EP0809743B1 - Electronic key - Google Patents

Electronic key Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0809743B1
EP0809743B1 EP96902881A EP96902881A EP0809743B1 EP 0809743 B1 EP0809743 B1 EP 0809743B1 EP 96902881 A EP96902881 A EP 96902881A EP 96902881 A EP96902881 A EP 96902881A EP 0809743 B1 EP0809743 B1 EP 0809743B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
key
characterised
housing
key according
lock
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP96902881A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0809743B2 (en
EP0809743A1 (en
Inventor
Jakob Marquardt
Karl Mueller
Ekkehard Sachs
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Marquardt GmbH
Original Assignee
Marquardt GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to DE19505190 priority Critical
Priority to DE19505190A priority patent/DE19505190A1/en
Application filed by Marquardt GmbH filed Critical Marquardt GmbH
Priority to PCT/DE1996/000275 priority patent/WO1996025575A1/en
Publication of EP0809743A1 publication Critical patent/EP0809743A1/en
Publication of EP0809743B1 publication Critical patent/EP0809743B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=7754120&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP0809743(B1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0809743B2 publication Critical patent/EP0809743B2/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E05LOCKS; KEYS; WINDOW OR DOOR FITTINGS; SAFES
    • E05BLOCKS; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR; HANDCUFFS
    • E05B19/00Keys; Accessories therefor
    • E05B19/04Construction of the bow or head of the key; Attaching the bow to the shank
    • E05B19/046Construction of the bow or head of the key; Attaching the bow to the shank the shank being slidingly mounted on the bow, e.g. for storage
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A45HAND OR TRAVELLING ARTICLES
    • A45CPURSES; LUGGAGE; HAND CARRIED BAGS
    • A45C11/00Receptacles for purposes not provided for in groups A45C1/00 - A45C9/00
    • A45C11/32Bags or wallets for holding keys
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E05LOCKS; KEYS; WINDOW OR DOOR FITTINGS; SAFES
    • E05BLOCKS; ACCESSORIES THEREFOR; HANDCUFFS
    • E05B19/00Keys; Accessories therefor
    • E05B19/0082Keys or shanks being removably stored in a larger object, e.g. a remote control or a key fob
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual registration on entry or exit
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00944Details of construction or manufacture
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual registration on entry or exit
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C9/00944Details of construction or manufacture
    • G07C2009/00952Electronic keys comprising a mechanical key within their housing, e.g. extractable or retractable emergency key
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/50Special application
    • Y10T70/5889For automotive vehicles
    • Y10T70/5956Steering mechanism with switch
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/50Special application
    • Y10T70/5889For automotive vehicles
    • Y10T70/5973Remote control
    • Y10T70/5978With switch
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/70Operating mechanism
    • Y10T70/7051Using a powered device [e.g., motor]
    • Y10T70/7062Electrical type [e.g., solenoid]
    • Y10T70/7068Actuated after correct combination recognized [e.g., numerical, alphabetical, or magnet[s] pattern]
    • Y10T70/7073Including use of a key
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/70Operating mechanism
    • Y10T70/7441Key
    • Y10T70/778Operating elements
    • Y10T70/7791Keys
    • Y10T70/7876Bow or head
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/70Operating mechanism
    • Y10T70/7441Key
    • Y10T70/778Operating elements
    • Y10T70/7791Keys
    • Y10T70/7904Magnetic features
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/80Parts, attachments, accessories and adjuncts
    • Y10T70/8432For key-operated mechanism
    • Y10T70/8676Key holders
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T70/00Locks
    • Y10T70/80Parts, attachments, accessories and adjuncts
    • Y10T70/8432For key-operated mechanism
    • Y10T70/8676Key holders
    • Y10T70/8757Releasable catches

Description

The invention relates to an electronic key for Operation of a lock with the features of the generic term of claim 1.

In motor vehicles in particular, the doors are often used a central locking system, the locks of the Doors to increase comfort by means of an electronic Key can be operated remotely via infrared or RF radiation. Mostly a car door with an additional mechanical Lock for door opening provided by an additional mechanical key is actuated. This will ensures that at least one lock to open the door too can then be operated if the electronic key fails, for example when the energy storage is empty.

With such electronic keys, it is now known to serving as an emergency key for the mechanical lock additional key bit on the housing of the key Fasten. So that the additional key bit in general Does not interfere with operation, it is pivotally mounted on the housing, so that it can be folded into the housing.

These well-known electronic keys were used in a earlier patent application by the applicant DE 44 44 913 A1 (Release on June 22, 1995) with additional functions provided by the key in addition to actuating the Ignition lock was used in the motor vehicle. In the ignition lock is the key during the operation of the motor vehicle against secured an accidental removal.

From the document DE-U-87 13 501 is an electronic Key for operating a lock according to the generic term of claim 1 became known. This electronic key is used in locking systems in motor vehicles, namely for opening and closing vehicle locks as well for actuating the starter of an engine. On the housing of the electronic key is an additional mechanical one Key bit for operating a mechanical ignition lock arranged. This key is therefore in its functions divided and that with the electronic functions to open and closing the vehicle locks and the conventional ones mechanical actuation of a mechanical ignition lock by means of an appropriate mechanical key.

From the still known publication DE 38 42 790 C1 one according to the electronic key described above the same structure became known. Here too a mechanical flat key to operate a mechanical ignition lock used while the electronic Remote control only for operating the vehicle doors is used. Finally, reference is made to US Pat. No. 3,605,464 referenced a key case with integrated mechanical key disclosed, the housing one of them includes key plate that can be pulled out by spring pressure, which is wedge-shaped in its front part and is used to hold a mechanical key. The retractable key sign is only as Sheathing and receptacle for the mechanical key trained and has no function in the sense of a Closing mechanism. Furthermore, this document does not contain any Indication of electronic actuation of a lock.

The invention has for its object an electronic To create a key, which may also include a mechanical key bit, in which the Key housing user-friendly and visually appealing is trained and compared to a mechanical key an extended one for actuating a mechanical lock Has functionality.

This object is achieved by the features of patent claim 1 solved.

In the key according to the invention, the position is the active one Part of the electronic key when picking up immediately identifiable by haptic. The key is optical very attractive. It can be constructed with a small thickness, especially if the mechanical key in the housing is installed upright. The key according to the invention has large, uninterrupted areas on the sides and has therefore only a few or no sharp edges, so that it has none Represents a risk of damage to jacket pockets, etc. On these areas can be of different sizes Control elements and their handling symbols clearly represent. To find the individual better Controls in the dark can be between the Controls markings e.g. Bridges, grooves or Like. Be provided on the housing surface. Let also display elements and setting elements for storage of memo data on the side surfaces. Further Refinements and advantages result from the Description of exemplary embodiments and Dependent claims.

Various exemplary embodiments are shown in the drawing of the electronic key according to the invention explained.

Show it:

Fig. 1
a key according to the invention in perspective
Fig. 2
a supervision of the back of the electronic key
3 and 4
perspective representations of further training
5 and 6
Partial representation of cuts through the housing of the electronic key.

In Fig. 1, 1 is the housing of the electronic Key shown. It is wedge-shaped. The right Narrow end 2 of the wedge is in the lock to be operated e.g. inserted into the ignition lock of a vehicle. you recognizes the small size compared to the other dimensions and thus the thickness of the Housing.

The housing 1 contains a circuit board, not shown. There is an electronic on this circuit board Circuit, for example as an integrated circuit is trained. This electronic circuit is made by an energy store, for example a battery or a battery, powered and used to operate the electronic Key. On the front 2 of the housing 1 are a Sending element and a receiving element arranged.

The transmitting element and the receiving element can be by means of Infrared radiation, RF radiation or the like. Work. at Actuation e.g. a push button 3 is in the electronic Circuit of the key generates a code that is via the Transmission element in the manner of a unidirectional communication is sent. This code is from a corresponding Receiver on the motor vehicle recorded, decrypted and User authorization analyzed. Is the user authorization all right, the corresponding function on the Central locking of the door locks carried out.

If the key is in the ignition lock of the motor vehicle, so is a via the sending element and the receiving element Code, such as bidirectional Communication, with corresponding broadcast and Reception elements of the ignition lock replaced. Doing so again the user authorization is analyzed and at correct key, the ignition lock can be operated, for example, rotate in the usual way, and it takes place Commissioning of the motor vehicle.

In the following, the bidirectional communication between the key and the ignition lock as well as the unidirectional Communication between the key and the door locks are explained in more detail.

For bidirectional communication between the key and the ignition switch is in the electronic circuit of the Key a unique identifier for the respective Motor vehicle stored as an individual identifier. At this Individual identifier can, for example, be one of Deal with the unique number assigned to vehicle manufacturers. The same individual identifier is also in the ignition lock stored. Is the key in the ignition lock an identification of the individual identifier is introduced carried out.

For this purpose, a random number is first determined as a key figure in the ignition lock by means of a random number generator and stored in the ignition lock. From this key figure, a code is formed in the electronics of the ignition lock based on a defined algorithm, which is transmitted as a second operating signal from the transmission element of the ignition lock to the reception element of the key. This second operating signal received by the receiving element of the key is decrypted into the code in the electronic circuit of the key using the algorithm. This code number and the individual identifier stored in the electronic circuit of the key are now used to form a coded first operating signal in the electronic circuit of the key on the basis of the specified algorithm. At the same time, the key figure is stored in the electronic circuit of the key. This first operating signal is then transmitted from the transmission element of the key to the ignition lock.
The first operating signal is then decrypted in the electronic circuit of the ignition lock in accordance with the specified algorithm, which results in a determined key figure and a determined individual identifier.

Then a comparison of the determined results Individual identifier and determined key figure with the in Ignition lock stored individual identifier and code. going this comparison is positive, i.e. is it the correct individual identifier and key figure, that is the Given user authorization. This will e.g. the Immobilizer removed and the vehicle started.

For unidirectional communication between key and the door locks from a few meters away is e.g. triggered by pressing button 3 from the in the electronic circuit of the key stored Individual identifier and the key figure used in the last Commissioning in the random number generator of the ignition lock determined and also in the electronic circuit of the Key has been saved, based on a specified Algorithm formed a third operating signal and sent. The third recorded by the receiver on the motor vehicle Operating signal is electronics, for example the one in the ignition switch, forwarded and there by means of the stored key figure and the specified one Algorithm decrypted. The result of the decryption results in a determined individual identifier. The determined Individual identification is with that in electronics stored individual identifier compared and at Agreement will unlock or lock the Central locking triggered.

Here is to simplify the effort at Central locking remote control only one unidirectional communication from key to one corresponding receiver on the vehicle. Nevertheless is also a safe one with regard to theft protection bidirectional communication in the same way as between Key and ignition lock possible. The key can also be used Opening the garage door or front door can be used if whose locks are designed accordingly.

In Fig. 1 there are further push buttons 4 and 5 and a Slide switch 6 for triggering further operating functions, e.g. intended to trigger an alarm. With appropriate Equipment of the vehicle can also send an alarm message by radio the location of the vehicle included.

The housing 1 also contains a slide key, which in a receptacle 7 housed on the upper part of the housing 1 is. It can be operated with an actuating lever 8 from the receptacle 7 to the right. The housing 1 contains above a slot 9 for the operating lever 8. The slot 9 may have an elastic lip that normally has it seals, but when moving the sliding key Operating lever evades.

The housing contains the two end positions of the Key stops and detents to the mechanical Secure keys.

The housing 1 is rounded at the left wide end to avoid sharp edges and to make the shape more appealing. The lever 8 contains an opening 10 to hang the removed (separated) mechanical key on a keychain. The housing 1 can have an eyelet so that the entire key can be attached or suspended.
In Fig. 1, display elements 12 are still drawn in to indicate any states of the system (eg battery charge or location). A movable stop can be removed with an actuating knob 11 in order to be able to remove the key from the receptacle 7. This is of particular interest when designing the key, including a remote control, because in this case the mechanical key, which is (also) suitable for locking the trunk, can be taken by the driver while the workshop or the porter takes the electronic key to move the Vehicle.

Fig. 2 shows the back of the key housing 1. Here, two turntables 13 and 14 provided with symbols (numbers, letters) are accommodated under the housing surface. At points 15 the turntables step outwards and can be turned by hand. The set symbols can be seen on windows 16. For example, you can mark the parking lot number or the room number of the hotel.
The housing is designed in appropriate colors and is supplied in different colors for men and women, for example. The housing is preferably formed in two parts. In the design as a sliding key, the mechanical key is pushed into its starting position when the key is inserted into the ignition lock if it is not already there.

In Fig. 3, a wedge wrench is shown, in which the mechanical keys 20 can be folded out with the housing 21 connected is.

Fig. 4 again shows a wedge key with a mechanical key, which is designed as a sliding key is. Here the sliding key is upright in the housing arranged what on the appropriately trained receptacle 23rd is recognizable. This solution enables a very thin one Training the housing. She is especially at Electronic keys applicable, which are not a remote control contain, therefore no own energy source (Battery) need (when used as an ignition key the energy is transferred from the lock to the key) and which is why there is space on the active narrow side 24 for such an arrangement of the mechanical key is available.

5, which is a part of a Section through the housing 1 of FIG. 1 along the slot 9 shows, the detent for the mechanical key 25 and recognized the possibility of its removal from the recording become. In the position shown, the operating lever 26 snapped into a recess and thus the mechanical Key 25 locked. Shall the key turn right his recording will be pushed out, the Actuating lever 26 rotated up to one spring-loaded ball 28 snaps into the recess 29. Then can the mechanical key 25 using the Actuating lever 26 to the right up to a stop and another detent can be moved. On the other hand, the Key 25 completely removed from the housing 30 stop 31 with the aid of a knob 32 pulled down against the force of a spring 33. The mechanical key can now be pulled out to the left become. The operating lever 26 can be made of high strength Be made of plastic. At 34 is a key ring indicated on which the electronic key as a whole or only the mechanical key can be attached.

6 is again part of the mechanical key 35 with its operating lever 36 shown. Here, too, is a displaceable stop 37 intended. The detent is by a bulge 38 on Actuating lever 36 and a recess in the housing 39 realized. Through the recess 40 is made of plastic manufactured operating lever 36 resilient at this point compliant, so that the bulge 38 out of the recess can be pushed out.

Claims (18)

  1. Electronic key for actuating a lock, such as an ignition lock, in particular for use in closing systems in motor vehicles, with a housing (1) containing the components of the electronic key to actuate the lock and preferably comprising a socket (7) for a key bit (25) for a mechanical lock, characterised in that the housing (1, 21, 22, 30) has the form of a thin wedge, in that the narrow end (2) of the housing is designed for insertion into the lock, the components, such as transmitter and optionally receiver, to electronically actuate the lock being contained in the narrow end (2) of the housing (1).
  2. Key according to claim 1, characterised in that the key bit is provided with a grip part (8) and the mechanical key (25, 35) designed in this way can be removed from the socket (7).
  3. Key according to claim 1, characterised in that the key bit is connected to the housing (21) so as to fold out from the socket (7).
  4. Key according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the key bit can be displaced in the socket (7).
  5. Key according to claim 4, characterised in that the key bit can be pushed out of the narrow side (2) of the wedge-shaped housing (1).
  6. Key according to claim 5, characterised in that the key bit is housed in its socket (23) with its broad side substantially parallel to the side faces of the wedge-shaped housing (22).
  7. Key according to claim 4, 5 or 6, characterised in that the housing (30) has stops (31, 37) for the key bit in its end positions.
  8. Key according to claim 7, characterised in that one of the stops is designed as a movable stop (31).
  9. Key according to any of claims 4 to 8, characterised in that latching devices (27, 38, 39) are provided in which the key bit latches in its end positions.
  10. Key according to any of claims 1 to 9, characterised in that the housing (1) is rounded at its broad side.
  11. Key according to any of claims 1 to 10, characterised in that the housing (21, 22) has an eye on its broad side.
  12. Key according to any of claims 1 to 11, characterised in that at least one operating element (3 to 5) is placed on at least one side face of the wedge-shaped housing (1) to trigger operating functions.
  13. Key according to any of claims 1 to 12, characterised in that at least one operating element (6) is arranged on the broad side of the wedge-shaped housing (1).
  14. Key according to any of claims 1 to 13, characterised in that at least one display element (12) is provided on at least one of the side faces of the wedge-shaped housing (1) to indicate status.
  15. Key according to claim 12 or 13, characterised in that at least one of the operating elements (3) serves to remotely trigger an actuation of the lock.
  16. Key according to claim 12 or 13, characterised in that one operating element (6) serves to trigger an alarm.
  17. Key according to any of claims 1 to 16, characterised in that at least one setting element (13 to 16) is provided on at least one of the side faces of the wedge-shaped housing (1) to store market data.
  18. Key according to any of claims 1 to 17, characterised in that grooves, webs or symbols are arranged between the adjacent operating elements (1 to 5).
EP96902881A 1995-02-16 1996-02-15 Electronic key Expired - Lifetime EP0809743B2 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19505190 1995-02-16
DE19505190A DE19505190A1 (en) 1995-02-16 1995-02-16 Electronic key
PCT/DE1996/000275 WO1996025575A1 (en) 1995-02-16 1996-02-15 Electronic key

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0809743A1 EP0809743A1 (en) 1997-12-03
EP0809743B1 true EP0809743B1 (en) 2002-08-14
EP0809743B2 EP0809743B2 (en) 2010-06-30

Family

ID=7754120

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP96902881A Expired - Lifetime EP0809743B2 (en) 1995-02-16 1996-02-15 Electronic key

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US6216501B1 (en)
EP (1) EP0809743B2 (en)
JP (1) JP3469581B2 (en)
DE (1) DE19505190A1 (en)
ES (1) ES2180732T5 (en)
WO (1) WO1996025575A1 (en)

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JPH11500193A (en) 1999-01-06
DE19505190A1 (en) 1996-08-22
ES2180732T5 (en) 2010-10-15
WO1996025575A1 (en) 1996-08-22
EP0809743A1 (en) 1997-12-03
ES2180732T3 (en) 2003-02-16
EP0809743B2 (en) 2010-06-30
JP3469581B2 (en) 2003-11-25
US6216501B1 (en) 2001-04-17

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