraulic head ensures that the underground pipe network forming the Underground Irrigation System will always be full of potable water. All the cylinders and pipes in the network can be extended for very many kilometres away from the Sea and the Desalination Tanks thus vast square kilometres of land can be irrigated from underground, infusing the subsoil with mineral nutrients and liquid fertilizers necessary for the introduced flora to flourish. Only the height of the Vertical Trunk Distribution Cylinders is restricted to below that of the mouth of the Inflow Cylinder to ensure the Hydraulic Head Differential and thus the water pressure throughout the Underground Irrigation System.
29. In this present invention the underground cylinders and the pipes transport the water throughout the area to be irrigated. The potable water is first stored in an underground tank from where it is piped through the Horizontal distribution cylinder up the Vertical distribution cylinder to the Monopodial distribution joint then along the branch pipes; Arterial, Capillary, Filament, to the Leaf Plate from where it percolates out of its pores to irrigate the sandy sub-soil environment. All the cylinders and pipes are connected to each other by step down joints (reducing the pipe diameter to maintain pressure) which reduce their bore along their entire length thus increasing the rate of water flow through/the pipe network.
30. There are several forces acting upon the column of potable water ensuring a perpetual gentle oozing out the Leaf Plate pores which saturates the underground environment with a cocktail of mineral nutrients and liquid fertilizers.
31. The gravitational force pulls the Water Head up from the Leaf Plate pores in order to achieve equilibrium with the low tidal level. This force is uniform throughout the sub-soil and as the water percolates through it, the water is maintained in a state of perpetual motion. The second force is that which maintains that water will seek constantly to occupy any given space it comes into contact with) therefore, the water will always seek to occupy the spaces between the sand grains until they are all saturated.
S
32. solar power is the third force acting on the water to ensure its constant movement throughout the sub-soil environment as its rays penetrates to below fifty feet the soil traps the heat which approximates to 67 heating up and agitating the water molecules to break away, become gaseous and to rise up towards the surface atmosphere.
33. The water molecules are subjected to the van der Waal force which states that as water molecules escape from the surface those behind in the chain occupy their place pulling the water head up behind them as the water spreads out and rises throughout the underground environment.
34. Transpiration is another powerful force which tends to pull water in the underground irrigation system towards the surface as the introduced vegetation absorbs water through their roots particularly plants, such as the Acacia and the Joshua Tree, with tap roots which can descend to well below 2Oft. through osmosis up their trunks to their leaves where 90% of its water intake is expelled into the atmosphere from its stomata and as a result continuously pulling the water up through its xylem. As virtually all vegetation have 95% of their root system located very close to the soil surface within 12-18 inches, the lateral spread of these various root systems would combine contributing to soil stability and prevention of sand movement. This vegetation transpiration cycle is the third force.
35. All of these forces acting in unison cause the water table to diffuse throughout the sandy sub-soil and to rise up towards the surface. In doing so the water fills the spaces between the grains and simultaneously coats the sand grains in a water film which binds them together causing them to clump, stabilizing the sub-soil, which is one of the principal preconditions for the using IMSOIL in Floralization of hot Arid and Semi-arid regions.
36. In the present invention once the underground irrigation system is operational, the sandy sub-soil has stabilized, and the water table has risen significantly another vital objective of this invention can be implemented; which is, the covering of the top soil with alternating layers of IMSOIL; which is a special, innovative artificial soil, and sand to a depth of no less than 60cm. which would serve to protect the sub-soil irrigation system from the direct rays of the sun and the deleterious effects of the hot arid desert winds. This IMSOIL and sand sandwich has another very important function in this invention and is integral to it; that is to provide the basis for the floralization of the desert. This is achieved through the composition of the IMSOIL and its infusion with a vast variety of vegetation seeds to include grasses) shrubs and trees.
37. The composition and manufacture of IMSOIL requires little or no expenditure simply because practically all of its components are described as rubbish and garbage, which is precisely the bulk of its ingredients, that are traditionally disposed of in dumps, land fill sites or burning close to human habitation. Each of these methods is harmful to the environment and, in many examples, attract the poorest in society to scavenge in these dumps to sell recyclable objects in order to obtain a pittance leaving behind the bio-degradable materials to rot, produce methane and other harmful gases which pollute the atmosphere and exacerbates further the problems; socioeconomic and health, of the people associated with scavenging activities and those living in or near these dumps. These dumps encourage the infestation of areas far removed from them by disease transmitting insects; feas, flies and mosquitoes; rats, other rodents; birds and feral animals particularly dogs, goats pigs.
38. In the mass production of IMSOIL required to cover the vast areas under irrigation and necessary for the success of the process, these people would be given gainful employment, at a living wage and in a strict health and safety environment. Huge electro magnets would be used to extract all metallic objects in the refuse collected nationwide for processing. All other none degradable materials such as plastics and other synthetic resinous polymeric substances would be extracted also and the residue solids; paper and vegetable products, pulped.
39. The pulped resultant bio-degradable substances are then piped automatically into mixing tanks with the other ingredients; human effluent; already being collected from households in sewage pipes and transported to costly sewage farms for expensive treatment, animal manure and poultry litter from farms, rejected fruits and vegetable, vegetable waste from garden centres, shops, supermarkets, from food processing factories, bread factories, etc. would all be added to the mix.
40. Other ingredients includes all vegetable by-products from wood processing factories such as; wood, wood chips and pulp, sawdust, cardboard, hardboard, newspapers and magazines, bagasse, dead trees, crop straw, household yard clippings, animal matter from abattoirs, any bio-degradable matter that can be converted into fibres.
41. Added to these by-products would be slag, fly ash, slag wool which perform an important function in IMSOIL as it assists in insulating the desert surface from the direct heat of the sun, consumable waste, food, kitchen, green waste, clothes and non-synthetic fabrics, limestone, dolomite, used as a liming agent releases phosphates and acts as a fertilizer, Perlite, a natural amorphous glass with high permeability and water content, Biochar which increases soil structure, aeration, nutrient and water retention capacity serves to create a healthy soil in which micro-organisms can thrive. Peat and vermiculite to offer faster root growth and more secure root anchorage to young plants which occurs naturally and diatomaceous earth are all crushed into powder and added to the IMSOIL mulch slurry mix.
42. This IMSOIL mixture is infused with as wide a variety of seeds of various types of vegetation as possible in the manufacturing factory from where it is piped directly to the irrigated site and laid as the filling in the top soil sandwich where the seeds can commence to germinate as soon as possible and thus bring about successful floralization of the desert and with it the permanent benign transformation of the desert's climatic conditions from one that was harsh, mainly devoid of vegetation and inhospitable ante Floralization with IMSOIL into a perpetually blossoming fruitful garden.
43. Prior to be blooming of the desert, the topsoil layers are protected by a thick bio- degradable blanket mesh to prevent the desert winds from drying out the top soil and re-covering it with sand particles, the blanket is itself weighted down with boulders found in situ preventing it also from being blown about by the winds.
44. Production of the bio-degradable Blankets can be outsourced to local communities, including fishing communities, paid to knit them thus providing employment forming the basis sustained cottage industry based on reaping coconuts) manufacturing coir form the husks) forming it into thick rope strands suitable for knitting into blankets which can then be joined to form ever larger ones for rolling out over the IMSOIL top soil.
45. Protecting the entire irrigated site from the harshness of the hot arid desert winds is an artificial Dune Dam) which is continuously watered, preferably at night, with a fine sea water spray from the beginning of its formation.
46. The constant spraying of the dunes with sea water causes the heavy sand particles in the Dune which accounts for 97% of its mass and forms the bottom set' of the Dune, bounces along in the winds through Saltation', the medium size ones accounting for 4% move through creep' action to form the fore set bed', together form the mass of the Dune, to adhere together, making the it heavier, more stable and less susceptible to movement by the winds.
47. The Dune becomes a massive refrigerant cooling the desert winds) blowing over its entire front) which become laden with moisture and, as they blow over the irrigated area, cool the surrounding atmosphere, coats fine sandy dust) which is the furthest transported by the winds through suspension account for 1%, with moisture making them heavier, forcing them to clump together and thus preventing them from being blown about as easily as when dry.
48. Another salient characteristic resulting from watering the Dune is its transformation from a hot arid mass of sand into a cool mass as its core temperature decreases. This temperature change radically alters the fundamental constituents of the dune. The heat evaporates the sea water forcing it to radiate out in all directions to rise to the surface.
Seeds of various salt tolerant plants and spores of oxygen producing green algae, lichens and mosses can be sown on the dunes to excite a covering of vegetation over them. Once the vegetation cover over the Dunes has been established permanently there would be a reduced need to continue watering them as nature would take its course to induce precipitation. However, continuous watering may be advisable to prevent the dune drying out and reverting back to desert.
49. The construction of this dam, downwind from the irrigated area, acts as an artificial barrier preventing it from being covered over by sand particles blown by the wind. The Dune Dam acts as a wind break deflecting it up its wind facing slope face' into the atmosphere thus protecting the top soil in front of the dam on its slip face'.
50. Where the area to be irrigated has natural dunes, which can serve the same function, they should be used and watered in the same manner. Dunes which hinder the floralization of the designated area should by levelled by being blown up and the site prepared for floralization.
51. Another important object of this invention significantly differentiating it from all other conventional concepts, designs and processes expressed in the prior art, is its provision industrial scale sea water desalination to produce potable water primarily to supply an underground irrigation system extending over vast square kilometres of Arid and Semi-arid regions and; secondly, for human consumption and in animal husbandry.
52. All the energy used throughout all the phases of this invention is obtained from sustainable, renewable sources; Oceanic, Tidal, Solar, Gravitation, Transpiration, Hydrostatic.
53. The embodiment of the present invention will be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying figures.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
Figure 1 illustrates a schematic view of the Desalination and Floralization system of the invention; Figure 2 illustrates a schematic diagram of the Desalination and Floralization System; Figure 3 illustrates an Inflow Cylinder and Primary Filter Detail; Figure 4 illustrates a Desalination Tank with cover Dome and Door; Figure 5 illustrates a Compound Lens Cover Dome; Inside View; Figure 6 illustrates Desalination Tank components; Figure 7 illustrates a Cover Dome supporting cage showing Rib Arch Frame Supports, Horizontal stabilizing support rods, Central Spine and Central Spine support; Figure 8 illustrates A. Desalination Tank and B. Segmented Rib arch, Rod with socket and Plug ends; Figure 9 illustrates A. Cover Dome showing Lenses and Runnels Lattice; B. Magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lens detail showing Focal length J', Axis A' and Focal Hot Point; and C. Evaporation Trough showing Focal Hot Points; Figure 10 illustrates a Desalination Tank Industrial Plant Diagram; Figure 11 illustrates an Underground Irrigation System showing Vertical Trunk cylinder, Monopodial reducer joint and Branch pipes; Arterial, Capillary, Filament and Leaf Plate; Figure 12 illustrates Detail of potable water flow from storage tank to Leaf Plate below alternating layers of "IMSOIL", sand and Mesh blanket; Figure 13 illustrates an Underground Irrigation plan showing distribution cylinders and branch pipes network; Figure 14 illustrates an Underground Irrigation system, horizontal distribution cylinder, vertical trunk cylinder, monopodial reducer joint, branch pipes to Leaf Plate; Figure 15 illustrates an Underground Irrigation System; detail view of vegetation growth through layers of IMSOIL, sand and mesh carpet to access nutrient rich water; Figure 16 illustrates an Underground Irrigation Water Cycle detail from Sea to Leaf Plate Pores showing; Inflow Cylinder, Desalination Tank, Underground Storage Tank, Horizontal Distribution Cylinder, Step down joint, Vertical Trunk Cylinder, Monopodial Step down Joint, Branch Pipes; Arterial, Capillary, Filament and Leaf Plate and water percolating out to irrigate the sub-soil below layers of IMSOIL and organic bio-degradable mesh Blanket; Figure 17 illustrates a Dune Dam detail showing wind flow and seawater saturation.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
1. The preferred embodiment of the present invention refers to the totality of the various aspects of the process, referred to as "IMDIFS" and their symbiotic, interrelated and interdependent relationship for its success.
2. The aspects of this invention comprise: A. The intake of sea water and its transportation through an Intake cylinder 1, FIGS. 1-4, to the Desalination tank, 6, FIGS. 1 & 2, 4 & 5 where it enters the Evaporation trough 10, FIGS. 1 & 2, 4 & 7.
B. The Desalination process, IMDSAL, which takes place in the Evaporation chamber 47, FIGS. 1, 4, 6 is the space enclosed by the Desalination Tank Dome 11 and includes the Evaporation Trough 10 and the Desalination tank 6. As the sea water in the Evaporation trough 10 Figs 1, 4 & 5, 7 is vaporised using Solar energy 29 FIGS. 5 & 8 collimated through the Compound Lens Dome 11, FIGS. 5, 8.
C. The underground irrigation system which uses the desalinated water 38 to irrigate the underground environment through a network of storage tanks 14, cylinders 15,17 and pipes 18,19,20 to percolate out of leaf plates 22 pores 35 FIGS. 1, 2, 10-15.
D. The floralization, IMFLORA, process using IMSOIL to arrest and reverse the ecology of Arid and Semi-arid regions in preparation for non-reversible and sustained economically viable agronomic development of those regions 26,28 FIGS. 11, 13-15.
E. The construction of an artificial Dune Dam 46 FIG. 16 to halt desertification and promote favourable conditions for the transition of desert conditions into those conducive to floralization 46, FIG. 16.
3. In the present invention sea water is forced into the Intake Cylinder 1 through its mouth 2 due to the water pressure; defined by the weight of the water and the distance of the mouth of the cylinder, several metres below the Low 23 and High Tidal 24 levels, which is anchored 3 to the sea floor 39 FIG. 3. away from the littoral zone to prevent it being moved by the sea.
4. Another method of anchoring the Intake cylinder is to lay it in a trench dredged into the sea floor to the desired depth with sides lined with thick plastic plates and the sea is then allowed to refill the trench with sand.
5. The Intake cylinder 1 is capped by a back-washable primary filter 2, which excludes sand particles him in diameter suspended in the sea water and all other solids. It prevents Oceanic life; plankton, zooplankton, phytoplankton, fish, fish roe and larvae, other animals and vegetable life forms, algae and pathogens from entering the Intake cylinder.
6. As the sea water flows through the Intake cylinder 1 it is pre-heated by the mean sub-soil heat, which is constant at approximately 60° at 3Oft. below the surface throughout the year, before filling the Evaporation trough 10. The Intake cylinder can be looped, coiled or folded to slow down the flow rate at this depth in order to make maximum use of this heat before it surfaces and is attached by the Desalination Tank 6 by the Connecting Inflow pipe 12, FIGS. 1, 2, 4 through which the sea water flows into the Evaporation trough 10 FIGS. 4 & 5.
7. All the cylinders and pipes commissioned for use in this inventive process must comply with the following specifications; have smooth inner wall to prevent bacteria build up, pitting or tuberculation, are immune from the corrosive effects of acid and hydrogen sulphide gas or electrolysis, be resistant to all forms of external or internal corrosion, alkaline or acid soil conditions, not be affected by chemicals found in seawater including salts, must be resistant to impact, abrasion and must be trouble free from service requirements for decades. All the cylinders, except the Vertical Trunk cylinders, and branch pipes can be extended for over two hundred kilometres so as to provide maximum spread for the underground irrigation system.
8. The Connecting Inflow pipe 12 links the Intake cylinder 1 to the Desalination tank 6 S allows for the free flow of the pre-heated sea water into the Evaporation trough 10 which is situated in the Evaporation chamber 47 FIG.1 and has a Secondary Filter 5 at the end attached to the Intake cylinder and a Stopcock Valve 4 at the other which is attached to the Desalination tank 6. The Connecting Inflow pipe 12 is joined to the Intake cylinder 1 by a Step down reducer joint 16 FIG. 2. The ceramic Secondary Filter 5, designed to remove all residual pathogens, bacteria and protozoa; Giardia Lambila, Cryptosporidium and any other microscopic impurities remaining in the sea water down O.O2pm before entering the Evaporation trough 10 FIGS. 2, 4.&.5 is back washable. The Stopcock valve 4, similar to that in a cistern, automatically opens to allow sea water to flow into and fill the Evaporation trough 10 when it is empty and closes when it is full as a result of the water pressure in the full trough exerted on the valve. The Stopcock valve can be operated manually also to allow for harvesting of the residual salts in the Evaporation trough once evaporation is complete.
9. Because the evaporation process is continuous throughout the period of Sunlight and for approximately three hours after Sunset, the harvesting or the residual salts can take place at night during the period when evaporation has halted thus enabling the Stopcock to be closed manually without interrupting the smooth desalination process which is conducted in the Evaporation chamber 47 FIG. 5 under the Compound Lens cover Dome 11, made from Magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses 31, enclosing the entire Desalination Tank 6 FIGS. 4,5.
10. The Desalination tank 6 consists of the Walkway 9, main Runnel 8, Evaporation trough 10, Dome Support Rim 7 and Securing Lugs 57 FIGS. 4, 5 & 7. The Evaporation trough is fabricated from a black fibre glass plastic material or is lined with such a material. The tank must be manufactured in standardized sections for easy assembly to any given size in situ FIG. 6. The walkway 9 is used for servicing the desalination tank including harvesting the residual salts after evaporation. The main Runnel 8 extends around the trough and collects the potable water as it runs down the Runnels lattice 34 on the inside of the cover Dome 11.
There are two pipes connected to the main Runnel; one pipes potable water to the underground storage tank 14 for use in the underground irrigation system and) the other to channel water for human use and in animal husbandry 37 FIG. 1&4.
11. The Desalination tank Dome support Rim 7 Fig. 7 & 8 is situated on all sides of the tank and supports the base of the Dome supporting arched Ribs 40, the Dome Central Spine Support 33, the Door frame 52 and the Vertical Rods 58 which support the Horizontal Poles 49 FIG. 7. 11.
12. The cover Dome 11 is one gigantic compound lens formed from a vast collection of transparent plastic magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses 31 FIGS, except for where it is fastened around the base of the tank, which seals in completely the entire Desalination Tank 6 to form an Evaporation Chamber 47 with the same principle as a pressure cooker FIGS. 4 & 7. The shape of the Dome is aerodynamic to deflect the wind off its rounded surface. The transparent Bi-convex magnifying Fresnel Lenses 31 are manufactured from thin sheets of transparent plastic using a mould which imparts concentric rings to form its optical surface thus allowing the lens to be much larger lighter, stronger and cheaper than conventional glass ones.
13. These lenses have been in common usage throughout the world for over a hundred years and their power is such that they are employed in Lighthouses, Solar Forges and Collectors and can melt steel. They can concentrate the sunlight entering the lens into a beam of parallel collimated rays of short wave lengths to a factor of 500:1 to a Focal Hotspot point 32 behind the lens. Because the lens can be scratched or abraded a resistant anti-abrasion coating should be applied to the sheets forming the Dome prior to it being stretched over its supporting frame.
14. Although the size of the Evaporation trough can vary the example used in the preferred embodiment is 200x50x3 metres = 30,000 cu.metres. The size of the Evaporation trough 10 is determined by the scale of the Desalination project and since the project is sited in the desert or its margins which is sparsely populated, there are no constraints as to the acreage allocated for the desalination plant.
15. Because the object of the invention is to produce potable water on an industrial scale comparable to any average plant currently in production around the world it is necessary for the IMDSAL plant to process on average over 927,000,000 litres of sea water per diem in order to obtain 900,000,000 litres of potable water This is because the efficiency of the IMDSAL process is based upon the percentage of dissolved salts contained sea water which is 3.5% resulting in the recovery of over 95% flowing through the Evaporation chamber after the sea water has evaporated.
16. The desalination of the sea water takes place in the Evaporation chamber which is covered over by the Dome 11. The Dome, made from a thin sheet of transparent plastic with a myriad of magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses 31 moulded on it, is stretched over a semicircular frame FIGS. 1, 4, 5 & 7. It is important to stretch the Dome sheet tightly over the frame and therefore, it should be made at least three feet larger than the width and length of the tank. The width of the sheet is the length of the arch and not the width of the tank, plus three feet which is used in stretching the sheet over the frame and to secure it to the base of the tank. Both ends, Front and Rear, of the tank are covered also in magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel lenses, including the Door 51 FIGS.4 & 5. This is to maintain the integrity of the Evaporation chamber in maximising the use of Sunlight from all directions and to minimise vapour loss from it. The Dome sheet can be manufactured in manageable strips for easy handling in covering the frame. These Dome strips should overlap and where they do a transparent air tight seal must be applied to prevent any vapour leakage.
17. The Dome frame Support Rib Arches 40 are made from strong, light weight, clear plastic, Perspex. The Ribs are made in pre-fabricated sections each with a pre-aligned set of sockets 54 with each other to hold the Horizontal Support Poles 49 which extend the entire length of the Tank. Each section of the Rib Arch has a socket 55 and plug 56 at opposite ends of the section. Each Rib is anchored at both ends to the Rims 7 at the sides of the Tank 6 to prevent any movement of the Dome 11 FIGS. 4 & 8.
18. The Horizontal Poles 49, made also in sections, link the Ribs together and give them added strength and stability. Each Pole section has sockets 55 and plugs 56 at opposite ends so that their length can be extended to what is required. The socket and plugs in both the Rib and Pole sections are for easy assembly. The Horizontal Poles are supported at both ends of the Tank by Vertical ones which are anchored to the Desalination Tank Rims at one end with sockets at the other through which the Horizontal Poles are slotted and held firmly in place. All the Ribs are joined at their apex by a central Supporting Spine Pole 48 which extends the full length of the Tank and is supported by a special Central Spine Supporting Pole 33 at both ends of the Tank, FIGS. 4 & 7B. If considered necessary the frame can be given added strength by shoring up the Ribs with poles.
19. Once the Desalination plant 6 has been erected properly it acts as a pressure cooker locking in the water vapour and minimizing any vapour loss. The Stopcock 4 is then turned on and the sea water flows into the Evaporation Trough 10 where it starts to evaporate immediately as the Sun's rays 29 begin to heat it. With the Dome 11 acting as a gigantic compound lens, the Sun' ultraviolet short wave rays are collimated through the magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel lenses 31 to a focal Hot Spots Point 32 FIG.9A which are diffused throughout the water surface area of the Evaporation trough 10 and reflected back from the trough's black surface through the sea water as infrared Long waves accelerating the evaporating rate to near boiling point which, for sea water, is 105.62°C. The Fresnel lenses can concentrate the Sun' rays to, e.g. 500:1 magnification, however, any magnification can be considered when considering manufacturing tolerances and constraints.
20. As the water vapour rises in the Desalination chamber to the underside of the Dome 11 it condenses into potable water which runs down the lattice of Runnels 34 FIG. YB lining the inner surface of the Dome. This Lattice is intended not to affect the Lenses efficiency.
The potable water channelled to the main Runnel 8 in the Desalination tank 6 is piped to the Storage Tank 14 for use in the Underground irrigation system through the Outflow pipels and the Outflow pipe system 37 FIG. 1 for Human use and in Animal Husbandry. Because distilled water is not palatable and unfit for human and animal use over lengthy periods it is important to restore some of these chemicals necessary for healthy growth, left in the residual salts, to the system 37 designed both for Human and animal consumption.
21. In the embodiment of the present invention no type of antiscalant is needed to be added to the sea water prior to evaporation in the Trough 10 because no scale deposits could form on any of the surfaces; there is no machinery or moving parts, as they do on components of both Reverse Osmosis and Evaporation processes as proposed in the Prior Art, resulting in increased efficiency of the system.
22. Mineral nutrients and liquid fertilizers can be added to the potable water in the Underground Storage Tank 14 from where it is distributed via the underground network of pipes FIGS. 11-14 to irrigate the subsoil in preparation of the fourth aspect of this invention, the Floralizaton of the irrigated area using IMSOIL 26; FIGS. 12, 14-16.
23. The potable water is distributed from the Underground Storage Tank 14 to all points of the compass through Horizontal Distribution Cylinders 15, e.g. extending for over two hundred kilometres or as far as practical. Step down reduced joints 16, located at regular intervals along its length, link the Vertical Trunk Distribution Cylinders 17 to the Horizontal Distribution Cylinders 15. The Vertical Trunk Distribution Cylinders have monopodial multiarmed reducer joints 36 for attaching the Branch pipes; Arterial 18, Capillary 19, Filament 20 to Leaf Node Fixing Joint 21 attached to the Leaf Plate 22 with its concave perforated Nozzle and Pores 35 from which the potable water 38 oozes out to irrigate the under environment 27 while at the same time stabilizing it. The back of the leaf plate concave nozzle lid 22 faces towards the surface so that the pores 35 underneath do not become clogged with sand as the water oozes out of them. The Step-down reducer joints 16 link each pipe to the succeeding smaller bore diameter one in the chain forming the Branch so that there is a gradual reduction in the cylinders and pipes bore size forming the entire network from the largest; the Horizontal Distribution Cylinder 14 leading from the Storage Tank 13, to the smallest the concave Leaf Plate 22, to flow out the 2mm pores in the Nozzle which face downwards FIGS. 1, 12 & 13.
24. As the potable water 38 oozes out the pores it spreads out into the underground environment 27 saturating it and enveloping the sand particles in a film of water which forces them to bind and clump together thus stabilizing the area. The underground irrigation network can extend over very many square kilometres and the area irrigated would be many times larger than that of the pipe network ensuring the sustainability of the Floralization process.
25. There are several forces acting in unison which ensure a continuous flow of water 38 from the pores 35. The first is the Hydrostatic water pressure in the underground water system as it forces the water through the cone shaped bore of the system. Second, the gravitational force exerted on the water to find its equilibrium with the Low Tidal Level causing the water table to rise toward the surface. The third is the van der Waal Force which ensures that water molecules would replace each other in a perpetual chain.
26. The fourth force ensures that water will always fill an empty space; in the proposed underground irrigation system, the water molecules attracted to each other through capillary force continuously move to fill the spaces between the sand particles thus contributing further to clumping and soil stability; prerequisites for robust plant root stability and good vegetation growth.
27. The fifth force propelling the water to continuously irrigate the sub-soil is that of Transpiration which vegetation employs in their perpetual need for water to aid their photosynthesis FIGS. 14-16. As the vegetation absorbs water through their roots, using osmosis, they transport this volume of water through their xylem, up their trunks to their leaves where they expel approximately 90% of the water intake from their stomata into the atmosphere. This Transpiration cycle promotes several key components aiding Floralization; continuous irrigation of the region, binding of the top soil with their root network allowing it to become profitable arable land and through expelling such quantities of water into the atmosphere cools it down. Apart from the beneficial effects of irrigating the sandy sub-soil, including the increased weight of the water envelope, is another providing a rich habitat for diverse life forms, algae, bacteria and minute animals to inhabit.
28. Once the Underground Irrigation System is operational for a period conducive to laying the IMSOIL 26 which is a discernible rise in the water content of the sub-soil; the IMSOIL can be placed in alternating layers with sand 27 to form a sandwich of no less than approximately 30cm thick. Covering this top soil sandwich is a layer of Bio-degradable thick mesh Blanket 28 FIGS. 14-16 which protects the topsoil from the Sun's 30 direct heat and being dried out by the arid desert winds and covered with sand. The IMSOIL is infused with a variety of seeds of differing plants which) upon germination, would give a meadow like effect to the desert.
29. According to one aspect of the present invention the entire irrigated area covered with IMSOIL 26 and the bio-degradable Blanket mesh 28 is protected by an artificial Dune Dam 46 located some distance from the site FIG. 17.
30. The Dune Dam located downwind from the irrigated site should be kilometres long and several metres in height. It is kept constantly watered with a fine spray 53 of sea water using Solar pumps, which would stabilize the dune by enveloping the sand grains in a water bubble forcing them to adhere to each other and clumping together. Because of the difference in sizes between the sand grains making up the Dune with the lar-gest between 0.5-2mm in dia. at the base forming the bottom set 59, second largest 0.25-0.5 mm in the middle Foreset bed 60 and the finest between 0.05-0.25 mm at the Topset bed 61 FIG. 17.
The top of the Dune retains the most water because the smaller the grains the more water is retained and heavier the top becomes. The weight of the water in the dune would greatly enhance its stability, limits the winds' ability to move the sand particles and help promote the basis for bio-diversity.
31. The constant watering of the Dune would cause it to act as a gigantic refrigerant. So much so, that the arid winds 43 blowing across the Slope face 62 FIG. 17 would absorb moisture from it, become cool and, laden with moisture, be less capable of transporting sand particles. It would cool the surrounding atmosphere thus helping to lower the local atmospheric temperature and transforming the climatic environment by inducing more dew and precipitation. Because of the varying sand grains sizes; from the smallest at the top of the Dune to the largest at the base, the top of the Dune would retain the most water.
32. As the Dune becomes more saturated, not all the water sprayed over it would evaporate, a significant quantity would percolated down to a plastic membrane 45 at its base and, as it does so, the Dune would act as a gigantic filter removing some of the salts from the water. The water would course over the membrane forming artificial ponds attracting the growth of aquatic vegetation and animals 46. Once vegetation cover has been established permanently over the Dunes there will be a reduced need for continuing to water them as nature would take over to maintain favourable conditions for precipitation, but watering may still be advisable to avoid the dune drying out.
33. In the present invention; the Desalination, IMDSAL, of sea water, the underground irrigation system, the Floralization, IMELORA, using IMSOIL and the construction of a Dune Dam are all interlinked to form one invention, IMDIFS©, for the purpose for supplying potable water in sufficient quantities primarily for underground irrigation purposes in order to transform arid and semi-arid regions into profitable agricultural ones and secondly, to provide water for human consumption and in animal husbandry.
34. The invention can be scaled up easily to convert increase-ing square kilometres of desert into arable land at very little socio-economic cost to the local communities.
35. The example of the present invention relies entirely on renewable sources of energy to power its various phases and, therefore, has no harmful side effects either on the local environment or the population. Because it has no moving parts; does not require the use of any machinery, except of the Solar pumps to water the Dune, is fully automatic it can justifiably be described as a self perpetuating perpetual process. In fact it is highly beneficial to both the alleviation of the problems faced by the local population associated with the paucity of potable water and the use of contaminated water on a daily basis. It contributes to the solution of the problems posed by climate change and global warming in the long term and the immediate improvement of the local environment.
36. The entire invention has been conceived with a high degree of aesthetic appreciation so as not to offend the sensibilities of the general public. It should be appreciated that the specific form of this present invention, as described and illustrated, is representative only as certain alterations and adaptations can be made to the various components during manufacture without departure from its simple description and ethical principles.
Therefore, all subject matter described above and illustrated in the accompanying drawings should be interpreted as descriptive only and not limited to the literal embodiments described, thus references should be made to the appended Claims in determining the full extent of the present invention.
37. In the preferred embodiment of this invention, the supply of potable water begins immediately as the Evaporation Trough 10 starts to fill with the feed seawater; the magnified Sun rays 29 start the evaporation process producing vapour rising to condense on the inside of the Dome 34 into potable water for the underground irrigation system; Floralization, using IMSOIL 26, Human and animal 37 use added to the artificial Dune Dam 46 to form a composite whole which departs significantly from all other conventional concepts and systems in the prior art and at a considerably lower costs than that of existing ones.
By way of final summary, the general purpose of the present invention is to provide a seawater desalination process, IMDSAL, for use in floralization, IMELORA, of arid and semi-arid regions with the use of IMSOIL. The entire system is completely self-sustaining and relies solely on renewable sources of energy; solar, oceanic currents, tidal power, gravitational, vegetation transpiration forces and protected by an artificial Dune dam. The complete system is referred to by the inventor as "IMDIFS".
The new and innovative perpetual process of Desalinating sea water is coupled with Underground Irrigation and Floralization using Imsoil to transform the harsh inhospitable hot Arid and Semi-arid regions of the planet into hospitable ones in which the desert becomes verdant with profitable vegetation and fit for human habitation.
The desalination process commences with an inflow of vast volumes of sea water through the mouth of an inlet, i.e. the Intake cylinder, covered with a filter which preferably prevents all solids above 0.02 jim from entering it, is anchored some metres below the Low Tidal Level, into which the sea water if forced to flow due to Hydrostatic pressure, the weight of the water mass above it, Oceanic current movements and the diurnal tidal action all acting harmoniously to ensure the column of water in the cylinder remains constant and free flowing.
As the water column flows through the Intake cylinder, which is laid some metres below the surface) it is preheated, as a result of the cylinder absorbing the ambient heat from the Earth, before entering the Desalination Tank and discharged to fill the Evaporation Trough in S the Evaporation Chamber.
As the sea water fills the Evaporation Trough, which is, e.g., made from any salt and heat resistant lightweight carbon fibre black material) it is heated immediately with the Sun's ultra-violet short wave rays which is magnified as a result of a magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel lens compound or equivalent magnifying portion.
The canopy, or lens Dome collimator, concentrates and diffuses the rays throughout the surface area surface area of the Evaporation trough. The Dome cover is manufactured from large lightweight, transparent, strong, durable plastic sheets with magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lenses moulded, preferably with a lattice of runnels to direct condensate. When these sheets are joined and stretched over the Desalination Tank cover Dome frame they form a gigantic compound lens which concentrate the Sun' short wave Ultra-violet rays into Hot/Focal Points and diffuses them throughout the Evaporation Trough.
The compound lens Dome seals the entire Desalination Tank, which acts similarly to a pressure cooker, in which the Short wave ultra-violet rays are reflected back into the sea water as infra-red Long wave rays heating the water further.
As the sea water temperature increases to near its boiling point (1O562C) in the Evaporation Trough) the evaporation process is accelerated and; as the vapour absorbs the Long-wave radiation it creates a "green house effect" in the Evaporation Chamber effectively keeping the heat from escaping and maintaining higher night time temperatures within it. The vapour rises to the underside of the Dome where it condenses and runs down the lattice of tiny runnels which line it towards the base of the Dome and into the main runnel, which is a channel around the through, where it is collected.
In a suggested embodiment, the Compound lens Dome is formed by stretching the transparent sheet, covered with moulded magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel lenses on one side and the lattice of runnels on the other, tightly over a semi-circular frame made from clear rigid Perspex ribs interlinked with horizontal poles which slot into the aligned sockets in the ribs to lock the Ribs together and to strengthen the frame. Foot of the ribs are anchored to the rims along the length of the Desalination tank; at both ends vertical rods support the horizontal ones.
From this main runnel (channel around the main basin) potable water is distributed for two principal uses; firstly) to supply an Underground irrigation system and, secondly, to provide water for both human consumption and animal husbandry.
For use in the Underground irrigation system water flows through a connecting pipe from the main runnel to an underground storage tank where it is mixed with mineral nutrients and liquid fertilizer. The water for human and animal use is piped through a separate system directly to the required location.
Water in the underground storage tank is piped through underground horizontal distribution cylinders which can extend for many hundreds of kilometres in any given direction. Along the entire length of the distribution cylinder there are regularly spaced Vertical ones linked to it via Step down reducer joints.
Step down reducer joints are located throughout the pipe network linking the larger bore pipes with smaller bore ones so that throughout the entire system there is a graduated inner diameter from the largest at the inlet side to the smallest at the outlet side, i.e. from the underground storage tank distribution cylinder up through to the Vertical Distribution Cylinder along the Branch pipes; Arterial, Capillary and Filament, and out through the Leaf Plate pores to irrigate the underground environment thus forming a cone shape. The network cylinders and pipes are smooth bore.
The water oozing out through the Leaf Plate pores is a result of gravitational, Capillary action and hydrostatic power and which cause the water table to rise and seek equilibrium with the Low Tidal Level and to occupy the empty spaces between the sand grains which make up the sub-soil. As the water does so it coats the sand grains in a water film which envelopes the grains and binds them together with remarkable strength, making them heavier and forces them to adhere to each other, causing them to clump and, as a result, less susceptible to movement by the wind.
The water spreading throughout the sandy sub-soil creates an environment which allows bacteria) algae and minute animals to inhabit and thrive. This under-ground irrigation system establishes the preconditions for the successful implementation of the Floralization process using Imsoil.
The Floralization process is one in which successive layers of Imsoil, infused with a large variety of different plants seeds from grasses, shrubs and trees, including tap rooted ones, are laid over sandy ones to create a top soil sandwich approximately thirty centimetres thick which protects the newly irrigated sub soil from direct exposure to the Sun' rays and the arid winds. The newly laid sandwich of Imsoil top soil is itself protected by a bio-degradable thick mesh blanket.
The induced vegetation cover over the entire irrigated area contributes positively in the transformation of the desert eco-system and local climate by tapping into the newly established water table with their root system and transporting the water up to their leaves where they expel over 90% of their daily intake into the atmosphere through their stomata, thereby, cooling the temperature and furthering the positive conditions for desert Floralization.
An added protection for the entire irrigated area is the construction of an artificial Dune Dam; if there are no natural ones suitable for this purpose, downwind from the irrigated area. This Dune Dam is continuously watered with a fine sea water spray using Solar powered pumps. Three major objectives are accomplished resulting from continuously spraying the Dune; one, cooling of the desert winds, two, prevention of sand particle movement and, three, Dune migration.
In the embodiment of the present invention, IMDIFS, all the components; apart from the Intake cylinder, the under-ground pipe network, the Imsoil and the Dune Dam, are housed under the magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Compound Lens Dome. All the cylinders and pipes can be of any length, with the Intake Cylinder having the widest bore in order to take in as much water as possible and tapers down to the point where it links with the Desalination Tank. In order to maximise the underground irrigation area and to achieve the optimum desalinated water through-put there can be very many Intake Cylinders feeding sea water to as many Desalination Tanks as possible thus the underground pipe network can radiate out to cover a very extensive desert area as possible because the more extensive the area Floralized the possibility of transforming the entire desert permanently into an ecologically benign and self sustaining environment is enhanced.
All the various aspects of the present invention can be scaled up and, depending upon technological advancement, developed further. The example of this present invention is, therefore, subject to variations and alterations as to detail. The parts are designed to be easily manufactured and assembled at very low cost including the manufacture of the Imsoil.
It should be appreciated that the specific form of this invention, as described and illustrated, is representative only as certain alterations and adaptations can be made during manufacture without departing from its basic description and ethical principles. Therefore, all subject matter described above and illustrated in the accompanying mosaics should be interpreted as descriptive only and not limiting in any sense.
Reference Numerals: 1. Inflow Cylinder 2. Inflow Cylinder Primary Filter 3. Inflow Cylinder Anchor 4. secondary Filter s. stopcock 6. Desalination Tank 7. Desalination Tank Rim supports Rib Arches 8. Desalination Tank Main Runnel 9. Desalination Tank Walkway 10. Evaporation Trough 11. Desalination Tank Cover; Compound Lens Dome magnifying Bi-convex Fresnel Lens 12. Pipe connecting Inflow Cylinder to Desalination Tank 13. Desalination Tank Main Runnel Outflow Pipe 14. Storage Tank for Underground Irrigation System 15. Storage Tank Main Horizontal Outflow Cylinder 16. Reducer Joints) various sizes and connections 17. Vertical Trunk Distribution Cylinder 18. Artery Pipes 19. Capillary Pipes 20. Filament Pipes 21. Leaf Node Fixing Joint 22. Leaf Plate 23. Low Tidal Mark 24. High Tidal Mark 25. Seashore 26. Artificial Bio-degradable Organic Soil (IMSOIL©) 27. Sand 28. Bio-degradable Sand Retention Mesh Blanket 29. Sun's Rays 30. Sun 31. Bi-convex Fresnel Magnifying Lenses 32. Hot Focal Point 33. Cover Dome Central Spine Support 34. Runnels Lattice, Inside Desalination Tank Cover Dome 35. Leaf Plate Carbon Fibre Nozzle with Pores 36. Vertical Cylinder Monopodial Hub Distribution System 37. Human and Animal Potable Water System 38. Underground Water Outflow from Leaf Plate 39. Sea Floor 40. Cover Dome Plastic Support Ribs 41. Dune Stanchions 42. Dune Sand 43. Wind Flow 44. Dune Dam Wall, Fine Mesh 45. Plastic underlay 46. Dune Dam 47. Evaporation Chamber) Area between Evaporation Trough and underside of Dome 48. Dome Central Supporting Spine 49. Horizontal Interlocking Ribs Stabilizing Support Poles 50. Door Frame Support 51. Door to Evaporation Chamber 52. Door Frame 53. Dune Dam Sea water spray 54. Rib Sockets for Horizontal Poles 55. Sockets connecting Rib and Pole components 56. Plugs connecting Rib and Pole components 57. Desalination Tank Securing Lug 58. Vertical Supporting Poles 59. Desalination tank side panels 60. Desalination tank corner panels 61. Desalination tank floor panels

Claims (13)

  1. WHAT I CLAIM IS: 1. A desalination system including an evaporation chamber for receiving, via an inlet, S water from a salt water source, the evaporation chamber being comprised of: a basin for filling with water from the inlet; a canopy arranged over the basin and adapted to direct solar energy onto the water; a plurality of condensate channels formed on the internal surface of the canopy; a collecting channel for receiving condensate from the condensate channels; an outlet for directing collected condensate from the collecting channel for further use.
  2. 2. The desalination system of claim 1 wherein the inlet is located below a low tide level of the salt water source.
  3. 3. The desalination system of claim 2 wherein the inlet includes a filter.
  4. 4. The desalination system of any preceding claim wherein the canopy includes magnifying portion.
  5. S. The desalination system of claim 4 wherein the magnifying portion is comprised of one or more Fresnel lenses.
  6. 6. The desalination system of claim 5 wherein the one or more Fresnel lenses are supported by a frame which constructs the canopy shape.
  7. 7. The desalination system of any preceding claim wherein the basin is substantially dark or black in colour.
  8. 8. The desalination system of any preceding claim wherein the canopy and basin are substantially sealed together to emulate a pressure cooker.
  9. 9. The desalination system of any preceding claim wherein the outlet directs water to a storage tank accessible for supply of potable water, e.g. for drinking, agricultural or horticultural uses.
  10. 10. An underground irrigation system for use with a desalination system according to any preceding claim wherein a plurality of pipes including stems and branches of generally reducing diameter are connected to a continuous and/or stored supply of water from the desalination system, the pipes being located below a low tide level
  11. 11. The underground irrigation system of claim 10 wherein terminal end(s) of the pipes include an outflow plate incorporating a plurality of apertures or pores adapted to deliver water to the surrounding ground, e.g. sand, soil etc.
  12. 12. The underground irrigation system of claim 11 wherein the plurality of pipes is comprised of at least one laterally extending distribution pipe, at least one vertical trunk pipe extending therefrom and a network of arterial pipes extending from the trunk pipe, above the level of the distribution pipe.
  13. 13. The underground irrigation system of claim 12 further including capillary pipes extending from the arterial pipes and, optionally, further filament pipes extending toward the outflow plate.14 The underground irrigation system of any one of claims 10 to 13 when dependent on claim 9 wherein additives, e.g. minerals and fertiliser, are supplied to the storage tank for subsequent distribution in water by the pipes.15. The underground irrigation system of any one of claims 10 to 14 in combination with a pulped soil composition layered above the plurality of pipes.16. The underground irrigation system of claim 15 wherein the pulped soil composition is made from biodegradable substances collected from households, human effluent, animal by-products, fruit and vegetable waste, food production or any combination thereof.S17. The underground irrigation system of claim 16 wherein the pulped soil composition is layered with sand and topped by a mesh blanket.18. The underground irrigation system of any one of claims 10 to 17 in further combination with a sand dune located adjacent an irrigated site, the sand dune being wetted by seawater pumped thereto.19. The underground irrigation system of claim 18 wherein seawater is pumped to a spray unit over the dune by a solar pump.20. A desalination system according to any one of claims 1 to 9 and an underground irrigation system according to any of claims 10 to 19 in combination as a total system.20. A desalination system and underground irrigation system substantially as herein described, with reference to the accompanying drawings.
GB1414078.4A 2014-08-08 2014-08-08 Desalination and underground irrigation system Active GB2528975B (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1414078.4A GB2528975B (en) 2014-08-08 2014-08-08 Desalination and underground irrigation system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
GB1414078.4A GB2528975B (en) 2014-08-08 2014-08-08 Desalination and underground irrigation system

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB201414078D0 GB201414078D0 (en) 2014-09-24
GB2528975A true GB2528975A (en) 2016-02-10
GB2528975B GB2528975B (en) 2021-05-26

Family

ID=51629510

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB1414078.4A Active GB2528975B (en) 2014-08-08 2014-08-08 Desalination and underground irrigation system

Country Status (1)

Country Link
GB (1) GB2528975B (en)

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ES2667593A1 (en) * 2016-11-11 2018-05-11 Manuel MUÑOZ SÁIZ System for obtaining isotonic water for irrigation, mixing fresh water and sea water (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)
US10788202B2 (en) 2016-05-23 2020-09-29 Hsl Energy Holding Aps Apparatus for production of steam from an aqueous liquid

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1497953A (en) * 1976-02-16 1978-01-12 Yao Chen Tsai Method and a device for producing distilled water using solar energy
GB2005972A (en) * 1977-10-19 1979-05-02 World Seiko Kk Method of and system for underground irrigation
FR2510351A1 (en) * 1981-07-31 1983-02-04 Vannoni Suzanne Underground irrigator for vegetable culture - uses network of flexible pipes in horizontal plane below roots to feed porous pipes at regular intervals
GB2104398A (en) * 1981-07-30 1983-03-09 Keith Bernard Wakelam Re-circulating solar desalinator
GB2472034A (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-01-26 Questor Group Ltd C Solar desalination system
US20120103785A1 (en) * 2010-10-27 2012-05-03 Fih (Hong Kong) Limited Seawater desalinization device
CN102487784A (en) * 2011-12-12 2012-06-13 中国农业大学 Trickle irrigation oxygenation method and trickle irrigation oxygenation device

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1497953A (en) * 1976-02-16 1978-01-12 Yao Chen Tsai Method and a device for producing distilled water using solar energy
GB2005972A (en) * 1977-10-19 1979-05-02 World Seiko Kk Method of and system for underground irrigation
GB2104398A (en) * 1981-07-30 1983-03-09 Keith Bernard Wakelam Re-circulating solar desalinator
FR2510351A1 (en) * 1981-07-31 1983-02-04 Vannoni Suzanne Underground irrigator for vegetable culture - uses network of flexible pipes in horizontal plane below roots to feed porous pipes at regular intervals
GB2472034A (en) * 2009-07-22 2011-01-26 Questor Group Ltd C Solar desalination system
US20120103785A1 (en) * 2010-10-27 2012-05-03 Fih (Hong Kong) Limited Seawater desalinization device
CN102487784A (en) * 2011-12-12 2012-06-13 中国农业大学 Trickle irrigation oxygenation method and trickle irrigation oxygenation device

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US10788202B2 (en) 2016-05-23 2020-09-29 Hsl Energy Holding Aps Apparatus for production of steam from an aqueous liquid
ES2667593A1 (en) * 2016-11-11 2018-05-11 Manuel MUÑOZ SÁIZ System for obtaining isotonic water for irrigation, mixing fresh water and sea water (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
GB201414078D0 (en) 2014-09-24
GB2528975B (en) 2021-05-26

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
Perttu et al. Salix vegetation filters for purification of waters and soils
Morrow Earth user's guide to permaculture
WO2014161108A1 (en) Method for carbon sequestration by planting, harvesting and landfilling fast-growing herbaceous plants
CN109006111A (en) The method of Ecological Civilization Construction
CN105776736A (en) Method for treating agricultural non-point source pollution in hilly areas
CN102469763A (en) Cultivation of tamarix tree for biomass fuel
CN101691270B (en) Assembled packing artificial vertical subsurface flow wetland unit, application thereof and sewage treatment process
CN108455787A (en) A kind of sewage water treatment method based on ecological canal pool agricultural wetland
GB2528975A (en) Desalination and underground irrigation system
CN102786144A (en) Method for construction of garden filter tank sewage treatment facility
Chaibi Thermal solar desalination technologies for small-scale irrigation
Aitkenhead-Peterson et al. Services in natural and human dominated ecosystems
Coello et al. Forest landscape restoration experiences in southern Europe: sustainable techniques for enhancing early tree performance
CN102715070A (en) Marine agricultural multifunctional planting tray and windproof water collection light storage greenhouse
Narain et al. Strategy to combat drought and famine in the Indian arid zone
CN110915336A (en) Ecological system treatment method
Moustafa Greening drylands with seawater easily and naturally
Arnold et al. Explanatory Documentation of the EAGLE Concept
Mamolos et al. Ecological threats and agricultural opportunities of the aquatic cane-like grass Phragmites australis in wetlands
CN214338827U (en) Ecological three-dimensional planting device
Bures A view beyond traditional growing media uses
Heinsoo et al. Use of municipal wastewater and composted wastewater sludge in willow short rotation coppice in Estonia
US20210161089A1 (en) System and method for passive solar containers with integrated aquaponics, greenhouse and mushroom cultivation
Hofhuis Kampung Air: The water village
CN103109694A (en) Atmospheric pattern circulation conversion type multifunctional water / land building three-dimensional planting device