Field of the invention
The invention relates to pumped storage plants that require little space
have no special requirements for the terrain conditions
and which are particularly suitable for operating island networks.
State of the art
The storage of electrical energy is usually done by pumped storage. A pumped storage plant consists of a pumping station, an upper and lower reservoir and a hydroelectric power station. The principle of pumped storage is to pump water from the lower tank with excess electricity in the high-lying pool and to drop the water through the turbines of the hydroelectric power plant back into the lower pool in times of high energy demand to generate the required power. Pumped storage is a mature technology. The overall efficiency is 0.70-0.75, ie 70-75% of the energy used can be recovered (see also DE 195 13 817
A prerequisite for the investment of pumped storage plants are favorable terrain conditions for the construction of the two basins, as z. B. are given in the mountains. DE 10361590
describes the construction of a pumped storage plant in disused shaft systems. DD 43131
claims the use of ash and hydraulic filter material for the production of artificial mountains for the construction of an upper basin. DE 195 13 817
describes the construction of large pumped storage power plants in opencast lignite mines where, for particularly large plants, at least the lower reservoir is located below the ambient level.
As before, there is a need for pumped storage plants, all the more so
with increasing share of renewable energies, eg. B. electricity from wind turbines,
Generation and demand of electricity often do not coincide.
as before pumped storage plants are only in height-segmented,
be it mountainous or hilly terrain
in natural or artificially constructed.
In particular, in artificially created terrain,
z. For example, in upper and lower basins created in lignite open-pit sections,
the fluctuation of the water level in the lower basin (depending on the operating condition
almost empty or fully filled lower basin) a caulking
of the lower basin against groundwater to prevent erosion
Need for pumped storage plants is also occupied by the fact that only
a few years ago with the pumped storage plant Goldisthal so far
largest German pumped storage power plant (1060 MW, working capacity:
8,480,000 kWh) has gone online. Also this pumped storage plant
was rebuilt in the low mountain range.
As before, the pumped storage takes place only at a few locations in the
Mountains or low mountain ranges, far from the consumer centers,
with corresponding costs for the network transmission.
Energy storage in distant pumped storage is indeed in
Framework of a large interconnected network possible prevented
but for example, an island operation, as he is of many consumers
especially with regard to a purely renewable energy
built-up power generation is desired.
has now been found that pumped storage plants without special requirement
built on a special terrain almost everywhere
when the pumped storage plants are so constructed,
that upper and lower tank directly above each other on one
common foundation are arranged.
Pumped storage plants are independent of the filling level
the basin (ie regardless of whether or not the entire body of water
in the lower or upper basin) on the ground. All relevant
Forces can be absorbed inside the structure. In order to
is the establishment of such a pumped storage on the technical
Requirements for the erection of a skyscraper or large
Warehouse returned, the sufficient
are known. This also applies to the requirements of the
Subsoil on which this building is to be built.
It is essential that the focus of the water masses at
filled upper tank directly above the center of gravity
the mass of water is arranged with a filled lower basin.
Guideline can be taken that the connecting line
the center of gravity of the water masses in the upper basin to the center of gravity
the water masses in the lower basin to the vertical angle <10 °, preferably <2 °, especially
preferably <1 °
Principle forth is the inventive
Pumped storage plant around a two-storey building.
Example of such pumped storage see example
1. The structure described there has a square base
100 m × 100 m, the foundation is 20 m below ambient level, the
Side walls of the lower basin are 25 m high, of which 20 m
in the soil. Above it is located at a height of 5 m
the bottom of the upper basin. The side walls of the upper basin
are like the lower basin 25 m high. This extends that
Building 20 m deep in the ground and has a height of 30
m above the ground.
Such building has similar dimensions as
z. As a high-bay warehouse, which can be found in many industrial areas
Filling the pumped storage plant with approx. 220,000 m3 of water
can with an average use of 200,000 m3 of water
and an average use case height of the water of
20 m by pumping up the water energy in an amount of 8888
kWh are stored. Thus, such a pumped storage plant
for the period of 4 hours a power of 2,222 MW
Make available. By enlargement
of the pumped storage tank (enlargement of the lower and upper
Oberbeckens, increase of the height of fall)
the storable amount of energy can be increased.
Knowledge of the construction of such two-storey pumped storage power plants
z. B. reinforced concrete, the strength and number of support
the upper tank required carrier may be among the professionals
of civil engineering.
for smaller pumped storage is also the establishment of the upper and
Lower basin made of steel possible. But it is also essential
here, that the upper and lower basins are arranged directly above each other
the establishment of small inventive pumped storage
for example in industrial areas can also z. B. in former
Gravel pits or preferably in cleared lignite mined sections especially
built large pumped storage (see Example 2).
Again, there is the significant advantage of the invention
two-storey pumped storage plants in that with a suitable height
a floating of the building by the groundwater not
can be done. Due to the arrangement of the upper basin directly over
the lower basin occur regardless of the memory state of the
Pumped storage no fluctuations in the forces on the environment
This is how the in DE 195 13 817
described advantages of a safe storage of very large volumes of water below ambient level with the pump storage optimally use.
such storages can be used in open lignite mines
be created particularly large, z. B. can this
Basin can hold 10,000,000 m3 or even 100,000,000 m3.
At a fall height of 50 m results for a
such pumped storage plant a working volume of 11,000,000 kWh,
d. H. Such a pumped storage plant can be used for the period
from 11 h the power of a nuclear power plant (1000 MW) is available
is it in the smaller pumped storage plants, as z.
B. can be created in industrial areas (see Example 1)
to store with pools in a size of z. 50,000
m3 to 500,000 m3. These systems are thus significantly larger
as the known for the storage of fresh water water towers.
In contrast to these, the pumped storage according to the invention
two pools of equal size directly above each other.
the external effect of the smaller pumped storage tanks in an industrial area
These are most likely comparable to those in the near future
every city's existing gas tanks that are quite 600,000
m3 and could reach a height of over
100 m had.
Particular advantages of the invention
Pumped storage plants
First and foremost, it is important to emphasize that the new pumped storage plants
almost everywhere, even on completely flat terrain,
can be built. So they can be combined
with wind turbines, photovoltaic systems or combined heat and power plants
contribute to the economic operation of an island grid.
on the other hand
Such pumped storage plants also offer storage for in
Wind turbines generated electricity.
To emphasize is the small space requirement of the pumped storage plants according to the invention. The pumped storage plant stands like a skyscraper on level ground. As a rule, the sub-basin is brought into the ground so far that the total mass of the pumped storage plant including water roughly corresponds to the mass of the replaced excavation, so that the structure neither sinks nor floats. Especially in combination with DE 195 13 817
the possibility arises for the construction of particularly large pumped storage plants. To estimate the performance of the pumped storage plants see this patent. There you will also find information to choose from suitable turbines. Thus, in the pumped storage plants according to the invention fully pressurized turbines such as Francis or Kaplan turbines or pump turbines are used.
Pumped storage plant with directly above one another
lying upper and lower basin.
- Foundation: 100 m × 100 m, 20 m below ambient level,
- Lower basin: 100 m × 100 m × 25 m and directly
- Upper basin: 100 m × 100 m × 25 m,
- Usable water mass: 200,000 m3,
- average height of fall: 20 m.
Pumped storage plant can provide power of 2,222 MW for 4 hours
corresponding to a working volume of 8,888 kWh.
A cleared lignite mining stretch will be on a
1000 m × 1000 m large foundation a 75 m high
Building erected with 75 m high side walls.
This is a 1000 m × 1000 m × 40 m large
Lower basin and directly above the upper basin with a
Volume of 35,000,000 m3 created.
an average usage of 30,000,000 m3 of water for storage
and an average drop height of 35 m, this pumped storage plant
for the duration of 10 h a capacity of 233 MW available
corresponding to a working volume of 2.33 million kWh.
QUOTES INCLUDE IN THE DESCRIPTION
The documents listed by the applicant have been automated
generated and is solely for better information
recorded by the reader. The list is not part of the German
Patent or utility model application. The DPMA takes over
no liability for any errors or omissions.
Cited patent literature
- - DE 19513817 [0002, 0003, 0019, 0025]
- - DE 10361590 
- - DD 43131