CN114982447A - Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method - Google Patents

Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114982447A
CN114982447A CN202210543539.6A CN202210543539A CN114982447A CN 114982447 A CN114982447 A CN 114982447A CN 202210543539 A CN202210543539 A CN 202210543539A CN 114982447 A CN114982447 A CN 114982447A
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branch
water
data
water pump
time
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CN114982447B (en
Inventor
贺亮亮
刘三军
贾凤荣
章鹏
宋银花
曹阳
张太明
彭帅帅
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Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute CAAS
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Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute CAAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks or sprinkling wagons
    • A01C23/04Distributing under pressure; Distributing mud; Adaptation of watering systems for fertilising-liquids
    • A01C23/042Adding fertiliser to watering systems
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C23/00Distributing devices specially adapted for liquid manure or other fertilising liquid, including ammonia, e.g. transport tanks or sprinkling wagons
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion

Abstract

The invention discloses a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method for grapes based on the Internet of things, and the system comprises the following steps: the system comprises a field controller, a wireless router, an Internet of things platform, a plurality of wireless IO modules, a data collector, a plurality of flow sensors, a plurality of electromagnetic valves and a plurality of variable frequency water pumps; each branch of the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system is provided with a variable frequency water pump, a flow sensor and an electromagnetic valve; each dropper connected with each branch is provided with a flow sensor; and the variable frequency water pump receives a speed regulation instruction of the field controller. The water and fertilizer integrated irrigation and fertilization method can remotely guide grape planting based on the Internet of things platform, and is favorable for popularization; the blockage condition of the dropper can be accurately and efficiently judged; can deal with different blockage grades and make treatment measures pertinently, and improve the control accuracy of the irrigation and fertilization amount of the integration of the water and the fertilizer.

Description

Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of grape planting, in particular to a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method for grapes based on the Internet of things.
Background
The integration of water and fertilizer is an agricultural technology which integrates irrigation and fertilization, and crops absorb moisture and nutrients at the same time. The water and fertilizer integration technology can effectively control the supply amount and the proportion of the water and fertilizer according to the condition of crops and the physicochemical property condition of soil, and finally achieves the purposes of fully exerting the coupling effect of the water and fertilizer and improving the utilization rate of the water and fertilizer. Aiming at grape planting, the water and fertilizer integration technology can increase the grape yield and improve the vitamin content in the fruits; the situations of overhigh water quantity and fertilizer quantity of large water flood irrigation and fertilization modes adopted by the traditional grape planting can be avoided; can greatly improve the water utilization rate and the fertilizer utilization rate, save energy and water and is suitable for water-deficient areas.
However, the existing water and fertilizer integration technology for grape planting also has some problems. On one hand, water and fertilizer integration is a new technology, and is different from the traditional irrigation and fertilization technology, a large amount of equipment needs to be operated when farmers plant, the learning cost is increased, and a certain use threshold is generated for the farmers. On the other hand, the water and fertilizer integrated system mostly adopts a drip irrigation mode, the problem of blockage of a drip irrigation emitter is very common, and once the blockage occurs, the irrigation fertilizing amount of each subarea is uneven, so that the quality of the grape fruits is adversely affected. For example, patent CN106818416B discloses a monitoring system for a water and fertilizer integrated drip irrigation technology, which monitors a water and fertilizer integrated system by providing a large number of sensors and actuators, but does not relate to how to deal with the blockage situation, nor how to solve the problem that it is not easy for farmers to operate equipment.
The prior art presents some solutions to the above problems, but all suffer from some drawbacks. For example, patent CN108617470B proposes an elastic covered self-dredging anti-clogging drip irrigation pipe and a self-dredging method thereof, wherein a unique horn-shaped dripper structure is arranged on the drip irrigation pipe to realize the self-dredging function of the drip irrigation pipe. However, the dripper of the invention is complex in structure, with more uncertainty, may cause more failures, and is treated in case impurities have clogged the dripper, probably late. For example, patent CN110692339B discloses an intelligent agricultural integrated irrigation system for water and fertilizer and an irrigation method thereof, which can adjust the amount of granular fertilizer added according to the flow rate of irrigation water, thereby avoiding the situation of blockage caused by excessive fertilizer. However, the invention adopts the granulated fertilizer, and the granulated fertilizer adding device is directly connected to the pipeline, so that the fertilizer cannot be fully dissolved in the liquid, and the blockage of the dropper is easily caused. Further, patent CN104110890B discloses a method for determining whether clogging has occurred based on whether a flow rate change value before and after pump adjustment is within a threshold range. However, in the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system, because the pipe diameter of the dropper is very small and the damping force is high, under the precondition, if the pump speed or the pump pressure is increased, whether the drip irrigation system is blocked or not is difficult to judge according to the flow change value. The reason is that if the increased pump speed is low, the flow and water pressure change amount caused by the current saturation level is very small and is difficult to detect, and the detection value has large error, so that the blockage condition cannot be accurately judged; however, if the pump pressure is suddenly increased to obtain a significant flow rate change amount and water pressure change amount, the drip tube is damaged, and the drip tube is easily broken and the drip head is damaged, which is not compensated.
Disclosure of Invention
The purpose of the invention is as follows: aiming at the problems, the invention provides a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system and method for grapes based on the Internet of things.
The technical scheme is as follows:
in a first aspect, the invention provides a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system for grapes based on the internet of things, which comprises: the system comprises a field controller, a wireless router, an Internet of things platform, a plurality of wireless IO modules, a data collector, a plurality of flow sensors, a plurality of electromagnetic valves and a plurality of variable frequency water pumps;
the data acquisition unit acquires data of a plurality of flow sensors and is electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module;
the electromagnetic valves are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module;
the plurality of variable frequency water pumps are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module;
the field controller is in communication connection with the Internet of things platform through the wireless router;
preferably, the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system further comprises a main road and a plurality of branches, wherein each branch comprises a plurality of droppers arranged in parallel;
each branch of the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system is provided with a variable frequency water pump, a flow sensor and an electromagnetic valve; each dropper connected with each branch is provided with a flow sensor;
the electromagnetic valve is arranged on each branch;
and the variable frequency water pump receives a speed regulation instruction of the field controller.
Preferably, the field control device is a programmable logic controller;
grape liquid manure integration irrigation system still includes: water source, filtration treatment equipment, water tank, fertilizer liquid case, clear water valve, fertilizer liquid valve, fan.
After being treated by the filtering equipment, water from a water source enters the water tank and the fertilizer liquid tank under the control of the first water inlet valve and the second water inlet valve respectively; fertilizer enters the fertilizer liquid box under the control of a fertilizer valve; the water in the water tank enters the main road under the control of the clean water valve, and the fertilizer liquid in the fertilizer liquid tank enters the main road under the control of the fertilizer liquid valve; the plurality of branch circuits are connected with the main circuit and communicated with the main circuit under the control of the branch circuit electromagnetic valves; each branch is connected with a plurality of droppers connected in parallel; droppers are dispersedly arranged in each subarea of grape planting; and the field controller generates a control instruction according to the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation parameters calculated by the Internet of things platform, and controls the on-off of each valve and the rotating speed of the pump, so that the water and fertilizer integrated control of the grape planting is realized.
Preferably, the variable frequency water pump comprises a variable frequency motor and an impeller; the variable frequency water pump receives the speed regulation instruction of the site controller and comprises the following steps:
the field controller transmits a speed regulating instruction to the variable-frequency water pump through the wireless IO module, regulates the rotating speed of the variable-frequency motor, and drives the impeller to rotate, so that the rotating speed of the variable-frequency water pump is controlled.
Preferably, the data acquisition unit acquiring data of a plurality of flow sensors includes:
the data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on the branches.
Preferably, the throttle command of the site controller includes:
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 And recording the rotation speed to reach n 1 At time t 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording a rotational speed of n 2 At time t 2
The first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time.
Optionally, the data acquisition unit further acquires third data sensed by the flow sensor;
the third data is from t 0 Time t 1 Branch flow sensor data at a time;
said t is 0 At the moment when the rotation speed reaches n 0 The time of day;
n is 0 The rotating speed is the lowest rotating speed which can enable the dropper to uniformly discharge water, and the specific value is obtained by a user through a historical test.
In a second aspect, the invention also provides a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method for grapes based on the internet of things, which comprises the following steps:
A. a step of initiating a detection comprising:
a1, open solenoid valve, regulation variable frequency water pump includes: the field controller controls the opening of the main road, the branch road and the valves on the burettes; the field controller sends a command to control the clear water valve to open;
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 The rotational speed is recorded and n is reached 1 Time t of 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording a rotational speed of n 2 At time t 2
A2, collecting rotation speed data and flow data, comprising:
the method comprises the steps that a data acquisition unit acquires rotating speed data of the variable-frequency water pump at each moment; the method comprises the steps that a data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on branches; wherein the first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time;
B. analyzing and judging the branch blockage state;
C. positioning and judging the blockage state of the dropper;
D. and opening the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation.
Preferably, the analyzing and judging the branch blockage status in step B includes:
generating a flow Q according to the rotating speed data and the first data of the variable-frequency water pump 1 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 1 (n):
Q 1 =f 1 (n)
Let f be 1 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 1 ′=f 1 ′(n)
obtaining a first increment of a derivative function:
ΔK 1 =|f 1 ′(n 2 )-f 1 ′(n 1 )|
generating a flow Q according to the rotating speed data and the second data of the variable-frequency water pump 2 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 2 (n):
Q 2 =f 2 (n)
Let f 2 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 2 ′=f 2 ′(n)
obtaining a second increment of the derivative function:
ΔK 2 =|f 2 ′(n 2 )-f 2 ′(n 1 )|
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the drip pipes is less than the preset value, judging that the drip pipes in the branch are not blocked;
if Δ K 1 Greater than a predetermined value, Δ K 2 If the value is less than the preset value, judging that the dropper included in the branch has a first-stage blockage condition;
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the branch pipes is larger than the preset value, judging that the drip pipe contained in the branch pipe has a secondary blockage condition or a tertiary blockage condition.
The invention judges whether the blockage condition or the blockage degree exists or not based on the increment of the derivative of the flow function, because if the dropper is blocked, the flow of the dropper is earlier saturated when the pump pressure or the pump speed is improved, so that the flow is accelerated very slowly; thus, in this case, the derivative of the flow function is relatively higher in increment and more easily distinguishable if the pump speed or pump pressure increases. Therefore, the judging method is more accurate and has stronger practicability.
Optionally, the data acquisition unit further acquires third data sensed by the flow sensor; the third data is from t 0 Time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at the time; said t is 0 At the moment when the rotation speed reaches n 0 The time of day; n is 0 The rotating speed is the lowest rotating speed which can enable the dropper to uniformly discharge water, and the specific value is obtained by a user through a historical test;
according to the method, the second data in the step B in the method can be replaced by the third data, so that the branch blockage state is analyzed and judged based on the rotating speed data, the third data and the second data; because the first data is data from 0 moment, the pump speed is low, the flow is low, and the data is unstable; the third data is flow data obtained after the dropper uniformly discharges water, if the third data is adopted, the third data is more accurate, but extra calculation burden is brought, and a user can select and set the third data according to actual needs.
Preferably, the step C of determining the clogging state of the dropper in a positioning manner includes:
for the branch which is judged to have the blockage condition, the field controller sends an instruction to the variable frequency water pump of the blocked branch, and the rotating speed is adjusted to n 3 (wherein n is 3 >>n 1 ) Recording the time t 3 And maintaining the rotational speed n 3 To t 4 Time of day;
data acquisition unit obtains t 3 To t 4 Flow data of each dropper connected in the blocked branch within a time period;
for each dropper t 3 To t 4 Respectively obtaining an average value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the average value is smaller than a preset value or not;
and judging that the dropper is blocked if the average value is smaller than the preset value.
According to the invention, after the branch is judged to be blocked, which dropper is further judged to be blocked, so that accurate positioning is realized, and maintenance and nursing are facilitated; specifically, the pump speed is adjusted to a higher rotational speed to bring the individual droppers to a steady state of flow saturation with each dropper t 3 To t 4 Representing a saturated stable value by the mean value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the saturated stable value meets a preset value or not; for a blocked burette, the saturation stability value will be lower than the preset value; based on this, the invention can accurately position the blocked dropper. In addition, the invention adopts a grading judgment strategy, firstly judges whether the blockage situation exists from the level of the branch, and judges the blockage situation from the level of the dropper if the blockage situation existsThe specific location of the condition; the arrangement can avoid direct high-frequency judgment on all the droppers, greatly reduce the calculated amount and improve the calculation efficiency.
Preferably, the step D of opening water and fertilizer integrated irrigation includes:
at t 2 After the moment, opening a fertilizer valve, injecting uniformly stirred fertilizer, and maintaining the irrigation rotating speed of the variable frequency pump for a preset duration to realize water and fertilizer integrated irrigation;
for the branch without blockage, the irrigation rotating speed of the variable frequency pump is n 2 (ii) a For branches with blockage, the irrigation rotating speed needs to be adjusted; specifically, when the blockage condition is detected, the numerical value of the water pressure sensor on the branch is obtained, and the irrigation rotating speed n is reduced 2 To n 3 Thereby reducing the value of the water pressure sensor within a preset range. The reason is that when the dropper is blocked, the overall water pressure of the branch where the dropper is located is increased, so that the water pressure of other droppers connected with the blocked dropper in parallel is increased, and the irrigation quantity is increased. In this case, in the past, the irrigation volume of the area where the dropper is blocked is far lower than the target demand, and the irrigation volume of other areas is far higher than the target demand, so that the grape planting in the whole area is adversely affected.
Therefore, when the blockage condition is detected, the method can not only carry out corresponding treatment through measures such as clear water washing, fan blowing, reporting to an Internet of things platform and the like, but also can adjust the working condition of the variable frequency water pump in time when the blockage condition cannot be solved in a short time, and adopts different variable frequency water pump rotating speeds aiming at the blocked branch and the non-blocked branch, so that the grapes in most areas can be guaranteed to receive normal and reasonable irrigation quantity.
After irrigation is finished, the fertilizer valve is closed, the clean water valve is continuously opened, and the field controller sends an instruction to control the rotating speed of the variable-frequency water pump to be increased and maintained to n 1 Washing for a certain time; the field controller sends a control command to the variable-frequency water pump, slowly and stably reduces the rotating speed to 0, and closes the clean water valve and the branch valve;
opening a fan valve, and blowing air into each dropper for a certain time;
and (5) closing the fan, closing all valves and ending.
After each irrigation, the air blower blows air to the passage of the dropper, so that the blockage can be blown out, certain air can be reserved in the dropper, and the internal pressure is improved; and the silt around the water outlet can be blown away from a certain position, so that certain air is reserved outside the water outlet, and the risk of blockage of the dropper is greatly reduced.
Preferably, the programmable control method further comprises a clogging processing step of:
for the first-stage blockage situation, the method adopts clean water to wash and treat, and comprises the following steps: opening and closing corresponding valves to enable the water paths blocking the branch circuits to be communicated, and increasing the rotating speed of the variable frequency pump to n 1 Continuously flushing for a preset time;
for secondary plugging conditions, fan treatment is employed, comprising: opening and closing corresponding valves to conduct the gas circuit of the blocked branch, closing the water pump, starting the fan and blowing air to the blocked dropper for a preset time; when the programmable control system is started for analyzing and judging the blockage state next time, if the dropper is still judged to contain the blockage situation, the dropper is judged to be in a three-stage blockage situation;
and for the three-level blockage condition, the field controller sends a warning instruction to the user terminal and sends a maintenance request to the Internet of things platform, and the Internet of things platform assigns operation and maintenance personnel to carry out remote guidance or carry out field maintenance.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the system can control water and fertilizer integrated irrigation of grape planting of farmers in remote areas based on remote professional guidance of an Internet of things platform, has low requirement on the technical level of field personnel, and is beneficial to popularization; and the Internet of things platform is based on the grape kind, the grape planting weather, the water quality and the soil characteristic multifactor comprehensive consideration, thereby generating the accurate irrigation parameter and irrigation plan of water and fertilizer integration, and effectively improving the yield and quality of grape planting.
2. The method is different from the method for judging the blockage situation based on the flow change value in the prior art, but judges whether the blockage situation or the blockage degree exists or not based on the increment of the derivative of the flow function, because if the dropper is blocked, the flow of the dropper is earlier saturated when the pump pressure or the pump speed is improved, and the flow is accelerated very slowly; thus, in this case, the derivative of the flow function is relatively higher in increment and more easily distinguishable if the pump speed or pump pressure increases. Therefore, the judging method is more accurate and has stronger feasibility.
3. According to the invention, after the branch is judged to be blocked, which dropper is further judged to be blocked, so that accurate positioning is realized, and maintenance and nursing are facilitated; specifically, the pump speed is adjusted to a higher rotational speed to bring the individual droppers to a steady state of flow saturation with each dropper t 3 To t 4 Representing a saturated stable value by the mean value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the saturated stable value meets a preset value or not; for a blocked burette, the saturation stability value will be lower than the preset value; based on this, the invention can accurately position the blocked dropper. In addition, the invention adopts a grading judgment strategy, firstly judges whether the blockage situation exists from the level of the branch, and judges the specific position of the blockage situation from the level of the dropper if the blockage situation exists; the arrangement can avoid direct high-frequency judgment of all the droppers, greatly reduces the calculation amount and improves the calculation efficiency.
4. When the blockage situation is detected, the method can not only carry out corresponding treatment through measures such as clear water washing, fan blowing, internet of things platform reporting and the like, but also can adjust the working condition of the variable frequency water pump in time when the blockage situation cannot be solved in a short time, and different variable frequency water pump rotating speeds are adopted for the blocked branch and the non-blocked branch, so that the grapes in most regions can be guaranteed to receive normal and reasonable irrigation and fertilization amount.
5. After each irrigation, the air blower blows air to the passage of the dropper, so that the blockage can be blown out, certain air can be reserved in the dropper, and the internal pressure is improved; and moreover, silt around the water outlet can be blown away from a certain position, so that certain air is reserved outside the water outlet, and the risk of blockage of the dropper is greatly reduced.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system for grapes based on the Internet of things;
FIG. 2 is a flow chart of a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method for grapes based on the Internet of things.
Detailed Description
It will be apparent that those skilled in the art can make many modifications and variations based on the spirit of the present invention.
As used herein, the singular forms "a", "an", "the" and "the" are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms "comprises" and/or "comprising," when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. It will be understood that when an element, component or section is referred to as being "connected" to another element, component or section, it can be directly connected to the other element or section or intervening elements or sections may also be present. As used herein, the term "and/or" includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that, unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.
The following examples are further illustrative in order to facilitate the understanding of the embodiments, and the present invention is not limited to the examples. The technical solution of the present invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
The first embodiment is as follows:
as shown in fig. 1, the invention provides a water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system for grapes based on the internet of things, which comprises: the system comprises a field controller, a wireless router, an Internet of things platform, a plurality of wireless IO modules, a data collector, a plurality of flow sensors, a plurality of electromagnetic valves and a plurality of variable frequency water pumps;
the data acquisition unit acquires data of a plurality of flow sensors and is electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the electromagnetic valves are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the plurality of variable frequency water pumps are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the field controller is in communication connection with the Internet of things platform through the wireless router;
preferably, the system also comprises a grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system, which comprises a main trunk and a plurality of branches, wherein each branch comprises a plurality of droppers arranged in parallel; each branch of the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system is provided with a variable frequency water pump, a flow sensor and an electromagnetic valve; each dropper connected with each branch is provided with a flow sensor; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on each branch; and the variable frequency water pump receives a speed regulation instruction of the field controller.
Preferably, the field control device is a programmable logic controller;
grape liquid manure integration irrigation system still includes: water source, filtration treatment equipment, water tank, fertilizer liquid case, clear water valve, fertilizer liquid valve, fan.
In the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system for grapes, water from a water source is treated by a filtering device and then enters a water tank and a fertilizer liquid tank under the control of a first water inlet valve and a second water inlet valve respectively; fertilizer enters the fertilizer liquid box under the control of a fertilizer valve; the water in the water tank enters the main trunk line under the control of the clear water valve, and the fertilizer liquid in the fertilizer liquid tank enters the main trunk line under the control of the fertilizer liquid valve; the plurality of branches are connected with the main trunk and communicated with the main trunk under the control of the branch electromagnetic valves; each branch is connected with a plurality of droppers connected in parallel; droppers are dispersedly arranged in each subarea of grape planting; and the field controller generates a control instruction according to the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation parameters calculated by the Internet of things platform, and controls the on-off of each valve and the rotating speed of the pump, so that the water and fertilizer integrated control of the grape planting is realized.
Therefore, the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system can control water and fertilizer integrated irrigation of farmer grape planting in remote areas based on remote professional guidance of the Internet of things platform, has low requirements on the technical level of field personnel, and is beneficial to popularization; and the Internet of things platform comprehensively considers multiple factors based on grape types, grape planting weather, water quality and soil characteristics, so that accurate irrigation parameters and irrigation plans of water and fertilizer integration are generated, and the yield and quality of grape planting can be effectively improved.
Preferably, the variable frequency water pump comprises a variable frequency motor and an impeller; the variable frequency water pump receives the speed regulation instruction of the site controller and comprises the following steps:
the field controller transmits a speed regulating instruction to the variable-frequency water pump through the wireless IO module, regulates the rotating speed of the variable-frequency motor, and drives the impeller to rotate, so that the rotating speed of the variable-frequency water pump is controlled.
Preferably, the data acquisition unit acquiring data of a plurality of flow sensors includes:
the data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on the branches.
Preferably, the speed regulation command of the site controller comprises:
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 And recording the rotation speed reaching n 1 At time t 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording a rotational speed of n 2 At time t 2
The first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time.
Optionally, the data acquisition unit further acquires third data sensed by the flow sensor;
the third data is from t 0 Time t 1 Branch flow sensor data at a time;
said t is 0 At the moment when the rotation speed reaches n 0 Time of day (c);
n is 0 The rotating speed is the lowest rotating speed which can enable the dropper to uniformly discharge water, and the specific value is obtained by a user through a historical test.
The second embodiment:
as shown in fig. 2, the invention also provides a programmable control method for integrating water and fertilizer of grapes based on the internet of things, which comprises the following steps:
A. a step of initiating a detection comprising:
a1, open solenoid valve, regulation variable frequency water pump includes: the field controller controls the opening of the main road, the branch road and the valves on the burettes; the field controller sends an instruction to control the clear water valve to open;
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 The rotational speed is recorded and n is reached 1 Time t of 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording the number of revolutions up to n 2 At time t 2
A2, collecting rotating speed data and flow data, comprising:
the method comprises the steps that a data acquisition unit acquires rotating speed data of the variable-frequency water pump at each moment; the data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on each branch; wherein the first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time;
B. analyzing and judging the branch blockage state;
C. positioning and judging the blockage state of the dropper;
D. and opening the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation.
Preferably, the analyzing and judging the branch blockage status in step B includes:
according to the rotating speed data and the first data of the variable-frequency water pump, a flow Q is generated 1 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 1 (n):
Q 1 =f 1 (n)
Let f be 1 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 1 ′=f 1 ′(n)
obtaining a first increment of a derivative function:
ΔK 1 =|f 1 ′(n 2 )-f 1 ′(n 1 )|
generating a flow Q according to the rotating speed data and the second data of the variable-frequency water pump 2 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 2 (n):
Q 2 =f 2 (n)
Let f 2 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 2 ′=f 2 ′(n)
obtaining a second increment of the derivative function:
ΔK 2 =|f 2 ′(n 2 )-f 2 ′(n 1 )|
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the drip pipes is less than the preset value, judging that the drip pipes in the branch are not blocked;
if Δ K 1 Greater than a predetermined value, Δ K 2 If the value is less than the preset value, judging that the dropper included in the branch has a first-stage blockage condition;
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the branch pipes is larger than the preset value, judging that the drip pipe contained in the branch pipe has a secondary blockage condition or a tertiary blockage condition.
In the prior art, whether a blockage occurs is judged based on whether a flow rate change value before and after pump adjustment is within a threshold range. However, in the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system, because the pipe diameter of the dropper is very small and the damping force is high, under the precondition, if the pump speed or the pump pressure is increased, whether the drip irrigation system is blocked or not is difficult to judge according to the flow change value. The reason is that if the increased pump speed is small, the change amount of the flow and the water pressure is very small due to the current saturation level, the detection is difficult, and the detection value has a large error, so that the blockage condition cannot be accurately judged; however, if the pump pressure is suddenly increased to obtain a significant flow rate change amount and water pressure change amount, the drip tube is damaged, and the drip tube is easily broken and the drip head is damaged, which is not compensated.
The invention judges whether the blockage condition or the blockage degree exists or not based on the increment of the derivative of the flow function, because if the dropper is blocked, the flow of the dropper is earlier saturated when the pump pressure or the pump speed is improved, so that the flow is accelerated very slowly; thus, in this case, the derivative of the flow function is increased by a relatively high increment, which is more easily distinguishable, if the pump speed or pump pressure is increased. Therefore, the judging method is more accurate and has stronger practicability.
Optionally, the data acquisition unit further acquires third data sensed by the flow sensor; the third data is from t 0 Time t 1 Branch flow sensor data at a time; said t is 0 At the moment when the rotation speed reaches n 0 Time of day (c); n is 0 The rotating speed is the lowest rotating speed which can enable the dropper to uniformly discharge water, and the specific value is obtained by a user through a historical test;
according to the method, the second data in the step B in the method can be replaced by the third data, so that the branch blockage state is analyzed and judged based on the rotating speed data, the third data and the second data; because the first data is data from 0 moment, the pump speed is low, the flow is low, and the data is unstable; the third data is flow data acquired after the dropper uniformly discharges water, if the third data is adopted, the third data is more accurate, but extra calculation burden is brought, and a user can select and set the third data according to actual needs.
Preferably, the step C of determining the clogging state of the dropper in a positioning manner includes:
for the branch which is judged to have the blockage condition, the field controller sends an instruction to the variable frequency water pump of the blocked branch, and the rotating speed is adjusted to n 3 (wherein n is 3 >>n 1 ) Recording the time t 3 And maintaining the rotational speed n 3 To t 4 Time of day;
the data acquisition unit acquires t 3 To t 4 Flow data of each dropper connected in the blocked branch within a time period;
for each dropper t 3 To t 4 Respectively obtaining an average value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the average value is smaller than a preset value or not;
and judging that the dropper is blocked if the average value is smaller than the preset value.
According to the invention, after the branch is judged to be blocked, which dropper is further judged to be blocked, so that accurate positioning is realized, and maintenance and nursing are facilitated; specifically, the pump speed is adjusted to a higher rotational speed to bring the individual droppers to a steady state of flow saturation with each dropper t 3 To t 4 Representing a saturated stable value by the mean value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the saturated stable value meets a preset value or not; for a blocked burette, the saturation stability value will be lower than the preset value; based on this, the invention can accurately position the blocked dropper.
In addition, the invention adopts a grading judgment strategy, firstly judges whether the blockage situation exists from the level of the branch, and judges the specific position of the blockage situation from the level of the dropper if the blockage situation exists; the arrangement can avoid direct high-frequency judgment of all the droppers, greatly reduces the calculation amount and improves the calculation efficiency.
Preferably, the step D of opening water and fertilizer integrated irrigation includes:
at t 2 After the moment, opening a fertilizer valve, injecting uniformly stirred fertilizer, and maintaining the irrigation rotating speed of the variable frequency pump for a preset duration to realize water and fertilizer integrated irrigation;
for the branch without blockage, the irrigation rotating speed of the variable frequency pump is n 2 (ii) a For branches with blockage, the irrigation rotating speed needs to be adjusted; specifically, when the blockage condition is detected, the numerical value of the water pressure sensor on the branch is obtained, and the irrigation rotating speed n is reduced 2 To n 3 Thereby reducing the value of the water pressure sensor within a preset range. The reason is that when the dropper is blocked, the whole water pressure of the branch is increased, so that the water pressure of other droppers connected with the blocked dropper in parallel is increasedResulting in increased irrigation. In this case, in the past, the irrigation volume of the area where the drip pipe is blocked is far lower than the target demand, and the irrigation volume of other areas is far higher than the target demand, so that the grape planting in the whole area is adversely affected.
Therefore, when the blockage condition is detected, the method can not only carry out corresponding treatment through measures such as clear water washing, fan blowing, reporting to an Internet of things platform and the like, but also can adjust the working condition of the variable frequency water pump in time when the blockage condition cannot be solved in a short time, and adopts different variable frequency water pump rotating speeds aiming at the blocked branch and the non-blocked branch, so that the grapes in most areas can be guaranteed to receive normal and reasonable irrigation quantity.
After irrigation is finished, the fertilizer valve is closed, the clean water valve is continuously opened, and the field controller sends an instruction to control the rotating speed of the variable-frequency water pump to be increased and maintained to n 1 Washing for a certain time; the field controller sends a control command to the variable-frequency water pump, slowly and stably reduces the rotating speed to 0, and closes the clean water valve and the branch valve;
opening a fan valve, and blowing air into each dropper for a certain time;
and (5) closing the fan, closing all valves and ending.
In the prior art, a dropper and a water outlet of the water and fertilizer integrated system are surrounded by soil, a saturation area is formed around the water outlet, and then the positive pressure outside the water outlet is increased; when the irrigation stops, a saturated slurry area is formed in a larger range around the water outlet, if the water source is closed at the moment, negative pressure is formed in the dropper instantly, the external pressure of the water outlet is greater than the internal pressure, and silt around the water outlet easily enters the dropper to cause blockage.
After each irrigation, the air blower blows air to the passage of the dropper, so that the blockage can be blown out, certain air can be reserved in the dropper, and the internal pressure is improved; and moreover, silt around the water outlet can be blown away from a certain position, so that certain air is reserved outside the water outlet, and the risk of blockage of the dropper is greatly reduced.
Preferably, the programmable control method further comprises a clogging processing step of:
for the first-stage blockage situation, the method adopts clean water to wash and treat, and comprises the following steps: opening and closing corresponding valves to enable the water paths blocking the branch circuits to be communicated, and increasing the rotating speed of the variable frequency pump to n 1 Continuously flushing for a preset time;
for secondary plugging conditions, fan treatment is employed, comprising: opening and closing corresponding valves to conduct the gas circuit of the blocked branch, closing the water pump, starting the fan and blowing air to the blocked dropper for a preset time; when the programmable control system is started for analyzing and judging the blockage state next time, if the dropper is still judged to contain the blockage situation, the dropper is judged to be in a three-stage blockage situation;
and for the three-level blockage condition, the field controller sends a warning instruction to the user terminal and sends a maintenance request to the Internet of things platform, and the Internet of things platform assigns operation and maintenance personnel to carry out remote guidance or carry out field maintenance.
In particular, the invention is not limited to the embodiments and illustrations contained herein, and the claims should be understood to include modified forms of those embodiments including portions of the embodiments and combinations of elements of different embodiments within the scope of the following claims. All publications (including patent and non-patent publications) described herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

Claims (10)

1. A grape liquid manure integration programmable control system based on thing networking includes: the system comprises a field controller, a wireless router, an Internet of things platform, a plurality of wireless IO modules, a data collector, a plurality of flow sensors, a plurality of electromagnetic valves and a plurality of variable frequency water pumps; the data acquisition unit acquires data of a plurality of flow sensors and is electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the electromagnetic valves are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the plurality of variable frequency water pumps are electrically connected with the field controller through the wireless IO module; the field controller is in communication connection with the Internet of things platform through the wireless router; the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system is characterized by further comprising a grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system, wherein the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system comprises a main trunk, a plurality of branches, and each branch comprises a plurality of droppers arranged in parallel; each branch of the grape water and fertilizer integrated irrigation system is provided with a variable frequency water pump, a flow sensor and an electromagnetic valve; each dropper connected with each branch is provided with a flow sensor; the electromagnetic valve is arranged on each branch; and the variable frequency water pump receives a speed regulation instruction of the field controller.
2. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system according to claim 1, wherein the field control device is a programmable logic controller;
grape liquid manure integration irrigation system still includes: water source, filtration treatment equipment, water tank, fertilizer liquid case, clear water valve, fertilizer liquid valve, fan.
3. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system according to claim 1, wherein the variable frequency water pump comprises a variable frequency motor and an impeller; the variable frequency water pump receives the speed regulation instruction of the site controller and comprises the following steps:
the field controller transmits a speed regulating instruction to the variable frequency water pump through the wireless IO module, regulates the rotating speed of the variable frequency motor, and drives the impeller to rotate, so that the rotating speed of the variable frequency water pump is controlled.
4. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integration programmable control system of claim 3, wherein the data acquisition unit acquiring data of a plurality of flow sensors comprises:
the data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on the branches.
5. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control system according to claim 4, wherein the speed regulation instruction of the field controller comprises:
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 And recording the rotation speed reaching n 1 At time t 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording a rotational speed of n 2 At time t 2
The first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time.
6. An Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method applied to the programmable control system of any one of claims 1-5, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
A. a step of initiating a detection comprising:
a1, open solenoid valve, regulation variable frequency water pump includes: the field controller controls the opening of the main road, the branch road and the valves on the burettes; the field controller sends an instruction to control the clear water valve to open;
the field controller sends an instruction to each branch variable frequency water pump to enable the rotating speed of each branch variable frequency water pump to slowly increase from 0 to n from 0 at the moment 1 The rotational speed is recorded and n is reached 1 Time t of 1 (ii) a The rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is maintained at n 1 Up to t 1 ' time of day; the rotating speed of each branch frequency conversion water pump is changed from n 1 Slowly decrease to n 2 Recording the number of revolutions up to n 2 At time t 2
A2, collecting rotation speed data and flow data, comprising:
the method comprises the steps that a data acquisition unit acquires rotating speed data of the variable-frequency water pump at each moment; the data acquisition unit acquires first data and second data sensed by flow sensors arranged on each branch; wherein the first data is from 0 time to t 1 Branch flow sensor data at time, second data from t 1 ' time to t 2 Branch flow sensor data at a time;
B. analyzing and judging the branch blockage state;
C. positioning and judging the blockage state of the dropper;
D. and opening the water and fertilizer integrated irrigation.
7. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method according to claim 6, wherein the step B of analyzing and judging the branch blockage state comprises the following steps:
generating a flow Q according to the rotating speed data and the first data of the variable-frequency water pump 1 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 1 (n):
Q 1 =f 1 (n)
Let f 1 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 1 ′=f 1 ′(n)
obtaining a first increment of a derivative function:
ΔK 1 =|f 1 ′(n 2 )-f 1 ′(n 1 )|
generating a flow Q according to the rotating speed data and the second data of the variable-frequency water pump 2 Fitting curve function f to rotation speed n 2 (n):
Q 2 =f 2 (n)
Let f 2 (n) deriving n to obtain a derivative function:
Q 2 ′=f 2 ′(n)
obtaining a second increment of the derivative function:
ΔK 2 =|f 2 ′(n 2 )-f 2 ′(n 1 )|
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the drip pipes is less than the preset value, judging that the drip pipes in the branch are not blocked;
if Δ K 1 Greater than a predetermined value, Δ K 2 If the value is less than the preset value, judging that the dropper included in the branch has a first-stage blockage condition;
if Δ K 1 And Δ K 2 If the number of the branch lines is larger than the preset value, judging that the drip tube contained in the branch line has a secondary blockage situation or a tertiary blockage situation.
8. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method according to claim 7, wherein the step C of positioning and judging the blockage state of the dropper comprises the following steps:
for the branch which is judged to have the blockage condition, the field controller sends an instruction to the variable frequency water pump of the blocked branch, and the rotating speed is adjusted to n 3 (wherein n is 3 >>n 1 ) Recording the time t 3 And maintaining the rotational speed n 3 To t 4 Time of day;
data acquisition unit obtains t 3 To t 4 Flow data of each dropper connected in the blocked branch within a time period;
for each dropper t 3 To t 4 Respectively obtaining an average value of the flow data in the time period, and judging whether the average value is smaller than a preset value or not;
and judging that the dropper is blocked if the average value is smaller than the preset value.
9. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method according to claim 8, wherein the step D of starting water and fertilizer integrated irrigation comprises the following steps:
at t 2 After the moment, opening a fertilizer valve, injecting uniformly stirred fertilizer, and maintaining the irrigation rotating speed of the variable frequency pump for a preset duration to realize water and fertilizer integrated irrigation;
after irrigation is finished, the fertilizer valve is closed, the clean water valve is continuously opened, and the field controller sends an instruction to control the rotating speed of the variable-frequency water pump to be increased and maintained to n 1 Washing for a certain time; the field controller sends a control command to the variable-frequency water pump, slowly and stably reduces the rotating speed to 0, and closes the clean water valve and the branch valve;
opening a fan valve, and blowing air into each dropper for a certain time;
and (5) closing the fan, closing all valves and ending.
10. The Internet of things-based grape water and fertilizer integrated programmable control method according to claim 9, further comprising a blockage treatment step of:
for the first-stage blockage situation, the method adopts clean water to wash and treat, and comprises the following steps: opening and closing corresponding valves to enable the water paths of the blocked branches to be communicated, and increasing the rotating speed of the variable frequency pump to n 1 Continuously flushing for a preset time;
for secondary plugging conditions, fan treatment is employed, comprising: opening and closing corresponding valves to conduct the gas circuit of the blocked branch, closing the water pump, starting the fan and blowing air to the blocked dropper for a preset time; when the programmable control system is started for analyzing and judging the blockage state next time, if the dropper is still judged to contain the blockage situation, the dropper is judged to be in a three-stage blockage situation;
and for the three-level blockage condition, the field controller sends a warning instruction to the user terminal and sends a maintenance request to the Internet of things platform, and the Internet of things platform assigns operation and maintenance personnel to carry out remote guidance or carry out field maintenance.
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