EP1358635B1 - Method for determining road tolls - Google Patents

Method for determining road tolls Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1358635B1
EP1358635B1 EP20010986870 EP01986870A EP1358635B1 EP 1358635 B1 EP1358635 B1 EP 1358635B1 EP 20010986870 EP20010986870 EP 20010986870 EP 01986870 A EP01986870 A EP 01986870A EP 1358635 B1 EP1358635 B1 EP 1358635B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
vehicle
vehicle device
data
toll
road
Prior art date
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EP20010986870
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1358635A1 (en
Inventor
Werner Biet
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
COMPAGNIE FINANCIERE ET INDUSTRIELLEDES AUTOROUTES
Daimler AG
Deutsche Telekom AG
Original Assignee
Deutsche Telekom AG
Daimler AG
Financiere Et Industrielle Des Autoroutes Sa Cie
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Priority to DE2001104499 priority Critical patent/DE10104499A1/en
Priority to DE10104499 priority
Application filed by Deutsche Telekom AG, Daimler AG, Financiere Et Industrielle Des Autoroutes Sa Cie filed Critical Deutsche Telekom AG
Priority to PCT/EP2001/014678 priority patent/WO2002061691A1/en
Publication of EP1358635A1 publication Critical patent/EP1358635A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1358635B1 publication Critical patent/EP1358635B1/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B15/00Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points
    • G07B15/06Arrangements for road pricing or congestion charging of vehicles or vehicle users, e.g. automatic toll systems
    • G07B15/063Arrangements for road pricing or congestion charging of vehicles or vehicle users, e.g. automatic toll systems using wireless information transmission between the vehicle and a fixed station

Abstract

The invention relates to a system for determining road tolls, comprising a vehicle-based device for the vehicle-based determination of a toll for a vehicle within a chargeable area of utilization. An operating center transmits, upon request, data that are required for determining the road toll to the vehicle-based device via a communication device. The vehicle-based device continuously determines partial utilization fees for route sections used and determines the entire road toll for a travel by summing up the individual partial utilization fees. The invention is further characterized in that the vehicle-based device transmits the entire utilization fee incurred up to that point in time via the communication device to the operating center for the purpose of billing when predetermined criteria are fulfilled.

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for detecting road tolls by means of a toll system according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • In the DE 43 04 838 C2 a road charging system is described with a vehicle device for vehicle autonomous determination of a road user charge, which is required by an operator center by means of a communication device as needed to determine the road user charge data transmitted to the vehicle device, and wherein the vehicle device continuously incurred partial use charges for busy sections determined and the total user charge is determined for a journey by summation of each sub-user charge. According to the generic DE 44 02 613 A1 In a method and arrangement for determining usage charges for traffic routes and / or traffic areas using a vehicle-mounted device based on position data and tariff data user charges are calculated and transmitted via a data transmission system to a central office with the possibility of verifying the proper payment. The WO 99/33027 relates to a method for automatically calculating tolls for vehicles on traffic routes or in traffic zones. The vehicles are equipped with a communication device for communicating with a central processing unit and a roadside unit at a physical toll station. At least one virtual toll charging station is geographically predetermined in relation to the physical toll station. The US 5 694 322 relates to a device for levying a delivery for vehicles. The apparatus includes a location determining device operable to determine a plurality of vehicle positions along a route traveled by the vehicle. A processor determines the output for the vehicle in at least one delivery region by which the route of the vehicle results in response to a vehicle position, geographic information, and measured distance. The DE 198 56 282 A1 relates to a data radio transmission apparatus, in particular for automatic detection of road user charges, which is switchable to a working state by being able to receive useful data signals from a remote transmitter at least by receiving a predetermined wake-up signal from a standby state in which it is sensitive to wake-up signals to receive a given protocol. It is contemplated that it will be able to apply at least two different protocols and that it will include a decider unit that selects the protocol used at a given time based on a signal received from the transmitter. To use the at least two protocols, a switch is connected to functional elements, wherein different protocols are used depending on a switch position of the switch. The WO 97/24698 relates to a method for a data transfer for different applications between an onboard unit (OBU), which has a processor, storage means and at least one interface to an external unit. A circuit board to be switched provides parameters needed for some routines within the OBU to communicate cleanly via other external interfaces of the OBU, such as a radio interface needed for communication with stationary equipment.
  • The object of the invention is to provide a method for detecting road user charges, with which the user fee for different user accounting areas can be determined relatively simply with a single vehicle device.
  • This object is solved by the features of claim 1. The subclaims relate to advantageous embodiments and further developments of the invention.
  • One aspect of the invention is to determine the user fee by a vehicle device in the vehicle, but to carry out the actual billing in an operator center, wherein the transmission of accrued user charges to the operator center is dependent on criteria that can be specified. This Compared to systems where the billing in the vehicle is performed by means of smart cards, has the advantage that the user does not have to worry about having a sufficient balance on his smart card. In addition, there is a risk with chip cards that they can be lost.
  • In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the predetermined criteria are met when a threshold is reached or exceeded, wherein the threshold corresponds to a certain amount of money and / or a certain period of time and / or a certain distance traveled since the last time of data transmission. This has the advantage that the amount of fees stored in the vehicles is not too high. Of course, the criteria may also be met when the data is requested by the operator center, or when the data transmission is manually initiated by the user. In addition, the data transmission can be triggered when the vehicle passes over predetermined positions in the road network. For example, a data transfer can be triggered every time you leave a toll road.
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment of the invention, the vehicle user or vehicle owner maintains an account with the operator of the toll collection system from which the transferred user charges are deducted automatically.
  • In order to determine the road user charge for a vehicle when driving through different user accounting areas, in a particularly advantageous embodiment of the invention, information about the limits of at least one is obtained Domestic use area stored and when approaching the border of the home use area, if necessary, missing operating data for an adjacent usage accounting area are transmitted from the operator center to the vehicle unit and stored.
  • The vehicle device calculates the road user charge according to the conditions of the new payroll area, whereby the determined user charges are transferred to the operator center of the new pay toll area. However, billing for these fees will only be made if the home user billing system operator confirms that the vehicle owner has assumed responsibility.
  • The invention will be described in more detail with reference to the drawing. Show it:
  • Fig. 1
    Schematic representation of an automatic toll collection system and its external data relationships;
    Fig. 2
    Schematic representation of an automatic toll collection system and its internal data relations;
    Fig. 3
    Schematic representation of the essential functions and components of the vehicle device;
    Fig. 4
    Schematic representation of the operation of the vehicle device;
    Fig. 5
    Schematic representation of various usage accounting areas.
  • In the following description, tolls or tolls are street fees paid for using a road need to be understood. The toll collection or toll collection system is a toll collection system.
  • How out Fig. 1 an automatic toll collection system 1 comprises a vehicle equipment operating center 2, corresponding vehicle devices 3, survey data management 4 and support beacons 5. The embossing components of the automatic toll collection system 1 include a vehicle device 3. It fulfills all functions autonomously - such as the determination of toll sections, the calculation of the toll collection Toll and the transfer of the survey data - which are necessary for charging. Vehicles of participants in the automatic toll collection system 1 are equipped in authorized service centers 9 with vehicle devices 3. The device 3 is provided during installation with valid operating data (road model with recognition points and tariff model) and with the data of the vehicle. If necessary, this data is updated - preferably via mobile (GSM). With the help of this data, the vehicle device 3 autonomously recognizes whether and on which toll road section it is located. It calculates the charges on the basis of the vehicle and tariff parameters as well as the kilometers driven on tolled routes and arranges the payment. Via mobile radio (GSM), these data are transmitted to the operator center 2 for further processing. To assist in determining the facts, the vehicle device 3 communicates with the control system 7 via short-distance communication (DSRC). The positioning is performed by the vehicle device 3 by means of a satellite navigation system (GPS) 8. In some, few cases, it is necessary that the vehicle unit 3 is supported by additionally installed support beacons 5 in the location determination.
  • For the individual components results in the following described operation.
  • The vehicle device operating center 2 supplies the vehicle devices 3 with the necessary operating data and forwards messages from the component "central processes" 6 to the vehicle devices 3. The operating data are converted by her into the format that can be processed by the vehicle device 3. It controls the distribution of operating data to the vehicle devices 3. From the vehicle device 3, it receives status information about blockages and forwards them to the component "central processes" 6.
  • The survey data management 4 receives the survey data generated by the vehicle device 3, stores them and forwards them in the form of performance data to the component "central processes" 6. The survey data management 4 generates receipts for plausibly received survey data and distributes them, the respective credit limit and the limits to the vehicle devices 3.
  • When using toll roads with toll vehicles or train combinations, the vehicle device 3 automatically performs surveys and forwards the survey data to the survey data management 4 on. For operational readiness, it receives operational data from the vehicle central unit 2. In addition, it provides the user 10 with an operator interface through which he can enter his usage data and retrieve information.
  • The service point 9 takes over the installation, the repair and the cyclical inspection of the vehicle device. 3
  • The user 10 is the toll receiver who uses the toll system to pay fees and operates the vehicle unit 3.
  • The control system 7 is used to determine and determine the facts, whether a toll is present and - if so - whether the toll was paid properly, incorrectly or not at all.
  • The Central Processes 6 include the processes and processes of the organizational units Management, Technical Operations, Service, Finance and Controlling, Resources, Sales and Staff functions. These are supported by the system components billing, monitoring and operational implementation.
  • Billing has the primary task of periodically aggregating the performance data (collection and booking data) of the automatic toll collection system 1, to generate invoices, send it to the toll road users 10 and generate evidence about the invoices issued.
  • The surveillance includes all the technical facilities to map the procedures and processes that make it possible to verify that the tolling system and the operating company are performing their duties properly.
  • The operational implementation includes all technical facilities that serve the operation management by the operating company, the financial accounting, the customer service and the technical operation.
  • The support beacon 5 assists the vehicle apparatus 3 in determining the position by transmitting high-quality position data via short-distance communication.
  • Fig. 2 shows the internal data relationships in the automatic toll collection system 1.
  • The vehicle operating center 2 of the toll system 1 supplies all vehicle devices 3 with the necessary and current operating data via a communication server. The tasks of the vehicle operating center 2 include:
    • the supply of all vehicle devices 3 with operating data such as route data, tariff models, charge class models, vehicle software software versions and cryptographic keys;
    • the decryption or encryption and signing of vehicle device messages;
    • the certification of public keys of the registration offices / service points;
    • the provision of the operating data for all service points 9 and the control center 7;
    • the management of operating data versions;
    • the creation of operating data distribution plans;
    • the transfer of the operating data into the
      Vehicle device format;
    • the simulation test of the operating data.
  • A replication mechanism ensures that a current version of the basic database is always available as a copy in the vehicle device operating center 2. The cryptographic component encrypts and decrypts the data received and to be sent, secures the integrity of the messages, and manages all the communication keys needed in the vehicle device operations center 2. In the vehicle device operation center 2, data distribution plans are also created. Thus, the vehicle devices 3 can work autonomously, in addition to the necessary communication keys and the operating data (tariffs, routes, vehicle classes) are stored. These are maintained in the basic data management and managed in prepared form (vehicle device format) in the database of the vehicle operating center 2. There are also the vehicle device software versions. The process of "operating data transmission" serves the version-dependent, area-wide supply of the vehicle devices 3 with new or updated operating data. Both broadcast services and point-to-point connections of the GSM communication are used for this purpose. All vehicle devices 3, which are not reached via broadcast, contact before expiry of the validity of their operating data at the Vehicle Equipment Operations Center 2, to which these requests are forwarded for decryption and processing. It then supplies the vehicle devices 3 individually with the current tariff and route data.
  • The on-vehicle operation center 2 not only transmits operation data to the on-vehicle devices 3, but additionally provides information for the service sites 9 that install and maintain vehicle devices 3. Likewise, the control center 7 has access to the current data of the vehicle operating center 2.
  • The tasks of the survey data management 4 are:
    • the administration and processing of the survey data sent by the vehicle devices 3,
    • the generation of acknowledgments for the survey data obtained from the vehicle equipment 3,
    • keeping a list of locked vehicle devices 3 and a list of all credit limits,
    • authentication of incoming and outgoing messages,
    • the encryption and decryption of the requests from and the responses to vehicle equipment 3,
    • the transfer of the accumulated survey data records to the billing system,
  • An essential task of the survey data management 4 is the acknowledgment or answering of all vehicle device messages and the maintenance of all data necessary for processing these messages. For this purpose, the messages sent via GSM from the vehicle devices 3 and received by a communication server, which contain survey data - if necessary - composed, decrypted and stored in the survey database. Receipts are generated for the messages, which additionally contain the respective current lock status of the survey card and its limits and may contain new keys from the security center. These receipts are encrypted and sent to the vehicle devices 3 sent. If a vehicle device 3 has not received an acknowledgment from the central system after a certain time has elapsed, it sends the corresponding data again to the survey data management 4 until the acknowledgment is received by the vehicle device 3.
  • Supporting beacons 5 are set up on the roadside in places where determining the position of the vehicle devices 3 solely by means of satellite navigation 8 and dead-reckoning is difficult or not sufficiently certain. This can e.g. Valley canyons with steep cliffs on one or both sides of the road, tunnels, densely wooded areas or roads (different from each other) of different or even the same street category that are close to each other (ie a few meters) and roads with a temporary change of route. The support beacon 5 sends the corresponding position data to the vehicle devices 3 and thus supports the vehicle device 3.
  • Fig. 3 gives an overview of the software and hardware components of the vehicle device. 3
  • How out Fig. 3 the toll collection application 11 comprises a recognition algorithm 11.1, a tariffing 11.2, a communication process 11.3, an operating process 11.4 and a control process 11.5.
  • The recognition algorithm 11.1 recognizes a toll road section using route data and the current position and triggers a survey event.
  • Tariff 11.2 is the calculation of the toll on the basis of the route information, the relevant parameters and the tariff model data.
  • The communication process 11.3 comprises the data exchange between the vehicle device 3 and the center 2 via GSM (transmission of survey data and operating data updates (tariff data / model, route data, software updates)). In addition, the data exchange via a DSRC interface to the support beacon 5 and the control system 7 as well as the data exchange for service purposes via the service interface to the communication process 11.3.
  • The operating process 11.4 is the event-based control of the interaction of the vehicle device 3 with the user 10 (inputs and outputs, warning and error messages, menu control).
  • Control process 11.5 includes operational readiness monitoring, power management, logging, trouble ticketing and tamper detection.
  • The operating system 12 represents the lowest software level and is developed and provided by the vehicle manufacturer. The operating system provides hardware control, priorities / process management, tamper detection, version control and logging (at the operating system level).
  • The automatic toll collection system 1 necessarily requires the following hardware components for the vehicle device 3:
    • Control Unit 3.1: Control unit with own operating and file system;
      CPU 3.1.2: central processor;
      Data storage 3.1.4: Volatile and non-volatile memory;
      Collection card 3.1.3: Chip card with security module for managing cryptographic keys and with payment module for secure payment of tolls HMI 3.1.1: User interface (keyboard, display and speakers);
      Service interface 3.1.5: External interface for data exchange;
    • Navigation components 3.2:
      GPS 3.2.1: Positioning module
      Additional sensors 3.2.2: to improve the
      Navigation data;
    • Communication components 3.3:
      GSM module 3.3.1: module for communication with central components with SIM card 3.3.2;
      DSRC module 3.3.3: module for support beacon and control communication via infrared;
    • Power supply unit (not shown): Power supply from the truck electrical system;
  • In addition to the hardware components mentioned in the installation of the vehicle unit 3 additional accessories are needed, such as antennas (for GSM, GPS, DSRC modules), cable sets for antennas, adapters, vehicle tool holder, mounting hardware.
  • For the automatic toll collection system 1 central and on-board components are needed. Spatially, the center 2 can be divided into several places, so be "decentralized" structured.
  • To enforce the toll, structural and technical facilities are necessary for control. In exceptional cases, supporting beacons 5 are used as system supporting infrastructure and mounted on the road side. These serve to support the autonomous position determination (bad satellite positioning, difficult routing, possibly construction sites). Supporting beacons 5 are usually designed as attached to simple masts infrared transmitter.
  • In addition, no new infrastructure is needed as the automatic toll collection system 1 uses existing systems, such as the GSM 3.3.1 mobile or the GPS 8 satellite navigation system. Other systems, eg service points 9, have to be adapted according to the requirements of the tolling system 1 or modified and some workflows need to be restructured.
  • The individual vehicle requires only one vehicle device 3 including accessories for participation in the automatic toll collection system 1. The installing service point 9 requires a so-called service center PC, which allows the initialization and personalization of the vehicle unit 3 and its test. In addition, required status and operating data from the control panel 2 can be taken over with this device.
  • The automatic toll collection system 1 is connected via external interfaces with other subsystems, wherein the interface between the component "central processes" 6 and vehicle equipment operating center 2 is implemented as a TCP / IP connection via LAN or WAN. The interface between the component "central processes" 6 with the survey data management 4 is also realized as a TCP / IP connection via LAN or WAN. The interface between the control system 7 and the vehicle unit 3 is realized as a DSRC interface 3.3.3.
  • The interface between the satellite navigation system 8 and the vehicle device 3 is designed as a radio interface 3.2.1 (GPS standard).
  • For communication with the service point 9, the vehicle device 3 is equipped with a service interface 3.1.5.
  • The interface between the support beacon 5 and the component "central processes" 6 is designed as a mobile or landline.
  • The internal interface in the automatic toll collection system 1 between the vehicle operating center 2 and the vehicle unit 3, and the interface between the Vehicle device and the survey data management 4 is executed as a mobile connection 3.3.1. The interface between the vehicle unit 3 and the support beacon 5 is executed as DRSC interface 3.3.3.
  • The following main functions take place in the context of the automatic toll collection system 1:
    • Recognition,
    • survey
    • Transmission of data,
    • Creation of accesses to the automatic toll collection system,
    • Support the control,
    • Ensuring the correct toll collection by the automatic toll collection system 1 itself and the monitoring.
  • In automatic tolling, driving on a toll section is bordautonom, i. detected without roadside infrastructure. For this purpose, the vehicle must be equipped with a vehicle device 3, which determines the current vehicle position via the satellite navigation system GPS 3.2.1 (and possibly further sensors 3.2.2). In exceptional cases, additional support beacons 5 are used at certain sections to support the position determination when the position determination based on GPS and dead reckoning does not have sufficient security. The recognition algorithm for determining a toll road section is based on the permanent position determination of the vehicle device. 3
  • The survey is based on a recognized toll road section. The collection-relevant data (toll routes with length and tariffs) are available for classification in the fee classes in the vehicle unit 3 or enter as part of the self-declaration by the user 10 (fee-relevant parameters for Classification in the fee classes). The self-declared parameters are used together with the fixed stored in the vehicle device 3 using the tariff model for classification in the fee classes. At the time of driving on a toll section, a survey will be triggered taking into account the current charge class, the current tariff model and the time. The survey data are collected for further processing sent to the survey data management 4. The user 10 is at the time of collection optically - optionally acoustically - informed about the survey event.
  • The vehicle device 3 has components for long-distance and short-distance communication via mobile radio and DSRC. The following data is exchanged via mobile phone: Table 1: Long distance communication / types of data to be transmitted data type description Survey data Transmission of all relevant survey data together with an identification of the vehicle device 3, by means of which the center 2 can track each individual section survey, assign it to an account and create an individual proof of collection. The transfer of survey data will be triggered either after exceeding a shipping limit or after a certain period has elapsed. The shipping limit is a credit / credit limit. The period can be parameterized. It starts with the first survey since the last data collection. If the shipping limit has not yet been reached after the expiry of this period, the transfer of existing collection data will still be triggered. Currently, a period of 24 hours is provided. Credit limits / credit balance Since the payment-relevant accounts are in the center 2, the vehicle unit 3 must be informed, up to what amount it can sum the fees. Updating the route data Relevant, updated route data for identification of survey points are transmitted to the vehicle device 3. This ensures that no in-use vehicle device 3 due to non-current or non-existent data erroneous, non-or too many surveys performs. Updating tariff and fee class models Future in force tariff and charge parameters are transmitted to the vehicle unit 3. It is ensured that no in-use vehicle device 3 performs wrong surveys due to incorrect or non-current tariff data. Notify me Transmission of blocking information to the center 2 or to the vehicle device 3 depending on which component the blocking event occurs first. Blocking event in vehicle unit 3: The credit or credit limit has been exhausted Blocking event at headquarters 2: Creditworthiness of user 10 is no longer present, credit account has been overdrawn, manipulation is suspected or vehicle / or vehicle unit 3 has been stolen). Warnnach Transmission of a warning message 4 to the vehicle unit 3 if the remaining credit limit or the remaining balance in the center 2 falls below a critical value. The warning message will be sent in good time so that users 10 or forwarder have enough time to either recharge the credit account or make a booking, ie at least to bridge the toll route to the next paying agency.
  • Data transfer and log backup procedures ensure that the same protocol versions are used on both communication pages. In this way, data to be sent can be received without errors by the other party or, if unavailable, the transmission can be repeated at a later time.
  • In addition to the standardized encryption in the mobile radio network GSM, these data are additionally encrypted by means of their own cryptographic procedure at the application level in order to protect the data.
  • The short-distance communication takes place according to the DSRC standard in the infrared range, otherwise by radio in the 5.8 GHz microwave range. Data is exchanged with the control system 7 via this interface and data is received from support beacons 5 for better position determination. The interface is designed to accommodate bidirectional communication with the toll vehicles in the traffic.
  • The vehicle device 3 communicates via DSRC with the automatic, mobile and stationary control devices. In this communication, the initiative is based on the control devices. The vehicle device 3 responds to a corresponding request of such a control device.
  • When interacting with the control system, the following data is exchanged: Table 2: Short distance communication / control communication data type description Control Broadcast Permanent transmission of identification and status data of the control beacon to vehicle devices, which enter the transmission area to trigger the control process. supporting documents Transmission of all necessary data for a clear proof of payment of the current section. The data contents prevent the multiple use of a document. The transmission of identification and classification data allows the control to compare with the measurement data of the vehicle provided by the control technology. logs Transmission of status and history information about the state of the vehicle device and past events, such as manipulation attempts. History-data Transmission of all relevant data which, in the event of non- or false surveys as well as incomplete surveys, can provide information about the causes of possible errors or manipulation of the vehicle equipment. (only with manual control)
  • For tollers 10, the following accesses to the automatic toll collection system exist:
    • Registration and registration with an operating company;
    • Visiting a service point 9 (workshop) for installation and maintenance of the vehicle unit 3;
    • Operation of the vehicle unit 3;
    • Use of customer service by telephone, fax or internet to answer questions and remove any ambiguity;
    • Payment processing;
  • The actual toll collection while driving is done without interaction with the user.
  • The automatic toll collection system charges tolls only in the cases specified by law. The correct toll collection is ensured by organizational and technical measures. Organizational measures are:
    • the registration of the user;
    • the duty of cooperation of the user;
    • the control;
    • The supervision;
  • Participation in the automatic toll collection system 1 requires that the toll road 10 register with the operating company beforehand. He enters individual data and communicates his preferred payment method. On the basis of this information, the creditworthiness of the user 10 is checked, establishes a contractual relationship between user 10 and operating company and causes the installation of one or more vehicle devices 3.
  • For vehicles that are subject to tolls only in certain operating conditions or where different types of charges are possible due to their design, the setting of the Operation mode by the driver in the context of the self-declaration.
  • The service point 9 sets in the installation of the vehicle unit 3, a "default" class, which generally corresponds to the class of the vehicle without trailer. This setting must be confirmed in the simplest case by the driver 10 only. For vehicles with a gross vehicle weight of less than 12t, which are not subject to a toll, the "not charged" class will normally be set as "Default". It can also be specified via the user interface of the vehicle device 3 that in each case the last declared class is offered as a setting to be confirmed. This deviation from the standard is only at the explicit request of the toll road 10, who must sign this and in the installation confirmation. The variable setting options of the declaration prevent a non-tolled vehicle, such as a tractor without semitrailer below 12 tonnes, from having to pay fees in the automatic collection procedure. During installation, the other vehicle-specific parameters, e.g. the pollutant class, entered.
  • The result of the declaration or the fact of the non-declaration (there was no input) is stored with the time and the geographical position in the logbook of the terminal 3 voltage failure protection and tamper-proof. This information may be read out for the purposes of control and used as supplementary evidence.
  • If at the beginning of a journey or when driving up for the first time on paid sections of the route no or a wrong declaration is made, the driver assumes the risk of being found to be a non-faker or a false-payer. A possible incorrect or non-operation can be seen by displaying the vehicle device 3 for the toll road 10. The set charge class is displayed. The input In addition, it can also be supported by an acoustic signal that depends on the declared class. By deciding on a specific default setting when installing the vehicle device 3, the toll road user 10 can reduce the risk of a non-declaration or a false declaration.
  • Technical measures for the correct toll collection are:
    • safe and tested survey and communication methods in the vehicle unit 3;
    • clear, consistent calculation rules for the fee level (tariff model) in the entire toll system with rules for the special treatment of individual users 10 and route sections;
    • the support of the position determination by supporting beacons 5 in geographically unfavorable places.
  • The autonomous detection method reliably detects when the vehicle is outside the tolled route network. In this case, the vehicle device 3 also triggers no charging. In some cases, there are turning points between these points, such as rest areas (for example Hegau-West), motorway churches (for example Baden-Baden), parking lots, other ancillary facilities or ancillary facilities belonging to the motorway. Each available turning possibility clearly defines a recognition section or recognition section.
  • When the vehicle is parked and when the vehicle is stopped, the states of the vehicle unit 3 are stored - secured against power failure and manipulation. So no information can be lost. If the journey continues, the new information about the journey and the declaration of the charge class will be requested and saved. Otherwise, the vehicle device 3 operates on the basis of the set default values. In particular, the detection method ensures that a double elevation does not occur during a break on a motorway section Also breaks in a motorway section or changed lanes in the field of construction sites also do not lead to multiple tolls due to the recognition process.
  • The official license plate of the vehicle is entered during installation and first use of the vehicle unit 3 in the security module of the survey card 3.1.3. The source of this information is the vehicle card issued by the operating company. These data must be documented by presenting the vehicle registration form. The license plate number is transmitted together with the information about the vehicle unit 3 and the successful installation on a secure path to the vehicle unit operating center 2 and stored there. Vehicle card, survey card 3.1.3, vehicle unit, 3 and 2 are protected against falsification, manipulation and vandalism. Thus, each vehicle device 3 is assigned to the official license plate number of a very specific toll motor vehicle.
  • If a vehicle with vehicle device 3 changes the official license plate number, the holder of the operating company must report this. In addition, the change must be reconstructed at a service point, i. stored in survey card 3.1.3 and reported to headquarters 2.
  • If only a new license plate is allocated while the holder remains the same, eg after a change of location, a change or an exchange of the survey card 3.1.3 and a corresponding message to the control center 2 is sufficient. This ensures that any surveys that have not yet been transmitted with the previous license plate to be transferred to the center 2 before.
  • When changing a holder - e.g. When selling the vehicle - the previous and the new owner must agree on the tolls between sale and re-registration.
  • The user can set the vehicle device 3 to the operating state "Login mode". In this case, it continues to conduct surveys for control and monitoring purposes and sends the survey data to the center 2 without, however, triggering payments. This operating state, which can be clearly recognized by the user, is intended for special cases in which he / she wants to explicitly use the log-in system.
  • From the center, the vehicle unit 3 can be locked if certain circumstances so require, e.g. unpaid debts, theft of the vehicle, etc. This blocking is also clearly visible to the user.
  • The correspondence between official and the vehicle device 3 associated license plate of a motor vehicle subject to toll is checked in the following cases:
    • in the case of automatic control by comparing the number plate reported by the vehicle device 3 with the opto-electronically determined number
    • in the case of stationary or mobile controls, by comparing the number plate registered by the vehicle device 3 with the actual number plate.
  • Within the scope of its possibilities, the operating company stipulates that a vehicle device 3 is put out of operation immediately if a deviation between the actual and stored license plate is detected.
  • Out Fig. 4 is the normal operation of the vehicle device visible. After starting, the vehicle unit 3 is initialized in step 100. In step 200, the position determination takes place and in step 300 the comparison with fee-based sections. In step 400, it is checked whether there is a toll section or not. If this is the case, the necessary data for the survey rate are determined and stored in step 500. In step 600, it is checked whether a warning limit has been exceeded. In step 700, a check is made as to whether a lock limit has been reached or not. In step 800, a check is made as to whether a predefined threshold value has been reached and whether a shipment of the determined charge amount is required or not. In step 900, the user 10 is shown the survey status.
  • Operating data includes tariff and route data and software. On the basis of the tariff data, the vehicle device 3 can calculate the fee to be paid for a recognized section of the route taking into account the fee class. With the help of the route data, the vehicle unit 3 recognizes toll road sections by comparison with the current position and the course of the journey (step 400).
  • The software makes it possible to carry out toll collection in the vehicle devices 3 and has a modular structure.
  • By locking messages can be the vehicle unit 3 lock or unlock, the process of fee payment can therefore be turned on or off.
  • The service point 9 has in each case the most recent versions of operating data in order to be able to bring the vehicle devices 3 to the current operating data inventory during installation. Therefore, no connection must be established on the mobile network between vehicle unit 3 and vehicle unit operating center 2 for operating data download at the first start.
  • If the vehicle device operating center 2 has received a blocking status from the vehicle device 3, this is forwarded to the component "central processes" 6.
  • By transferring survey data received in the survey data management to the monitoring system, it is possible to subsequently check controlled vehicle devices in batch mode.
  • For billing, performance data is transmitted from the automatic toll collection system 1 to the component "central processes" 6.
  • If the vehicle device 3 has received a lock or unlock command, it transmits its lock-status (locked, unlocked, fault-type) status back to the vehicle operating center 2.
  • During the cyclical checking of the vehicle device 3 in the service point 9, status information can be read from the vehicle device 3. In this case, these are information about the operating state of the vehicle device 3, about errors that have occurred and detected manipulation attempts.
  • By survey data, all individual surveys can be clearly understood and assigned to the license plate of the motor vehicle subject to toll. These include the place and time of the survey, the declared toll class, the calculated toll, the vehicle device identification and possibly also the official license plate and cost unit parameters for cost differentiation. The transfer of survey data will be triggered either after a shipment limit has been exceeded or after a certain period has expired. The shipping limit is a credit or credit line value. The period can be parameterized. It starts with the first survey since the last data collection. If the shipping limit has not yet been reached after the expiration of this period, the transfer of existing collection data will still be triggered.
  • During a check, the relevant survey data and status information are transmitted to the control system 7. The latter contain information about abnormal operating conditions and past attempts at tampering and blocking status information.
  • During its installation, the current operating data are transmitted to the vehicle device 3. As a result, an elaborate communication setup for the vehicle device operating center 2 is eliminated from its first startup.
  • After installation, the status data is transmitted to the component "central processes" 6. If a vehicle device 3 unavoidably leave the service point 9 in the built-in, but in a non-functional state for compelling reasons, this status is also reported to the "Central Processes" 6.
  • The user 10 enters the chargeable parameters in the vehicle unit 3 when starting a journey. Variable parameters that change the toll class are the trailer parameters (number of axles and gross vehicle weight). The current charge-related parameters of the toll motor vehicle (pollutant emission class, available on the vehicle axles and gross vehicle weight) do not change during use. Modifications of the motor vehicle parameters require technical modifications to the vehicle and a reconfiguration of the vehicle device 3 in the service point 9.
  • The route and tariff data created in the "central processes" component 6 are converted in the vehicle device operating center 2 into a format that can be processed by the vehicle devices 3.
  • Was in a component of the "Central processes" 6 a lock or unlock event for a particular vehicle device. 3 triggered, a command is generated and transmitted to the vehicle operating center 2 from it.
  • When installing the vehicle unit 3, the service point 9 must check the timeliness of the data of the vehicle card (which the user must submit for installation). In addition, information that was not available at the time of registration of the user 10, e.g. for credit check.
  • The support beacon 5 transmits cyclic intervals monitoring data to the component "central processes" 6 so that they can determine the operational readiness of the support beacon 5.
  • The support beacon 5 transmits position data to the vehicle unit 3 in support of the position determination.
  • Fig. 5 shows a schematic diagram of the interoperability between different usage calculation areas 13, 14. The interoperability allows the toll road 10 in different usage calculation areas 13, 14 with different electronic toll systems 1, 17 with only one vehicle device 3 and possibly only one contract to pay the fee, the Tolling systems can be operated by different operators 15, 16.
  • Technical interoperability is the basic requirement for being able to use a vehicle equipment 3 in several toll system regions 13, 14. The technical interoperability is defined, on the one hand, by the communication between vehicle unit 3 and the operator-specific local facilities and, on the other hand, by the functions and processes expected in vehicle unit 3 which the respective toll system operator 15, 16 expects.
  • In its basic configuration, the vehicle device 3 offers the communication channels via mobile radio (GSM) in various line-oriented and packet-oriented services as well as DSRC beacon communication via infrared. An interface to CEN TC278 by radio in the microwave band of 5.8 GHz can be optionally connected or integrated in series with. The basic function of the computer system in the vehicle device 3 offers the possibility, in addition to the standard software functions contained in the own system, subsequently retrofitted via different communication channels and secured to reload other applications.
  • In detail, the following features of the vehicle device 3 create the conditions for technical interoperability:
    • Connectable DSRC interface,
    • Use of security modules (chip cards),
    • Multiapplikationsfähigkeit by the ability to securely transmit device drivers and applications via the communication channels in the vehicle devices 3. This is both before the first installation in a vehicle, so that these functions are present from the beginning, as well as subsequently, if the need later turns out or when a new system is defined and introduced.
    • Defined internal interface between applications and the basic functions of the vehicle device 3, which allows, independent of device manufacturers, to define changes and extensions in a uniform form and perform.
    • Use of TCP / IP PPP as the standard for the GSM bearer service, in order to be able to perform other transactions with other centers that also use the TCP / IP PPP.
    • Use of ISO ENV 14906 EFC (application interface) to support all CEN based DSRC beacon-based transactions.
  • Thus, there is a requirement for basic interoperability that allows to participate in other toll systems 17 using these modern standards only by reloading a software package (e.g., via GSM).
  • For other systems, the vehicle device 3 can be extended with an additional hardware communication module. This opens up the possibility to use other communication channels, which are only interesting for a smaller part of the vehicles and thus do not make the basic unit more expensive.
  • With the above-mentioned expansion options through software applications or additional hardware communication modules, the vehicle device 3 with a variety of systems becomes technically interoperable.
  • The various optional communication modules are connected to the standardized internal interface and controlled by the respective operator-specific protocols. The protocols govern both the collection and payment process, as well as the self-control process.
  • The protocols can be loaded via a defined interface of the vehicle device 3 (multi-application capability). The vehicle device offers the following options:
    • Service interface (workshop)
    • GSM
    • Logs are from a
      Chip card (interoperability card) loaded.
  • The z.Zt. operating toll systems work with a chip card to secure the communication processes. Due to the usability of an external chip card in the offered vehicle device, a further prerequisite for the production of technical interoperability is created. In other toll areas 17, if the same smart card is not used can, since the contractual conditions are not yet given, then the driver can take part by changing the chip card at the toll operation.
  • In the case of systems requiring direct communication with the chip card while driving through the collection beacon, it is necessary to ensure a longer residence time in the communication area.
  • In addition to purely technical interoperability, the conditions for interoperability must also be created at the organizational level. In particular, payment transactions should be considered here. European banks are already interoperable through data medium exchange, i. H. Transfers from a bank in Germany to a bank of an EC member state and vice versa are part of the day-to-day business. Thus, the tollers 10 may duly pay his toll at another system operator 16 in a third-party billing area 13, it is necessary that u. a. the claims of the bank of the other system operator 16 are accepted by the bank of the operating company 15 in the home use accounting area 14 and that the operating company 15 in the home use accounting area 14 itself accepts the claims.
  • Securing the creditworthiness of the Toll-10 is inherent in pre-paid systems, and in post-paid systems, bank agreements and agreements must be agreed with the other system operators.
  • For all types of interoperability it is necessary that 16 contracts be concluded between the operator 15 and other system operators. These roaming agreements relieve the toll person 10, since this only has to conclude a contract with a system operator.
  • Roaming agreements should at least regulate:
    • Process of payment management
    • Definition of deadlines
    • Security aspects, in particular key release
    • Logs of toll systems
    • Data for the control
    • Telecommunication to use
    • infrastructure
    • Definition of the document data.

Claims (6)

  1. A method for recording road tolls by means of a toll system (1), using a vehicle device (3) for vehicle-autonomous determination of a road toll for a vehicle within a usage-based billing area (13, 14), comprising:
    - on-request transfer of data which is required for determining the road toll from an operator's central office (2) to the vehicle device (3) by means of a communications device (3.3),
    - determining continuously accrued sectional road tolls for travelled road sections by means of the vehicle device (3),
    - determining the total road toll for a trip by summing individual sectional road tolls by means of the vehicle device (3),
    - transferring, on reaching preset criteria, the total road toll recorded up to this point in time, via the communications device (3.3) to the operator's central office (2) for billing purposes by means of the vehicle device (3),
    characterised by
    - the toll system (1) being operated by an operator (15) in a usage-based billing area (14),
    - an external operator's toll system (17) being operated by an external operator (16) in a usage-based billing area (13) different from the usage-based billing area (14),
    - creating a technical interoperability of the vehicle device (3) for using the vehicle device (3) in the different usage-based billing area (13) by
    - connecting a DSRC interface to the vehicle device (3) as well as supporting all beacon-based transactions based on CEN DSRC by utilising ISO ENV 14906 EFC,
    - using at least one chip card (3) as a security module in the vehicle device (3),
    - reloading device drivers and applications by subsequently transferring them safely into the vehicle device (3) via various communication channels for achieving a multi-application capability in order to participate in the external operator's toll system (17),
    - defining and performing changes/extensions in a consistent form between applications and basic functions of the vehicle device (3) by means of a defined internal interface of the vehicle device (3) and
    - performing transactions between the vehicle device (3) and other central offices through the use of TCP/IP-PPP as a standard for a GSM bearer service,
    wherein, if the road toll in the new usage-based billing area (13) is charged by the external operator (16), the vehicle device (3) calculates the road toll subject to the conditions of the external operator's toll system (17) and automatic billing is enabled only if the operator (15) of the toll system (1) confirms taking over a vehicle owner's (10) debt.
  2. The method according to claim 1, characterised by
    preset criteria being fulfilled if a threshold value is reached or exceeded and/or if data is requested from the operator's central office (2) and/or if a data transfer is triggered manually by a user (10) and/or if specified positions are driven over in the road network, wherein the threshold value corresponds to a certain amount of money and/or to a certain time period and/or to a certain distance travelled since the last point in time of the data transfer.
  3. The method according to one of claims 1 or 2, characterised in that a vehicle user (10) or a vehicle owner (10) maintains an account with the operator (15) of the toll system (1) for billing purposes, from which the transferred usage tolls are automatically deducted.
  4. The method according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that determination of the road tool due for a vehicle when travelling through the different usage-based billing areas (13, 14) is carried out by the single vehicle device (3).
  5. The method according to one of the preceding claims, characterised in that in the vehicle device (3) information is stored on boundaries (18) of at least one home usage area (14), wherein as the boundary (18) of the usage-based billing area (14) is approached the vehicle device (3), as required, requests missing operating data for the adjacent different usage-based billing area (13) from the operator's central office (2) and the requested operating data is transferred by means of the communications device (3.3) from the operator's central office (2) to the vehicle device (3) and stored in the vehicle device (3).
  6. The method according to claim 1, characterised in that when the boundary (18) between the two usage-based billing areas (13, 14) is crossed the road toll is determined subject to the conditions of the new usage-based billing area (13, 14).
EP20010986870 2001-01-31 2001-12-13 Method for determining road tolls Active EP1358635B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2001104499 DE10104499A1 (en) 2001-01-31 2001-01-31 Road tolling system
DE10104499 2001-01-31
PCT/EP2001/014678 WO2002061691A1 (en) 2001-01-31 2001-12-13 System for determining road tolls

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CY20121100435T CY1112836T1 (en) 2001-01-31 2012-05-08 Method for determining road use fees

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EP1358635A1 EP1358635A1 (en) 2003-11-05
EP1358635B1 true EP1358635B1 (en) 2012-02-22

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JP (1) JP4167490B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1518725A (en)
AT (1) AT546802T (en)
AU (1) AU2002238426B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2437303C (en)
CY (1) CY1112836T1 (en)
CZ (1) CZ305818B6 (en)
DE (1) DE10104499A1 (en)
DK (1) DK1358635T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2380918T3 (en)
PL (1) PL366104A1 (en)
PT (1) PT1358635E (en)
WO (1) WO2002061691A1 (en)

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US20060106671A1 (en) 2006-05-18
CN1518725A (en) 2004-08-04
EP1358635A1 (en) 2003-11-05
AT546802T (en) 2012-03-15
CZ305818B6 (en) 2016-03-30
CZ20032051A3 (en) 2004-04-14
WO2002061691A1 (en) 2002-08-08
JP2004524614A (en) 2004-08-12
PL366104A1 (en) 2005-01-24
CY1112836T1 (en) 2016-02-10
AU2002238426B2 (en) 2006-07-06
DE10104499A1 (en) 2002-08-14
PT1358635E (en) 2012-05-21
JP4167490B2 (en) 2008-10-15
CA2437303A1 (en) 2002-08-08
DK1358635T3 (en) 2012-05-07
ES2380918T3 (en) 2012-05-21
CA2437303C (en) 2013-04-23

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