DE4133315A1 - Device for testing a surface - Google Patents

Device for testing a surface

Info

Publication number
DE4133315A1
DE4133315A1 DE19914133315 DE4133315A DE4133315A1 DE 4133315 A1 DE4133315 A1 DE 4133315A1 DE 19914133315 DE19914133315 DE 19914133315 DE 4133315 A DE4133315 A DE 4133315A DE 4133315 A1 DE4133315 A1 DE 4133315A1
Authority
DE
Germany
Prior art keywords
device
signal
window
signals
vertical
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Ceased
Application number
DE19914133315
Other languages
German (de)
Inventor
Yoshida Hajime
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
HAJIME INDUSTRIES
Original Assignee
HAJIME INDUSTRIES
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP2271714A priority Critical patent/JPH06103276B2/en
Application filed by HAJIME INDUSTRIES filed Critical HAJIME INDUSTRIES
Publication of DE4133315A1 publication Critical patent/DE4133315A1/en
Ceased legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/0002Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
    • G06T7/0004Industrial image inspection
    • G06T7/0006Industrial image inspection using a design-rule based approach
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • G01N2021/8854Grading and classifying of flaws
    • G01N2021/8877Proximity analysis, local statistics
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • G01N2021/8887Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges based on image processing techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/30Subject of image; Context of image processing
    • G06T2207/30108Industrial image inspection
    • G06T2207/30124Fabrics; Textile; Paper
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/30Subject of image; Context of image processing
    • G06T2207/30108Industrial image inspection
    • G06T2207/30136Metal

Description

The invention relates to a device for testing egg surface.

In modern industry, optical is becoming increasingly popular Testing of product parts and other objects by Hand by using automatic test devices using a video camera as well as an electro African processor replaced. Serve as test items raw materials, semi-finished products and Finished products. They are devices for testing a surface known and in use, the errors sticky spots on a surface, such as Find deviations in size or shape.

The already known devices for testing a Irradiate the surface of the object to be inspected Light, take the transferred or from the test item reflected light radiation by a video camera, generate an image signal from the light and determine the defective spot due to processing of the image signal by one containing a computer or the like electronic processor.

In this case, this is recorded by the video camera mene image signal is an analog signal. To elek To facilitate tronic processing, the analog Signal usually by using an analog Di gital converter converted into a digital signal. Provided the entire data in gray values to represent Brightness deviations of the image are processed  enormous amounts of data have to be processed what complicates the device, long Processing times required and therefore little internship bel makes.

Therefore separate the test device currently in use the differences in brightness of an image a threshold value in binary values, whereby the process processing on most of the devices used is simplified. Otherwise, in some cases the gray values broken down into some parts and for processing digitized.

If, for example, surface defects on the test area subject to be determined, there are different Problems on. As for the test item, there is there are different variations, such as metal plates, metal strips or glass, plastic containers, Paper, rolled plastic etc. It is consequently difficult to remove the faulty area only from the surface derive and determine. In other words, are so by recording the test item a video camera not only as the faulty spots Brightness deviations detected, but rather also the base surface, which despite its roughness or small folds is not flawed, as well as slight Traces of dirt. Due to the brightness deviations these cannot be corrected by the faulty places can be distinguished.

Such as by roughness, folds or light dirt surface areas caused by traces can appear as noise in the picture for the video camera. Only that defective spots, but not this noise  Easy to grasp has so far been a big one Problem.

Different methods have been used to solve the problem used. Among these procedures is considered effective full to divide the screen into many small zones, the differences in brightness within each of these to measure small zones, so that whenever a Deviation exceeds a predetermined value a faulty location can be closed.

The noise component, such as brightness deviations, is in very small within each of the small zones, whereas the brightness deviation is large in the zone in which there is a faulty location. That way the distinction of a faulty place from one Noise and thus the determination of errors fold. It goes without saying that the size of the divided zones depending on the size of the determining error can be determined.

Even if that, on a division of the screen in many small zone based test methods we very much is exhilarating as it is sampling and judging everyone of the small zones across the entire screen changes, there is still a considerable processing time required to assess the entire framework.

The object of the invention is therefore an improved To provide a device for testing a surface, that avoids the shortcomings identified so far.

This task is accomplished by a testing device a surface according to claims 1 and 2 solved.

For a better understanding of the invention, the drawing below shows some embodiments described the invention. The drawing shows:

Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram for explaining the principle of the present invention;

FIGS. 2 and 3, consisting of FIGS. 2A, 2 B and FIGS. 3A, 3 B, schematic representations of exemplary embodiments of the invention; and

Fig. 4 is a schematic representation for explaining the function of the embodiment shown in Fig. 3.

On the screen of the video camera on which the picture of the Imaged surface of an object to be tested the part is converted into a digital signal, on which there is a deviation in brightness.

In this way, the analog signal of the range the screen that contains the brightness deviation, binary by using a predetermined threshold assessed and then converted into a digital signal be changed. The analog signal of the area with Changes in light and shadow can also differ be decorated, so that a waveform in the border area is created by light and shadow, from which a Digital signal is formed. The digital signals over the entire screen are saved in a memory chert.

Fig. 1A shows the above-mentioned digital signals as points in the relevant areas of the memory, which stores the digital signals and corresponds to the screen of the video camera or the screen 1 . The roughly distributed black spots 2 on the screen 1 are the converted signals of the brightness deviations due to roughness or traces of dirt on the surface of the test object, but not due to the above-described error evaluation of the noise.

The black spots 3 and 3 A lying closely next to one another on the screen 1 represent the digital signals which correspond to the identified defective points.

Fig. 1B shows the digital signals on a single scanning direction from, which corresponds to the line XX 'on the screen 1 . It goes without saying that it is not possible to separate faulty locations and noise from one another when the digital signals are detected. By dividing the screen 1 into small zones according to FIG. 1A (in this case there is a vertical four division and a horizontal six division) as well as by counting the number of black spots in each zone, it is possible to separate noise and faulty locations from one another and to differentiate.

The histogram of the digital signals (black spots) on each horizontal scanning line on the screen 1 is formed over the entire vertical direction of the screen. The histogram shows the distribution of all digital signals that appear in the horizontal direction on the screen 1 . Fig. 1C shows this program Histo.

Then, the histogram formed with the digital signals and shown in Fig. 1C is passed through a low-pass filter to suppress the high-frequency parts and bring them into a waveform. Fig. 1D shows this ge from the conversion of digital signals in wonnene signal waveform.

In order to distinguish the faulty locations from noise due to dirt etc., the signal shown in FIG. 1D is separated in wave form by a predetermined threshold value TH. The position of the signal in the form of the waveform of the area exceeding the threshold value is determined and a center line CN is formed in the vertical direction for the image in this position. In the case shown in FIG. 1D, two regions of the signal exceeding the threshold TH are in wave form, so that two center lines CN 1 and CN 2 are formed. The reason that the histogram formed from digital signals was brought into wave form by the low-pass filter is because it was facilitated by the formation of the center line of the bundle of digital signals. It is self-evident that the number of center lines (CN) is dependent on both the distribution of the digital signals in the stogram and the choice of the threshold value TH.

From Fig. 1E it can be seen that the screen 1 of the memory storing the digital signals is scanned by moving a predetermined small zone window 6 along the center line (CN) from, for example, top to bottom. As soon as a certain number of digital signals exceeding a certain number is determined in the window 6 , or as soon as an area of the digital signal bundle in the window 6 is large enough, it is determined that there is a deviation or an incorrect location. The window 6 is a single one with a predetermined size.

Fig. 2 shows a schematic representation of an embodiment according to the invention for implementing the basic principles of the invention. In the example according to FIG. 2, an image signal a is captured by a video camera 10, which does not show a test object, and is fed to a preamplifier 11 . The preamplifier 11 delivers an amplified image signal b to a device for obtaining an image signal 13 and a device for separating synchronous signals 12 . The Einrich processing for obtaining an image signal from 13 forms a propagated signal c from the area of the image signal of a predetermined one of a means for setting a threshold value 13. A threshold TH1 over increases. The device for obtaining an image signal 13 consists of a comparator which derives the specific image signal c based on the threshold value TH 1 . The image signal c obtained is fed to an analog-digital converter 14 and converted into a digital signal d. The converted digital signal d is fed to a memory 16 via a fixed contact X and a movable contact A on a changeover switch 15 .

The synchronizing signal separating device 12 consists of egg ner vertical synchronizing signal separating device 12 v and a horizontal synchronizing signal separating device 12 h, each of which separates a vertical synchronizing signal v and a horizontal synchronizing signal h from the amplified image signal b that the video camera 10 has recorded. These two synchronization signals v and h are fed to an address generator 17 . The address generator 17 generates an address signal e. The address signal e is supplied to the memory 16 via a fixed contact X 'and a movable contact A on a changeover switch 15 A in order to control vertical and horizontal addresses of the memory, so that the digital signal d in the memory 16 is synchronized with that of the video camera 10 Image signal a is stored.

The digital signal d, which is supplied by the analog-to-digital converter 14 , is supplied to a device for forming a horizontal histogram 18 in order to form a horizontal histogram signal f from the signal d (cf. FIG. 1C), which is then a Low-pass filter 19 is performed to obtain a waveform signal g (see. Fig. 1D). At the same time, the vertical sync signal v and the horizontal sync signal h are supplied to the device for forming a histogram 18 and the low-pass filter 19 in order to form the histogram signal f and the waveform signal g exactly.

The waveform signal g is supplied to a device for obtaining a signal 20 , through which a signal i (cf. FIG. 1D) which exceeds a threshold value TH2 predetermined by the device for setting a threshold value 20 A is derived from the waveform signal g . The signal i is supplied to a device for setting a vertical position 21 , so that the center of the signal i is achieved in the vertical direction of the image of the waveform signal g. Also, the vertical synchronizing signal v and the horizontal synchronizing signal h are supplied to the vertical position setting means 21 to control the vertical position setting means 21 so that the center is set at the correct place on the screen and that vertical position signal j can be derived from the device 21 .

Fig. 2 shows a device for setting a window 22 , which receives the synchronization signals v and h and emits a signal for setting a window k, so that a small-sized window 6 is set, which includes the error to be determined. When a window address generator 23 receives the vertical position signal j, the signal for setting a window k and the vertical and ho horizontal synchronizing signal v and h, it outputs a window address signal 1 which enables the window 6 in a predetermined vertical Scanning position in the vertical direction to scan the digital signal d stored by the memory 16 ; the Fen steradressensignal 1 is given to the other fixed contact Y 'of the switch 15 A. The switches 15 and 15 A are connected to one another, the fixed contacts X and X 'being in signal input holding for the memory 16 , while the other fixed contacts Y and Y' are in testing input holding.

In this way, the switches 15 and 15 A are connected to signal input contact with the memory 16 . So with all digital signals d are stored in memory 16 . The switches 15 and 15 A are then switched over and the window 6 is actuated so that the screen 1 is scanned only in the vertical direction (cf. FIG. 1E). The result is assessed by a test circuit 24 to determine errors 3 , 3 A.

An example for achieving a horizontal histogram was thus explained. It goes without saying that to achieve a vertical histogram instead of a horizontal one and by scanning the window in the horizontal direction, the same functions and effects are achieved. In this case, the device for forming a horizontal histogram 18 replaces the device for forming a vertical histogram. The device for setting a vertical position 21 can simply be replaced by a device for setting a horizontal position. A renewed explanation is therefore unnecessary.

Fig. 3 shows a schematic representation of another exemplary embodiment from the invention. Elements shown in FIG. 3 are given the same reference numerals as in FIG. 2. The difference of Fig. 3 compared to Fig. 2 is that the exemplary embodiment shown in Fig. 3 provides for the simultaneous formation of a horizontal and vertical histogram.

For this reason, in FIG. 3, a device for forming a vertical histogram 18 B, a low-pass filter 19 B, a device for obtaining a signal 20 B and a device for setting a threshold value 20 C are common to the example shown in FIG. 2 Installed.

The functional difference of the embodiment shown in FIG. 3 compared to that of FIG. 2 is that according to FIG. 3 the device for setting a vertical position 21 according to FIG. 2 is designed as a device for setting a horizontal and vertical position 21 B, which controls the horizontal and vertical positions simultaneously, while the window address generator 23 generates a window address signal at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical positions.

Fig. 4 shows this, the window 6 at the intersection between the vertically directed center lines CN 1 and CN 2 , which are achieved by the horizontal histogram, and the horizontally directed center lines CN 3 and CN 4 , which are achieved by the vertical histogram is set gradually and the assessment follows.

Instead of scanning the window takes place on this Way of assessment by simple, step wise moving the window to the intersection instead so that a very short processing time for assessment tion is required.

To explain the other areas shown in FIG. 3 Be can refer to the above statements who the.

Although the functions of the present invention were explained with reference to schematic representations, so they are generally computer-controlled Processing achieved. The expert is responsible for the implementation of the functions easily possible using suitable software.

It is also not necessary to make the window rectangular to design. Depending on the purpose, it can also be be specially shaped. Depending on the goal of the Er averaging can also be chosen freely. So For example, processing within the fen sters depending on the number of determined  Signals or the signal bundle or form of the determined Signals occur.

The present invention avoids the disadvantageous Processing time of the conventional methods and he allows an extremely fast work by one like method of window processing in the picture umbrella. A related advantage is that the device according to the invention also in the context of Product manufacturing can be used at high speed. Furthermore, there are no complicated arrangements; the Rather, the device can be manufactured very simply will.

Claims (10)

1. A device for testing a surface, wherein an object to be tested is emitted by a light source and the transmitted or reflected from the object re reflected radiation from a video camera is recorded and an image signal derived from the video camera by an electronic processor to determine faulty locations is processed on the object to be tested, containing:
  • a) a device that wins one of the image signals from the image signals supplied by the video camera, the brightness contrast of which exceeds a predetermined value;
  • b) an analog-digital converter for converting the image signal into a digital signal;
  • c) a memory for storing the digital signal;
  • d) a device for generating a histogram signal from all digital signals in the horizontal or vertical direction of the image;
  • e) a low-pass filter for generating a waveform signal by suppressing high-frequency components of the histogram signal;
  • f) means for extracting the portion of the waveform signal which exceeds a predetermined threshold;
  • g) means for setting a vertical or horizontal position to obtain a center line of the derived part of the waveform signal in the vertical or horizontal direction of an image;
  • h) a device for setting a small window on a screen of a predetermined size, which allows the detection of faulty positions;
  • i) means for setting a window address for scanning the memory in which the digital signal is stored by the window in the vertical direction such that the center of the window with the center line of the image obtained from the derived waveform signals in the vertical or horizontal direction coincides; and
  • j) a device which, when the memory is scanned through the window, judges the presence of a faulty location as soon as a number of digital signals exceeding a predetermined value in the window is counted, or as soon as the range of digital signal bundles becomes larger.
2. Device for testing a surface, wherein an object to be tested is emitted by a light source and the transmitted or reflected from the object re reflected radiation from a video camera is recorded and an image signal derived from the video camera by an electronic processor for determining faulty locations is processed on the object to be tested, containing:
  • a) a device that wins one of the image signals from the image signals supplied by the video camera, the brightness contrast of which exceeds a predetermined value;
  • b) an analog-digital converter for converting the image signal into a digital signal;
  • c) a memory for storing the digital signal;
  • d) means for generating histogram signals from all digital signals in the horizontal and vertical directions of the image;
  • e) low-pass filter for generating waveform signals by suppressing high-frequency components of the histogram signals;
  • f) means for extracting the portion of each waveform signal exceeding a predetermined threshold;
  • g) means for setting a vertical and a horizontal position to achieve center lines of the derived parts of the waveform signals in the vertical and horizontal direction of an image;
  • h) a device for setting a small window on a screen of a predetermined size, which allows the detection of faulty positions;
  • i) means for generating a position where the vertical and horizontal center lines provided by the waveform signals intersect and the center of the window coincides with the intersection; and
  • j) a device which, when the memory is scanned through the window, judges the presence of a faulty location as soon as a number of digital signals exceeding a predetermined value in the window is counted, or as soon as the range of digital signal bundles becomes larger.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a synchronous signal separator for recording the image signal to separate vertical and hori zontaler sync signals that the device for Generation of a histogram signal, the low pass filter, the device for setting a verti kalen or horizontal position, the establishment for setting a window or the device for Set a window address.
4. The apparatus of claim 2, further comprising a synchronous signal separator for recording  the image signal to separate vertical and hori zontaler sync signals that the device for Generation of histogram signals, the low pass filter, the device for setting a verti kalen and a horizontal position, the Einrich device for setting a window or the device for setting a window address.
5. The device according to claim 1, wherein the shape of the small window is selected rectangular.
6. The device according to claim 2, wherein the shape of the small window is selected rectangular.
7. The device of claim 3, further comprising an address generator to accommodate the vertical and horizontal sync signals and for generation an address signal to control the addresses of the Memory.
8. The device of claim 4, further comprising an address generator to accommodate the vertical and horizontal sync signals and for generation an address signal to control the addresses of the Memory.
9. The device of claim 7, further comprising a first switching device between the Analog-Di gital converter and memory plus a second Switching device between the address generator and the memory, the first and the second switching device are connected to each other.  
10. The apparatus of claim 8, further comprising a first switching device between the Analog-Di gital converter and memory plus a second Switching device between the address generator and the memory, the first and the second switching device are connected to each other.
DE19914133315 1990-10-09 1991-10-08 Device for testing a surface Ceased DE4133315A1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2271714A JPH06103276B2 (en) 1990-10-09 1990-10-09 Surface inspection device

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
DE4133315A1 true DE4133315A1 (en) 1992-04-16

Family

ID=17503821

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
DE19914133315 Ceased DE4133315A1 (en) 1990-10-09 1991-10-08 Device for testing a surface

Country Status (6)

Country Link
JP (1) JPH06103276B2 (en)
AU (1) AU8562991A (en)
CA (1) CA2052905A1 (en)
DE (1) DE4133315A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2667686A1 (en)
GB (1) GB2248935A (en)

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4322870C1 (en) * 1993-07-09 1994-09-29 Tuchenhagen Otto Gmbh Method and arrangement for assessing the success of cleaning procedures on contaminated surfaces
DE4415004A1 (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-03 Univ Schiller Jena Arrangement and method for characterising surfaces and for characterising and classifying surface defects and near-surface defects as well as inhomogeneities in the volume of transparent media
US6463170B1 (en) 1999-02-25 2002-10-08 Honeywell Oy Monitoring system for web breaks in a paper machine

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AUPN800796A0 (en) * 1996-02-09 1996-03-07 Unisearch Limited Visual inspection system for leather hide
GB2349214B (en) * 1996-07-18 2000-12-20 Speedfam Ipec Corp Methods and apparatus for the in-process detection of workpieces
JP2011196730A (en) * 2010-03-18 2011-10-06 Fujikura Ltd Wire surface flaw detection device and wire surface flaw detection method
CN101984346A (en) * 2010-10-19 2011-03-09 浙江大学 Method of detecting fruit surface defect based on low pass filter
CN108337448A (en) * 2018-04-12 2018-07-27 Oppo广东移动通信有限公司 High-dynamic-range image acquisition method, device, terminal device and storage medium

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US4606635A (en) * 1984-01-31 1986-08-19 Kirin Beer Kabushiki Kaisha Defect detecting method and system
DE3718151A1 (en) * 1986-05-29 1987-12-03 Rengo Co Ltd Device for detecting faults in clearboards covered on one side
DE3620146A1 (en) * 1986-06-14 1987-12-17 Zeiss Carl Fa Method for testing components made of transparent material for surface defects and includes
DE3908862A1 (en) * 1988-03-18 1989-09-28 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Surface testing device
DE3819183A1 (en) * 1988-06-06 1989-12-07 Sick Optik Elektronik Erwin Method for fault-detection in the case of running material webs

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3028942A1 (en) * 1980-07-30 1982-02-18 Kronseder Maschf Krones Method and inspection device for inspecting an object, in particular a bottle
US4606635A (en) * 1984-01-31 1986-08-19 Kirin Beer Kabushiki Kaisha Defect detecting method and system
DE3718151A1 (en) * 1986-05-29 1987-12-03 Rengo Co Ltd Device for detecting faults in clearboards covered on one side
DE3620146A1 (en) * 1986-06-14 1987-12-17 Zeiss Carl Fa Method for testing components made of transparent material for surface defects and includes
DE3908862A1 (en) * 1988-03-18 1989-09-28 Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd Surface testing device
DE3819183A1 (en) * 1988-06-06 1989-12-07 Sick Optik Elektronik Erwin Method for fault-detection in the case of running material webs

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE4415004A1 (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-03 Univ Schiller Jena Arrangement and method for characterising surfaces and for characterising and classifying surface defects and near-surface defects as well as inhomogeneities in the volume of transparent media
DE4322870C1 (en) * 1993-07-09 1994-09-29 Tuchenhagen Otto Gmbh Method and arrangement for assessing the success of cleaning procedures on contaminated surfaces
US6463170B1 (en) 1999-02-25 2002-10-08 Honeywell Oy Monitoring system for web breaks in a paper machine

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JPH06103276B2 (en) 1994-12-14
GB9120957D0 (en) 1991-11-13
JPH04147045A (en) 1992-05-20
GB2248935A (en) 1992-04-22
AU8562991A (en) 1992-04-16
CA2052905A1 (en) 1992-04-10
FR2667686A1 (en) 1992-04-10

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