CN114843754B - Low-profile circularly polarized antenna - Google Patents

Low-profile circularly polarized antenna Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114843754B
CN114843754B CN202210548630.7A CN202210548630A CN114843754B CN 114843754 B CN114843754 B CN 114843754B CN 202210548630 A CN202210548630 A CN 202210548630A CN 114843754 B CN114843754 B CN 114843754B
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metal
vibrator
medium support
vibrators
arc
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CN114843754A (en
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赵东贺
韩国栋
肖松
王亮
吴旭
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CETC 54 Research Institute
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/36Structural form of radiating elements, e.g. cone, spiral, umbrella; Particular materials used therewith
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/002Protection against seismic waves, thermal radiation or other disturbances, e.g. nuclear explosion; Arrangements for improving the power handling capability of an antenna
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/12Supports; Mounting means
    • H01Q1/22Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles
    • H01Q1/24Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set
    • H01Q1/241Supports; Mounting means by structural association with other equipment or articles with receiving set used in mobile communications, e.g. GSM
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q1/00Details of, or arrangements associated with, antennas
    • H01Q1/48Earthing means; Earth screens; Counterpoises
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/14Reflecting surfaces; Equivalent structures
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q15/00Devices for reflection, refraction, diffraction or polarisation of waves radiated from an antenna, e.g. quasi-optical devices
    • H01Q15/24Polarising devices; Polarisation filters 
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q19/00Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic
    • H01Q19/10Combinations of primary active antenna elements and units with secondary devices, e.g. with quasi-optical devices, for giving the antenna a desired directional characteristic using reflecting surfaces

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Computer Networks & Wireless Communication (AREA)
  • Physics & Mathematics (AREA)
  • Electromagnetism (AREA)
  • Waveguide Aerials (AREA)
  • Aerials With Secondary Devices (AREA)
  • Variable-Direction Aerials And Aerial Arrays (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a low-profile circularly polarized antenna, and belongs to the technical field of antennas; the low-profile circularly polarized antenna comprises a metal oscillator, a medium support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate and a circularly polarized network. The metal vibrators are two pairs which are arranged in an orthogonal mode. Each pair of metal vibrators comprises two metal vibrators, a single metal vibrator consists of two parts, the inner vibrator and the outer vibrator are in fan-shaped shapes with different included angles, and the inner vibrator is connected with the inner conductor and the outer conductor of the coaxial structure which are pre-buried by the medium support. The outer vibrator is bent downwards at the edge of the medium support and is connected with the reflecting plate in a short circuit way. The middle of the medium support axis direction is provided with a metal loading layer which is a sector grid loading layer in annular arrangement. The metal reflecting plate is of a hollow structure, a round hole is formed in the upper layer and connected with an outer conductor of the coaxial structure in the medium support, and the circular polarization network is fixed inside the metal reflecting plate. The invention has excellent electrical performance and small antenna volume.

Description

Low-profile circularly polarized antenna
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of antennas, in particular to a low-profile circularly polarized antenna.
Background
Wireless communication is an important communication mode in modern communication systems, and information is exchanged by utilizing the characteristic that electromagnetic waves freely propagate in free space. Antennas are an important component of wireless communication systems, and are an important means of electromagnetic energy conversion from devices to free space, enabling the radiation and reception of electromagnetic signals.
The system structure of the current wireless communication system is more complex, and the system performance is more excellent, which puts more severe demands on the electrical performance and mechanical performance of the antenna. Linearly polarized waves are susceptible to distortion by the surrounding environment and multipath during the free space propagation process. Compared with the linear polarization antenna, the circular polarization antenna can receive any form of linear polarization wave and circular polarization wave with the same rotation direction, and when the circular polarization wave is reflected by an obstacle, the rotation direction of the circular polarization wave is changed, and the circular polarization wave cannot be received by the antenna with the same polarization, so that the transmission influence on signals is small. Therefore, most of antennas in modern wireless communication systems adopt circularly polarized antennas to ensure smoothness of communication links and good quality of transmission signals. Meanwhile, a trend in wireless communication systems is integration and miniaturization, which also puts strict miniaturization demands on antennas.
At present, in the use of circularly polarized wide beam antennas, antenna forms such as microstrip antennas, spiral antennas, element antennas and the like are mainly adopted. The microstrip antenna has the advantages of simple structure and low profile, and the size of the antenna port surface is reduced by adopting a high dielectric constant printed board or a slot antenna generally, so as to meet the miniaturization requirement, and the resonance side length of the microstrip antenna or the slot antenna is about lambda g 2, wherein lambda g As for the operating wavelength of the antenna, it is known from the literature:
wherein: lambda (lambda) 0 Is the wavelength corresponding to the center frequency in vacuum, epsilon r Is the effective dielectric constant of the microstrip dielectric substrate or the filling medium.
But this approach causes increased antenna losses and lower antenna efficiency.
When the spiral antenna is used as a wide-beam antenna, the four-arm spiral antenna or the double-arm spiral antenna is generally adopted, the four-arm spiral antenna is small in size and compact in structure, hemispherical radiation beams and good wide-angle axial ratio characteristics can be realized, the radiation performance is less influenced by a carrier, but the bandwidth of the antenna is narrower, and the antenna is not suitable for the use requirement of the wide-band antenna; the double-arm helical antenna has a compact structure, can realize hemispherical radiation beams and good wide-angle axial ratio characteristics, has small influence on radiation performance by a carrier, and has good bandwidth characteristics, but the antenna usually needs a certain number of turns, so that the height is high.
When the oscillator antenna is used as a circular polarization antenna, a cross oscillator type antenna wire is generally adopted, two modes for realizing circular polarization are generally adopted, one mode is to adopt cross oscillators with equal lengths and a circular polarization network to realize circular polarization radiation, the mode can realize the bandwidth characteristic of 2:1, but a radio frequency cable is required to connect the antenna and the circular polarization network, the antenna is complex and has large loss, the other mode is to realize circular polarization through phase changes of different oscillator lengths, and impedance matching of the antenna is realized through a slotted balun. Meanwhile, since the element antenna needs to have a distance of 0.25λ from the reflection plate to achieve good impedance matching, the element antenna is generally high.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above problems in the prior art, the present invention provides a low-profile circularly polarized antenna. The antenna has small volume and excellent electrical performance.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a low-profile circularly polarized antenna comprises a metal oscillator, a medium support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate and a circularly polarized network; the medium support is of a cylindrical structure, and two coaxial structures are embedded in the central area of the medium support; the metal vibrator is positioned on the upper surface of the medium support, and is of a metal plate structure or a metal coating; the two pairs of metal vibrators are arranged and are orthogonal; each pair of metal vibrators comprises two inner vibrators and two outer coupling vibrators which are positioned on the same diameter, wherein the outer coupling vibrators are positioned on the outer sides of the corresponding inner vibrators, and the inner vibrators are in a fan shape; the edge arc line at the outer side of the inner vibrator is spaced from the edge arc line at the inner side of the outer coupling vibrator, and the circle centers of two adjacent edge arc lines belonging to the outer coupling vibrator and the inner vibrator are the same; the outer side coupling vibrator is of an inverted L-shaped bending structure and comprises a horizontal part and a vertical part; the horizontal part of the outer coupling vibrator is in a fan shape, the circular arc of the inner end edge of the fan shape corresponds to the circular arc of the outer end edge of the inner vibrator, and the circular arc of the outer end edge is the same as the circle center and the diameter of the metal reflecting plate; the vertical part of the outer coupling vibrator is an arc metal belt clung to the side wall of the medium support, the arc of the arc metal belt is identical to the arc of the outer end of the horizontal part, the upper end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the horizontal part, and the lower end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the metal reflecting plate;
the metal reflecting plate is positioned on the lower surface of the medium support, and the inside of the metal reflecting plate is of a cavity structure; the circular polarization network is positioned in the cavity structure; a round hole is formed in the top of the metal reflecting plate and is connected with an outer conductor at the bottom of the coaxial structure in the medium support;
the two coaxial structures correspond to the two metal vibrators one by one; an inner conductor at the top of the coaxial structure is connected with one inner vibrator of the metal vibrators, and an outer conductor is connected with the other inner vibrator of the same metal vibrator;
the metal loading layer is positioned in the medium support and is perpendicular to the central axis of the medium support; the metal loading layer is a sector grid loading layer which is annularly arranged; the metal loading layer is M layers of metal rings which are distributed from inside to outside, each layer of metal ring is equally divided into N parts of partial rings, gaps are arranged between the partial rings, and M and N are positive integers which are greater than or equal to 2.
Further, M is 2, and N is 12.
Further, part of the adjacent metal rings are in one-to-one correspondence.
The beneficial effects generated by adopting the technical scheme are as follows:
1. the antenna provided by the invention consists of a metal oscillator, a medium support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate and a circular polarization network. The standing wave ratio bandwidth of the antenna smaller than 2 is larger than 13%, and the antenna gain is larger than 0dB within the range of +/-60 degrees.
2. According to the invention, through the structural form of combining the coupling vibrator with the terminal grounded and the annular distribution metal loading layer, the height of the antenna is effectively reduced, and the final volume of the antenna is smaller than phi 0.35lambda×0.05lambda.
3. The antenna has simple and compact structure and high radiation efficiency, and can be used as a radiation antenna of various miniaturized communication systems and also can be used as a large array antenna unit.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the outline structure of an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional structure of an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a metal loading structure according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a center frequency bin pattern according to an embodiment of the present invention.
1: the outer side is coupled with the vibrator; 2: a media support; 3: an outer conductor; 4, an inner conductor; 5: an inner vibrator; 6: a coaxial structure; 7: a metal loading layer; 8: a circularly polarized network; 9: a metal reflecting plate; 10: a partial ring.
Detailed Description
The invention will be further described with reference to the drawings and detailed description.
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings of the embodiments will be briefly described below, and it will be apparent that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and other drawings may be obtained according to these drawings without inventive effort for a person skilled in the art.
A low-profile circularly polarized antenna comprises a metal oscillator, a medium support 2, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate 9 and a circularly polarized network 8; the medium support is of a cylindrical structure, and two coaxial structures are embedded in the central area of the medium support; the metal vibrator is positioned on the upper surface of the medium support, and is of a metal plate structure or a metal coating; the two pairs of metal vibrators are arranged and are orthogonal; each pair of metal vibrators comprises two inner vibrators and two outer coupling vibrators 1 which are positioned on the same diameter, wherein the outer coupling vibrators are positioned on the outer sides of the corresponding inner vibrators, and the inner vibrators are in a fan shape; the edge arc line at the outer side of the inner vibrator is spaced from the edge arc line at the inner side of the outer coupling vibrator, and the circle centers of two adjacent edge arc lines belonging to the outer coupling vibrator and the inner vibrator are the same; the outer side coupling vibrator is of an inverted L-shaped bending structure and comprises a horizontal part and a vertical part; the horizontal part of the outer coupling vibrator is in a fan shape, the circular arc of the inner end edge of the fan shape corresponds to the circular arc of the outer end edge of the inner vibrator, and the circular arc of the outer end edge is the same as the circle center and the diameter of the metal reflecting plate; the vertical part of the outer coupling vibrator is an arc metal belt clung to the side wall of the medium support, the arc of the arc metal belt is identical to the arc of the outer end of the horizontal part, the upper end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the horizontal part, and the lower end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the metal reflecting plate;
the metal reflecting plate is positioned on the lower surface of the medium support, and the inside of the metal reflecting plate is of a cavity structure; the circular polarization network is positioned in the cavity structure; a round hole is formed in the top of the metal reflecting plate and is connected with an outer conductor at the bottom of the coaxial structure in the medium support;
the two coaxial structures 6 are in one-to-one correspondence with the two metal vibrators; an inner conductor 4 at the top of the coaxial structure is connected with one inner vibrator 5 of the metal vibrators, and an outer conductor 3 is connected with the other inner vibrator of the same metal vibrator;
the metal loading layer 7 is positioned in the medium support, and is perpendicular to the central axis of the medium support; the metal loading layer is a sector grid loading layer which is annularly arranged; the metal loading layer is M layers of metal rings which are distributed from inside to outside, each layer of metal ring is equally divided into N parts of partial rings, gaps are arranged between the partial rings 10, and M and N are positive integers which are greater than or equal to 2.
Further, M is 2, and N is 12.
Further, part of the adjacent metal rings are in one-to-one correspondence.
The following is a more specific example:
as shown in fig. 1 to 3, the present embodiment includes a metal vibrator, a dielectric support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate, and a low-profile circularly polarized antenna of a circularly polarized network. The metal vibrators are two groups of vibrators which are arranged in an orthogonal mode, and the metal vibrators are arranged on the upper surface of the medium support. The metal vibrator is of a metal plate structure or metal coating. Each group of metal vibrators comprises two inner vibrators and two outer coupled vibrators. The inner vibrator is in a fan shape, the center of the circle is the antenna axis, the central angle is 75 degrees, and the diameter is 0.07 lambda. One end of each inner vibrator, which is close to the center of the antenna, is respectively connected with an inner conductor and an outer conductor of a coaxial structure pre-buried in the medium support. The edge arc line at the other end of the inner vibrator is at a certain distance from the edge arc line at the inner end of the outer vibrator, the distance is 0.01λ, the circle centers of the two arc lines are the same, and the central angle of the edge arc line at the inner end of the outer vibrator is 55 °; the outer vibrator is of an inverted L-shaped bending structure, the horizontal part is of a partial arc shape, the inner end edge arc corresponds to the outer end edge arc of the inner vibrator, the outer end edge arc is identical to the circle center and the diameter of the metal reflecting plate, the central angle is 58 degrees, the vertical part is an arc metal belt conformal on the side wall of the medium support, and the metal belt arc is identical to the outer end arc of the horizontal part. The upper end of the arc-shaped metal belt is short-circuited with the horizontal part, and the lower end of the arc-shaped metal belt is short-circuited with the metal reflecting plate.
The shape of the gap between the inner vibrator and the outer vibrator of the metal vibrator can be a straight line or other curves.
The medium support is of a cylindrical structure, two coaxial structures are embedded in the central area, the upper end of each coaxial structure is connected with an inner vibrator of the metal vibrator, the outer conductor of the lower end of each coaxial structure is connected with the metal reflecting plate, and the inner conductor of each coaxial structure is connected with the circular polarization network.
The middle of the medium support axis direction is provided with a metal loading layer, the metal loading layer is a sector grid loading layer which is annularly arranged, as shown in fig. 3, the loading layer is an inner metal ring and an outer metal ring, each metal ring is equally divided into 12 parts, gaps are arranged between the rings of different parts, and the gap distance is 0.01λ.
The metal reflecting plate is a hollow metal cavity with the diameter of 0.35 lambda, a round hole is formed in the upper layer and connected with an outer conductor of the coaxial structure in the medium support, the inner channel body of the coaxial structure is connected with a circular polarization network through an opening in the upper layer, and the circular polarization network is fixed inside the metal reflecting plate.
The antenna finally realizes that the antenna volume is smaller than phi 0.35lambda×0.05lambda. Referring to fig. 4, the standing wave ratio bandwidth of the antenna less than 2 is greater than 13%, and the antenna gain is greater than 0dB within ±60°.
The invention briefly works on the principle:
a low-profile circularly polarized antenna comprises a metal oscillator, a medium support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate and a circularly polarized network. When transmitting signals, the transmitter enters the circularly polarized network of the antenna through the circularly polarizer, the electromagnetic signals are transmitted to the metal oscillator of the antenna through the coaxial structure pre-buried in the medium support, the surface of the metal oscillator is excited to generate current, finally, a power radiation pattern is formed in a far field region, radiation of circularly polarized radio frequency signals is realized, and the receiving and transmitting of the antenna are in a reciprocal process. In order to achieve good impedance characteristics, the height of a conventional dipole antenna with a metal reflecting plate is generally about 0.22-0.25 lambda from the metal reflecting plate, so that the height of the antenna is relatively high, and in order to overcome the defect, a coupling metal oscillator short-circuited with the metal reflecting plate is added on the outer side of an original metal oscillator by changing the structure of the metal oscillator, the current distribution of the antenna oscillator is changed, the purpose of reducing the height of the antenna is achieved, and in order to further reduce the height of the antenna, the phase of energy emitted by the oscillator through the reflecting plate is changed by filling a medium and a metal loading layer between the oscillator and the reflecting plate, and the height of the antenna is further reduced.
The antenna is in a form of combining a coupling oscillator with the end grounded and a ring-shaped distributed metal loading layer, so that the low-profile broadband circularly polarized antenna is obtained. The standing wave ratio bandwidth of the antenna smaller than 2 is larger than 13%, and the antenna gain is larger than 0dB within the range of +/-60 degrees. Compared with the conventional element antenna, the antenna height is effectively reduced, and the final volume of the antenna is smaller than phi 0.35lambda×0.05lambda. In addition, the antenna has simple and compact structure and high radiation efficiency, can be used as a radiation antenna of various miniaturized communication systems, and is suitable for large-scale manufacture.

Claims (3)

1. A low-profile circularly polarized antenna comprises a metal oscillator, a medium support, a metal loading layer, a metal reflecting plate and a circularly polarized network; the medium support is characterized in that the medium support is of a cylindrical structure, and two coaxial structures are embedded in the central area of the medium support; the metal vibrator is positioned on the upper surface of the medium support, and is of a metal plate structure or a metal coating; the two pairs of metal vibrators are arranged and are orthogonal; each pair of metal vibrators comprises two inner vibrators and two outer coupling vibrators which are positioned on the same diameter, wherein the outer coupling vibrators are positioned on the outer sides of the corresponding inner vibrators, and the inner vibrators are in a fan shape; the edge arc line at the outer side of the inner vibrator is spaced from the edge arc line at the inner side of the outer coupling vibrator, and the circle centers of two adjacent edge arc lines belonging to the outer coupling vibrator and the inner vibrator are the same; the outer side coupling vibrator is of an inverted L-shaped bending structure and comprises a horizontal part and a vertical part; the horizontal part of the outer coupling vibrator is in a fan shape, the circular arc of the inner end edge of the fan shape corresponds to the circular arc of the outer end edge of the inner vibrator, and the circular arc of the outer end edge is the same as the circle center and the diameter of the metal reflecting plate; the vertical part of the outer coupling vibrator is an arc metal belt clung to the side wall of the medium support, the arc of the arc metal belt is identical to the arc of the outer end of the horizontal part, the upper end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the horizontal part, and the lower end of the arc metal belt is short-circuited with the metal reflecting plate;
the metal reflecting plate is positioned on the lower surface of the medium support, and the inside of the metal reflecting plate is of a cavity structure; the circular polarization network is positioned in the cavity structure; a round hole is formed in the top of the metal reflecting plate and is connected with an outer conductor at the bottom of the coaxial structure in the medium support;
the two coaxial structures correspond to the two pairs of metal vibrators one by one; an inner conductor at the top of the coaxial structure is connected with one inner vibrator of the metal vibrators, and an outer conductor is connected with the other inner vibrator of the same pair of metal vibrators;
the metal loading layer is positioned in the medium support and is perpendicular to the central axis of the medium support; the metal loading layer is a sector grid loading layer which is annularly arranged; the metal loading layer is M layers of metal rings which are distributed from inside to outside, each layer of metal ring is equally divided into N parts of partial rings, gaps are arranged between the partial rings, and M and N are positive integers which are greater than or equal to 2.
2. The low profile circularly polarized antenna of claim 1 wherein M is 2 and n is 12.
3. The low profile circularly polarized antenna of claim 1, wherein the partial loops of adjacent metal loops are in one-to-one correspondence.
CN202210548630.7A 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 Low-profile circularly polarized antenna Active CN114843754B (en)

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Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07183721A (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-07-21 Nippon Antenna Co Ltd Circularly polarized wave loop antenna with coaxial feed
CN103474765A (en) * 2013-09-16 2013-12-25 深圳大学 Circular polarization crossed dipole antenna and manufacturing method thereof
CN105206911A (en) * 2015-08-24 2015-12-30 桂林电子科技大学 Zeroth-order resonator and low-profile zeroth-order resonator omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna
CN107154529A (en) * 2017-04-20 2017-09-12 西安电子科技大学 A kind of microminiature low section omnidirectional circular-polarized antenna
CN107611586A (en) * 2017-09-25 2018-01-19 华南理工大学 A kind of difference circular polarisation directional aerial
CN108493595A (en) * 2018-02-27 2018-09-04 西安电子科技大学 A kind of wideband directional circular polarized antenna applied in wireless communication system
CN112688057A (en) * 2020-12-08 2021-04-20 中国科学院国家空间科学中心 Broadband circularly polarized microstrip antenna based on crossed dipole

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104037496B (en) * 2013-03-08 2016-03-16 上海贝尔股份有限公司 A kind of omnidirectional circular-polarized antenna

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07183721A (en) * 1993-12-22 1995-07-21 Nippon Antenna Co Ltd Circularly polarized wave loop antenna with coaxial feed
CN103474765A (en) * 2013-09-16 2013-12-25 深圳大学 Circular polarization crossed dipole antenna and manufacturing method thereof
CN105206911A (en) * 2015-08-24 2015-12-30 桂林电子科技大学 Zeroth-order resonator and low-profile zeroth-order resonator omnidirectional circularly polarized antenna
CN107154529A (en) * 2017-04-20 2017-09-12 西安电子科技大学 A kind of microminiature low section omnidirectional circular-polarized antenna
CN107611586A (en) * 2017-09-25 2018-01-19 华南理工大学 A kind of difference circular polarisation directional aerial
CN108493595A (en) * 2018-02-27 2018-09-04 西安电子科技大学 A kind of wideband directional circular polarized antenna applied in wireless communication system
CN112688057A (en) * 2020-12-08 2021-04-20 中国科学院国家空间科学中心 Broadband circularly polarized microstrip antenna based on crossed dipole

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