EP0756134B1 - Method and burner for reducing the formation of NOx when burning pulverized coal - Google Patents

Method and burner for reducing the formation of NOx when burning pulverized coal Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0756134B1
EP0756134B1 EP96106401A EP96106401A EP0756134B1 EP 0756134 B1 EP0756134 B1 EP 0756134B1 EP 96106401 A EP96106401 A EP 96106401A EP 96106401 A EP96106401 A EP 96106401A EP 0756134 B1 EP0756134 B1 EP 0756134B1
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EP
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Prior art keywords
primary
air
dust
coal dust
pipe
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EP96106401A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0756134A1 (en
Inventor
Alfons Leise
Michael Streffing
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BABCOCK KRAFTWERKSTECHNIK GMBH
BBP Energy GmbH
Hitachi Power Europe GmbH
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BBP Energy GmbH
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D17/00Burners for combustion conjointly or alternatively of gaseous or liquid or pulverulent fuel
    • F23D17/005Burners for combustion conjointly or alternatively of gaseous or liquid or pulverulent fuel gaseous or pulverulent fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D1/00Burners for combustion of pulverulent fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D1/00Burners for combustion of pulverulent fuel
    • F23D1/02Vortex burners, e.g. for cyclone-type combustion apparatus
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C2201/00Staged combustion
    • F23C2201/20Burner staging
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C2202/00Fluegas recirculation
    • F23C2202/10Premixing fluegas with fuel and combustion air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D2201/00Burners adapted for particulate solid or pulverulent fuels
    • F23D2201/20Fuel flow guiding devices

Description

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zur Verminderung der Bildung von NOx bei der Verbrennung von Kohlenstaub mit Verbrennungsluft sowie einen Brenner mit den Merkmalen des Oberbegriffes des Anspruches 1 bzw. 2.2. The invention relates to a method for reducing the formation of NO x in the combustion of coal dust with combustion air and a burner with the features of the preamble of claim 1 and 2 respectively.
Zur Verminderung der Bildung von NOx bei der Verbrennung von kohlenstoffhaltigen Brennstoffen ist es bekannt, die Verbrennungsluft gestuft in mehreren Teilströmen aufzugeben. Dadurch wird der Brennstoff in einer ersten Flammenzone unter Luftmangel und bei verringerter Flammentemperatur verbrannt. Die restliche Verbrennungsluft wird der Flamme in einer zweiten Flammenzone nachträglich beigemischt.To reduce the formation of NO x during the combustion of carbon-containing fuels, it is known to give the combustion air in stages in several partial streams. As a result, the fuel is burned in a first flame zone with a lack of air and at a reduced flame temperature. The remaining combustion air is subsequently mixed into the flame in a second flame zone.
Ein Kohlenstaubbrenner mit gestufter Luftaufgabe ist aus der DE-A-4 217 879 bekannt. Bei diesem Brenner werden die Luftströme über spiralförmige Eintrittsgehäuse zugeführt und durchströmen konzentrische Ringkanäle, in denen ihnen ein Drall aufgezwungen wird. Der Sekundär- und der Tertiärluftstrom werden über Abweiskehlen nach außen von dem Brennstoffstrom weggeführt, der durch einen zwischen dem Kernluftrohr und dem Sekundärluftkanal angeordneten, nicht aufgeteilten Ringkanal aufgegeben wird. Auf diese Weise entsteht eine innere Verbrennungszone mit einer niedrigen Luftzahl und eine sauerstoffreichere stabile Flammenumhüllung, aus der die brennstoffreiche Flamme verzögert mit Sauerstoff versorgt wird.A coal dust burner with staged air supply is out of the DE-A-4 217 879 is known. With this burner the Air flows are fed via spiral inlet housings and flow through concentric ring channels in which one Swirl is forced. The secondary and the Tertiary airflow are directed outward from the throats Fuel flow carried away by a between the Core air tube and the secondary air duct arranged, not split ring channel is abandoned. In this way creates an internal combustion zone with a low one Air ratio and a more oxygen-rich stable flame envelope, from which the fuel-rich flame retards with oxygen is supplied.
Weiterhin ist ein Brenner zur Verbrennung von staubförmiger Kohle mit Hilfe von in drei Teilströme aufgeteilter Verbrennungsluft bekannt (EP-A-0 636 836). Im Zündbereich des Brenners pyrolysiert die Kohle, wodurch die in der Kohle gebundenen flüchtigen Bestandteile freigesetzt werden. Diese flüchtigen Bestandteile verbrennen zeitlich vor dem festen Kohlenstoff mit Hilfe der im Zündbereich vorhandenen Sekundärluft. Bei dem bekannten Brenner wird durch eine Strömungsleiteirichtung dafür gesorgt, daß sich ein bestimmter Anteil der Sekundärluft in das die flüchtigen Bestandteile enthaltende Gemisch einmischt.Furthermore, a burner for the combustion of dust Coal with the help of split into three sub-streams Combustion air known (EP-A-0 636 836). In the ignition area of the Brenners pyrolyses the coal, causing that in the coal bound volatile components are released. This volatile components burn before the solid Carbon with the help of those present in the ignition area Secondary air. In the known burner is by a Flow control device ensured that a certain Share of secondary air in which the volatile components containing mixture mixed.
Aus der DE-A-3 125 901 ist ein Brenner bekannt, der unter alleiniger Verwendung eines staubförmigen Brennstoffes einen erweiterten Regelbereich aufweist. Zu diesem Zweck ist das Staubrohr des Brenners von einem Ringkanal umgeben, der wahlweise mit Sekundärluft oder einem Brennstoff-Luft-Gemisch beaufschlagt wird.From DE-A-3 125 901 a burner is known, the under sole use of a dusty fuel has an extended control range. For that purpose it is Dust tube of the burner surrounded by an annular channel, the optionally with secondary air or a fuel-air mixture is applied.
Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, die Bildung von NOx in der Zündphase des Kohlenstaubes zu beeinflussen.The invention has for its object to influence the formation of NO x in the ignition phase of the coal dust.
Diese Aufgabe wird erfindungsgemäß durch ein Verfahren mit den Merkmalen des Anspruches 3, 5 bzw. 6 gelöst. Ein Brenner zur Lösung der Aufgabe ist Gegenstand der Ansprüche 1 bzw. 2.This object is achieved by a method with the Features of claim 3, 5 and 6 solved. A burner for The task is solved Subject matter of claims 1 and 2.
Der Erfindung liegt der Gedanke zugrunde, daß bei der Verbrennung von Kohlenstaub in Dampferzeugeranlagen die Bildung von NOx hauptsächlich beeinflußt wird durch die Luftzahl im Feuerraum der Dampferzeugeranlage, durch die Verbrennungstemperatur, durch die Brennstoffbeschaffenheit und vor allem durch den Sauerstoffquotienten ω, der zum Zeitpunkt der Primärreaktionen, das heißt während der Pyrolyse und der parallel dazu verlaufenden Oxidation der flüchtigen Bestandteile der Kohle vorliegt. Unter Sauerstoffquotient ω wird das Verhältnis verstanden, das gebildet wird aus dem in der Zündphase verfügbaren Sauerstoff und dem Bedarf an Sauerstoff zur Verbrennung der ausgasenden flüchtigen Bestandteile. Zu Beginn der Pyrolysephase ist der Anteil der freigesetzten flüchtigen Bestandteilen γflüchtige Bestandteile, die aus der Kohle ausgasen, gering (Fig. 1). Damit ist auch die absolute Menge an oxidationsfähigen Produkten und dementsprechend der Bedarf an Sauerstoff zu deren Verbrennung sehr gering. Dem gegenüber steht ein fester Sauerstoffbetrag, der aus der Primärluft und dem Eigensauerstoffanteil des Brennstoffes resultiert. Das bedeutet, daß mit Beginn der Zündung der flüchtigen Bestandteile der Sauerstoffquotient ω unendlich groß ist. Unter der Voraussetzung, daß zunächst kein weiterer Sauerstoff, z. B. in Form von Verbrennungsluft hinzugefügt wird, verringert sich der Sauerstoffquotient ω im weiteren Zeitablauf aufgrund der fortschreitenden Reaktionen im Flammenkern des Brennernahbereiches (Fig. 2). Mit Beginn der Zumischung von Sekundär- und Tertiärluft zur Primärreaktion erfolgt wieder ein Ansteigen des Sauerstoffquotienten ω. Geschieht dies zu einem Zeitpunkt, zu dem die Pyrolysereaktion der Kohle nicht abgeschlossen ist, so wird die NOx-Bildung beschleunigt. Die Abhängigkeit des NOx-Gehaltes γNOx in dem Verbrennungsgas von dem Sauerstoffquotienten ω zeigt die Fig. 3.The invention is based on the idea that when coal dust is burned in steam generator plants, the formation of NO x is mainly influenced by the air ratio in the combustion chamber of the steam generator plant, by the combustion temperature, by the fuel quality and, above all, by the oxygen quotient ω, which at the time of the Primary reactions, i.e. during the pyrolysis and the parallel oxidation of the volatile constituents of the coal. Oxygen quotient ω is understood to mean the ratio which is formed from the oxygen available in the ignition phase and the need for oxygen for the combustion of the volatile constituents which outgas. At the beginning of the pyrolysis phase, the proportion of the volatile constituents released γ volatile constituents which outgas from the coal is low (FIG. 1). This means that the absolute amount of products capable of oxidation and, accordingly, the need for oxygen to burn them are very low. This is contrasted by a fixed amount of oxygen, which results from the primary air and the intrinsic oxygen content of the fuel. This means that when the volatile components start to ignite, the oxygen quotient ω is infinitely large. Provided that no further oxygen, e.g. B. is added in the form of combustion air, the oxygen quotient ω decreases in the further course of time due to the progressive reactions in the flame core of the vicinity of the burner (Fig. 2). With the addition of secondary and tertiary air to the primary reaction, the oxygen quotient ω increases again. If this occurs at a point in time when the pyrolysis reaction of the coal is not complete, the NO x formation is accelerated. The dependence of the NO x content γ NOx in the combustion gas on the oxygen quotient ω is shown in FIG. 3.
Mit der Kenntnis der Beschaffenheit des Brennstoffs, das heißt vor allem dessen Neigung zu pyrolysieren, und einiger Randbedingungen des Feuerungssystemes ist der gemittelte Sauerstoffquotient ω für alle Brennerbauformen errechenbar. Durch die erfindungsgemäßen Maßnahmen kann die maximale Höhe und der mittlere Wert des Sauerstoffquotienten ω so beeinflußt werden, daß ein Minimum an NOx entsteht, ohne daß die zur Aufrechterhaltung der Primärreaktionen am Brenneraustritt notwendigen Prozesse zum Erliegen kommen.Knowing the nature of the fuel, that is, above all its tendency to pyrolyze, and some boundary conditions of the combustion system, the averaged oxygen quotient ω can be calculated for all burner designs. The measures according to the invention can influence the maximum level and the average value of the oxygen quotient ω in such a way that a minimum of NO x is produced without the processes necessary for maintaining the primary reactions at the burner outlet coming to a standstill.
Im folgendem sei die Erfindung an Hand mehrerer Ausführungsbeispiele und Brenner zur Durchführung der Erfindung erläutert. Es zeigen:
Fig. 1
ein Diagramm zur Abhängigkeit der Menge an freigesetzten flüchtigen Bestandteilen im Primärgas von der Zeit während der Zündphase,
Fig. 2
ein Diagramm zur Abhängigkeit des Sauerstoffquotienten von der Zeit während der Zündphase,
Fig. 3
ein Diagramm zur Abhängigkeit des Gehaltes an NOx im Verbrennungsgas von dem Sauerstoffquotienten,
Fig. 4
den Längsschnitt durch einen Brenner,
Fig. 5
den Längsschnitt durch einen anderen Brenner und
Fig. 6
den Längsschnitt durch einen weiteren Brenner.
In the following, the invention will be explained using several exemplary embodiments and burners for carrying out the invention. Show it:
Fig. 1
a diagram of the dependence of the amount of volatile constituents released in the primary gas on the time during the ignition phase,
Fig. 2
a diagram of the dependence of the oxygen quotient on the time during the ignition phase,
Fig. 3
1 shows a diagram of the dependence of the NO x content in the combustion gas on the oxygen quotient,
Fig. 4
the longitudinal section through a burner,
Fig. 5
the longitudinal section through another burner and
Fig. 6
the longitudinal section through another burner.
Der dargestellte Brenner enthält eine in der Brennerlängsachse 1 vorgesehene Ölbrennerzündlanze 2, die innerhalb eines Kernluftrohres 3 angeordnet ist. Das Kernluftrohr 3 ist unter Bildung eines zylindrischen ringförmigen Kanals von einem Primär-Staubrohr 6 umgeben. Am vorderen Ende ist auf dem Kernluftrohr 3 innerhalb des Primär-Staubrohres 6 ein Strömungskörper 4 und davor ein Drallkörper 5 angeordnet.The burner shown contains one in the longitudinal axis of the burner 1 provided oil burner ignition lance 2, which within a Core air tube 3 is arranged. The core air tube 3 is below Formation of a cylindrical annular channel from one Surrounded primary dust tube 6. At the front end is on the Core air tube 3 within the primary dust tube 6 Flow body 4 and a swirl body 5 arranged in front of it.
Das Primär-Staubrohr 6 ist an dem rückwärtigen Ende über einen Krümmer mit einer Staubleitung 7 verbunden, die zu einer nicht gezeigten Mühle führt. Über die Staubleitung 7 wird ein Gemisch aus Primärluft und Kohlenstaub in das Primär-Staubrohr 6 eingespeist. An dem austrittsseitigen Ende des Primär-Staubrohres 6 sind Einbauten in Form eines Stabilisierungsringes 8 angebracht, der eine radial nach innen gerichtete Kante aufweist. Diese Kante ragt in den Strom aus Primärluft und Kohlenstaub hinein.The primary dust tube 6 is at the rear end Manifold connected to a dust line 7, which does not lead to a shown mill leads. A mixture is created via the dust line 7 from primary air and coal dust into the primary dust tube 6 fed. At the exit end of the Primary dust tube 6 are internals in the form of a Stabilizing ring 8 attached to a radially inward has directed edge. This edge protrudes into the stream Primary air and coal dust inside.
Das Primär-Staubrohr 6 ist konzentrisch in einem Ringkanal angeordnet, der von einem Primär-Gasrohr 9 gebildet wird. Dieser Ringkanal ist unter Bildung eines weiteren zylindrischen ringförmigen Kanals von einem Sekundärluftrohr 10 und dieses ist wiederum unter Bildung eines zylindrischen ringförmigen Kanals konzentrisch von einem Tertiärluftrohr 11 umgeben. Das Primär-Staubrohr 6 , das Primär-Gasrohr 9 und das Sekundärluftrohr 10 weisen an ihren austrittsseitigen Enden konisch nach außen hin erweiterte Abschnitte auf, die Abweiskehlen 12, 13, 14 für die außen an ihnen vorbei geführten Mediumströme darstellen. Das Tertiärluftrohr 11 setzt sich in die sich nach außen erweiternde Brennerkehle 15 fort.The primary dust tube 6 is concentric in an annular channel arranged, which is formed by a primary gas pipe 9. This ring channel is forming another cylindrical annular channel from a secondary air tube 10 and this is in turn forming a cylindrical ring Channel concentrically surrounded by a tertiary air tube 11. The Primary dust tube 6, the primary gas tube 9 and that Secondary air pipe 10 have at their outlet ends tapered outward sections that Deflection grooves 12, 13, 14 for those guided past them on the outside Represent medium flows. The tertiary air tube 11 sits in the burner groove 15 widening outwards.
Das Sekundärluftrohr 10 und das Tertiärluftrohr 11 des Brenners sind an dem rückwärtigen Ende jeweils mit einem spiralförmigen Einlaufgehäuse 16, 17 verbunden, die an Regelklappen 18, 19 aufnehmende Eintrittsleitungen 20, 21 angeschlossen sind und die das Sekundärluftrohr 10 mit Sekundärluft und das Tertiärluftrohr 11 mit Tertiärluft als Teilströme der Verbrennungsluft versorgen. Die Einlaufgehäuse 16, 17 sorgen für eine gleichmäßige Luftverteilung über die Ringquerschnitte des Sekundärluftrohres 10 und des Tertiärluftrohres 11.The secondary air tube 10 and the tertiary air tube 11 of the burner are at the rear end with a spiral Inlet housing 16, 17 connected to the control flaps 18, 19th receiving inlet lines 20, 21 are connected and which the secondary air pipe 10 with secondary air and that Tertiary air tube 11 with tertiary air as partial flows of Supply combustion air. The inlet housing 16, 17 provide for an even air distribution over the ring cross-sections of the secondary air tube 10 and the tertiary air tube 11.
Unmittelbar vor dem Austrittsende ist jeweils in dem Sekundärluftrohr 10 und in dem Tertiärluftrohr 11 eine Einrichtung zur Beeinflussung des Dralls in Form eines Geschränks aus drehbar gelagerten, axialen Drallklappen 22, 23 angeordnet, die über ein nicht gezeigtes Gestänge mit Antrieb von außen verstellbar sind. Durch diese axialen Drallklappen 22, 23 wird der Sekundärluft und der Tertiärluft ein Drall von einstellbarer Größe aufgezwungen. Je nach der Anstellung gegenüber der Luftströmung verstärken oder vermindern diese Drallklappen 22, 23 den durch das Einlaufgehäuse 16, 17 bewirkten Drall des Luftstromes. In besonderen Fällen kann der Drall auch ganz aufgehoben werden.Immediately before the exit end is in the Secondary air tube 10 and one in the tertiary air tube 11 Device for influencing the swirl in the form of a Cabinet made of rotatably mounted, axial swirl flaps 22, 23 arranged over a not shown linkage with drive are adjustable from the outside. Through these axial swirl flaps 22, 23, the secondary air and the tertiary air become a swirl of adjustable size forced. Depending on the employment against the air flow increase or decrease it Swirl flaps 22, 23 through the inlet housing 16, 17 caused swirl of the air flow. In special cases the Swirl can also be completely lifted.
In der Staubleitung 7 ist in der Nähe des Brennereintrittes ein Drallkörper 24 angeordnet, der den Gemischstrom aus Primärluft und Kohlenstaub in einen äußeren, staubreichen und einen inneren, staubarmen Teilstrom aufteilt. Stromabwärts von dem Drallkörper 24 ist in der Staubleitung 7 ein Tauchrohr 25 angeordnet. An das Tauchrohr 25 ist eine Leitung 26 angeschlossen, die aus der Staubleitung 7 herausgeführt und über ein radiales Eintrittsgehäuse 31 mit dem Primär-Gasrohr 9 verbunden ist. Durch diese Anordnung wird der staubarme Teilstrom aus dem aufgeteilten Gemischstrom herausgenommen und dem Primär-Gasrohr 9 zugeführt, während nur der staubreiche und damit luftärmere Teilstrom in das Primär-Staubrohr 6 gelangt. Auf diese Weise erfolgt im Zündbereich des Brenners eine relative Anreicherung von Kohlenstaub und somit auch von flüchtigen Bestandteilen bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung des Sauerstoffangebotes. Dies führt zu einer Verringerung des Sauerstoffquotienten ω.In the dust line 7 is near the burner inlet Swirl body 24 arranged, the mixture flow from primary air and coal dust into an outer, dusty and one divides the inner, low-dust partial flow. Downstream of that Swirl body 24 is a dip tube 25 in the dust line 7 arranged. A line 26 is connected to the dip tube 25 connected, which led out of the dust line 7 and via a radial inlet housing 31 with the primary gas pipe 9 connected is. With this arrangement, the low-dust Partial stream removed from the divided mixture stream and fed to the primary gas pipe 9, while only the dusty and so that lower-air partial flow reaches the primary dust tube 6. In this way, the burner ignites relative enrichment of coal dust and thus also of volatile components while reducing the Oxygen supply. This leads to a reduction in the Oxygen quotient ω.
Der in Fig. 5 gezeigte Brenner entspricht weitgehend dem Brenner gemäß Fig. 4. Jedoch ist in der Staubleitung 7 kein Drallkörper angeordnet, der den Gemischstrom in zwei Teilströme aufteilt. Statt dessen ist um das Kernluftrohr 3 herum ein Gasrohr 27 angeordnet, das mit dem Kernluftrohr 3 einen Ringkanal bildet, der am Austrittsende durch eine Düsenplatte 28 versperrt ist. In dieser Düsenplatte 28 sind auf dem Umfang verteilt Gasaustrittsdüsen angeordnet. Das Gasrohr 27 ist mit einer Ringleitung 29 verbunden, an die eine Zuführungsleitung 30 angeschlossen ist. Über diese Zuführungsleitung 30 wird ein brennbares Fremdgas, z. B. Erdgas, Methangas oder Kokereigas zugeführt, das über die Düsenplatte 28 in die Primär-Zündzone eingebracht wird, die sich stromabwärts von dem Primär-Staubrohr 6 ausbildet. The burner shown in Fig. 5 largely corresponds to that The burner according to FIG. 4. However, there is none in the dust line 7 Swirl body arranged, the mixture flow in two partial flows divides. Instead, is around the core air tube 3 Gas pipe 27 arranged, the one with the core air pipe 3 Ring channel forms, which at the outlet end through a nozzle plate 28 is blocked. In this nozzle plate 28 are on the circumference distributed gas outlet nozzles arranged. The gas pipe 27 is with a ring line 29 to which a feed line is connected 30 is connected. Via this feed line 30 a combustible extraneous gas, e.g. B. natural gas, methane gas or coke oven gas fed that through the nozzle plate 28 into the primary ignition zone is introduced, which is downstream of the Forms primary dust tube 6.
Die in den Fig. 4 und 5 dargestellten Brenner können auch, wie in Fig. 6 dargestellt, miteinander kombiniert werden.The burners shown in Figs. 4 and 5 can also, like shown in Fig. 6, combined.
In dem aus dem Primär-Staubrohr 6 austretenden Primärluft-Kohlenstaub-Gemisch setzt bei ausreichend vorhandenem Wärmetransfer zum Brennstoff unmittelbar nach der Zündung die Pyrolyse des Kohlenstaubes ein. Dabei entsteht in der Primär-Zündzone ein Gemisch, das die ausgegasten flüchtigen Bestandteile der Kohle enthält. Das erfindungsgemäße Verfahren zielt darauf ab, den Quotienten ω aus dem Sauerstoffanteil in dem Primärgas und aus dem Sauerstoffbedarf zur Verbrennung der im Primärgas vorhandenen flüchtigen Bestandteilen zu verringern. Zu diesem Zweck wird der Gemischstrom in einen staubreichen Teilstromes und einen staubarmen Teilstrom aufgeteilt, und diese Teilströme werden mit unterschiedlicher Staubbeladung über voneinander getrennte Kanäle dem Zündbereich des Brenners zugeführt. Aufgrund dieser Trennung wird der Staubanteil in dem entstehenden Primärgas erhöht und gleichzeitig das Sauerstoffangebot in diesem Bereich vermindert. Die Trennung in zwei Teilströme mit unterschiedlicher Staubbeladung wird vorzugsweise in der Staubleitung 7 unmittelbar am Brenner vorgenommen. Es ist ebenso möglich, die Trennung an einer anderen Stelle des Feuerungssystemes vorzusehen.In the emerging from the primary dust tube 6 Primary air-coal dust mixture sets at sufficient Existing heat transfer to the fuel immediately after Ignition pyrolysis of coal dust. This creates in the primary ignition zone is a mixture that the outgassed volatile Contains components of the coal. The method according to the invention aims to get the quotient ω from the oxygen fraction in the primary gas and from the oxygen requirement for combustion of the volatile constituents present in the primary gas reduce. For this purpose, the mixture flow is divided into one dusty partial flow and a low-dust partial flow divided, and these sub-streams are different Dust loading via separate channels to the ignition area of the burner. Because of this separation, the The proportion of dust in the resulting primary gas increases and at the same time the oxygen supply in this area reduced. The separation into two partial flows with different dust load is preferably in the Dust line 7 made directly on the burner. It is also possible to separate at another point of the Provide combustion system.
Die Absenkung des Sauerstoffanteils im Primärgas läßt sich auch dadurch erreichen, daß ein Teil der Luft in dem Primärluft-Kohlenstaub-Gemisch durch Rauchgas ersetzt wird. Dieses Rauchgas, das warm oder abgekühlt sein kann, wird der Luft vor deren Eintritt in die Mühle beigemischt.It is also possible to lower the oxygen content in the primary gas achieve that part of the air in the Primary air-coal dust mixture is replaced by flue gas. This flue gas, which can be warm or cooled, becomes the Air mixed in before it enters the mill.
Ein anderes Verfahren zur Senkung des Sauerstoffquotienten ω im Primärgas besteht darin, daß in das Primärgas über das oben beschriebene Gasrohr 27 ein brennbares Fremdgas eingebracht wird. Auf diese Weise wird der Anteil reaktionsfähiger flüchtiger Brennstoffprodukte im Primärgas erhöht und damit der Sauerstoffbedarf im Primärgas vergrößert. Die Menge dieses Fremdgases kann bis zu 20% der Brennerleistung betragen.Another method for lowering the oxygen quotient ω in the primary gas is that in the primary gas via the above described gas pipe 27 introduced a flammable foreign gas becomes. In this way, the share becomes more reactive volatile fuel products in the primary gas and thus the Oxygen demand in primary gas increased. The amount of this Foreign gases can amount to up to 20% of the burner output.

Claims (6)

  1. Burner for combustion of coal dust with combustion air distributed in concentric partial flows, wherein the burner comprises a primary dust pipe (6) which guides a mixture flow of primary air and coal dust and is connected with a dust duct (7) and which is surrounded by a secondary air pipe (10) guiding secondary air and a tertiary air pipe (11) guiding tertiary air, wherein the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11) each continue in a conically enlarging portion (deflector throat 14, burner throat 15), wherein a respective swirl apparatus (22, 23) is arranged in each of the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11), wherein the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11) are each connected with a respective spirally shaped inlet housing (16, 17) and wherein a stabilising ring (8) is arranged at the end of the primary dust pipe (6) at the outlet side, characterised in that the primary dust pipe (6) is surrounded by a primary gas pipe (9) forming an annular channel, that a swirl body (24) is arranged in the dust duct (7) and an immersion tube (25) is arranged downstream of the swirl body (24), that the immersion tube (25) is connected with the primary gas pipe (9) by way of an outwardly guided duct (26) via a radial inlet housing (31) and that the primary dust pipe (6) is flowed through by a part flow, which is rich in dust, of the mixture flow and the primary gas pipe (9) by a part flow, which is low in dust, of the mixture flow.
  2. Burner for combustion of coal dust with combustion air distributed in concentric partial flows, wherein the burner comprises a primary dust pipe (6) which guides a mixture flow of primary air and coal dust and is connected with a dust duct (7) and which surrounds a core air pipe (3) and is surrounded by a secondary air pipe (10) guiding secondary air and a tertiary air pipe (11) guiding tertiary air, wherein the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11) each continue in a conically enlarging portion (deflector throat 14, burner throat 15), wherein a respective swirl apparatus (22, 23) is arranged in each of the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11), wherein the secondary air pipe (10) and the tertiary air pipe (11) are each connected with a respective spirally shaped inlet housing (16, 17) and wherein a stabilising ring (8) is arranged at the end of the primary dust pipe (6) at the outlet side, characterised in that a gas pipe (27), which forms an annular gap and the outlet end of which is provided with a nozzle plate (28) in which gas outlet nozzles are formed, is arranged around the core air pipe (3).
  3. Method of reducing the formation of NOx in the combustion of coal dust with combustion air in burners, to which the coal dust is fed with the assistance of primary air as a mixture of coal dust and primary air, wherein a primary gas, which contains combustible gaseous components of the coal dust, arises in the ignition region of the burner by pyrolysis of the coal dust from the mixture of coal dust and primary air, characterised in that in the ignition region the mean quotient of oxygen proportions in the primary gas and of the need of oxygen for combustion of the combustible volatile components in the primary gas is lowered by an increase in the reactable components in the primary gas through an injection of the primary gas with a combustible external gas.
  4. Method according to claim 3, characterised in that the proportion of external gas amounts to up to 20% of the burner output.
  5. Method of reducing the formation of NOx in the combustion of coal dust with combustion air in a burner according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the coal dust is fed to the burner with the assistance of primary air as a mixture of coal dust and primary air, wherein a primary gas, which contains combustible gaseous components of the coal dust, arises in the ignition region of the burner by pyrolysis of the coal dust from the mixture of coal dust and primary air, wherein in the ignition region the mean quotient of oxygen proportions in the primary gas and of the need of oxygen for combustion of the combustible volatile components in the primary gas is lowered by a reduction in the oxygen proportion in the primary gas, in that a part of the primary air in the mixture of coal dust and primary air is replaced by flue gas.
  6. Method of reducing the formation of NOx in the combustion of coal dust with combustion air in a burner according to claim 1, wherein the coal dust is fed to the burner with the assistance of primary air as a mixture of coal dust and primary air, wherein a primary gas, which contains combustible gaseous components of the coal dust, arises in the ignition region of the burner by pyrolysis of the coal dust from the mixture of coal dust and primary air, wherein in the ignition region the mean quotient of oxygen proportions in the primary gas and of the need of oxygen for combustion of the combustible volatile components in the primary gas is lowered by a reduction in the oxygen proportion in the primary gas, in that the dust proportion in the primary gas is increased.
EP96106401A 1995-07-25 1996-04-24 Method and burner for reducing the formation of NOx when burning pulverized coal Expired - Lifetime EP0756134B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19527083A DE19527083A1 (en) 1995-07-25 1995-07-25 Process and burner for reducing NO¶x¶ formation from coal dust combustion
DE19527083 1998-07-25

Publications (2)

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EP0756134A1 EP0756134A1 (en) 1997-01-29
EP0756134B1 true EP0756134B1 (en) 2000-06-28

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EP (1) EP0756134B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH0942611A (en)
CN (1) CN1152686A (en)
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CA (1) CA2175113A1 (en)
DE (2) DE19527083A1 (en)
DK (1) DK0756134T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2149402T3 (en)
PL (1) PL181172B1 (en)
RU (1) RU2147708C1 (en)
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US5979342A (en) 1999-11-09
RU2147708C1 (en) 2000-04-20
DE59605487D1 (en) 2000-08-03
DE19527083A1 (en) 1997-01-30
AU5461196A (en) 1997-01-30
ZA9603667B (en) 1996-11-20
US5832847A (en) 1998-11-10
JPH0942611A (en) 1997-02-14
CA2175113A1 (en) 1997-01-26
DK0756134T3 (en) 2000-11-06
PL314866A1 (en) 1997-02-03
ES2149402T3 (en) 2000-11-01
UA45963C2 (en) 2002-05-15
CN1152686A (en) 1997-06-25
DK756134T3 (en)
PL181172B1 (en) 2001-06-29
AU727761B2 (en) 2000-12-21
ZA963667B (en) 1996-11-20
EP0756134A1 (en) 1997-01-29

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