DE102014115840A1 - Toll collection by means of radio beacons - Google Patents

Toll collection by means of radio beacons

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Publication number
DE102014115840A1
DE102014115840A1 DE102014115840.7A DE102014115840A DE102014115840A1 DE 102014115840 A1 DE102014115840 A1 DE 102014115840A1 DE 102014115840 A DE102014115840 A DE 102014115840A DE 102014115840 A1 DE102014115840 A1 DE 102014115840A1
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Germany
Prior art keywords
data
data device
vehicle
radio
telegrams
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Withdrawn
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DE102014115840.7A
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German (de)
Inventor
Norbert Miller
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Scheidt and Bachmann GmbH
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Scheidt and Bachmann GmbH
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Application filed by Scheidt and Bachmann GmbH filed Critical Scheidt and Bachmann GmbH
Priority to DE102014115840.7A priority Critical patent/DE102014115840A1/en
Publication of DE102014115840A1 publication Critical patent/DE102014115840A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B15/00Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points
    • G07B15/06Arrangements for road pricing or congestion charging of vehicles or vehicle users, e.g. automatic toll systems

Abstract

The invention relates to a system for automated detection of the use of toll roads by vehicles, at least consisting of a radio beacon for unidirectional transmission of digital payload telegrams within a spatially limited range, and a vehicle-integrated data device for receiving, caching and retransmission of the sent from the beacon payload telegrams, and a sending station for receiving and for forwarding the further forwarded by the data device Nutzdatentelegramme, and a background system for the evaluation and further processing of the received data received from the sending station telegrams.

Description

  • More particularly, the invention relates to a system and method for automatically detecting the use of toll roads by vehicles.
  • The aforementioned systems and methods for toll collection for roads are basically known.
  • There are no-usage procedures that charge a toll for a specific period of time (eg, week, month, or year) and give access to toll roads for the prepaid period, regardless of frequency of use. The right of use in these systems is not transferable between different vehicles and is documented by a proof of payment fixed to the vehicle, which can be optically inspected from outside the vehicle and which destroys itself when attempting to detach it from the vehicle ("Vignette ").
  • Furthermore, there are usage-dependent methods in which the toll is essentially levied per distance traveled. The classic solution for this are procedures with toll stations at entrances and exits of mouse routes, in which the driver of the toll vehicle at the entrance receives a ticket, which he pays when reaching the desired departure. The system is complex in that it takes on busy routes large toll stations to be able to carry out the issue of tickets and pay the mouth even in large traffic in an acceptable time. In addition, each access and departure must be provided with toll stations for this system.
  • A further development of the toll stations is the "fast lane" on which registered users (vehicles) can pass a toll station without stopping. In this case, there is a contactless readable wide-range transponder card in the vehicle, which is read out contactlessly by a readout unit above or at the side of the fast lane at the toll station. This is known in the toll collection system, warm and where which transponder card entered and left the toll route, so that the used transponder card can be determined a toll and charged with a stored account.
  • Also known is the Toll Collect method for trucks in Germany. The preferred way to collect toll in Toll-Collect is through fully automatic billing through the use of the GPS system, which requires the installation of so-called on-board units (OBU) in trucks. With the start of the truck, the OBU turns on and locates the position of the vehicle by means of satellite navigation. Based on the location and route data stored in the OBU, the OBU can now determine whether there is toll on the route. The data collected is transmitted via mobile phone to a computer center where it is processed for invoicing. In order to prevent toll payments being suppressed (eg by simply switching off the OBUs), trucks are photographed at about 300 toll bridges and checked by about 450 mobile checkpoints. The data obtained are compared with the data in the central computer and, if necessary, appropriate measures are taken.
  • Thus, in particular the following methods have become known from the prior art.
  • Out EP784297A1 A toll collection method is known in which transit data is exchanged between a toll booth and a vehicle-mounted mobile terminal used for automated toll collection. The passage data are stored at the toll gates of the entrances and exits and settled in a central system. The mobile terminal may be a telephone.
  • Out JP120504 / 1993 A toll collection method is known in which a credit card is plugged into a portable vehicle unit. The vehicle unit is able to communicate wirelessly with toll stations and sends billing-relevant data - including the credit card number - at the entrance and exit to the tollbooth. The trip data is billed by a central computer.
  • Out US2010032479A1 Another method of toll payment is known: An electronic toll collection unit in a vehicle provides information regarding tolls to be paid and a registered vehicle to a mobile communication terminal. The communication terminal pays the toll via an identification card and returns the payment to the toll collection unit. It is basically a payment method with a mobile terminal ("mobile payment"), in which the terminal receives information about the payment amount from the toll unit and reports a successful payment to the toll unit. Again, the payment process is performed when passing through toll booths.
  • US2004212518A1 describes a method to inform the user of a toll collection system, which works with prepaid accounts, when passing through toll booths about the current status of his toll account. For this purpose, a vehicle navigation system and a communication terminal in the vehicle work together in such a way that the navigation system recognizes the passage of a toll booth based on stored card data, sends a request to the toll collection system via the communication terminal and - again via the communication terminal - receives the account balance and displays it. According to today's technical standards, vehicle navigation system and communication terminal can be replaced together by a smartphone.
  • The references known from the patent literature have in common that the toll collection is triggered in all cases by the passage of toll collection and that takes place at the toll collection points bidirectional communication between toll collection point and a communication unit in the vehicle The toll collection point sends data to the communication unit in the vehicle; the communication unit sends data back to the toll collection point.
  • In the case of the introduction of a motorway toll for cars in relatively densely populated countries with many highway entrances and exits accounts for space and cost reasons, the expansion with toll stations. So there is only one usage-independent toll in question or a usage-based toll with less infrastructural interventions.
  • A use-dependent toll collection by means of the Toll Collect method fails for cars because the cost of an on-board unit and its installation in the respective vehicle infrastructure for the totality of old cars are too high.
  • It is therefore an object of the invention to enable secure automated detection of the use of toll roads without the need for costly infrastructure in the road network or in the vehicles would be necessary and without the traffic flow obstructing toll collection points would have to be established.
  • To solve the problem system according to the invention is proposed, at least consisting of a radio beacon for unidirectional transmission of digital payload telegrams within a spatially limited range, and a vehicle-integrated data device for receiving, caching and retransmission of the sent from the beacon payload telegrams, and a sending station for receiving and Retransmission of the forwarded by the data device Nutzdatentelegramme, and a background system for the evaluation and further processing of the user data received from the sending station. Furthermore, a method according to the invention according to claim 11 is proposed.
  • The system according to the invention and the method according to the invention are distinguished by the fact that they enable comparatively cost-effective, use-dependent toll collection. In particular, this is achieved by the synergetic use of highly specialized individual components, which are limited in their individual functionality to a minimum, whereby no complex infrastructure for operating the system is needed and the manufacturing, setup, maintenance and operating costs of the system according to the invention is advantageously reduced.
  • It is inventively provided that periodically unidirectional radio signals are sent from the set up on a toll road radio beacon within a the toll road at least partially covering Funkbereis, wherein at least one radio signal from the at least temporarily located within the radio range vehicle-integrated data device is received, with the Radio signal transmitted digital data stored in the data memory of the data device.
  • The data device is in this case preferably mechanically connected to a vehicle and preferably arranged in the interior of the vehicle. Electrically and in terms of information technology, however, it can operate without a license.
  • Each in-vehicle data device preferably carries a unique number and is registered in a central background system as belonging to the vehicle. Furthermore, it is preferably provided to set up a user account for each data device on the background system which stores data about the vehicle and the vehicle owner (at least vehicle license plate number, name, address and contact details of the owner). includes. Furthermore, an electronic means of payment can be stored for the user account, such. For example, a credit card number or a SEPA mandate.
  • When driving on the toll road, the vehicle-integrated data device receives radio signals from the radio beacons set up along the road and at least stores the data content of certain of these received radio signals - namely payload data telegrams. The user data telegrams contain at least the unique identifier of the beacon as well as a time stamp (date and time).
  • If the vehicle-integrated data device receives a payload data telegram from a radio beacon, it stores it in a memory module.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the useful data telegrams stored during the journeys of the vehicle-integrated data device are sent to the background system for further processing. Payload telegrams that are sent by the data device to the background system are provided by the data device with their unique number so that they can be assigned in the background system exactly this data device - ie the associated vehicle and thus the user account. In the background system, toll-based journeys are reconstructed from the payload data telegrams and charged using electronic means of payment. This is the user at regular intervals -. Monthly - a bill.
  • Sending the stored payload telegrams from the in-vehicle data device to the background system is preferably at locations where vehicles typically remain stationary for a period of time of at least a few minutes, such as e.g. As gas stations, parking garages, workshops, inspection service (TÜV, DEKRA, GTÜ) and the like. For the purposes of the invention, such places are "sending stations" with the aid of which the useful data telegrams stored by data devices are sent to the background system as an "upload". At a Aufsendestation a radio system is installed for this purpose, which performs with the data device one, preferably bidirectional, data exchange as soon as the data device - ie the associated vehicle - enters the transmission range of the radio system. For this purpose, the radio system sends both a wake-up signal described later as well as a digital forwarding identifier and an authorization to the data device, and this then sends all stored, not yet sent payload telegrams with the addition of the unique number of the data device to the radio system. The radio system acknowledges receipt of the payload telegrams to the data device, and the data device marks these successfully posted payload telegrams in its data memory as "sent". Furthermore, the radio system sends a time stamp (date and time) and a one-to-one identifier to the data device; This data is stored in the data device in order to be able to use the location and time of the transmission process in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention for a control method. In order not to overflow the memory of the data device, the payload telegrams marked as sent can be deleted in the memory of the data device or overwritten by newly received user data telegrams. In order to keep the data volume as small as possible when sending the payload data telegrams and thus the time required for sending, the data device preferably sends only those stored payload data telegrams which are not marked as already sent in their memory.
  • The radio system of the sending station is preferably connected to the background system by means of a wide area network (WAN) in order to send the received data telegrams to the background system, where they are further processed in the manner described and billed to the user. In an alternative embodiment, it is possible to pay for the use of the toll road directly to the Aufsendestation. This can be paid when refueling or at a machine.
  • The radio beacon preferably transmits analog wake-up signals and digital user data telegrams by means of the radio signals. More preferably, the beacon sends wake-up signals and payload telegrams on different carrier frequencies.
  • According to a preferred feature of the invention, the wake-up signal for each beacon is identical and unchanged in time. It is preferably transmitted at a certain frequency at which a wake-up guard within the vehicle-integrated data device is constantly ready to receive as soon as the vehicle is moving. In order to optimize the energy balance of the data device, the wake-up signal is evaluated by a preferably passive analog circuit, which turns on recognition of a wake-up signal, a microprocessor in the data device and the data device thus completely in operation takes. Only when fully operational is the data device capable of receiving and storing the digital payload telegrams.
  • The payload data telegram preferably has two essential contents: the one-to-one identifier of the emitting radio beacon and a time stamp (date and time). Furthermore, the user data telegram can contain a checksum with the aid of which the data integrity can be checked in order to exclude incorrectly transmitted user data telegrams from the later evaluation. Payload telegrams can be cryptographically encrypted by the beacon to prevent manipulation of the data. Common symmetric encryption techniques can be used (such as DES, 3DES, AES, IDEA) or asymmetric encryption techniques (such as RSA, Merkle-Hellman, McEliece, Rabin, Chor-Rivest, Elgamal). It is advantageous for the data security of the payload data telegrams that they are preferably stored encrypted in the vehicle-integrated data device and sent in encrypted form to the background system via a charging station. In a preferred embodiment, the payload telegrams are dynamically encrypted, i. H. the cryptographic key is changed regularly. The beacons receive regularly from the background system new keys, each key is assigned a key number. In this embodiment, a payload data telegram consists of the key number in plain text and the actual payload which are encrypted with the associated key. The data device then stores the encrypted data message unchanged because it does not know the key itself. After the stored data telegrams have been sent to the background system via a sending station, the background system can use the key number to decrypt and process the data telegrams with the associated key. According to the invention, the keys for encrypting the data telegrams are known only in the beacons, and the keys for decrypting the data telegrams are known only in the background system. In the event that a symmetric encryption method is used, the keys for encrypting and decrypting the data telegrams are naturally identical. Because of the potential variety of dedicated beacons, which may preferably be distributed over a large geographic area, it is difficult to physically monitor the integrity of each beacon in a tight time frame. Preferably, it is therefore proposed to change the cryptographic keys once a day.
  • According to the invention, the radio beacons periodically transmit the radio signals repeatedly, regardless of whether a vehicle passes the beacon or not. The communication between the beacon and the vehicle-integrated data device is therefore unidirectional: radio signals are transmitted periodically only from the beacon in the direction of the roadway (broadcast method: a unit transmits, a plurality of units can receive, without sending back). Accordingly, there is also no feedback from the vehicle to a beacon; the beacon has no knowledge of whether and how many vehicles are passing by; neither does the beacon know whether or not the data telegrams it has sent are received. The periodic emission of the radio signals from the beacon in the direction of the road surface is preferably so frequent that vehicles that pass through the transmission range of the beacon, at least once can receive a wake-up signal and a payload data telegram. With a transmission power of up to 2 watts, a beacon can transmit a few hundred meters. Assuming that a moving vehicle is over 100 meters driving distance in the transmission range of the beacon and that the vehicle in extreme cases 300 km / h (83.3 m / s) is fast, so it is for 1.2 seconds in the transmitter area the beacon. If the periodicity of the radio signals is 0.5 seconds, the data device of an extremely fast moving vehicle should also be able to receive at least a wake-up signal and a payload telegram on this 100 meters. The beacon thus preferably transmits radio signals every 0.5 seconds.
  • According to the invention, a radio beacon can have a simple emission characteristic, that is, its radio antenna is set up in such a way that it radiates its radio signal in exactly one main direction, resulting in a spatially limited transmission range (so-called antenna lobe). A vehicle whose integrated data device receives data telegrams from this beacon travels in its travel motion through exactly this one antenna lobe, and the data device receives during this transit at least one wake-up signal and at least one payload telegram from the beacon.
  • In a preferred embodiment, a radio beacon can have a dual emission characteristic, that is, its radio antenna is set up to emit its radio signal in exactly two main directions (two antenna lobes). Preferably, two radio antennas can be used for this purpose. A vehicle whose integrated data device receives radio signals from this beacon travels through both antenna lobes in its travel motion, and the data device receives at least one wake-up signal and at least one payload telegram from each antenna lobe during this transit. A beacon that is set up in this way preferably transmits its user data in each of the two antenna lobes with another one Subsription (eg beacon no. 333 transmits the identifier 333.1 in one antenna lobe and the identifier 333.2 in the other antenna lobe). In the order in which payload telegrams of different identifiers are received, the data device can now recognize in which direction it has passed by the beacon no. 333. If the pass is in the wrong direction, the data device can determine this on the basis of the order of the received user data telegrams. Thus, the data device can detect wrong-way and leave a corresponding warning signal inside the vehicle visually and / or acoustically. In order to support this preferred application, the above-mentioned encryption of the user data message must be supplemented as follows, since the data device can not process the dynamically encrypted user data message: The user data message is once dynamically encrypted by the beacon and transmitted once again statically encrypted. The dynamically encrypted payload telegrams are then stored in the data device in the manner described above and later sent to the background system via sending stations. The statically encrypted user data telegrams are decrypted in the data device with a permanently stored key and evaluated to detect wrong-way. For example, the two antenna lobes of a beacon may have different sub-identifiers such that the direction-correct driving always means that the received user data telegrams have different sub-identifiers (eg 333.1 and 333.2) in ascending numerical order. Receiving the payload data telegrams in a different order thus suggests a wrong-way drive.
  • In a preferred arrangement, radio beacons may be placed along highways with their antenna lobes sweeping the roadway and each passing vehicle traveling sufficiently long in each antenna lobe so that its in-vehicle data device can receive at least one payload telegram from the respective beacon. Along the highway, the data device thus receives and stores useful data telegrams corresponding to the route and sends them later to the background system as described. A particular advantage of this preferred arrangement of the beacons is that the beacons, if they are also connected to the background system via a wide area network (WAN) according to a further preferred feature of the invention, can receive additional location-related additional information from the background system and send it to the data devices. This additional information may relate to traffic flow, road conditions or weather, and may be sent to the background system by other existing guidance and observation systems. Thus, information about congestion, accidents, black ice, fog, etc., which relate to a particular section, be given as additional data telegrams from the background system to the exact beacons that include the affected section or lie in the direction of travel shortly before. The corresponding beacons then preferably send these additional data telegrams together with the payload data telegrams so that they can be received by the data devices of the passing vehicles. The data devices evaluate the additional data telegrams and emit an optical and / or audible warning signal to the vehicle interior. Additional data telegrams are preferably encrypted with a static key, so that the data devices can decrypt the additional data telegrams with a permanently stored key.
  • In a preferred variant of this type of arrangement, radio beacons can be set up along highways in the vicinity of emergency telephones in such a way that they are supplied with electrical energy by the emergency call pillars and that they use the data-intensive networking of the emergency call columns for a data connection to the background system. A particular advantage of this type of arrangement of the beacons is that existing infrastructure for the power supply and data connection of the respective emergency call post is shared by the connected beacon.
  • In an alternative arrangement, radio beacons can be set up along highways at exits and driveways such that their antenna lobe covers, in particular, the deceleration and acceleration stripes. This type of arrangement has the advantage that the approach to and the exit from the highway are detected very safely. The special orientation of the antenna lobe on the deceleration and acceleration stripes ensures that the vehicles typically enter the antenna lobe one after the other and at a relatively low speed. The driving on and off the highway, which is essential for toll collection, is thus very reliably recorded. It also avoids, among other things, that in multi-lane directional lanes vehicles in the antenna lobe of other vehicles (eg overhauled truck) are shadowed and receive no radio signals.
  • In a preferred variant of this type of arrangement, radio beacons can be used, in particular in the embodiment described above with dual emission characteristics, ie the beacon at the exit radiates two antenna lobes, which both extend in the direction of the delay strip, and the beacon at the driveway emits two antenna lobes , which are both in the direction of Acceleration strip extend. If a driver now uses the motorway in the wrong direction of travel, then his vehicle passes through the antenna lobes in the wrong direction and the two sub-identifiers of the respective beacon are received by the vehicle-integrated data device in the wrong order. The data device can then deliver an optical and / or acoustic warning signal to the vehicle interior.
  • The payload data telegram preferably consists of the following data contents: Usage data content Length (bit) dynamically encrypted user data telegram Key number (in plain text) for the dynamic key 16 Timestamp (date and time) 36 one-to-one identifier of the radio beacon 20 Checksum of dynamically encrypted data 32 statically encrypted user data telegram Timestamp (date and time) 36 one-to-one identifier of the radio beacon 20 Checksum of statically encrypted data 32 total 192
  • Assuming that the timestamp resolves accurately to a 1/10 second, the data lengths provided for operation of the system will be more than 218 years. Assuming that each identifier of a radio beacon can receive up to 10 subkeys, more than 100,000 beacons can be distinguished with the intended data lengths.
  • Since a data overhead is still required for the transmission of the payload data telegrams, it can be assumed that a total of approximately 400 bits of data to be sent are required for this. The radio beacon should preferably transmit in the frequency band from 865 to 868 MHz, which is approved for the transmission of data for identification with up to 2 watts of radio power by radio. For this frequency band, a gross data transmission rate of 20,000 bit / s is assumed. Sending a payload telegram will take about 0.02 seconds. It is therefore technically possible to carry out a complete transmission process every 0.5 seconds, as was designed above on the basis of the estimated shortest dwell time of a vehicle in the transmission range of a beacon. A technically particularly preferred strategy for transmitting the radio signals is to emit one wake-up signal and one payload telegram alternately every 0.25 seconds. This provision for transmitting the radio signals has the particular advantage that a data device in the stand-by mode explained below when driving through an antenna lobe is set to fully switched-on mode by receiving a wake-up signal and 0.25 seconds later in the same antenna lobe can receive a first Nutzdatentelegramm.
  • The vehicle-integrated data device is preferably made substantially rectangular and is designed so that it can be attached to the inside of the windshield; the area of the data device corresponds approximately to that of a motorway vignette, the thickness is preferably less than 10 mm. On the inside, which is the side facing the interior of the vehicle, when the data device is intended to be mounted on a vehicle window, at least one red, one yellow and one blue light-emitting diode provided by the data device are preferably visible.
  • The vehicle-integrated data device preferably has at least one battery from which it is supplied with the electrical energy necessary for operation. The at least one battery is preferably accessible via a mounted on the inside of the data device battery compartment cover and can be exchanged in this way. The battery compartment lid is preferably provided with a seal which is destroyed as soon as the battery compartment lid is opened. As a result, manipulation attempts are identified, in which the data device to be taken by simply removing the battery out of service. Battery replacement should preferably be carried out at authorized locations (eg at test service providers such as TÜV, DEKRA, GTÜ and others) and will be properly completed with the installation of a new seal.
  • In an alternative embodiment, the battery compartment cover may be attached to the side of the vehicle-integrated data device facing the windshield. In this case, the Data device for changing the battery removed from the vehicle and then properly fixed in the vehicle again. This embodiment has the particular advantage that the battery compartment of a data device properly connected to the vehicle can not be opened without leaving traces visible from outside the vehicle.
  • For reasons of energy efficiency, according to a preferred feature of the invention, the in-vehicle data device only operates when the vehicle in which it is mounted moves. This is preferably determined by a motion sensor within the data device. When the vehicle is stationary for a certain period of time, the data device switches to a deep sleep mode: all components are switched off as far as possible or consume the technically lowest possible energy. In particular, all radio receivers of the data device are completely switched off. A data device in operation automatically assumes the deep sleep mode as soon as no more movement has been detected by the motion sensor for preferably 1 minute. The expiration of this time period is measured by means of a clock module in the data device. A movement of the vehicle is detected by the motion sensor of the data device and by the signal of the motion sensor, the data connection is switched to a stand-by mode. In stand-by mode, a wake-up guard is active, which waits for a wake-up signal from a radio beacon via a radio antenna. Once a wake-up signal is detected, the data device is fully powered up. This condition is indicated by a timed flashing of the blue LED, preferably for 5 to 15 seconds after the data device is fully turned on. A microprocessor with UHF module is now ready to receive payload telegrams from beacons, process and store them in a memory chip. As soon as a user data telegram is no longer received by a completely switched-on data device for a certain period of time, but the motion sensor continues to report movements, the data device automatically and automatically returns to the standby mode. This is preferably carried out when no payload data telegram has been received for a period of 15 seconds; so that the data device is also in a long drive on a toll road for the vast length of time in the energy-saving standby mode, but is switched on when passing a beacon from the wake-up signal in the short term and then receives payload telegram the beacon.
  • In order to alert the user to an imminent battery change, the yellow LED preferably lights up as soon as the battery voltage of the vehicle-integrated data device falls below a certain value. Preferably, warnings about road or traffic conditions or the weather are displayed to the driver by the red LED lighting up. The sending of the stored user data telegrams at the sending stations is preferably indicated to the driver by the fact that the blue LED flashes during the sending process. Optically output indications of the data device can be acoustically supported, for this purpose the data device is preferably equipped with a piezo buzzer.
  • In order to uniquely assign the vehicle-integrated data device to a vehicle in a visually inspectable manner, according to a preferred feature of the invention, it can be fastened to the windshield of a vehicle by means of a double-sided adhesive seal. The seal is preferably perforated so that it is destroyed when the once attached data device is removed from the windshield. In addition, the seal may carry other optical security features such as holograms, kinegrams, hologram stripes, fluorescent colors, mottled fibers, guilloches, security threads or microfonts.
  • The double-sided adhesive seal can preferably also be designed as a passive RFID transponder. It then contains a data memory, which can be read out by means of a contactless RFID interface, for example 13.56 MHz, through the windscreen in order to check the integrity of the seal. At least the seal number is stored in the data memory of the seal.
  • When installing the vehicle-integrated data device in the vehicle data device and vehicle are preferably physically connected to each other via the double-sided adhesive seal. Furthermore, data device and vehicle are data-technically linked together during installation, ie, as part of a mounting procedure, the user account is set up on the background system and the data device to be installed is assigned to this account by data technology. When installed in the vehicle, the data device is configured to receive a one-to-one identifier consisting of the number and chassis number of the vehicle and the seal number of the seal used; For this purpose, the unique identifier of the data device is written by a configuration device in a protected memory area of the data device. The intended installation of the data devices in the vehicles is carried out at authorized locations which have data access to the background system create the user accounts and which have a configuration device to configure the data devices.
  • The double-sided adhesive seal can carry further visible information, which is captured when creating the user account, such. B. a one-to-one seal number. Furthermore, it can be provided that the seal with conventional felt-tip pens u. Ä. Can be labeled so that when installing the vehicle-integrated data device in a vehicle, the number plate and the date of installation visible on the seal can be noted. If the seal is designed as an RFID transponder, at least the license plate and the chassis number of the vehicle can be written into the data memory of the seal during installation, so that when checking the seal via the RFID interface, these data can be read and verified.
  • The maximum radio power of a radio beacon according to the invention is 2 watts, wherein the radio power of each individual beacon can be adjusted to lower values according to the respective setting situation. Likewise, the radiation characteristic of each individual beacon can be adapted to the installation situation by aligning the antenna; Preferably, a radio beacon may also be equipped with two antennas. By adjusting the transmission power and emission characteristics, the antenna lobes emitted by the respective beacon can be adapted to the setup situation so that the transmission range of the beacon covers the desired lanes or lanes to a desired length - of course within the physically possible parameters of transmission power and antennas used , It is preferably possible for beacons with different antennas to be used at different installation locations in order, for example, to use one or two antenna lobes.
  • The radio beacons preferably transmit the wake-up signal on the 865 MHz frequency and the useful data telegram on the 868 MHz frequency.
  • For use in the toll collection method according to the invention, it is advantageous that the radio beacons are protected against manipulation, theft, vandalism and accident or weather-related damage or misalignment. A physical backup of the beacons against unwanted interventions is already limited for cost reasons. Therefore, it is provided according to a preferred embodiment of the invention that the beacons detect unwanted interventions independently and can respond to it. For this purpose, the beacons are preferably equipped with sensors that can determine autonomously in particular a moving away from the site or a misalignment. These include, in particular, vibration sensors and inclination sensors, which respond as soon as a beacon that has been installed is moved out of position. Further, the beacons may include an electronic compass which detects twisting of the beacon by changing its position relative to the earth's magnetic field. Furthermore, the beacons may include a GPS receiver that detects the launch of the beacon to another location. To do this, the sensors are switched on standby when the beacon is installed as soon as the beacon is fully installed and aligned. The installation-relevant parameters of the sensors such as location (GPS data), inclination to gravity and orientation to the earth's magnetic field are stored in the operating data of the beacon, so that the beacon can detect deviations from the setup conditions independently by periodically captures their current sensor data with compares the stored operating data and can react to it when exceeding tolerance values by sending an error message to the background system and / or decommissioning itself.
  • The radio beacons are preferably connected to the background system by data technology via a wide area network (WAN). The connection with the background system can be realized via a radio data network or via the use of local infrastructure near the beacon; For example, a beacon may be placed in the vicinity of an emergency pillar so that it uses the data connection of the emergency call column.
  • The radio beacon preferably receives its operating data at regular intervals from the background system. Furthermore, it preferably sends status data to the background system at regular intervals. In a preferred embodiment, a data exchange between beacon and background system takes place once a day and is initiated by the background system.
  • Thus, according to this embodiment, the background system once a day queries the operating state of the radio beacon and sends new operating data to the beacon. In particular, this new operating data is a synchronization record to synchronize the clock with the system time, and new keys for the dynamic encryption of the payload telegrams. The background system provides the keys for the dynamic encryption of the payload telegrams with a unique one Key number sent by the beacons with the payload telegrams to allow the background system to use the correct key in later decrypting the payload telegrams sent by the in-vehicle data devices. A beacon uses a key once received from the background system until it receives a new one.
  • A data exchange between the beacon and the background system can alternatively or in combination also occur spontaneously and initiated by the beacon. In particular, when the beacon detects a change in its operating state via its sensors, it reports this in the form of an error message to the background system.
  • According to a preferred feature of the invention, it is provided that a radio beacon takes itself out of operation if it could not exchange data with the background system for a predetermined period of time. This period of time is preferably to be chosen such that not every network interruption leads to the failure of all or many beacons. At the same time, of course, it must be ensured that a stolen beacon, for example, can not be abused for too long. The permitted period of time for which a beacon can be operated without data connection to the background system can be set individually for each beacon as an operating parameter so that individual setup conditions, in particular good or bad network availability, can be taken into account accordingly. It is preferably proposed that a beacon, which is connected to the background system with good network availability, remains in operation for a maximum of 3 days without data exchange with the background system. Preferably, it is further proposed that a beacon, which is connected to the background system with poor network availability, remains in operation for a maximum of 7 days without data exchange with the background system.
  • Radio beacons can be designed according to a preferred embodiment of the invention so that they are operated independently, d. H. without having an external power supply and without the need for a wired WAN connection. In this case, the power is supplied via at least one solar module and at least one backup battery, and the WAN connection to the background system via a radio network.
  • Alternatively, radio beacons can be made to utilize existing infrastructure. Advantageously, it is advisable to set up the beacons in such close proximity to emergency telephones that the beacons use their energy supply and WAN connection. For this purpose, the beacons are connected to the emergency call column with an electrical line and a local network line.
  • In the case of the preferred embodiment in which the vehicle-integrated data device automatically switches to stand-by mode at the start of the journey and automatically switches on completely upon receipt of a wake-up signal, a fraudulent bypassing of the toll collection method according to the invention is at least difficult. Nevertheless, registration procedures with many involved parties - as we have seen here - always allow for circumvention. Essential for the proper implementation of the method is that vehicles are on the toll roads with functioning data devices on the move and that the user data telegrams stored by the data devices are regularly sent to the background system.
  • In order to monitor the toll collection method according to the invention, a monitoring method is therefore proposed according to a preferred embodiment of the invention, in which mobile surveillance units randomly read out certain data from the vehicle-integrated data devices. When a vehicle is sampled, it is first stopped.
  • The control personnel can then at least visually check the optical integrity of the seals of the vehicle-integrated data device. If the double-sided adhesive seal, with which the data device is fastened to the windshield of the vehicle, is designed as an RFID transponder, in addition the sealing data can be electronically read contactless and verified by an online comparison with those stored on the background system to the corresponding seal Data and / or the vehicle data such. B. License plate.
  • Since the vehicle was in motion until paused, its data device is at least in stand-by mode. For further implementation of the monitoring method, the monitoring personnel preferably have a portable control unit which functions similarly to the radio systems at the sending stations. The portable control unit is preferably computer-based equipped with a user screen and possibly other useful user interfaces and preferably has a Radio interface in the same way as the radio system of a Aufsendestation. However, the set radio power can be chosen to be much lower, since the portable control unit always needs to communicate in the immediate vicinity with only one vehicle-integrated data device in a control process.
  • The control unit preferably transmits, without contact, a wake-up signal and a digital control identifier to the vehicle-integrated data device of the vehicle to be checked. The data device then sends to the control unit the time stamp of the last payload, the one-to-one identifier of the sending station used for this purpose, and the number of payload telegrams stored in the memory and not yet sent. These data are stored in the control unit, evaluated and presented to the control personnel. The control personnel is thus aware of when and where the last data entry was performed with the inspected data device and how many new user data messages have since been stored in the data device. If a procedural waiting time for the transmission of user data telegrams is exceeded - for example, once a month - or if the permitted number of unused user data telegrams is exceeded, appropriate measures can be taken.
  • Further, the control unit can be used to read out non-posted payload telegrams - in exactly the same way as the radio system of a Aufsendstation - from the vehicle-integrated data device and store. The payload telegrams successfully read out in this way are marked as "sent" in the data device and are sent to the background system by the control unit at a later time.
  • Furthermore, the control unit can dispose of the current cryptographic keys for decrypting the payload telegrams read by the vehicle-integrated data device. Thus, the read-in payload telegrams can be decrypted and displayed to the control personnel in plain text, so that a check is then possible whether in particular the last stored in the data device payload telegrams fit together with the place where the current control takes place plausible. If suspected fraudulent circumvention of the toll collection system, appropriate action can be taken.
  • The invention will be illustrated below with reference to exemplary embodiments. These are merely illustrative and are not intended to be limiting of the entirety of the invention.
  • So shows:
  • 1 an inventive transmission of radio signals to a data device
  • 2 sending stored payload telegrams from the in-vehicle data device to the background system
  • 3 a transmission of radio signals in two antenna lobes
  • 4 an arrangement of radio beacons on a highway
  • 5 an alternative arrangement of radio beacons on a highway
  • 6 a vehicle-integrated data device, schematic structure
  • 7 an in-vehicle data device, view outside
  • 8th an in-vehicle data device, inside view
  • 9 Interfaces of a self-sufficient radio beacon
  • 10 Interfaces of a radio beacon connected to an emergency pillar
  • 1 shows the transmission of radio signals to a vehicle. On a toll road 100 drives a vehicle 200 that with an inventive vehicle-integrated data device 600 Is provided. A radio beacon 300 sends radio signals 401 . 402 that from the data device 600 be received. The beacon 300 alternately sends a wake-up signal 401 and a payload telegram 402 , The wake-up signal 401 activates the data device 600 such that they are the payload telegrams 402 can receive and save. The radiation characteristics of the beacon 300 is set so that the antenna lobe 500 both lanes of the toll road 100 sweeps.
  • 2 shows the sending of stored payload telegrams from the in-vehicle data device to the background system. The vehicle 200 with the vehicle-integrated data device 600 reaches a gas station 700 that with a radio system 701 equipped. The radio system 701 The gas station sends special data telegrams, which the data device 600 cause their stored payload telegrams 403 to the radio system 701 to send. The data device 600 sends those stored user data telegrams 403 that have not yet been posted, providing them with the one-to-one identifier of the data device 600 , The radio system 701 the gas station receives the stored user data telegrams 403 and confirms receipt to the data device 600 , This marks in its data memory the successfully sent user data telegrams 403 as "sent" and can overwrite this data later with newly received payload telegrams. After completion of the radio-based data exchange with the data device 600 sends the radio system 701 the gas station the Nutzdatentelegramme 403 through the long haul data network 1100 to which the gas station is connected to the background system 900 , In the same way, the sending of collected user data telegrams in a parking garage works 800 with a similar radio system 801 ,
  • 3 shows the transmission of radio signals in two antenna lobes. In this embodiment, the radio beacon beams 300 two antenna lobes 501 . 502 off which the lanes of the toll road 100 paint so that a vehicle 200 first the first antenna lobe 501 and then the second antenna lobe 502 traverses.
  • In this case, the vehicle-integrated data device receives and stores 600 first a payload telegram 402.1 in the first antenna lobe 501 , This user data telegram is with the identifier of the beacon 300 and the subkey "1" provided. Subsequently, the data device receives and stores 600 a payload telegram 402.1 in the second antenna lobe 502 , This user data telegram is with the identifier of the beacon 300 and the subkey "2" provided. The order of the received data telegrams 402.1 and 402.2 as well as their timestamps are in the data device 600 evaluated with the result that the vehicle 200 the antenna lobes 501 . 502 has traversed in the correct order, so that no wrong course is performed.
  • 4 shows an arrangement of radio beacons on a highway with shared use of existing infrastructure. Along the highway 101 with two directional lanes are emergency call pillars 1000 present in a known manner. There are now radio beacons 300 placed so near the emergency telephones that these beacons 300 to the emergency telephones 1000 be connected for the purpose of power supply and for the purpose of data connection. The beacons can 300 via existing network infrastructure to the wide area network 1100 access and with the background system 900 establish a data connection.
  • 5 shows an alternative arrangement of radio beacons on a highway. It is not important here whether the radio beacons can use existing infrastructure or not. Rather, in this alternative arrangement of radio beacons 301 . 302 along a highway 101 the place of installation chosen so that in particular vehicles, the exit 102 and the driveway 104 use, by the transmission range of the respective beacon 301 . 302 drive. The antenna lobe 503 the beacon 301 covers the delay track 103 such that the data devices of the departing vehicles receive the payload telegrams of that beacon 301 receive. The antenna lobe 504 the beacon 302 covers the acceleration track 105 , so that the data devices of the approaching vehicles, the Nutzdatentelegramme this beacon 302 receive.
  • 6 shows the schematic structure of a vehicle-integrated data device 600 , A battery 604 Type CR2450 (3V rated voltage, 550 mAh capacity) is via a motion sensor 603 with a microcontroller 601 connected with integrated radio module. As a microcontroller, a chip kit CC430 is used. As long as the motion sensor 603 detects no movement, the data device is located 600 in a deep sleep mode, ie all components are as far as possible switched off or consume the technically lowest possible energy. In particular, all radio receivers of the data device are completely switched off. Once the motion sensor 603 detects a movement becomes the data device 600 switched to a stand-by mode. In stand-by mode is a wake-up guard 605 in operation, and the UHF antenna 606 is ready to receive. Once in stand-by mode, a wake-up signal 401 on the frequency 865 MHz from the UHF antenna 606 is received, this is the wake-up guard 605 registered, and this activates the microcontroller 601 , The data device 600 is now fully on and ready to user data frames 402 to receive on the frequency 868 MHz. Received user data telegrams are from the microcontroller 601 into a data store 602 saved. The data memory is of type ST m25p with 2 Mbyte storage capacity. Once from the fully powered-on data device 600 No payload telegram for a period of 15 seconds 402 more were received, but the motion sensor 603 continues to report movements, the data device 600 switched back to stand-by mode. Once the motion sensor 603 for a period of 1 minute no movement detected, the operating data device 600 returned to the deep sleep mode.
  • Furthermore, the data device 600 with a clock module 617 equipped to control all time-related operations.
  • Furthermore, the data device 600 with three LEDs 607 (red, yellow and blue) and a piezo number 608 equipped to give the user optical and acoustic feedback.
  • 7 shows the view of the outside of a vehicle-integrated data device 600 , The outside is the side of the data device 600 which, when installed in a vehicle as intended, faces the windscreen. On the outside of the data device 600 are the three LEDs 607 visible, noticeable. The data device 600 comes with a double-sided adhesive seal 609 Adhesively attached to the windshield of a vehicle such that the sigla 609 outside the vehicle through the windshield is visible. The seal 609 is perforated so that it is destroyed when the data device once attached 600 is removed from the windshield. In addition, the seal has 609 a hologram strip 610 as an optical security feature. Furthermore, on the seal 609 the one-to-one seal number 611 printed. The seal 609 also has writable fields on which the indicator 612 and the date of issue 613 of the seal can be written. Another optical characteristic 614 indicates that the seal 609 is designed as a passive RFID transponder and its electronically stored data can be read via an RFID interface.
  • 8th shows the view of the inside of a vehicle-integrated data device 600 , The inside is the side of the data device 600 which, when properly installed in a vehicle, faces the interior of the vehicle. On the inside of the data device 600 are the three LEDs 607 visible, noticeable. Furthermore, the inside of the data device 600 a battery compartment lid 615 which can be opened to access the battery of the data device 600 and to be able to exchange them without the data device 600 to be removed from their installation. The battery compartment cover 615 is with a seal 616 which is destroyed as soon as the battery compartment cover 615 is opened.
  • 9 shows the interfaces of a self-sufficient radio beacon. A self-sufficient radio beacon 300 is equipped so that it requires no external power supply and no wired WAN connection. The energy supply 307 the beacon 300 takes place via a solar module 308 and a backup battery, not shown here. Magnification A shows the data interfaces over which the self-sufficient radio beacon 300 features. A GPS interface 305 receives GPS data about which the beacon 300 determines their location in latitude and longitude. Via a data radio interface 304 is the beacon 300 with the background system 900 connected. To the background system 900 sends the beacon 300 state data 404 , From the background system 900 get the beacon 300 operating data 405 , Via the UHF interface 303 sends the beacon 300 periodically wake-up signals 401 and payload telegrams 402 which of vehicle-integrated data devices 600 in vehicles 200 can be received.
  • 10 shows the interfaces one with an emergency pillar 1000 connected radio beacons 300 , The energy supply 307 the beacon 300 takes place via a 96 V power line, which releases its voltage in the emergency call tower 1000 taps. Enlargement A shows the data interfaces via which the emergency call column 100 connected beacon 300 features. A GPS interface 305 receives GPS data about which the beacon 300 determines their location in latitude and longitude. Via an RJ45 LAN interface 306 is the beacon 300 wired with the emergency telephone 1000 connected. Via the network connection of the emergency call column 1000 is the beacon 300 in this way with the background system 900 connected. To the background system 900 sends the beacon 300 state data 404 , From the background system 900 get the beacon 300 operating data 405 , Via the UHF interface 303 sends the beacon 300 periodically wake-up signals 401 and payload telegrams 402 which of vehicle-integrated data devices 600 in vehicles 200 can be received.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 100
    toll road
    101
    Highway with two directional lanes
    102
    Exit
    103
    Delay lane of the motorway exit
    104
    Motorway
    105
    Acceleration lane of the motorway ramp
    200
    vehicle
    300
    radiobeacon
    301
    Radio beacon at the motorway exit
    302
    Radio beacon at the highway entrance
    303
    UHF interface
    304
    Data radio interface
    305
    GPS interface
    306
    LAN interface
    307
    power supply
    308
    solar module
    400
    Transmission of radio signals
    401
    Wake-up signal
    402
    user data frame
    402.1
    User data telegram with subkey "1"
    402.1
    User data telegram with subkey "2"
    403
    stored user data telegrams
    404
    Status data of the radio beacon
    405
    Operating data for the radio beacon
    500
    antenna beam
    501
    antenna beam
    502
    antenna beam
    503
    Antenna lobe for delay track
    504
    Antenna lobe for acceleration track
    600
    In-vehicle data device
    601
    Microcontroller with UHF module
    602
    data storage
    603
    motion sensor
    604
    battery
    605
    Wake-up guard
    606
    UHF antenna
    607
    LEDs
    608
    Piezo buzzer
    609
    double-sided adhesive seal
    610
    hologram strip
    611
    seal number
    612
    Mark
    613
    date of issue
    614
    Identification of the local radio interface
    615
    Battery cover
    616
    seal
    617
    clock module
    700
    Gas station
    701
    Radio system at a gas station
    800
    car park
    801
    Radio system in the parking garage
    900
    Background System
    1000
    Notrufsäule
    1100
    Wide Area Network (WAN)
  • QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
  • This list of the documents listed by the applicant has been generated automatically and is included solely for the better information of the reader. The list is not part of the German patent or utility model application. The DPMA assumes no liability for any errors or omissions.
  • Cited patent literature
    • EP 784297 A1 [0008]
    • JP 120504/1993 [0009]
    • US 2010032479 A1 [0010]
    • US 2004212518 A1 [0011]

Claims (18)

  1. System for automated recording of the use of toll roads by vehicles, consisting at least of A radio beacon for the unidirectional transmission of digital user data telegrams within a spatially limited transmission range, A vehicle-integrated data device for receiving, buffering and retransmitting the payload telegrams sent by the radio beacon, A sending station for receiving and forwarding the payload telegrams forwarded by the data device, A background system for the evaluation and further processing of the payload telegrams received by the sending station.
  2. A radio beacon for use in a system according to claim 1, wherein the radio beacon comprises at least one radio transmitter for transmitting unidirectional radio signals, wherein the radio signals are at least partially formed of digital user data telegrams comprising at least a time stamp of the transmission time and a unique identifier of the radio beacon.
  3. Radio beacon according to claim 2, characterized in that it has a means for detecting changes in position.
  4. Radio beacon according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it comprises a solar module for autonomous power supply.
  5. Radio beacon according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it is designed to be connectable to the energy supply with an emergency call.
  6. Radio beacon according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it has means for establishing a data connection with the background system.
  7. Radio beacon according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that their emission characteristics and their transmission power are adaptable to the respective installation situation.
  8. A data device for use in a system according to claim 1, comprising at least a receiving unit for receiving payload telegrams from the radio beacon, a data memory having a protected memory area for temporarily storing the payload telegrams sent by the radio beacon, a transmitting unit for forwarding the payload telegrams to a sending station and a mounting means for Arrangement in a vehicle.
  9. Data device according to claim 8, characterized in that it comprises a control device for producing different operating states.
  10. Data device according to one of claims 8 or 9, characterized in that the control device has a movement sensor.
  11. Data device according to one of claims 8 to 10, characterized in that the fastening means is formed as a double-sided adhesive seal for stationary arrangement of the data device on the windshield of the vehicle, wherein the seal is formed perforated so that it is in a solution of the data device of the windshield gets destroyed.
  12. Method for the automated detection of the use of toll roads by vehicles, by means of a system according to claim 1, Wherein a radio beacon set up on a toll road periodically and unidirectionally emits radio signals within a transmission range which at least partially covers the road, Wherein a vehicle-integrated data device, which is at least temporarily within the transmission range, receives at least one radio signal carrying a digital user data telegram, - wherein the data device with the radio signal received Nutzdatentelegramme stores in a data memory, - wherein the data device sends stored user data telegrams to a sending station, - And wherein the sending station transmitted Nutzdatentelegramme transmits to a background system.
  13. A method according to claim 12, characterized in that the radio beacon emits analogue wake-up signals and digital payload data telegrams by means of the radio signals.
  14. A method according to claim 13, characterized in that the data device in a moving vehicle after receiving a wake-up signal assumes a ready-to-receive operating state for receiving payload data telegrams independently.
  15. Method according to one of claims 12 to 14, characterized in that the vehicle-integrated data device provides the Nutzdatentelegramme when sending with a unique identification of the data device identifier.
  16. Method according to Claim 15, characterized in that the sending station sends a message to the vehicle-integrated data device via each successful transmission of a useful data telegram and that the data device identifies the corresponding useful data telegram as "transmitted" in its data memory.
  17. Method according to one of claims 12 to 16, characterized in that the vehicle-integrated data device only those Nutzdatentelegramme that are not marked in their memory as "sent", sends to the sending station.
  18. Control method for a method according to claims 12 to 17, - wherein a portable control unit sends a digital control identifier to a vehicle-integrated data device to be controlled - Whereupon the data device then at least partially sends the digital data stored in its data memory to the control unit
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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH05120504A (en) 1991-10-30 1993-05-18 Omron Corp Tariff collector and responder
EP0784297A2 (en) 1996-01-11 1997-07-16 Nec Corporation Toll collection system capable of properly collecting a toll from a user without requiring any special equipment to be mounted in a vehicle
AT412033B (en) * 2000-02-08 2004-08-26 Efkon Entwicklung Forschung & Konstruktion Von Sondermaschinen Gmbh System for automatic charging of fees
US20040212518A1 (en) 2003-02-26 2004-10-28 Koji Tajima System for notifying tool charge information
US20070210920A1 (en) * 2006-03-09 2007-09-13 George Panotopoulos Identification (ID) system and method of operation thereof
US20100032479A1 (en) 2008-08-10 2010-02-11 Hyundai Motor Company Electronic toll settlement system and apparatus for vehicle
EP2256695A1 (en) * 2009-05-25 2010-12-01 Kapsch TrafficCom AG Road toll system, vehicle device and method for same

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH05120504A (en) 1991-10-30 1993-05-18 Omron Corp Tariff collector and responder
EP0784297A2 (en) 1996-01-11 1997-07-16 Nec Corporation Toll collection system capable of properly collecting a toll from a user without requiring any special equipment to be mounted in a vehicle
AT412033B (en) * 2000-02-08 2004-08-26 Efkon Entwicklung Forschung & Konstruktion Von Sondermaschinen Gmbh System for automatic charging of fees
US20040212518A1 (en) 2003-02-26 2004-10-28 Koji Tajima System for notifying tool charge information
US20070210920A1 (en) * 2006-03-09 2007-09-13 George Panotopoulos Identification (ID) system and method of operation thereof
US20100032479A1 (en) 2008-08-10 2010-02-11 Hyundai Motor Company Electronic toll settlement system and apparatus for vehicle
EP2256695A1 (en) * 2009-05-25 2010-12-01 Kapsch TrafficCom AG Road toll system, vehicle device and method for same

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