EP1407876B1 - Compactor for material such as packing waste - Google Patents

Compactor for material such as packing waste Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1407876B1
EP1407876B1 EP03292328A EP03292328A EP1407876B1 EP 1407876 B1 EP1407876 B1 EP 1407876B1 EP 03292328 A EP03292328 A EP 03292328A EP 03292328 A EP03292328 A EP 03292328A EP 1407876 B1 EP1407876 B1 EP 1407876B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
tank
materials
compactor
head
bale
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Not-in-force
Application number
EP03292328A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1407876A1 (en
Inventor
Eric Morisse
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Techval
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Techval
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Publication of EP1407876A1 publication Critical patent/EP1407876A1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B30PRESSES
    • B30BPRESSES IN GENERAL
    • B30B9/00Presses specially adapted for particular purposes
    • B30B9/30Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor
    • B30B9/306Mechanically-driven presses
    • B30B9/3071Mechanically-driven presses by the pull of chains or ropes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B30PRESSES
    • B30BPRESSES IN GENERAL
    • B30B15/00Details of, or accessories for, presses; Auxiliary measures in connection with pressing
    • B30B15/08Accessory tools, e.g. knives; Mountings therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B30PRESSES
    • B30BPRESSES IN GENERAL
    • B30B9/00Presses specially adapted for particular purposes
    • B30B9/30Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor
    • B30B9/3082Presses specially adapted for particular purposes for baling; Compression boxes therefor with compression means other than rams performing a rectilinear movement

Definitions

  • the present invention relates to compacting machines for materials, such as those that compact waste for destruction or recycling. It applies more particularly, although not exclusively, to the treatment of packaging waste cardboard and / or plastics.
  • the storage and recycling of lost packaging materials is causing many problems for manufacturers.
  • the present invention aims to solve these problems better than did the materials known to date.
  • these problems there is in particular that posed by the place taken by the materials in a workshop or the need to convey these materials to the place where they are reprocessed.
  • rotary roller compactors are currently used. These compactors comprise, in a conventional manner, a tank for receiving the materials to be compacted within which a compaction head carries at least one rotating roller moving on the surface of the waste contained in the tank. The materials to be treated are introduced gradually into the tank. The roll or rolls are generally provided asperities protruding from their surface to better grind the materials as they are driven in a rotational movement on themselves. In most modern roller compactors, the compaction head rests directly on the materials already introduced into the tank. It thus exerts a pressure effect of the roller on the material being compacted due to its own weight, but it is also possible to apply additional pressure on the materials by other means.
  • roller compactors are rotatable in a circular section vessel.
  • the compaction head is driven in gyration around the axis of the tank, and it carries with it the crushing roller, which acts on all the materials in the tank.
  • Such compactors often called rotary type, are for example described in the document European patent EP 1 023 988 .
  • tank compactors of rectangular section in which the compaction head is driven by a pendulum movement in the tank, to drive the rotating roller back and forth from one end to the other of the tank so that there, too, it acts on a maximum of the surface of the materials.
  • Such compactors are, for example, described in the document European patent EP 0 042 580 .
  • rotary head compactors are more widely used in the trade than rectangular drum compactors because they are simpler to produce.
  • they have the serious disadvantage of leading to balls of compacted materials which are necessarily cylindrical in shape, whereas the demand of the industry is generally in favor of cubic bullets.
  • the principle underlying the invention consists in alternately operating, in the same receiving tank of the materials to be compacted, a compacting head of the rotary roller type and a compression device tray.
  • the former exerts mainly a grinding effect, the second essentially a pressing effect.
  • the material compactor comprises a tank for receiving materials to be compacted, generally open upwards for progressive loading, if necessary continuously, in which configuration means make it possible to implement in turn a roller grinding head comprising at least one rotating roller mounted to rotate on itself and in displacement on the surface of the materials when the compaction head is in a active position in the tank, and a pressure plate compression device associated with translation means for compressing the material against the bottom of the tank when it is in an active position in the tank.
  • Said configuration means advantageously have the effect of raising said head from its active position in an inactive position where it is out of the tank above it, and retracting the tray device from its active position by switching to an inactive position where it is away from the tank.
  • the compactor according to the invention meets various characteristics that apply individually or in any technically operative combination, which will now be exhibited.
  • the roller In the grinding head, the roller is rotatably mounted on itself as is known per se. When the grinding head is in an active position in the tank, it is controlled to drive the roller moving on the surface of the material.
  • the other device comprises a material pressure plate, which is preferably sized and arranged to extend over the entire surface of the waste when in an active position in the vessel.
  • the pressure plate is movably mounted in translation in the tank to press the materials against the bottom of the tank when the tray device is in its active position.
  • the so-called configuration means are designed to pass the rotating roller grinding head alternately in an inactive position out of the waste contained in the tank and in an active position bearing on them, and symmetrically, to make passing the pressure plate device alternately in a position where it is retracted outside the tank and in an active position where it is subjected to the action of driving means lowering it in pressure on the materials contained in tank.
  • Each movement of one of the devices, rotating roller head or pressure plate, between active position and inactive position and vice versa, is performed while the other device is in the inactive position, so as to clear the passage for the first .
  • the grinding head in its active position is rotated about the axis of the vessel, normally vertical in operation, while it is driven in translation along the axis of the vessel by first means of configuration that raise it out of the tank or release it so that it gradually decreases to the materials being compacted.
  • the device acting essentially by compression advantageously operates in vertical displacement, along the axis of the tank, in its active position, while second configuration means make it tilt around a horizontal axis to retract laterally to a inactive position away from the tank.
  • the material compactor according to the invention makes it possible in particular to homogenize the compaction of a bale by virtue of the combination of the actions of the grinding roller and the pressure plate on the materials.
  • the compaction density of the materials in the tank decreases as the level of the material rises in the tank. This is because the materials at the bottom of the tank not only suffer the weight of the roll, but also the weight of the materials that are piled above them.
  • the materials are pressed against the bottom of the tank by the pressure plate which is applied on them advantageously under high pressure.
  • the plate ensures uniformity, over the entire surface of the materials in the tank, much greater than that of the weight of the roll and the upper layers of materials. It also ensures homogenization of the compacting density in the bale as it descends into the tank.
  • the compactor according to the invention produces homogeneous balls whose mass is uniformly distributed in volume. All this is achieved in combination with a material shredding by the roller or rolls that known movable platen presses can not achieve.
  • the configuration means are designed to automatically ensure the passage of an operating step of the rotary roller head to an operating step of the pressure device when the material thickness in the tank reaches a predetermined value.
  • this value results in a level that the head reaches into the tank when it goes back gradually as the materials to be compacted are introduced into the tank.
  • the arrival at this level automatically causes, and successively, the recovery of the head in the inactive position, the tilting of the pressure device to bring the plate flat on the materials and the translation of the plate down compression of materials.
  • the introduction thereof is interrupted during operation of the pressure device.
  • the compactor according to the invention makes it possible in particular to form a bale of compacted material directly in the tank, thanks to the efficiency of the combined operations of grinding and compression, which lead to a homogeneous agglomeration of materials over the entire section of the tank by faithfully marrying his inner form.
  • the user no longer has to worry about a packaging bag that has become useless.
  • he can freely choose the shape and dimensions of the bales he wants to achieve by fixing accordingly the shape of the compactor tank.
  • the compactor according to the invention can advantageously comprise means for making a strapping of the bale obtained at the end of the operations, advantageously after a final stage of compression by the board. , in order to maintain the cohesion of the assembly and to facilitate the extraction of the compactor and the transport.
  • the compactor according to the invention may include housing reception of coils of strip, means for passing the strips around a ball of compacted material still in the tank of the compactor, after removal of the roller head and the pressure plate, and means to assemble two strands of strip together to form a closed loop around the ball.
  • the tank of the compactor according to the invention advantageously comprises a shaping base partially consisting of retractable elements.
  • These elements may in particular consist of retractable strips, advantageously running over the entire width of the bottom of the tank, which are brought into projecting from a normally flat bottom of the tank.
  • the movements of such bands relative to the parts of the bottom of the tank remaining fixed may involve, for example, an articulated parallelogram assembly.
  • the strips When the rotating roller head or the pressure plate are in the active position, the strips are not retracted and they are in a prominent position relative to the bottom of the tank. During the compaction of the materials, the strips create in bales of compacted materials during the formation of furrows or corridors able to allow passage to the two branches of forklifts of standard dimensions. For the unloading of balls out of the tank, the strips are retracted into the bottom of the tank so as not to hinder the movement of the ball.
  • the compactor according to the invention preferably comprises a door having a lower flap which is articulated about a horizontal axis forming a hinge and which can be folded down to touch the ground.
  • the compactor according to the invention is intended more particularly to treat industrial waste consisting of cardboard packaging, but it can also be light plastic packaging, bulk paper, wooden elements or sheets. metal, and, more generally, all the materials that are found together with the cardboard in the lost packaging.
  • the compactor comprises a tank 2 for receiving the waste to be compacted standing vertically on its bottom and open upwards.
  • a protective collar 63 which blocks the waste being compacted which could be expelled from the tank, and which also acts as a feed hopper of the waste compactor. compact by which they are introduced manually in the context of this embodiment. Loading takes place progressively, in practice continuously, but only during operation of the grinding head.
  • the grinding head is a conventional rotary roller compacting head 1, mounted at the end of a support arm 5, advantageously of bent shape, which is fixed to the end of a frame 4 outside the tank 2.
  • the compactor described also comprises, in accordance with the invention, a compression device consisting mainly of a pressure plate 3, lying flat cover the waste horizontally and mobile in vertical translation in the tank.
  • the head 1 comprises a crushing roller 11 operating essentially by shredding waste, which is associated with rotating drive means on itself, around its own axis.
  • This roll 11 unique in the case described, is cylindrical in shape and it advantageously has teeth 13 distributed over its surface. Note however that this roll could be conical rather than cylindrical.
  • the head 1 presses the roller 11 on the waste to be compacted in the tank when it s' there is in active position.
  • the head 1 rises in the tank 2 as the crushed waste piled into the tank.
  • the roller 11 is rotated on itself at the same time as the head 1 is driven in gyration about the axis of the tank 2, and this advantageously to from the same motor means.
  • only one of the two motions is controlled by one engine, the other by reaction.
  • the head 1 is advantageously, as described here, the type of compacting heads conventional so-called rotary compactors.
  • the motion transmission members are enclosed in a protective casing 15 ( figures 1 and 3 ), which protects them particularly aggression waste to be compacted in the tank.
  • the grinding head 1 mainly serves to grind the waste introduced into the tank by the shearing effect of the shredding roll. Incidentally, it exercises on the crushed waste a pressure which cups each passage of the roller 11, this pressure advantageously corresponding to the sole weight of the grinding head 1.
  • these two combined actions of grinding and compression are exerted by the roller successively at any point of the surface that it can cover around the vertical axis of the tank.
  • the arm 5 which supports the rotary roller milling head 1 is mounted to be movable in translation along the frame 4.
  • the arm 5 is telescopically mounted in the frame 4.
  • a hydraulic cylinder of the single-acting type, is located in the frame 4. Its action is exercised only to impose a forced movement in the direction of lifting and to lift said head 1, while when it is not operative, the latter is in free descent, under the effect of its weight.
  • the hydraulic cylinder in question is powered by a pump, via a two-position distributor which controls either the pressurization of the cylinder, or the setting of the cylinder to the exhaust to a tank.
  • the head 1 is movable in vertical translation along the axis of the tank 2 as the level of the waste gradually introduced during its operation goes up in the tank. But by a specific command from the configuration means, it can also raise the head 1 to make it out of the tank to reach its inactive position where it is high enough to let the compression device plateau of its position inactive at its active position or vice versa. The same lifting operation of the head 1 is performed at the end of compaction, and it then triggers the evacuation procedure of the ball obtained.
  • a sensor for detecting the level of the rotating roller head 1 in the tank 2 which supplies to a control cabinet 8 a lifting signal in the inactive position of the head 1 when this level reaches a predetermined upper threshold.
  • the control cabinet 8 is placed on the outer frame 4 to be easily accessible in case of failure.
  • various proximity detection photoelectric sensors are provided which are arranged in the tank at several predetermined levels. Some may determine, for example, a reversal of the direction of turning of the rotating roller head, others a partial recovery of this head, still others its complete recovery above the tank 2.
  • the inactive position of the head 1 intervenes either, during the constitution of a compacted ball, to let the pressure plate pass, or to allow the evacuation of the ball when it is completed. It can also be controlled by the operator, who presses for this purpose a specific button of the cabinet 8, for example in case of deficiency of the position sensors.
  • the compactor according to the invention chosen here by way of example is designed to carry out stripping operations according to the process described in the French patent application published under the number 2,802,462 .
  • the motor 14 is a hydraulic motor that is powered by a motor pump from the same hydraulic fluid reservoir that is connected to the hydraulic cylinder at the origin of the recovery of the head 1.
  • the motor pump is driven by an electric motor.
  • a threshold pressure sensor measures the supply pressure at the inlet of the engine 14. When a jam occurs blocking the rotary roller head 1 in its movement about the axis of the tank, the pressure at the inlet of the motor 14 increases, and when it tends to exceed a predetermined threshold, a specific signal is transmitted to a logic control circuit of the recovery of the head 1 by pressurizing the corresponding cylinder.
  • the head 1 passes on the other side of the pile of crushed waste and the logic circuit passes the cylinder to the exhaust in the hydraulic fluid tank.
  • the grinding head decreases under the effect of its weight and the head 1 is driven in the opposite direction to that of its turning motion before it is raised.
  • the pressure plate 3 is flat and square in shape, under the same dimensions as the section of the tank. In practice its dimensions are fixed in correspondence with the internal dimensions of the tank so that it can be moved easily vertically by means of vertical translation while covering substantially the entire surface of the crushed waste occupying the tank.
  • the tank 2 of the compactor according to the invention has been selected of square section in part to facilitate the displacement of the plate from its active position in the tank 2 to its inactive position when it is retracted to the distance from the tank. Above all, it has the advantage of facilitating the subsequent handling of the ball obtained as well as its storage.
  • the pressure plate 3 comprises reinforcement elements 7 on each of its faces.
  • Two parallel edges 30 and 39 of the pressure plate 9 each have a handle 9 for gripping the plate. These two handles 9 are projecting from each of the two edges 30 and 39. They ensure the descent of the tray in the tank, as will be detailed later.
  • the frame 31 comprises two columns 32 in extension of two edges of the vessel 2, and preferably, as is particularly represented in FIG. figures 1 , 2 and 3 , the two columns 32 are in extension of two edges of one of the two lateral sides of the tank. In its inactive position, the pressure plate 3 is blocked between the columns 32 of the frame 31.
  • the compactor comprises in particular a winch 37 around which wraps and unwinds a cable 38 whose end is fixed to a portion of the edge 39 pressure plate 3.
  • Electrical sensors positioned at predetermined levels in the tank 2 detect the level of the pressure plate 3 in the tank and they provide the control cabinet 8 signals controlling the winding or unwinding of the cable 38 around the winch 37.
  • the electrical sensors can also be used to provide an indication of the degree of compaction due specifically to compaction by the pressure plate.
  • Their main purpose, however, is that of automatically controlling the change of position of the pressure plate device and the alternating action of the rotating roller head, or the start of unloading operations of the ball.
  • the shredding roller 11 In order not to hinder the descent of the plate 3 into the tank 2, the shredding roller 11 is held in the inactive position at a height above the tank such that it does not interfere with the descent of the plate 3 into the tank. In order to clutter as little as possible the space above the tank, and as can be seen from Figure 1 for example, the shredding roller 11 is disposed opposite the plate 3 relative to the axis of the tank, which allows to pass through the pressure plate 3 when it is placed in the tank.
  • the compactor comprises in particular an electric sensor positioned in the tank 2 which detects that the axis of the roll 11 is in the desired position when the roller 11 passes it in front of the gyration movement of the head of the grinding 1.
  • the electric sensor sends a signal to the control cabinet 8 to almost instantly stop the gyration movement of the grinding head 1 about the axis of the vessel, as well as the rotational movement of the roller 11 on itself.
  • the resistance exerted by the waste on the roller 11 is such that the movement
  • the rotation of the roller 11 about its axis is stopped, which also stops the gyration movement of the grinding head 1 via the angular gearbox.
  • the roller 11 When the grinding head 1 is raised vertically out of the tank 2 to be locked in the inactive position, the roller 11 is in a position opposite to that of the pressure plate retracted relative to the tank. In this way, it does not interfere with the tilting of the pressure plate 3 towards its active position in the tank.
  • the pressure plate device 3 When the grinding head 1 is in the active position, the pressure plate device 3 is kept in the inactive position. Similarly, as the pressure plate 3 is in the active position in the tank, the grinding head is maintained in the inactive position.
  • the grinding head is placed in the tank in the active position only after the pressure plate device 3 is retracted in the inactive position out of the tank. And vice versa: the pressure plate device 3 is placed in the active position in the tank only when the grinding head 1 is retracted in the inactive position out of the tank.
  • the plate 3 comprises in particular four parts 35 mounted projecting from each of its four corners. Two of the four parts 35 are movably mounted in rails 36 which are provided in each of the columns 32 of the frame 31. The two other parts 35 are movably mounted in rails 23 provided in two parallel edges of the tank, these edges being those finding perpendicular to columns 32 ( figures 2 , 5 and 6 ).
  • the compactor according to the invention has two clamps 33. They are each actuated by a jack hydraulic pressure 34 to maintain in position the pressure plate 3 at least by one of these four edges.
  • the two grippers 33 grip the handles 9 of the edges 30 and 39 of the plate 3 ( figure 4 ).
  • a protective dress 26, which appears in particular on Figure 4 . The orders run automatically.
  • Sensors sensitive to the presence of the tray in the tank send a signal to the control cabinet 8 to bring the clamps 33 in position on the handles 9 of the edges 30 and 39 and to trigger the vertical translation of the tray in the tank ( figure 4 ).
  • the clamps 33 pull the plate 3 towards the bottom of the tank by increasing the pressure in the cylinders 34.
  • the plate 3 While going down in the tank 2, the plate 3 begins by smoothing the surface of the crushed waste. Indeed, the grinding head 1 making a circular movement in the tank and the tank being of square section, the waste being in the four corners of the tank have not been completely shredded and distributed in the tank.
  • the pressure plate 3 thus remedies initially this unequal distribution of waste to be compacted in the tank 2. Then, it compresses the crushed waste until it has lowered to a predetermined level.
  • the tank 2 opens laterally by a double door 21 and 22, able to withstand the forces exerted by the compaction of waste milled against the inner walls of the tank.
  • the two leaves 21 and 22 are mounted articulated along two horizontal axes. More specifically, the hinges of the two leaves are parallel to the bottom of the tank, one at the top for the upper leaf 21 and the other at the bottom for the lower leaf 22.
  • This preferred assembly of the door of the tank reduces the clutter of the compactor, which saves space in the workshop, and facilitate access to the compacted ball for unloading.
  • the door 21-22 is open and closed by a hydraulic system, which when open, retains the upper leaf 21 against gravity, to allow the exit of the ball compacted waste.
  • the lower flap 22 serves as a ramp for unloading the bales when it is open. Indeed, as it is represented on Figure 6 , the bottom of the compactor tank is slightly raised compared to the ground on which the compactor is placed.
  • the bottom 24 of the tank is made to form a forming bottom compacted bales of waste.
  • it is cut to form two strips 25 which are connected to the fixed parts of the bottom by an articulated parallelogram mounting to bring them projecting during all compaction operations, or conversely retract them at the same level at the time of unloading. of the ball.
  • These two strips 25 are linear and parallel to each other. They are at the origin of the formation of two furrows of complementary shape in compacted waste bales, the purpose of which is to allow passage to the two branches of a forklift.
  • the direction of the two strips 25 is perpendicular to the exit direction of the balls through the door.
  • the compactor described comprises means for strapping the waste bale by strands assembled strand on a closed loop strand, which intervene after compression by the plate 3, at the end of the combined compaction operations.
  • a housing 74 accommodating coils of strip 72 is provided at the foot of the frame 4, in a position chosen so as to occupy as little space as possible.
  • the housing 74 encloses a throwing tube 73 which guides the end of the strip and propel it in slides 27, 28 and 29 formed in the side walls and in the bottom of the tank 2, with sufficient power so that the strip can make at least one complete turn around the tank.
  • the slides are open inside the tank. They determine a path of strips around the ball that is heading transverse to the bands 25 of the shaping base. The slides continue on these.
  • the strapping is performed while the pressure plate is still in place to compress the ball obtained.
  • the pressure plate 3 thus also has five guides 20 for guiding the strips, open towards the inside of the tank, which coincide with the slides 28 and 29 ( figures 6 ), in the same vertical plane as the latter.
  • the control system of the opening of the side door of the tank allows the opening of the upper leaf 21 independently of the opening of the lower leaf 22. While the lower leaf 22 remains closed under pressure on the waste, the opening the upper flap can deliver passage to a crimping machine of the strands of strap end to end.
  • the ejection means 6 ( figure 6 ) of the waste bale that comprises the compactor according to the invention are triggered by control means in synchronism with a prior tilting of the pressure plate in its inactive position away from the bale of compacted material, and with the opening of the side door of the tank.
  • control means in synchronism with a prior tilting of the pressure plate in its inactive position away from the bale of compacted material, and with the opening of the side door of the tank.
  • it is the operator who actuates the control means, by pressing a control button located on the control cabinet 8.
  • the triggering of the ejection means 6 of the ball first causes the opening of the lower leaf 22 of the door of the tank. Then, two plates 61, each associated with a pusher system 62 clearly visible on Figure 6 , are propelled from a wall of the tank opposite the door to expel the ball out of the tank.
  • the plates 61 are cut in the wall of the tank.
  • They can bear against the ball in the same vertical plane as one of the strapping strips.
  • the pusher system 62 is made of an extensible structure whose length varies according to the angle between the articulated elements that constitute it.
  • the operator can control the restarting of the compactor after checking that the ball has been properly ejected out of the tank.
  • This command successively triggers the closing of the two leaves 21 and 22 of the door of the tank, the raising of the plate 3 in the storage frame 31 by winding the cable 38 around the winch 37, the descent of the grinding head 1 in the tank 2 and its return to activity, once the gradual introduction of the waste to be compacted was resumed.
  • the compactor according to the invention allows a more homogeneous compaction of waste through the respective combined actions of the grinding head and the pressure plate implemented in turn in the tank.
  • the pressure plate makes it possible to homogenize the compacting density of the waste in the tank. It also makes it possible to press the waste towards the bottom of the tank 2 and against the internal side walls of the tank more intensely than the grinding head 1, and thus to obtain a waste ball having the same shape as the shape internal tank.
  • the grinding head could, for example, also comprise deflector means fixedly mounted in the vicinity of the drive means of the roller, to push the waste to be compacted away from the transmission members of the rotational movement between the the shaft of the head and the axis of the roller and to guide those who approach it nevertheless to a cutting zone where they are subjected to the action of cutting means.
  • the grinding head would have the advantage of effectively treating resistant waste because of its composition, for example plastic waste and crushing sufficiently for the pressure plate compression device then exerts on them much the same effect as on simple pieces of cardboard.

Abstract

The waste compactor comprises a reception tank (2) for the waste and a rotating compacting head (1) comprising a rotating shredding roller (11). The compactor also comprises a pressure compacting plate (3) which compresses waste against the bottom of the tank. There are means for moving the compacting head from its inactive position to its active position when the plate is in the inactive position.

Description

La présente invention concerne les machines de compactage de matières, telles que celles qui assurent le compactage de déchets pour destruction ou recyclage. Elle s'applique plus particulièrement, bien que non limitativement, au traitement de déchets d'emballages en carton et/ou matières plastiques.The present invention relates to compacting machines for materials, such as those that compact waste for destruction or recycling. It applies more particularly, although not exclusively, to the treatment of packaging waste cardboard and / or plastics.

Le stockage et le recyclage des matières constituées d'emballages perdus sont à l'origine de nombreux problèmes pour les industriels. La présente invention vise à résoudre ces problèmes mieux que ne le faisaient les matériels connus à ce jour. Parmi ces problèmes, il figure en particulier celui que posent la place prise par les matières dans un atelier ou le besoin de convoyer ces matières jusqu'au lieu où elles sont retraitées.The storage and recycling of lost packaging materials is causing many problems for manufacturers. The present invention aims to solve these problems better than did the materials known to date. Among these problems, there is in particular that posed by the place taken by the materials in a workshop or the need to convey these materials to the place where they are reprocessed.

Il existe sur le marché des presses à plateaux permettant d'exercer de fortes pressions sur des plaques de matières à comprimer, par exemple dans le cadre de la fabrication des panneaux en agglomérés de bois. Les machines de ce genre ne conviennent que pour des matières de nature et de structure homogènes, et certainement pas pour des matières de dimensions variables comme le sont en général les déchets de cartons d'emballages abandonnés par les magasins et les industriels, et encore moins quand on sait que de manière courante, les emballages perdus sont faits pour partie de carton et papier, pour partie de films, plaques et blocs en matières plastiques.There are on the market flatbed presses for exerting strong pressure on sheets of material to be compressed, for example in the context of the manufacture of chipboard panels. Machines of this kind are suitable only for materials of a homogeneous nature and structure, and certainly not for materials of variable dimensions, as are generally the waste of packaging cartons abandoned by the stores and industrialists, let alone when it is commonly known that lost packaging is made partly of cardboard and paper, partly of films, plates and blocks of plastics.

Pour les matières de ce genre, on utilise actuellement des compacteurs à rouleau rotatif. Ces compacteurs comportent, de manière classique, une cuve de réception des matières à compacter à l'intérieur de laquelle une tête de compactage porte au moins un rouleau rotatif en déplacement sur la surface des déchets contenus dans la cuve. Les matières à traiter sont introduites progressivement dans la cuve. Le ou les rouleaux sont généralement munis d'aspérités en saillie de leur surface pour mieux broyer les matières pendant qu'ils sont entraînés dans un mouvement de rotation sur eux-mêmes. Dans la plupart des compacteurs à rouleau actuels, la tête de compactage repose directement sur les matières déjà introduites dans la cuve. Elle exerce ainsi un effet de pression du rouleau sur les matières en cours de compactage du fait de son propre poids, mais on peut aussi prévoir d'appliquer une pression complémentaire sur les matières par d'autres moyens.For materials of this type, rotary roller compactors are currently used. These compactors comprise, in a conventional manner, a tank for receiving the materials to be compacted within which a compaction head carries at least one rotating roller moving on the surface of the waste contained in the tank. The materials to be treated are introduced gradually into the tank. The roll or rolls are generally provided asperities protruding from their surface to better grind the materials as they are driven in a rotational movement on themselves. In most modern roller compactors, the compaction head rests directly on the materials already introduced into the tank. It thus exerts a pressure effect of the roller on the material being compacted due to its own weight, but it is also possible to apply additional pressure on the materials by other means.

La plupart des compacteurs à rouleau sont à tête rotative dans une cuve de section circulaire. La tête de compactage y est entraînée en giration tout autour de l'axe de la cuve, et elle entraîne avec elle le rouleau broyeur, qui agit ainsi sur l'ensemble des matières situées dans la cuve. De tels compacteurs, souvent dits de type rotatif, sont par exemple décrits dans le document de brevet européen EP 1 023 988 . Mais on connaît aussi des compacteurs à cuve de section rectangulaire, dans lesquels la tête de compactage est animée d'un mouvement pendulaire dans la cuve, afin d'entraîner le rouleau rotatif en va-et-vient d'un bout à l'autre de la cuve de sorte que, là aussi, il agisse sur un maximum de la surface des matières. De tels compacteurs sont, par exemple, décrits dans le document de brevet européen EP 0 042 580 . Il est à noter que les compacteurs à tête rotative sont plus répandus dans le commerce que les compacteurs à cuve rectangulaire du fait qu'ils sont plus simples de réalisation. Ils ont par contre le grave inconvénient de conduire à des balles de matières compactées qui sont nécessairement de forme cylindrique, alors que la demande de l'industrie est en général en faveur de balles cubiques.Most roller compactors are rotatable in a circular section vessel. The compaction head is driven in gyration around the axis of the tank, and it carries with it the crushing roller, which acts on all the materials in the tank. Such compactors, often called rotary type, are for example described in the document European patent EP 1 023 988 . But there are also known tank compactors of rectangular section, in which the compaction head is driven by a pendulum movement in the tank, to drive the rotating roller back and forth from one end to the other of the tank so that there, too, it acts on a maximum of the surface of the materials. Such compactors are, for example, described in the document European patent EP 0 042 580 . It should be noted that rotary head compactors are more widely used in the trade than rectangular drum compactors because they are simpler to produce. On the other hand, they have the serious disadvantage of leading to balls of compacted materials which are necessarily cylindrical in shape, whereas the demand of the industry is generally in favor of cubic bullets.

Pour résoudre ce problème, le principe à la base de l'invention consiste à mettre en oeuvre en alternance, dans une même cuve de réception des matières à compacter, une tête de compactage du type à rouleau rotatif et un dispositif de compression à plateau. La première exerce principalement un effet de broyage, le second essentiellement un effet de pressage. Autrement dit, le compacteur de matières suivant l'invention comporte une cuve de réception des matières à compacter, en général ouverte vers le haut pour un chargement progressif, le cas échéant en continu, dans laquelle des moyens de configuration permettent de mettre en oeuvre à tour de rôle une tête de broyage à rouleau comportant au moins un rouleau rotatif monté mobile en rotation sur lui-même et en déplacement sur la surface des matières quand la tête de compactage est dans une position active dans la cuve, ainsi qu'un dispositif de compression à plateau de pression associé à des moyens de translation pour comprimer les matières contre le fond de la cuve quand il est dans une position active dans la cuve.To solve this problem, the principle underlying the invention consists in alternately operating, in the same receiving tank of the materials to be compacted, a compacting head of the rotary roller type and a compression device tray. The former exerts mainly a grinding effect, the second essentially a pressing effect. In other words, the material compactor according to the invention comprises a tank for receiving materials to be compacted, generally open upwards for progressive loading, if necessary continuously, in which configuration means make it possible to implement in turn a roller grinding head comprising at least one rotating roller mounted to rotate on itself and in displacement on the surface of the materials when the compaction head is in a active position in the tank, and a pressure plate compression device associated with translation means for compressing the material against the bottom of the tank when it is in an active position in the tank.

Lesdits moyens de configuration ont avantageusement pour effet de relever ladite tête de sa position active dans une position inactive où elle est hors de la cuve au-dessus de celle-ci, et d'escamoter le dispositif à plateau à partir de sa position active par basculement vers une position inactive où il est à l'écart de la cuve.Said configuration means advantageously have the effect of raising said head from its active position in an inactive position where it is out of the tank above it, and retracting the tray device from its active position by switching to an inactive position where it is away from the tank.

Dans ses formes de réalisation préférées, le compacteur suivant l'invention répond à diverses caractéristiques s'appliquant individuellement ou en toute combinaison techniquement opérante, qui seront maintenant exposées.In its preferred embodiments, the compactor according to the invention meets various characteristics that apply individually or in any technically operative combination, which will now be exhibited.

Dans la tête de broyage, le rouleau est monté en rotation sur lui-même comme il est en soi connu. Lorsque la tête de broyage est dans une position active dans la cuve, elle est commandée pour entraîner le rouleau en déplacement sur la surface des matières. lci et dans la suite, on parle d'un rouleau au singulier, ce qui correspond au cas le plus fréquent en pratique, mais il peut aussi bien être prévus deux rouleaux ou même plus, entraînés par le même système motorisé. L'autre dispositif comporte un plateau de pression des matières, qui est de préférence dimensionné et disposé pour s'étendre sur toute la surface des déchets lorsqu'il est dans une position active dans la cuve. Le plateau de pression est monté mobile en translation dans la cuve pour presser les matières contre le fond de la cuve quand le dispositif à plateau est dans sa position active.In the grinding head, the roller is rotatably mounted on itself as is known per se. When the grinding head is in an active position in the tank, it is controlled to drive the roller moving on the surface of the material. Here and in the following, we speak of a singular roll, which corresponds to the most frequent case in practice, but it may as well be provided two rolls or even more, driven by the same motorized system. The other device comprises a material pressure plate, which is preferably sized and arranged to extend over the entire surface of the waste when in an active position in the vessel. The pressure plate is movably mounted in translation in the tank to press the materials against the bottom of the tank when the tray device is in its active position.

Les moyens dits de configuration sont conçus pour faire passer la tête de broyage à rouleau rotatif alternativement dans une position inactive hors des déchets contenus dans la cuve et dans une position active en appui sur elles, et symétriquement, pour faire passer le dispositif à plateau de pression alternativement dans une position où il est escamoté à l'extérieur de la cuve et dans une position active où il est soumis à l'action de moyens d'entraînement l'abaissant en pression sur les matières contenues dans la cuve. Chaque déplacement de l'un des dispositifs, tête à rouleau rotatif ou plateau de pression, entre position active et position inactive et inversement, s'effectue pendant que l'autre dispositif est en position inactive, de manière à dégager le passage pour le premier. De manière particulièrement avantageuse, la tête de broyage dans sa position active est entraînée en rotation autour de l'axe de la cuve, normalement vertical en fonctionnement, tandis qu'elle est entraînée en translation selon l'axe de la cuve par des premiers moyens de configuration qui la soulèvent hors de la cuve ou la libèrent pour qu'elle s'abaisse progressivement jusqu'aux matières en cours de compactage. Symétriquement, le dispositif agissant essentiellement par compression fonctionne avantageusement en déplacement vertical, suivant l'axe de la cuve, dans sa position active, alors que des seconds moyens de configuration le font basculer autour d'un axe horizontal pour l'escamoter latéralement vers une position inactive à l'écart de la cuve.The so-called configuration means are designed to pass the rotating roller grinding head alternately in an inactive position out of the waste contained in the tank and in an active position bearing on them, and symmetrically, to make passing the pressure plate device alternately in a position where it is retracted outside the tank and in an active position where it is subjected to the action of driving means lowering it in pressure on the materials contained in tank. Each movement of one of the devices, rotating roller head or pressure plate, between active position and inactive position and vice versa, is performed while the other device is in the inactive position, so as to clear the passage for the first . Particularly advantageously, the grinding head in its active position is rotated about the axis of the vessel, normally vertical in operation, while it is driven in translation along the axis of the vessel by first means of configuration that raise it out of the tank or release it so that it gradually decreases to the materials being compacted. Symmetrically, the device acting essentially by compression advantageously operates in vertical displacement, along the axis of the tank, in its active position, while second configuration means make it tilt around a horizontal axis to retract laterally to a inactive position away from the tank.

Le compacteur de matières suivant l'invention permet notamment d'homogénéiser le compactage d'une balle grâce à la combinaison des actions du rouleau de broyage et du plateau de pression sur les matières. En effet, dans les compacteurs à tête rotative traditionnels tels qu'ils ont été définis précédemment, la densité de compactage des matières dans la cuve décroît au fur et à mesure que le niveau des matières monte dans la cuve. Ceci s'explique par le fait que les matières se trouvant au fond de la cuve subissent non seulement le poids du rouleau, mais également le poids des matières qui se trouvent entassées au-dessus d'elles.The material compactor according to the invention makes it possible in particular to homogenize the compaction of a bale by virtue of the combination of the actions of the grinding roller and the pressure plate on the materials. Indeed, in traditional rotary head compactors as defined above, the compaction density of the materials in the tank decreases as the level of the material rises in the tank. This is because the materials at the bottom of the tank not only suffer the weight of the roll, but also the weight of the materials that are piled above them.

Grâce au dispositif suivant l'invention, les matières sont comprimées contre le fond de la cuve par le plateau de pression qui s'applique sur elles avantageusement sous forte pression. Le plateau assure alors une uniformisation, sur toute la surface des matières dans la cuve, bien supérieure à celle du poids du rouleau et des couches supérieures de matières. Il assure aussi une homogénéisation de la densité de compactage dans la balle au fur et à mesure qu'il descend dans la cuve. De cette manière, le compacteur selon l'invention réalise des balles homogènes dont la masse est uniformément répartie en volume. Tout ceci s'obtient en combinaison avec un déchiquetage des matières par le ou les rouleaux que les presses à plateau mobile connues ne sauraient réaliser.Thanks to the device according to the invention, the materials are pressed against the bottom of the tank by the pressure plate which is applied on them advantageously under high pressure. The plate then ensures uniformity, over the entire surface of the materials in the tank, much greater than that of the weight of the roll and the upper layers of materials. It also ensures homogenization of the compacting density in the bale as it descends into the tank. In this way, the compactor according to the invention produces homogeneous balls whose mass is uniformly distributed in volume. All this is achieved in combination with a material shredding by the roller or rolls that known movable platen presses can not achieve.

De manière particulièrement avantageuse dans une exploitation industrielle de l'invention, les moyens de configuration sont conçus pour assurer automatiquement le passage d'une étape de fonctionnement de la tête à rouleau rotatif à une étape de fonctionnement du dispositif de pression dès lors que l'épaisseur des matières dans la cuve atteint une valeur prédéterminée. Au plus simple, cette valeur se traduit par un niveau que la tête atteint dans la cuve quand elle remonte progressivement au fur et à mesure que les matières à compacter sont introduites dans la cuve. L'arrivée à ce niveau provoque automatiquement, et successivement, la remontée de la tête en position inactive, le basculement du dispositif de pression pour amener le plateau à plat sur les matières et la translation du plateau vers le bas en compression des matières. Bien entendu, l'introduction de celles-ci est interrompue pendant le fonctionnement du dispositif de pression.Particularly advantageously in an industrial operation of the invention, the configuration means are designed to automatically ensure the passage of an operating step of the rotary roller head to an operating step of the pressure device when the material thickness in the tank reaches a predetermined value. At the simplest, this value results in a level that the head reaches into the tank when it goes back gradually as the materials to be compacted are introduced into the tank. The arrival at this level automatically causes, and successively, the recovery of the head in the inactive position, the tilting of the pressure device to bring the plate flat on the materials and the translation of the plate down compression of materials. Of course, the introduction thereof is interrupted during operation of the pressure device.

Le compacteur selon l'invention permet notamment de mettre en forme une balle de matières compactées directement dans la cuve, grâce à l'efficacité des opérations combinées de broyage et compression, qui conduisent à une agglomération homogène des matières sur toute la section de la cuve, en épousant fidèlement sa forme intérieure. L'utilisateur n'a plus à se soucier d'un sac d'emballage devenu inutile. De plus il peut choisir librement la forme et les dimensions des balles qu'il souhaite réaliser en fixant en conséquence la forme de la cuve du compacteur. En général, il y a là avantage à s'affranchir des formes de cuve cylindriques qui étaient auparavant quasiment obligatoires pour des têtes rotatives et à prévoir plutôt des formes cubiques, de section rectangulaire, ou plus particulièrement carrée, facilitant la manipulation et le rangement des balles obtenues.The compactor according to the invention makes it possible in particular to form a bale of compacted material directly in the tank, thanks to the efficiency of the combined operations of grinding and compression, which lead to a homogeneous agglomeration of materials over the entire section of the tank by faithfully marrying his inner form. The user no longer has to worry about a packaging bag that has become useless. In addition he can freely choose the shape and dimensions of the bales he wants to achieve by fixing accordingly the shape of the compactor tank. In general, there is the advantage to overcome the cylindrical tank shapes that were previously almost mandatory for rotating heads and instead provide cubic shapes, rectangular section, or more particularly square, facilitating the handling and storage of balls obtained.

Dans la mesure où les balles peuvent être mises en forme directement dans la cuve, le compacteur selon l'invention peut avantageusement comporter des moyens pour réaliser un cerclage de la balle obtenue en fin des opérations, avantageusement après une dernière étape de compression par le plateau, afin de maintenir la cohésion de l'ensemble et de faciliter l'extraction du compacteur et le transport. A l'effet d'un tel cerclage, le compacteur selon l'invention peut notamment comporter des logements d'accueil de bobines de feuillards, des moyens pour faire passer les feuillards autour d'une balle de matières compactées se trouvant encore dans la cuve du compacteur, après retrait de la tête à rouleau et du plateau de pression, et des moyens pour assurer l'assemblage de deux brins de feuillard réunis pour former une boucle fermée autour de la balle.Inasmuch as the bales can be shaped directly in the tank, the compactor according to the invention can advantageously comprise means for making a strapping of the bale obtained at the end of the operations, advantageously after a final stage of compression by the board. , in order to maintain the cohesion of the assembly and to facilitate the extraction of the compactor and the transport. To the effect of such a strapping, the compactor according to the invention may include housing reception of coils of strip, means for passing the strips around a ball of compacted material still in the tank of the compactor, after removal of the roller head and the pressure plate, and means to assemble two strands of strip together to form a closed loop around the ball.

On peut aussi tirer profit de la qualité de compactage, qui conduit à la fois à une structure homogène dans la masse et à une densité uniforme sur toute la section, pour supprimer l'utilisation de palettes pour transporter les balles, par exemple du compacteur à un camion. A cet effet, la cuve du compacteur selon l'invention comporte avantageusement un fond conformateur partiellement constitué d'éléments rétractables. Ces éléments peuvent notamment consister en des bandes rétractables, courant avantageusement sur toute la largeur du fond de la cuve, qui sont amenées en saillie d'un fond de cuve normalement plat. Les mouvements de telles bandes par rapport aux parties du fond de la cuve restant fixes peuvent faire intervenir, par exemple, un montage en parallélogramme articulé. Lorsque la tête à rouleau rotatif ou le plateau de pression sont en position active, les bandes ne sont pas rétractées et elles sont en position proéminente par rapport au fond de la cuve. Pendant le compactage des matières, les bandes créent dans les balles de matières compactées en cours de formation des sillons ou couloirs aptes à livrer passage aux deux branches de chariots à fourche de dimensions standard. Pour le déchargement des balles hors de la cuve, les bandes sont rétractées dans le fond de la cuve de manière à ne pas gêner le déplacement de la balle.It is also possible to take advantage of the quality of compaction, which leads to both a homogeneous structure in the mass and to a uniform density over the entire section, to eliminate the use of pallets to transport the bales, for example compactor to a truck. For this purpose, the tank of the compactor according to the invention advantageously comprises a shaping base partially consisting of retractable elements. These elements may in particular consist of retractable strips, advantageously running over the entire width of the bottom of the tank, which are brought into projecting from a normally flat bottom of the tank. The movements of such bands relative to the parts of the bottom of the tank remaining fixed may involve, for example, an articulated parallelogram assembly. When the rotating roller head or the pressure plate are in the active position, the strips are not retracted and they are in a prominent position relative to the bottom of the tank. During the compaction of the materials, the strips create in bales of compacted materials during the formation of furrows or corridors able to allow passage to the two branches of forklifts of standard dimensions. For the unloading of balls out of the tank, the strips are retracted into the bottom of the tank so as not to hinder the movement of the ball.

Le compacteur suivant l'invention comporte préférentiellement une porte comportant un battant inférieur qui est articulé autour d'un axe horizontal formant charnière et qui peut être rabattu jusqu'à toucher le sol. Ces dispositions permettent un gain de place par rapport à la solution usuelle d'une porte tournant autour d'un axe vertical et facilitent le déchargement de la balle, par le battant rabattu formant rampe. Elles se combinent avantageusement avec le fond conformateur de la cuve et avec des moyens d'éjection, commandés en synchronisme avec l'ouverture de la porte pour pousser la balle hors de la cuve à partir de la paroi latérale de la cuve opposée.The compactor according to the invention preferably comprises a door having a lower flap which is articulated about a horizontal axis forming a hinge and which can be folded down to touch the ground. These arrangements allow space saving compared to the usual solution of a door revolving around a vertical axis and facilitate the unloading of the ball, by the folded flap forming ramp. They are advantageously combined with the shaping bottom of the tank and with ejection means, controlled in synchronism with the opening of the door to push the ball out of the tank from the side wall of the opposite tank.

L'invention sera maintenant plus complètement décrite dans le cadre de caractéristiques préférées et de leurs avantages, en faisant référence aux figures 1 à 6 dans lesquelles :

  • la figure 1 représente un mode de réalisation préféré du compacteur selon l'invention vu en perspective, dont la tête de broyage est en position inactive et dont le dispositif à plateau de pression est mis en place dans la cuve ;
  • la figure 2 illustre le compacteur représenté en figure 1 vu en perspective, dont la tête de broyage est en position active dans la cuve et dont le dispositif à plateau de pression est en position inactive ;
  • la figure 3 montre le compacteur représenté en figure 1 et 2 vu en perspective, dont la tête de broyage est en position inactive et dont le dispositif à plateau de pression est en position active dans la cuve ;
  • la figure 4 montre le compacteur représenté en figure 3, muni d'une robe latérale protectrice, vu en coupe longitudinale ;
  • la figure 5 représente le compacteur vu partiellement en coupe latérale, dont le fond conformateur présente deux bandes rétractables ;
  • et la figure 6 montre le compacteur vu partiellement en coupe latérale, dont les battants de la porte sont ouverts et dont les moyens d'éjection sont mis en oeuvre pour éjecter une balle de matières compactées.
The invention will now be more fully described in the context of preferred features and their advantages, with reference to Figures 1 to 6 in which :
  • Figure 1 represents a preferred embodiment of the compactor according to the invention seen in perspective, the grinding head is in the inactive position and the pressure plate device is put in place in the tank;
  • Figure 2 illustrates the compactor shown in figure 1 viewed in perspective, the grinding head is in the active position in the tank and the pressure plate device is in the inactive position;
  • Figure 3 shows the compactor represented in figure 1 and 2 viewed in perspective, the grinding head is in the inactive position and the pressure plate device is in the active position in the tank;
  • Figure 4 shows the compactor represented in figure 3 , fitted with a protective side dress, seen in longitudinal section;
  • Figure 5 represents the compactor partially seen in lateral section, whose shaping base has two retractable strips;
  • and Figure 6 shows the compactor partially seen in side section, whose door leaves are open and whose ejection means are implemented to eject a ball of compacted material.

Le compacteur selon l'invention est destiné plus particulièrement à traiter des déchets industriels constitués d'emballages en carton, mais il peut également s'agir d'emballages légers en matière plastique, de papiers en vrac, d'éléments en bois ou de feuilles de métal, et, de manière plus générale, de tous les matériaux qui se trouvent en même temps que le carton dans les emballages perdus.The compactor according to the invention is intended more particularly to treat industrial waste consisting of cardboard packaging, but it can also be light plastic packaging, bulk paper, wooden elements or sheets. metal, and, more generally, all the materials that are found together with the cardboard in the lost packaging.

Comme il est illustré en figure 1, le compacteur comprend une cuve 2 de réception des déchets à compacter reposant verticalement sur son fond et ouverte vers le haut. Au-dessus de la cuve 2 se trouve un col de protection 63 qui fait barrage aux déchets en cours de compactage qui pourraient être expulsées hors de la cuve, et qui joue aussi le rôle d'une trémie d'alimentation du compacteur en déchets à compacter par laquelle ces derniers sont introduits manuellement dans le cadre de cet exemple de réalisation. Le chargement s'opère de manière progressive, en pratique de manière continue, mais seulement pendant le fonctionnement de la tête de broyage.As it is illustrated in figure 1 , the compactor comprises a tank 2 for receiving the waste to be compacted standing vertically on its bottom and open upwards. Above the tank 2 is a protective collar 63 which blocks the waste being compacted which could be expelled from the tank, and which also acts as a feed hopper of the waste compactor. compact by which they are introduced manually in the context of this embodiment. Loading takes place progressively, in practice continuously, but only during operation of the grinding head.

La tête de broyage est une tête de compactage classique à rouleau rotatif 1, montée à l'extrémité d'un bras porteur 5, avantageusement de forme coudée, qui est fixé à l'extrémité d'un bâti 4 extérieur à la cuve 2. Pour fonctionner en alternance avec elle dans la cuve en agissant sur les déchets à compacter, le compacteur décrit comporte également, conformément à l'invention, un dispositif de compression constitué principalement par un plateau de pression 3, venant à plat couvrir les déchets horizontalement et mobile en translation verticale dans la cuve. Les différents éléments permettant le fonctionnement en alternance de la tête à rouleau rotatif et du plateau de pression seront détaillés plus loin, après la description des différents éléments qu'ils comportent chacun. Ils sont commandés de manière à mettre en oeuvre tantôt d'abord la tête de broyage à rouleau rotatif, tantôt ensuite le dispositif à plateau de pression, ou les deux en alternance répétitive.The grinding head is a conventional rotary roller compacting head 1, mounted at the end of a support arm 5, advantageously of bent shape, which is fixed to the end of a frame 4 outside the tank 2. To operate alternately with it in the tank by acting on the waste to be compacted, the compactor described also comprises, in accordance with the invention, a compression device consisting mainly of a pressure plate 3, lying flat cover the waste horizontally and mobile in vertical translation in the tank. The various elements allowing the alternating operation of the rotating roller head and the pressure plate will be detailed later, after the description of the different elements they each comprise. They are controlled so as to implement sometimes first the rotating roller grinding head, then the pressure plate device, or both alternately repetitive.

De manière classique, la tête 1 comporte un rouleau broyeur 11 opérant essentiellement par déchiquetage des déchets, qui est associé à des moyens d'entraînement en rotation sur lui-même, autour de son axe propre. Ce rouleau 11, unique dans le cas décrit, est de forme cylindrique et il présente avantageusement des dents 13 réparties sur sa surface. On notera toutefois que ce rouleau pourrait être de forme conique plutôt que de forme cylindrique.Conventionally, the head 1 comprises a crushing roller 11 operating essentially by shredding waste, which is associated with rotating drive means on itself, around its own axis. This roll 11, unique in the case described, is cylindrical in shape and it advantageously has teeth 13 distributed over its surface. Note however that this roll could be conical rather than cylindrical.

Conformément au mode de réalisation préféré de l'invention, tel qu'il est décrit ici, c'est seulement du fait de son propre poids que la tête 1 appuie par le rouleau 11 sur les déchets à compacter dans la cuve quand elle s'y trouve en position active. Ainsi, la tête 1 monte dans la cuve 2 au fur et à mesure que les déchets broyés s'entassent dans la cuve. Par ailleurs, en position active de la tête 1 dans la cuve, le rouleau 11 est entraîné en rotation sur lui-même en même temps que la tête 1 est entraînée en giration autour de l'axe de la cuve 2, et ce avantageusement à partir des mêmes moyens moteurs. Dans d'autres cas, seul l'un des deux mouvements est commandé par un moteur, l'autre en découlant par réaction. Quoi qu'il en soit, la tête 1 est avantageusement, comme il est décrit ici, du type des têtes de compactage classiques des compacteurs dits rotatifs.According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, as described herein, it is only because of its own weight that the head 1 presses the roller 11 on the waste to be compacted in the tank when it s' there is in active position. Thus, the head 1 rises in the tank 2 as the crushed waste piled into the tank. Furthermore, in the active position of the head 1 in the tank, the roller 11 is rotated on itself at the same time as the head 1 is driven in gyration about the axis of the tank 2, and this advantageously to from the same motor means. In other cases, only one of the two motions is controlled by one engine, the other by reaction. In any case, the head 1 is advantageously, as described here, the type of compacting heads conventional so-called rotary compactors.

Comme il est notamment représenté schématiquement en figure 4, les moyens d'entraînement en rotation du rouleau 11 sur lui-même et en giration de la tête 1 dans son ensemble autour de l'axe de la cuve 2 comportent ainsi un moteur 14, situé à l'extrémité supérieure de la tête 1, qui entraîne un arbre vertical 51, monté suivant l'axe de la cuve, dont le mouvement est transmis à un bras 12 d'entraînement en rotation du rouleau 11 sur lui-même par un mécanisme à renvoi d'angle. Les organes de transmission de mouvement sont enfermés dans un carter de protection 15 (figures 1 et 3), qui les protège notamment des agressions des déchets à compacter dans la cuve.As it is represented schematically in figure 4 , the drive means for rotating the roller 11 on itself and in rotation of the head 1 as a whole around the axis of the tank 2 and comprise a motor 14, located at the upper end of the head 1 , which drives a vertical shaft 51, mounted along the axis of the vessel, the movement is transmitted to an arm 12 for rotating the roller 11 on itself by a mechanism to return angle. The motion transmission members are enclosed in a protective casing 15 ( figures 1 and 3 ), which protects them particularly aggression waste to be compacted in the tank.

En fonctionnement, la tête de broyage 1 permet principalement de broyer les déchets introduits dans la cuve par l'effet de cisaillement du rouleau de déchiquetage. Accessoirement, il s'exerce sur les déchets broyés une pression qui les tasse à chaque passage du rouleau 11, cette pression correspondant avantageusement au seul poids de la tête de broyage 1. Quand la tête tourne, ces deux actions combinées de broyage et compression sont exercées par le rouleau successivement en tout point de la surface qu'il peut couvrir autour de l'axe vertical de la cuve.In operation, the grinding head 1 mainly serves to grind the waste introduced into the tank by the shearing effect of the shredding roll. Incidentally, it exercises on the crushed waste a pressure which cups each passage of the roller 11, this pressure advantageously corresponding to the sole weight of the grinding head 1. When the head rotates, these two combined actions of grinding and compression are exerted by the roller successively at any point of the surface that it can cover around the vertical axis of the tank.

Le bras 5 qui supporte la tête de broyage à rouleau rotatif 1 est monté mobile en translation le long du bâti 4. Comme il ressort clairement de la figure 1 , à son extrémité 52 opposée à celle qui porte la tête à rouleau rotatif 1, le bras 5 est monté télescopique dans le bâti 4. Un vérin hydraulique, du type à simple effet, est situé dans le bâti 4. Son action s'exerce seulement pour imposer un mouvement forcé dans le sens du levage et pour soulever ladite tête 1, alors que quand il n'est pas opératif, cette dernière se trouve en descente libre, sous l'effet de son poids. Le vérin hydraulique en question est alimenté par une pompe, par l'intermédiaire d'un distributeur à deux positions qui commande soit la mise sous pression du vérin, soit la mise du vérin à l'échappement vers un réservoir.The arm 5 which supports the rotary roller milling head 1 is mounted to be movable in translation along the frame 4. As is clear from FIG. Figure 1 , at its end 52 opposite that carrying the rotary roller head 1, the arm 5 is telescopically mounted in the frame 4. A hydraulic cylinder, of the single-acting type, is located in the frame 4. Its action is exercised only to impose a forced movement in the direction of lifting and to lift said head 1, while when it is not operative, the latter is in free descent, under the effect of its weight. The hydraulic cylinder in question is powered by a pump, via a two-position distributor which controls either the pressurization of the cylinder, or the setting of the cylinder to the exhaust to a tank.

Grâce au montage télescopique, la tête 1 est mobile en translation verticale suivant l'axe de la cuve 2 au fur et à mesure que le niveau des déchets progressivement introduits pendant son fonctionnement monte dans la cuve. Mais par une commande spécifique relevant des moyens de configuration, on peut aussi relever la tête 1 pour la faire sortir de la cuve jusqu'à atteindre sa position inactive où elle se situe suffisamment haut pour laisser passer le dispositif de compression à plateau de sa position inactive à sa position active ou inversement. La même opération de remontée de la tête 1 s'effectue en fin de compactage, et elle déclenche alors la procédure d'évacuation de la balle obtenue.Thanks to the telescopic mounting, the head 1 is movable in vertical translation along the axis of the tank 2 as the level of the waste gradually introduced during its operation goes up in the tank. But by a specific command from the configuration means, it can also raise the head 1 to make it out of the tank to reach its inactive position where it is high enough to let the compression device plateau of its position inactive at its active position or vice versa. The same lifting operation of the head 1 is performed at the end of compaction, and it then triggers the evacuation procedure of the ball obtained.

Pour les besoins de l'automatisation du fonctionnement, il est prévu un capteur de détection du niveau de la tête à rouleau rotatif 1 dans la cuve 2, qui fournit à une armoire de pilotage 8 un signal de relevage en position inactive de la tête 1 quand ce niveau atteint un seuil supérieur prédéterminé. Comme il est représenté sur les figures 1 à 4, l'armoire de pilotage 8 est placée sur le bâti extérieur 4 pour être facilement accessible en cas de panne.For the purposes of the automation of operation, there is provided a sensor for detecting the level of the rotating roller head 1 in the tank 2, which supplies to a control cabinet 8 a lifting signal in the inactive position of the head 1 when this level reaches a predetermined upper threshold. As he is represented on Figures 1 to 4 , the control cabinet 8 is placed on the outer frame 4 to be easily accessible in case of failure.

Conformément à un mode de mise en oeuvre particulièrement avantageux du compacteur selon l'invention, il est prévu divers capteurs photo-électriques de détection de proximité qui sont disposés dans la cuve à plusieurs niveaux prédéterminés. Certains peuvent déterminer par exemple une inversion de sens de giration de la tête à rouleau rotatif, d'autres une remontée partielle de cette tête, d'autres encore sa remontée complète au-dessus de la cuve 2. La mise en position inactive de la tête 1 intervient soit, en cours de constitution d'une balle compactée, pour laisser passer le plateau de pression, soit pour permettre l'évacuation de la balle quand elle est terminée. Elle peut également être commandée par l'opérateur, qui presse à cet effet un bouton spécifique de l'armoire 8, par exemple en cas de déficience des capteurs de position.According to a particularly advantageous embodiment of the compactor according to the invention, various proximity detection photoelectric sensors are provided which are arranged in the tank at several predetermined levels. Some may determine, for example, a reversal of the direction of turning of the rotating roller head, others a partial recovery of this head, still others its complete recovery above the tank 2. The inactive position of the head 1 intervenes either, during the constitution of a compacted ball, to let the pressure plate pass, or to allow the evacuation of the ball when it is completed. It can also be controlled by the operator, who presses for this purpose a specific button of the cabinet 8, for example in case of deficiency of the position sensors.

Le compacteur selon l'invention choisi ici en exemple est réalisé de manière à mettre en oeuvre des opérations de débourrage selon le procédé décrit dans la demande de brevet français publiée sous le numéro 2 802 462 . A cet effet, le moteur 14 est un moteur hydraulique qui est alimenté par une motopompe à partir du même réservoir de fluide hydraulique que celui auquel est relié le vérin hydraulique à l'origine de la remontée de la tête 1. La motopompe est entraînée par un moteur électrique. Un détecteur de pression à seuil mesure la pression d'alimentation à l'entrée du moteur 14. Quand survient un bourrage bloquant la tête à rouleau rotatif 1 dans son mouvement autour de l'axe de la cuve, la pression à l'entrée du moteur 14 augmente, et quand elle tend à dépasser un seuil prédéterminé, un signal spécifique est transmis à un circuit logique de commande de la remontée de la tête 1 par la mise sous pression du vérin correspondant. Poursuivant alors son mouvement de giration autour de l'axe de la cuve, la tête 1 passe de l'autre côté de l'amas de déchets broyés et le circuit logique fait passer le vérin à l'échappement dans le réservoir de fluide hydraulique. De ce fait, la tête de broyage redescend sous l'effet de son poids et la tête 1 est entraînée dans le sens inverse à celui de son mouvement de giration avant qu'elle soit relevée.The compactor according to the invention chosen here by way of example is designed to carry out stripping operations according to the process described in the French patent application published under the number 2,802,462 . For this purpose, the motor 14 is a hydraulic motor that is powered by a motor pump from the same hydraulic fluid reservoir that is connected to the hydraulic cylinder at the origin of the recovery of the head 1. The motor pump is driven by an electric motor. A threshold pressure sensor measures the supply pressure at the inlet of the engine 14. When a jam occurs blocking the rotary roller head 1 in its movement about the axis of the tank, the pressure at the inlet of the motor 14 increases, and when it tends to exceed a predetermined threshold, a specific signal is transmitted to a logic control circuit of the recovery of the head 1 by pressurizing the corresponding cylinder. Continuing then its gyration movement around the axis of the tank, the head 1 passes on the other side of the pile of crushed waste and the logic circuit passes the cylinder to the exhaust in the hydraulic fluid tank. As a result, the grinding head decreases under the effect of its weight and the head 1 is driven in the opposite direction to that of its turning motion before it is raised.

On décrira maintenant le dispositif à plateau de pression 3, dont l'action vient compléter celle de la tête de broyage 1 par compression des déchets broyés.We will now describe the pressure plate device 3, the action of which completes that of the grinding head 1 by compression of the crushed waste.

Comme il est représenté notamment en figures 1 , 2 et 3, le plateau de pression 3 est plat et de forme carrée, sous les mêmes dimensions que la section de la cuve. En pratique ses dimensions sont fixées en correspondance avec les dimensions intérieures de la cuve de manière qu'il puisse y être déplacé sans peine verticalement par des moyens de translation verticale tout en couvrant sensiblement toute la surface des déchets broyés occupant la cuve. Comme il serait aussi pour une section rectangulaire, la cuve 2 du compacteur selon l'invention a été choisie de section carrée en partie pour faciliter le déplacement du plateau de sa position active dans la cuve 2 à sa position inactive lorsqu'il est escamoté à l'écart de la cuve. Elle a surtout l'avantage de faciliter la manutention ultérieure de la balle obtenue ainsi que son stockage.As he is represented in particular figures 1 , 2 and 3 , the pressure plate 3 is flat and square in shape, under the same dimensions as the section of the tank. In practice its dimensions are fixed in correspondence with the internal dimensions of the tank so that it can be moved easily vertically by means of vertical translation while covering substantially the entire surface of the crushed waste occupying the tank. As it would also be for a rectangular section, the tank 2 of the compactor according to the invention has been selected of square section in part to facilitate the displacement of the plate from its active position in the tank 2 to its inactive position when it is retracted to the distance from the tank. Above all, it has the advantage of facilitating the subsequent handling of the ball obtained as well as its storage.

Le plateau de pression 3 comporte des éléments de renfort 7 sur chacune de ses faces. Deux bords parallèles 30 et 39 du plateau de pression 9 présentent chacun une poignée 9 de préhension du plateau. Ces deux poignées 9 se trouvent en saillie de chacun des deux bords 30 et 39. Ils assurent la descente du plateau dans la cuve, comme il sera détaillé par la suite.The pressure plate 3 comprises reinforcement elements 7 on each of its faces. Two parallel edges 30 and 39 of the pressure plate 9 each have a handle 9 for gripping the plate. These two handles 9 are projecting from each of the two edges 30 and 39. They ensure the descent of the tray in the tank, as will be detailed later.

Lorsque la tête de broyage 1 est mise en fonctionnement dans la cuve (position active), comme il est représenté sur la figure 2, le plateau de pression 3 se trouve en position inactive, escamoté dans un châssis de rangement 31. Le châssis 31 comporte deux colonnes 32 en prolongement de deux arêtes de la cuve 2, et préférentiellement, comme il est notamment représenté en figures 1, 2 et 3, les deux colonnes 32 se trouvent en prolongement de deux arêtes d'un des deux côtés latéraux de la cuve. Dans sa position inactive, le plateau de pression 3 se trouve bloqué entre les colonnes 32 du châssis 31.When the grinding head 1 is put into operation in the tank (active position), as shown on Figure 2 , the pressure plate 3 is in the inactive position, retracted in a storage frame 31. The frame 31 comprises two columns 32 in extension of two edges of the vessel 2, and preferably, as is particularly represented in FIG. figures 1 , 2 and 3 , the two columns 32 are in extension of two edges of one of the two lateral sides of the tank. In its inactive position, the pressure plate 3 is blocked between the columns 32 of the frame 31.

Pour escamoter le plateau de pression 3 latéralement à l'écart de la cuve, le compacteur selon l'invention comporte notamment un treuil 37 autour duquel s'enroule et se déroule un câble 38 dont l'extrémité est fixée à une partie du bord 39 du plateau de pression 3. Des capteurs électriques positionnés à des niveaux prédéterminés dans la cuve 2 détectent le niveau du plateau de pression 3 dans la cuve et ils fournissent à l'armoire de pilotage 8 des signaux commandant l'enroulement ou le déroulement du câble 38 autour du treuil 37. Les capteurs électriques peuvent également être utilisés pour fournir une indication du degré de compactage dû spécifiquement au compactage par le plateau de pression. Leur utilité principale reste toutefois celle de commander automatiquement le changement de position du dispositif à plateau de pression et soit l'intervention alternée de la tête à rouleau rotatif, soit la mise en route des opérations de déchargement de la balle.To retract the pressure plate 3 laterally away from the tank, the compactor according to the invention comprises in particular a winch 37 around which wraps and unwinds a cable 38 whose end is fixed to a portion of the edge 39 pressure plate 3. Electrical sensors positioned at predetermined levels in the tank 2 detect the level of the pressure plate 3 in the tank and they provide the control cabinet 8 signals controlling the winding or unwinding of the cable 38 around the winch 37. The electrical sensors can also be used to provide an indication of the degree of compaction due specifically to compaction by the pressure plate. Their main purpose, however, is that of automatically controlling the change of position of the pressure plate device and the alternating action of the rotating roller head, or the start of unloading operations of the ball.

Afin de ne pas gêner la descente du plateau 3 dans la cuve 2, le rouleau de déchiquetage 11 est maintenu en position inactive à une hauteur au-dessus de la cuve telle qu'il ne gêne pas la descente du plateau 3 dans la cuve. Afin d'encombrer le moins possible l'espace qui se trouve au-dessus de la cuve, et comme on peut le voir de la figure 1 par exemple, le rouleau de déchiquetage 11 se trouve disposé à l'opposé du plateau 3 par rapport à l'axe de la cuve, ce qui permet de livrer passage au plateau de pression 3 lorsqu'il est mis en place dans la cuve.In order not to hinder the descent of the plate 3 into the tank 2, the shredding roller 11 is held in the inactive position at a height above the tank such that it does not interfere with the descent of the plate 3 into the tank. In order to clutter as little as possible the space above the tank, and as can be seen from Figure 1 for example, the shredding roller 11 is disposed opposite the plate 3 relative to the axis of the tank, which allows to pass through the pressure plate 3 when it is placed in the tank.

Parmi les moyens de pilotage automatique, le compacteur comporte notamment un capteur électrique positionné dans la cuve 2 qui détecte que l'axe du rouleau 11 se trouve dans la position souhaitée lorsque le rouleau 11 lui passe devant lors du mouvement de giration de la tête de broyage 1. Quand l'axe du rouleau se trouve dans la position souhaitée, le capteur électrique envoie un signal à l'armoire de pilotage 8 pour arrêter quasiment instantanément le mouvement de giration de la tête de broyage 1 autour de l'axe de la cuve, ainsi que le mouvement de rotation du rouleau 11 sur lui-même. Comme le rouleau 11 est en appui sur les déchets sous l'effet du poids global de la tête 1, la résistance qu'exercent les déchets sur le rouleau 11 est telle que le mouvement de rotation du rouleau 11 autour de son axe est arrêté, ce qui provoque également l'arrêt du mouvement de giration de la tête de broyage 1 par l'intermédiaire de la boîte de transmission de mouvement à renvoi d'angle.Among the automatic control means, the compactor comprises in particular an electric sensor positioned in the tank 2 which detects that the axis of the roll 11 is in the desired position when the roller 11 passes it in front of the gyration movement of the head of the grinding 1. When the axis of the roll is in the desired position, the electric sensor sends a signal to the control cabinet 8 to almost instantly stop the gyration movement of the grinding head 1 about the axis of the vessel, as well as the rotational movement of the roller 11 on itself. As the roller 11 is supported on the waste under the effect of the overall weight of the head 1, the resistance exerted by the waste on the roller 11 is such that the movement The rotation of the roller 11 about its axis is stopped, which also stops the gyration movement of the grinding head 1 via the angular gearbox.

Quand la tête de broyage 1 est remontée verticalement hors de la cuve 2 pour être bloquée en position inactive, le rouleau 11 se trouve dans une position opposée à celle du plateau de pression escamoté par rapport à la cuve. De cette manière, il ne gêne pas le basculement du plateau de pression 3 vers sa position active dans la cuve. Lorsque la tête de broyage 1 se trouve en position active, le dispositif à plateau de pression 3 est maintenu en position inactive. De même, tant que le plateau de pression 3 se trouve en position active dans la cuve, la tête de broyage est maintenue en position inactive. La tête de broyage n'est mise en place dans la cuve en position active qu'une fois que le dispositif à plateau de pression 3 est escamoté en position inactive hors de la cuve. Et inversement : le dispositif à plateau de pression 3 n'est mis en place en position active dans la cuve qu'au moment où la tête de broyage 1 est escamotée en position inactive hors de la cuve.When the grinding head 1 is raised vertically out of the tank 2 to be locked in the inactive position, the roller 11 is in a position opposite to that of the pressure plate retracted relative to the tank. In this way, it does not interfere with the tilting of the pressure plate 3 towards its active position in the tank. When the grinding head 1 is in the active position, the pressure plate device 3 is kept in the inactive position. Similarly, as the pressure plate 3 is in the active position in the tank, the grinding head is maintained in the inactive position. The grinding head is placed in the tank in the active position only after the pressure plate device 3 is retracted in the inactive position out of the tank. And vice versa: the pressure plate device 3 is placed in the active position in the tank only when the grinding head 1 is retracted in the inactive position out of the tank.

Pour permettre la mise en place du plateau de pression 3 dans la cuve, le plateau 3 comporte notamment quatre pièces 35 montées en saillie de chacun de ses quatre coins. Deux des quatre pièces 35 sont montées mobiles dans des rails 36 qui sont prévus dans chacune des colonnes 32 du châssis 31. Les deux autres pièces 35 sont montées mobiles dans des rails 23 prévus dans deux arêtes parallèles de la cuve, ces arêtes étant celles se trouvant perpendiculaires aux colonnes 32 (figures 2, 5 et 6).To allow the establishment of the pressure plate 3 in the tank, the plate 3 comprises in particular four parts 35 mounted projecting from each of its four corners. Two of the four parts 35 are movably mounted in rails 36 which are provided in each of the columns 32 of the frame 31. The two other parts 35 are movably mounted in rails 23 provided in two parallel edges of the tank, these edges being those finding perpendicular to columns 32 ( figures 2 , 5 and 6 ).

Lorsque le plateau de pression 3 est mis en place dans la cuve 2, les pièces 35 glissent doucement dans les rails 36 et 23, le plateau de pression 3 étant retenu par le câble 38 se déroulant du treuil 37. Le plateau est alors mis en place dans la cuve en étant basculé jusqu'à ce qu'il se trouve parallèle au fond de la cuve. Son poids le fait descendre jusqu'à la surface des déchets préalablement broyés par la tête à rouleau rotatif.When the pressure plate 3 is put into place in the tank 2, the parts 35 slide smoothly in the rails 36 and 23, the pressure plate 3 being retained by the cable 38 unwinding from the winch 37. The plate is then put into position. place in the tank being tilted until it is parallel to the bottom of the tank. Its weight makes it descend to the surface of the waste previously crushed by the rotating roller head.

Pour entraîner le plateau 3 en translation verticale dans la cuve, une fois qu'il se trouve parallèle au fond de la cuve sur la surface des déchets broyés, le compacteur selon l'invention présente deux pinces 33. Elles sont actionnées chacune par un vérin à pression hydraulique 34 pour maintenir en position le plateau de pression 3 au moins par l'un de ces quatre bords. Avantageusement et comme il est représenté en figure 4, les deux pinces 33 agrippent les poignées 9 des bords 30 et 39 du plateau 3 (figure 4). Pour protéger les pinces 33 et les vérins 34 qui sont disposés à l'extérieur de la cuve 2, il est prévu une robe de protection 26, qui apparaît notamment sur la figure 4. Les commandes se déroulent automatiquement. Des capteurs sensibles à la présence du plateau dans la cuve envoient un signal à l'armoire de pilotage 8 pour amener les pinces 33 en position sur les poignées 9 des bords 30 et 39 et pour déclencher la translation verticale du plateau dans la cuve (figure 4). Les pinces 33 tirent le plateau 3 vers le fond de la cuve par augmentation de la pression dans les vérins 34.To drive the plate 3 in vertical translation in the tank, once it is parallel to the bottom of the tank on the surface of the crushed waste, the compactor according to the invention has two clamps 33. They are each actuated by a jack hydraulic pressure 34 to maintain in position the pressure plate 3 at least by one of these four edges. Advantageously and as it is represented in figure 4 , the two grippers 33 grip the handles 9 of the edges 30 and 39 of the plate 3 ( figure 4 ). To protect the clamps 33 and the cylinders 34 which are arranged outside the tank 2, there is provided a protective dress 26, which appears in particular on Figure 4 . The orders run automatically. Sensors sensitive to the presence of the tray in the tank send a signal to the control cabinet 8 to bring the clamps 33 in position on the handles 9 of the edges 30 and 39 and to trigger the vertical translation of the tray in the tank ( figure 4 ). The clamps 33 pull the plate 3 towards the bottom of the tank by increasing the pressure in the cylinders 34.

En descendant dans la cuve 2, le plateau 3 commence par aplanir la surface des déchets broyés. En effet, la tête de broyage 1 effectuant un mouvement circulaire dans la cuve et la cuve étant de section carrée, les déchets se trouvant dans les quatre coins de la cuve n'ont pas été complètement déchiquetés et répartis dans la cuve. Le plateau de pression 3 remédie donc dans un premier temps à cette répartition inégale des déchets à compacter dans la cuve 2. Puis, il comprime les déchets broyés jusqu'à ce qu'il se soit abaissé à un niveau prédéterminé.While going down in the tank 2, the plate 3 begins by smoothing the surface of the crushed waste. Indeed, the grinding head 1 making a circular movement in the tank and the tank being of square section, the waste being in the four corners of the tank have not been completely shredded and distributed in the tank. The pressure plate 3 thus remedies initially this unequal distribution of waste to be compacted in the tank 2. Then, it compresses the crushed waste until it has lowered to a predetermined level.

La cuve 2 s'ouvre latéralement par une porte à deux battants 21 et 22, capable de résister aux forces exercées par le compactage des déchets broyés contre les parois internes de la cuve. Les deux battants 21 et 22 sont montés articulés selon deux axes horizontaux. Plus précisément, les charnières des deux battants sont parallèles au fond de la cuve, l'une en haut pour le battant supérieur 21 et l'autre en bas pour le battant inférieur 22. Ce montage préféré de la porte de la cuve permet de diminuer l'encombrement du compacteur, d'où un gain de place dans l'atelier, et de faciliter l'accès à la balle compactée pour son déchargement. La porte 21-22 est à ouverture et à fermeture par un système hydraulique, qui quand elle est ouverte, retient le battant supérieur 21 à l'encontre de la gravité, pour permettre la sortie de la balle de déchets compactés. Le battant inférieur 22 sert de rampe de déchargement des balles lorsqu'il est ouvert. En effet, comme il est notamment représenté sur la figure 6, le fond de la cuve du compacteur est légèrement surélevé par rapport au sol sur lequel le compacteur est posé.The tank 2 opens laterally by a double door 21 and 22, able to withstand the forces exerted by the compaction of waste milled against the inner walls of the tank. The two leaves 21 and 22 are mounted articulated along two horizontal axes. More specifically, the hinges of the two leaves are parallel to the bottom of the tank, one at the top for the upper leaf 21 and the other at the bottom for the lower leaf 22. This preferred assembly of the door of the tank reduces the clutter of the compactor, which saves space in the workshop, and facilitate access to the compacted ball for unloading. The door 21-22 is open and closed by a hydraulic system, which when open, retains the upper leaf 21 against gravity, to allow the exit of the ball compacted waste. The lower flap 22 serves as a ramp for unloading the bales when it is open. Indeed, as it is represented on Figure 6 , the bottom of the compactor tank is slightly raised compared to the ground on which the compactor is placed.

Le fond 24 de la cuve est réalisé pour constituer un fond conformateur des balles de déchets compactés. En particulier, il est découpé pour former deux bandes 25 qui sont reliées aux parties fixes du fond par un montage de parallélogramme articulé permettant de les amener en saillie pendant toutes les opérations de compactage, ou inversement de les rétracter au même niveau au moment du déchargement de la balle. Ces deux bandes 25 sont linéaires et parallèles entre elles. Elles sont à l'origine de la formation de deux sillons de forme complémentaire dans les balles de déchets de compactés, dont la finalité est de livrer passage aux deux branches d'un chariot à fourche. La direction des deux bandes 25 est perpendiculaire au sens de sortie des balles par la porte.The bottom 24 of the tank is made to form a forming bottom compacted bales of waste. In particular, it is cut to form two strips 25 which are connected to the fixed parts of the bottom by an articulated parallelogram mounting to bring them projecting during all compaction operations, or conversely retract them at the same level at the time of unloading. of the ball. These two strips 25 are linear and parallel to each other. They are at the origin of the formation of two furrows of complementary shape in compacted waste bales, the purpose of which is to allow passage to the two branches of a forklift. The direction of the two strips 25 is perpendicular to the exit direction of the balls through the door.

Le compacteur décrit comporte des moyens pour réaliser un cerclage de la balle de déchets par des feuillards assemblés brin sur brin en boucle fermée, qui interviennent après la compression par le plateau 3, en fin des opérations combinées de compactage.The compactor described comprises means for strapping the waste bale by strands assembled strand on a closed loop strand, which intervene after compression by the plate 3, at the end of the combined compaction operations.

Comme il est plus particulièrement représenté sur les figures 5 et 6, un logement 74 accueillant des bobines de feuillard 72 est ménagé au pied du bâti 4, dans une position choisie de manière à occuper le moins de place possible. Outre les bobines de feuillard, le logement 74 enferme un tube de lancement 73 qui permet de guider l'extrémité du feuillard et de le propulser dans des glissières 27, 28 et 29 ménagées dans les parois latérales et dans le fond de la cuve 2, avec une puissance suffisante pour que le feuillard puisse faire au moins un tour complet autour de la cuve. Les glissières sont ouvertes à l'intérieur la cuve. Elles déterminent un trajet des feuillards autour de la balle qui est en direction transversale par rapport aux bandes 25 du fond conformateur. Les glissières se poursuivent sur ces dernières.As he is more particularly represented on Figures 5 and 6 a housing 74 accommodating coils of strip 72 is provided at the foot of the frame 4, in a position chosen so as to occupy as little space as possible. In addition to the strip coils, the housing 74 encloses a throwing tube 73 which guides the end of the strip and propel it in slides 27, 28 and 29 formed in the side walls and in the bottom of the tank 2, with sufficient power so that the strip can make at least one complete turn around the tank. The slides are open inside the tank. They determine a path of strips around the ball that is heading transverse to the bands 25 of the shaping base. The slides continue on these.

Le cerclage s'effectue alors que le plateau de pression est encore en place pour comprimer la balle obtenue. Le plateau de pression 3 présente donc également cinq glissières 20 de guidage des feuillards, ouvertes vers l'intérieur de la cuve, qui concordent avec les glissières 28 et 29 (figures 6), dans le même plan vertical que ces dernières. Le système de commande de l'ouverture de la porte latérale de la cuve autorise l'ouverture du battant supérieur 21 indépendamment de l'ouverture du battant inférieur 22. Pendant que le battant inférieur 22 reste fermé en pression sur les déchets, l'ouverture du battant supérieur peut livrer passage à une machine de sertissage des brins de feuillard bout à bout.The strapping is performed while the pressure plate is still in place to compress the ball obtained. The pressure plate 3 thus also has five guides 20 for guiding the strips, open towards the inside of the tank, which coincide with the slides 28 and 29 ( figures 6 ), in the same vertical plane as the latter. The control system of the opening of the side door of the tank allows the opening of the upper leaf 21 independently of the opening of the lower leaf 22. While the lower leaf 22 remains closed under pressure on the waste, the opening the upper flap can deliver passage to a crimping machine of the strands of strap end to end.

Les moyens d'éjection 6 (figure 6) de la balle de déchets que comporte le compacteur selon l'invention sont déclenchés par des moyens de commande en synchronisme avec un basculement préalable du plateau de pression dans sa position inactive à l'écart de la balle de matière compactées, et avec l'ouverture de la porte latérale de la cuve. Dans le cadre du présent exemple de réalisation du compacteur selon l'invention, c'est l'opérateur qui actionne les moyens de commande, par pression d'un bouton de commande situé sur l'armoire de pilotage 8.The ejection means 6 ( figure 6 ) of the waste bale that comprises the compactor according to the invention are triggered by control means in synchronism with a prior tilting of the pressure plate in its inactive position away from the bale of compacted material, and with the opening of the side door of the tank. In the context of the present embodiment of the compactor according to the invention, it is the operator who actuates the control means, by pressing a control button located on the control cabinet 8.

Le déclenchement des moyens d'éjection 6 de la balle entraîne en premier lieu l'ouverture du battant inférieur 22 de la porte de la cuve. Puis, deux plaques 61, chacune associée à un système poussoir 62 clairement visible sur la figure 6, sont propulsées d'une paroi de la cuve opposée à la porte pour expulser la balle hors de la cuve. Les plaques 61 sont découpées dans la paroi de la cuve. De manière avantageuse, elles peuvent venir en appui sur la balle dans le même plan vertical que l'un des feuillards de cerclage. Le système poussoir 62 est fait d'une structure extensible dont la longueur varie en fonction de l'angle entre les éléments articulés qui la constituent.The triggering of the ejection means 6 of the ball first causes the opening of the lower leaf 22 of the door of the tank. Then, two plates 61, each associated with a pusher system 62 clearly visible on Figure 6 , are propelled from a wall of the tank opposite the door to expel the ball out of the tank. The plates 61 are cut in the wall of the tank. Advantageously, they can bear against the ball in the same vertical plane as one of the strapping strips. The pusher system 62 is made of an extensible structure whose length varies according to the angle between the articulated elements that constitute it.

Par pression d'un bouton situé au niveau des moyens de commande 8, l'opérateur peut commander la remise en marche du compacteur après avoir contrôlé que la balle a été correctement éjectée hors de la cuve. Cette commande déclenche successivement la fermeture des deux battants 21 et 22 de la porte de la cuve, la remontée du plateau 3 dans le châssis de rangement 31 par enroulement du câble 38 autour du treuil 37, la descente de la tête de broyage 1 dans la cuve 2 et sa remise en activité, une fois que l'introduction progressive des déchets à compacter a été reprise.By pressing a button located at the level of the control means 8, the operator can control the restarting of the compactor after checking that the ball has been properly ejected out of the tank. This command successively triggers the closing of the two leaves 21 and 22 of the door of the tank, the raising of the plate 3 in the storage frame 31 by winding the cable 38 around the winch 37, the descent of the grinding head 1 in the tank 2 and its return to activity, once the gradual introduction of the waste to be compacted was resumed.

La description qui précède explique clairement comment l'invention permet d'atteindre les objectifs qu'elle s'est fixés. En particulier, il ressort de la description que le compacteur selon l'invention permet un compactage plus homogène des déchets grâce aux actions respectives combinées de la tête de broyage et du plateau de pression mis en oeuvre à tour de rôle dans la cuve. Plus particulièrement, il ressort de la description que le plateau de pression permet d'homogénéiser la densité de compactage des déchets dans la cuve. Il permet également de presser les déchets vers le fond de la cuve 2 et contre les parois latérales internes de la cuve de manière plus intense que la tête de broyage 1, et d'obtenir ainsi une balle de déchets présentant la même forme que la forme interne de la cuve.The foregoing description clearly explains how the invention achieves the goals it has set for itself. In particular, it is clear from the description that the compactor according to the invention allows a more homogeneous compaction of waste through the respective combined actions of the grinding head and the pressure plate implemented in turn in the tank. More particularly, it is clear from the description that the pressure plate makes it possible to homogenize the compacting density of the waste in the tank. It also makes it possible to press the waste towards the bottom of the tank 2 and against the internal side walls of the tank more intensely than the grinding head 1, and thus to obtain a waste ball having the same shape as the shape internal tank.

Il ressort néanmoins de ce qui précède que l'invention n'est pas limitée au mode de réalisation qui a été spécifiquement décrit et représenté sur les figures. En particulier, la tête de broyage pourrait, par exemple, comporter également des moyens déflecteurs montés fixes au voisinage des moyens d'entraînement du rouleau, pour repousser les déchets à compacter à l'écart des organes de transmission du mouvement de rotation entre l'arbre de la tête et l'axe du rouleau et pour guider celles qui s'en approchent néanmoins jusqu'à une zone de découpe où elles sont soumises à l'action de moyens tranchants. De cette manière, la tête de broyage présenterait l'avantage de traiter efficacement des déchets résistants en raison de leur composition, par exemple les déchets en matière plastique et de les broyer suffisamment pour que le dispositif de compression à plateau de pression exerce ensuite sur eux sensiblement le même effet que sur de simples morceaux de carton.It nevertheless follows from the foregoing that the invention is not limited to the embodiment which has been specifically described and shown in the figures. In particular, the grinding head could, for example, also comprise deflector means fixedly mounted in the vicinity of the drive means of the roller, to push the waste to be compacted away from the transmission members of the rotational movement between the the shaft of the head and the axis of the roller and to guide those who approach it nevertheless to a cutting zone where they are subjected to the action of cutting means. In this way, the grinding head would have the advantage of effectively treating resistant waste because of its composition, for example plastic waste and crushing sufficiently for the pressure plate compression device then exerts on them much the same effect as on simple pieces of cardboard.

Claims (12)

  1. Compactor for materials such as waste, in particular cardboard-based packing waste, characterised in that it has a tank (2) for receiving materials to be compacted, in which configuring means make it possible to bring into action, in turn, a roller-type crushing head (1) having at least one rotary roller (11) which is mounted so as to be mobile in rotation about itself and in displacement over the surface of the materials when the crushing head is in an active position within the tank, and also a pressure plate-type compressing device (3) which is associated with translating means for compressing the materials which have previously been crushed by the said head when said device is in an active position within the said tank.
  2. Compactor according to claim 1, wherein the said tank (2) is of rectangular, optionally square, section and is advantageously open in the upward direction for progressive loading with materials to be compacted, the said head (1) is mounted to as to be mobile in vertical translation with its roller resting on the materials which are being compacted and is associated with means for driving it in rotation about a vertical axis when it is in the active position, the said pressure plate (3) is dimensioned so as to cover, in the flat state, the entire surface of the materials when it is brought into its active position, and the translating means with which it is associated are designed to drive it in vertical translation so as to compress the materials which have previously been crushed, against the bottom (24) of the tank.
  3. Compactor according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the said configuring means have first configuring means which have the effect of raising the said head (1), from its active position in which its roller is resting on the materials which are being compacted, to an inactive position in which it is outside the tank and above the latter, and second configuring means which have the effect of retracting the pressure-plate device (3), from its active position, by swinging it to an inactive position in which it is laterally away from the tank.
  4. Compactor according to any of claims 1 to 4, characterised by means for automatically bringing about a changeover from a first stage of operation in which the said crushing head is active within the tank while the pressure-plate device is in the inactive position, to a second stage of operation in which said pressure-plate device is active within the said tank while the crushing head is in the inactive position, as soon as, within the said tank (2), the thickness of the materials reaches a predetermined value.
  5. Compactor according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the said tank (2) has, on a rigid bottom (24) which is resistant to the pressure exerted by the pressure-plate device, two opposite lateral walls, one of which is constituted by a door (21, 22) which opens for evacuating a bale of compacted materials, and the other of which has ejecting means (6) for pushing the said bale out of the said tank: (2) through the said door (21, 22).
  6. Compactor according to claim 5, characterised in that the ejecting means (6) have plates (61) which are cut out of the corresponding wall and are each moved by a pusher system (62) with articulated elements.
  7. Compactor according to claim 5 or 6, characterised in that the said door is at least partially constituted by a lower flap which can be folded down to the ground outside the tank about a horizontal hinge, the said flap thus forming a ramp for unloading the bale obtained at the end of the compacting operation.
  8. Compactor according to claim 5, 6 or 7, characterised in that it has automatic control means (8) which determine the bringing into action of the said ejecting means (6) in synchronism with the opening of the said door (21, 22) in the tank once the pressure-plate device has been retracted from the tank (2) after a final stage of operation of the compactor in which said pressure-plate device has been active within the said tank (2).
  9. Compactor according to any of the preceding claims, characterised in that the said tank (2) has a shaping bottom (24) partially made up of retractable bands (25) which advantageously run over the entire width of the bottom (24) of the tank (2), the said bands (25) being caused to project from the rest of the bottom (24) of the tank (2) during the compacting operations so as to provide, in the bale which is finally obtained, hollow grooves which may serve, in particular, for the transporting of the bale by a fork-lift- truck.
  10. Compactor according to any of the preceding claims, having means for banding a bale, which is obtained at the end of the compacting operations, by means of straps which are propelled directly round the bale while it is still in the said tank.
  11. Compactor according to claim 10, characterised in that it has an upper door flap (21) for introducing a machine for crimping two strands of strap together, and in that, if the said door is a door with two flaps which also has a lower flap (22) for evacuating a bale of compacted materials, a control system is provided for determining the opening of the said upper flap (21) independently of the opening of the said lower flap (22), the latter thus being capable of bringing about the retention of the bale in the lower part of the said tank (2) during the banding operation.
  12. Compactor according to claim 10 or 11, characterised in that the said tank (2) has slides (20, 27, 28, 29) for guiding the passage of the ribbons for banding the bale when they are propelled from distributing reels (72) installed in receiving housings (74) which the said compactor possesses, the said slides being provided in the internal walls of the tank (2) and also the pressure plate (3), and in that, if the tank has a shaping bottom according to claim 9, the said slides are oriented in a direction transverse to that of the retractable bands in the said bottom.
EP03292328A 2002-09-24 2003-09-23 Compactor for material such as packing waste Not-in-force EP1407876B1 (en)

Applications Claiming Priority (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0211785 2002-09-24
FR0211785A FR2844727B1 (en) 2002-09-24 2002-09-24 MATERIAL COMPACTOR

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1407876A1 EP1407876A1 (en) 2004-04-14
EP1407876B1 true EP1407876B1 (en) 2008-02-13

Family

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EP03292328A Not-in-force EP1407876B1 (en) 2002-09-24 2003-09-23 Compactor for material such as packing waste

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US (1) US6851354B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1407876B1 (en)
AT (1) ATE385891T1 (en)
CA (1) CA2442890A1 (en)
DE (1) DE60319044D1 (en)
FR (1) FR2844727B1 (en)

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
TWM326858U (en) * 2007-08-20 2008-02-11 Michilin Prosperity Co Ltd Swinging apparatus for increasing the volume of waste paper can
US7708217B2 (en) * 2007-10-15 2010-05-04 Michilin Prosperity Co., Ltd. Shredder with waste leveler and compactor
CN108792359B (en) * 2018-07-17 2021-08-03 佛山市南海区北奥清洁用品有限公司 Garbage can for public places
CN112588784B (en) * 2020-11-27 2022-04-26 青岛盈拓环保科技有限公司 Rapid treatment device for industrial plastic recovery
CN112973875B (en) * 2021-02-03 2022-12-06 北京吉乃尔科技有限公司 Biological gel preparation facilities

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DK115097B (en) * 1964-02-12 1969-09-01 Bonnierfoeretagen Ab Collection container for used paper towels or similar items.
JPS5035154B1 (en) * 1970-01-10 1975-11-13
US3851577A (en) * 1972-11-06 1974-12-03 Munro Newcom Inc Vertical baler
DE3166299D1 (en) * 1980-06-24 1984-10-31 Heinz Bergmann Device to compact refuse in open containers
DE3903642C2 (en) * 1989-02-08 1996-05-30 Heinz Bergmann Device for compacting waste consisting of packaging material
FR2769900B1 (en) * 1997-10-16 1999-12-31 Antoine Marie Chedru DEVICE FOR REDUCING THE VOLUME OF WASTE
FR2802462B1 (en) * 1999-12-18 2002-03-01 Valdec WASTE COMPACTION METHOD AND MACHINE FOR IMPLEMENTING SAME

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US20040112230A1 (en) 2004-06-17
US6851354B2 (en) 2005-02-08
EP1407876A1 (en) 2004-04-14
CA2442890A1 (en) 2004-03-24
FR2844727A1 (en) 2004-03-26
FR2844727B1 (en) 2004-12-03
DE60319044D1 (en) 2008-03-27
ATE385891T1 (en) 2008-03-15

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