CN113686215B - Rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method - Google Patents

Rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method Download PDF

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CN113686215B
CN113686215B CN202111053610.4A CN202111053610A CN113686215B CN 113686215 B CN113686215 B CN 113686215B CN 202111053610 A CN202111053610 A CN 202111053610A CN 113686215 B CN113686215 B CN 113686215B
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hole
cut
holes
auxiliary
main
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CN113686215A (en
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李祥龙
武永博
王建国
张智宇
黄永辉
左庭
陶子豪
张其虎
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/04Arrangements for ignition
    • F42D1/045Arrangements for electric ignition
    • F42D1/05Electric circuits for blasting
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting

Abstract

The invention relates to a rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method, and belongs to the technical field of underground roadway tunneling blasting. According to the invention, a plurality of main cut holes and a plurality of auxiliary cut holes are designed and drilled according to a tunneling section; wherein the row spacing of the main cut holes is equal to the row spacing of the main cut holes, the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent row main cut holes and the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent row main cut holes; the aperture of the auxiliary cut hole is larger than that of the main cut hole, and the depth of the auxiliary cut hole is the same as that of the main cut hole; designing the charge amount in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, and charging the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole; designing the delayed detonation time of the digital electronic detonator, precisely controlling the auxiliary cut holes to detonate hole by hole to form cracks through the digital electronic detonator, and precisely controlling the main cut holes to detonate hole by hole in an aligned mode through the digital electronic detonator. The invention can improve the cutting blasting depth and the circulation footage.

Description

Rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method
Technical Field
The invention relates to a rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method, and belongs to the technical field of underground roadway tunneling blasting.
Background
The roadway excavation occupies the main part of the underground mining excavation engineering quantity of the mine, and is a prior working procedure of the mine mining. At present, the tunnel burial depth of tunnel excavation in China gradually increases, the section area of tunnel excavation also gradually increases, but the cyclic footage of tunnel excavation is low, the average cyclic rate is about 75%, the monthly average cyclic footage is about 80m, and the requirements of the existing excavation workload cannot be met.
The method can be divided into the following three types according to the size of the tunneling section, and the section area is less than 10m2Is called a small-section excavation roadway, and the section area of the medium-section excavation roadway is 10m2~35m2The area of the large-section tunneling section is 35m2The above. For the tunneling roadways with different section areas, reasonable cut holes are sometimes needed to be designed during section blasting, and certain free surfaces and compensation spaces are provided for blasting of auxiliary holes and peripheral holes, so that the aim of reducing the rock clamping effect is fulfilled, and the final blasting effect is optimized. Therefore, the selection of the cutting mode, the mesh parameters of the cutting holes, the charging structure, the sequence of initiation, the length of stuffing, the delay time of initiation and other parameters are the key to the success of the cutting.
The existing large-diameter hollow hole vertical cut blasting method is only limited to the hollow hole part and cannot provide enough blasting compensation space, and the effect of the large-diameter hollow hole is not fully exerted; or the hole distribution mode can not meet the requirement of circulation footage.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the limitation that the large-diameter hollow hole vertical cut blasting hollow hole part in the prior art cannot provide enough compensation space, the invention provides a rock lane large-diameter double-hollow hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method, namely, the cut blasting depth and the cyclic footage are improved by utilizing the hollow hole effect, and meanwhile, the damage effect of cut blasting vibration on surrounding rocks can be effectively reduced.
A rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) designing and drilling a plurality of main cut holes and a plurality of auxiliary cut holes according to a tunneling section; the main cut holes are positioned in the center of a tunneling section, the row spacing of the main cut holes is equal to the row spacing of the main cut holes, the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes, and the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes; the aperture of the auxiliary cut hole is larger than that of the main cut hole, and the depth of the auxiliary cut hole is the same as that of the main cut hole;
(2) designing the charge amount in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, and charging the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole;
(3) designing delayed detonation time of a digital electronic detonator, embedding the digital electronic detonator at the bottoms of the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, accurately controlling the auxiliary cut hole to detonate hole by hole to form a crack through the digital electronic detonator, and accurately controlling the main cut hole to detonate hole by hole in a symmetrical manner through the digital electronic detonator;
the distance a between the adjacent main cut holes and the auxiliary cut holes in the step (1) is
Figure GDA0003649153740000021
And is
Figure GDA0003649153740000022
In the formula: a is the distance between the adjacent main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, b is the proportional coefficient of tangential stress and radial stress, and St is the compressive strength of the rock; alpha is a decay index;
the depth of the main cut hole is
Figure GDA0003649153740000023
In the formula, L is the depth of a blast hole m; n is the number of rock drills on the same working face; p is the drilling quota (m/h) of the rock drill; t is the drilling time (h); n is the number of blast holes (one); theta is the average inclination angle (°) of the blast hole;
further, the attenuation index alpha is taken as
Figure GDA0003649153740000024
The shock wave zone takes "+" and the stress wave zone takes "-".
The loading Q in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole in the step (2) is
Figure GDA0003649153740000025
In the formula: q is the single-hole loading (kg); l is the length (m) of the blast hole; l is a radical of an alcohol1Is the plug length (m); phi is rock breaking angle (degree);
determining the filling length (L) in terms of the line of least resistanced):
L1=(0.7~0.8)Wd
Wherein WdIs the minimum resistant wire length.
Further, the plugging length L1Is composed of
L1=(0.3~0.5)L
In the formula: l is a radical of an alcohol1The length (m) of the plug, and L the length (m) of the blast hole.
The time of delaying the explosion of the digital electronic detonator in the step (3) is
Figure GDA0003649153740000026
In the formula: k is an integer, and the delay time is half of the vibration period.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) according to the invention, the bottom structure of the auxiliary cut hole, namely the large-diameter double-empty hole, is used for charging, so that the compensation space can be enlarged, the clamping effect of rocks is reduced, the cut blasting depth and the cyclic footage are improved, and meanwhile, the damage effect of cut blasting vibration on surrounding rocks can be effectively reduced;
(2) according to the invention, the auxiliary cut holes are detonated firstly, the main cut holes are detonated in a delayed manner, and the detonation of the auxiliary cut holes provides more free surfaces for the detonation of the main cut holes, so that the unit consumption of explosive is reduced, and the utilization rate of blast holes is increased;
(3) the invention adopts the digital electronic detonator to accurately control the blasting delay time of the main cut hole, thereby increasing the rock breaking effect and forming a good cut blasting effect;
(4) the unit consumption of the large-diameter double-empty-hole charging accurate delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method is 1.71kg/m3The utilization rate of the blast hole is 95.1 percent, the unit consumption of explosive is reduced, and the utilization rate of the blast hole is improved.
(5) By carrying out on-site optimization tests, the area of the orifice of the slotted cavity of the cut is 2.01m2The volume of the groove cavity is 5.565m3Compared with the common tunneling blasting, the large-diameter double-empty-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method has the advantages that the blasting effect is obviously improved, and the single consumption of explosive is reduced compared with the common tunneling blasting;
(6) the large-diameter double-hollow-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method can obtain a better cut blasting effect in mine roadway tunneling blasting, and brings better economic benefit to mines.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram of a large-diameter double-hollow-hole charging precise time-delay cut blasting position;
fig. 2 is a schematic view of arrangement of main cut holes and auxiliary cut holes;
fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of charging in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific embodiments, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the description.
Example 1: a rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) designing and drilling a plurality of main cut holes and a plurality of auxiliary cut holes according to a tunneling section (see figure 1); the main cut holes are positioned in the center of a tunneling section, the row spacing of the main cut holes is equal to the row spacing of the main cut holes, the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes, and the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes; the aperture of the auxiliary cut hole is larger than that of the main cut hole, and the depth of the auxiliary cut hole is the same as that of the main cut hole;
the auxiliary cut hole spacing is determined by numerical simulation;
the distance a between the adjacent main cut holes and the auxiliary cut holes is
Figure GDA0003649153740000031
And is
Figure GDA0003649153740000041
In the formula: a is the distance between the adjacent main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, b is the proportional coefficient of tangential stress and radial stress, and St is the compressive strength of the rock; alpha is a decay index;
the depth of the main cut hole is
Figure GDA0003649153740000042
In the formula, L is the depth of a blast hole, m; n is the number of rock drills on the same working face; p is the drilling quota (m/h) of the rock drill; t is the drilling time (h); n is the number of blast holes (one); theta is the average inclination angle (°) of the blast hole;
the attenuation index alpha takes the value of
Figure GDA0003649153740000043
Taking a plus sign in a shock wave area and taking a minus sign in a stress wave area;
(2) designing the charge amount in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, and charging the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole (see figure 3);
the dosage Q in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole is as follows
Figure GDA0003649153740000044
In the formula: q is the single-hole loading (kg); l is the length (m) of the blast hole; l is a radical of an alcohol1Is the plug length (m); phi is rock breaking angle (DEG);
determining the length (L) of the pad as the line of least resistanced):
L1=(0.7~0.8)Wd
Wherein WdIs the minimum resistant wire length;
length of blockage L1Is composed of
L1=(0.3~0.5)L
In the formula: l is a radical of an alcohol1The length (m) of the blockage is L, and the length (m) of the blast hole is L;
(3) designing the delayed detonation time of a digital electronic detonator, embedding the digital electronic detonator at the bottoms of the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, accurately controlling the auxiliary cut hole to detonate hole by hole to form cracks through the digital electronic detonator, and accurately controlling the main cut hole to detonate hole by hole in a symmetrical manner through the digital electronic detonator (see figure 2); wherein 1, 2, 3, 4 in fig. 2 represent the sequence of initiation;
wherein the delay time of the digital electronic detonator is
Figure GDA0003649153740000051
In the formula: k is an integer, and the delay time is half of the vibration period.
Example 2: made of jadeFor example, the tunnel vertical deep hole tunneling blasting engineering of the middle section 285 of the Dahongshan copper mine in the stream mining industry is that the size of the section of the tunnel is 4.4 multiplied by 3.7m2
A rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method comprises the following specific steps:
Figure GDA0003649153740000052
(1) designing and drilling a plurality of main cut holes and a plurality of auxiliary cut holes according to the tunneling section (see fig. 1 and 2); the main cut holes are positioned in the center of a tunneling section, the row spacing of the main cut holes is equal to the row spacing of the main cut holes, the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes, and the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes; the aperture of the auxiliary cut hole is larger than that of the main cut hole, and the depth of the auxiliary cut hole is the same as that of the main cut hole;
8 main cut holes and 2 auxiliary cut holes are drilled by a Huatai mining metallurgy HT81A type hydraulic tunneling rock drilling trolley used on a tunneling operation surface, the diameter of each auxiliary hole is 100mm, the diameter of each main cut hole is 50mm, the depth of each blast hole is 3200mm, and the distance between blast holes of each cut is 35 cm;
(2) designing the charge amount in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, and charging the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole (see figure 3); the single-hole loading of the main cut hole is 3.3kg, and the single-hole loading of the auxiliary hole is 2.1-2.4 kg;
(3) designing delayed detonation time of a digital electronic detonator, embedding the digital electronic detonator at the bottoms of the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, accurately controlling the auxiliary cut hole to detonate hole by hole to form a crack through the digital electronic detonator, and accurately controlling the main cut hole to detonate hole by hole in a symmetrical manner through the digital electronic detonator; the delay time is half of the vibration period, and the wave crest and the wave trough are completely counteracted (see figure 2);
in fig. 2, 1, 2, 3 and 4 represent the detonation sequence, 1 represents 0ms detonation, 2 represents 25ms detonation, 3 represents 50ms detonation, and 4 represents 75ms detonation, so that the delay time is accurately controlled;
the conventional auxiliary cut holes are not filled with the powder,the actual specific charge of the cut area is 1.99kg/m after conversion3(ii) a In the embodiment, the unit consumption of the large-diameter double-empty-hole charging accurate delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method is 1.71kg.m-3The blast hole utilization rate is 97%, the large-diameter double-empty-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cutting blasting method reduces the explosive unit consumption, improves the blast hole utilization rate, can obtain better cutting blasting effect in mine roadway tunneling blasting, and brings better economic benefit to mines.
While the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the embodiments shown in the drawings, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments, and various changes can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method is characterized by comprising the following specific steps:
(1) designing and drilling a plurality of main cut holes and a plurality of auxiliary cut holes according to a tunneling section; the main cut holes are positioned in the center of a tunneling section, the row spacing of the main cut holes is equal to the row spacing of the main cut holes, the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes, and the auxiliary cut holes are positioned on the central axis of the adjacent rows of main cut holes; the aperture of the auxiliary cut hole is larger than that of the main cut hole, and the depth of the auxiliary cut hole is the same as that of the main cut hole;
(2) designing the charge amount in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, and charging the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole;
(3) designing delayed detonation time of a digital electronic detonator, embedding the digital electronic detonator at the bottoms of the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole, accurately controlling the auxiliary cut hole to detonate hole by hole to form a crack through the digital electronic detonator, and accurately controlling the main cut hole to detonate hole by hole in a symmetrical manner through the digital electronic detonator;
the time of delayed explosion of the digital electronic detonator is
Figure FDA0003649153730000011
In the formula: k is an integer, and the delay time is half of the vibration period.
2. The rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging precise delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the distance a between the adjacent main cut holes and auxiliary cut holes in the step (1) is
Figure FDA0003649153730000012
And is
Figure FDA0003649153730000013
In the formula: a is the distance between adjacent main cut holes and auxiliary cut holes, b is the proportionality coefficient of tangential stress and radial stress, stThe compressive strength of the rock; alpha is a decay index;
the depth of the main cut hole is
Figure FDA0003649153730000014
Wherein L is the depth of a blast hole (m); n is the number of rock drills on the same working face; p is the drilling quota (m/h) of the rock drill; t is the drilling time (h); n is the number of blast holes (one); θ is the average inclination angle (°) of the blast hole.
3. The rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: the attenuation index alpha takes the value of
Figure FDA0003649153730000021
The shock wave zone takes "+" and the stress wave zone takes "-".
4. The rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method according to claim 2, characterized in that: step (2) the medicine quantity Q in the main cut hole and the auxiliary cut hole is as follows
Figure FDA0003649153730000022
In the formula: q is the single-hole loading (kg); l is the depth (m) of the blast hole; l is1A plug length (m); phi is rock breaking angle (DEG);
determining the filling length (L) in terms of the line of least resistance1):
L1=(0.7~0.8)Wd
Wherein WdIs the minimum resistant wire length.
5. The rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging precise delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method according to claim 4, characterized in that: length of blockage L1Is composed of
L1=(0.3~0.5)L
In the formula: l is1The length (m) of the blockage, and L the depth (m) of the blast hole.
CN202111053610.4A 2021-09-09 2021-09-09 Rock roadway large-diameter double-hole charging accurate time-delay hole-by-hole vertical cut blasting method Active CN113686215B (en)

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