CN110779403B - Hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting crack forming method for open deep hole step presplitting hole under complex environment - Google Patents

Hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting crack forming method for open deep hole step presplitting hole under complex environment Download PDF

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CN110779403B
CN110779403B CN201910908591.5A CN201910908591A CN110779403B CN 110779403 B CN110779403 B CN 110779403B CN 201910908591 A CN201910908591 A CN 201910908591A CN 110779403 B CN110779403 B CN 110779403B
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hole
holes
blasting
presplitting
main
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CN110779403A (en
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李祥龙
张其虎
袁芝斌
侯猛
王子琛
母永烨
吴霄
张希
段应明
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Yuxi Mining Co ltd
Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Yuxi Mining Co ltd
Kunming University of Science and Technology
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/04Arrangements for ignition
    • F42D1/045Arrangements for electric ignition
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack by hole for an open deep hole step presplitting hole under a complex environment, belonging to the technical field of blasting. The method carries out presplitting blasting along the final boundary line of step blasting, namely the design contour line, the presplitting hole is initiated more than 100ms before the main blasting hole, a crack is pre-blasted between the main blasting hole and the protected rock mass, after the presplitting hole is formed, the blasting buffering blasting hole group and the main blasting hole group are initiated, the presplitting hole can reduce the blasting earthquake effect of the main blasting hole group, the damage to the surrounding rock mass is slight, the integrity of the rock mass is protected, and the workload is reduced; the vibration to the surrounding civil houses, cultural relics and other surrounding building structures is small, the disturbance of the reserved rock mass is small, the stability is good, the seam forming effect is good, and the like; the smooth rock wall surface can be obtained, the overbreak is greatly reduced, and the stability of surrounding rocks is kept.

Description

Hole-by-hole initiation presplitting blasting crack forming method for open-air deep hole step presplitting hole under complex environment
Technical Field
The invention relates to a method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack by hole for an open deep hole step presplitting hole under a complex environment, belonging to the technical field of engineering blasting.
Background
During blasting operation, because the explosive can generate strong shock waves and high-pressure gas when exploding in the blast hole, the surrounding rock mass is broken and cracked. In many projects in China, such as strip mine slopes, hydraulic buildings, traffic cutting, building foundation pits, tunnels and the excavation of underground buildings, blasting boundaries need to be controlled, over excavation and under excavation do not occur, and rock mass on the excavation boundaries also need to be kept complete and stable as much as possible.
The boundary control blasting includes presplitting blasting and smooth blasting. The method comprises the steps of drilling a row of pre-splitting holes with proper hole spacing along the design contour line of an excavation boundary in advance, detonating the charge in the pre-splitting ore before excavating a main rock mass by adopting an uncoupled charge or other special charge structures, and forming a pre-crack penetrating through a blast hole between an explosion area and a reserved area so as to reduce the damage to the reserved rock mass during the main rock mass explosion and form a smoother contour surface. The latter is that the smooth blasting hole is blasted after the main rock body in the designed section is blasted and collapsed, so as to form a smooth and flat excavation surface which penetrates through the smooth blasting hole, and the blasting is called smooth blasting.
The smooth blasting refers to a controlled blasting technology which meets the design requirements of a contour line after blasting and is a leveling rule of a blank surface by correctly selecting blasting parameters and a reasonable construction method and carrying out sectional differential blasting, and is also one of important technologies for supporting the principle of a new Olympic method. Compared with the traditional method, the method for excavating the tunnel by applying the smooth blasting technology has the advantages that the blasting effect of the explosives of the peripheral holes can be effectively controlled, so that the disturbance to the surrounding rock is reduced, the stability of the surrounding rock is kept, the self-supporting effect of the surrounding rock is fully exerted, the construction safety is ensured, the overbreak and the underexcavation can be reduced, the engineering quality and the efficiency are improved, and the cost is saved.
The presplitting blasting is that when the stone excavation is carried out, a through crack with a certain width is blasted along a design contour line before the blasting of a main blasting area so as to buffer and reflect the vibration wave of the excavation blasting and control the damage influence of the vibration wave on the reserved rock mass, and the smooth excavation contour is obtained by the blasting technology, namely the presplitting blasting. The presplitting blasting is widely applied to vertical and inclined excavation wall surfaces; presplitting blasting is also adopted on regular curved surfaces, twisted curved surfaces, horizontal base surface building and the like. Therefore, the influence range of rock mass damage of the reserved area can be controlled by adopting the pre-splitting blasting, and the integrity and stability of the reserved area can be effectively protected. The presplitting blasting is suitable for weak rock formations with poor stability and requirements on controlling excavation profiles.
The existing pre-splitting hole blasting adopts simultaneous initiation, but the simultaneous initiation of the pre-splitting holes has large blasting vibration, and in many open-air deep-hole high-step blasting operations, the integrity of surrounding rock masses needs to be protected, and the workload is controlled; and a smooth rock wall surface is obtained, and overbreak is reduced; so that the simultaneous detonation of the pre-cracked ore cannot meet the current engineering requirements.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a method for conducting hole-by-hole initiation presplitting blasting to form a seam in an open-air deep hole step presplitting blasting process under a complex environment, aiming at the characteristics that in the presplitting blasting of the open-air deep hole step under the complex environment, the step or the side slope of an open-air mine has high fall, steep slope angle and high weathering degree, and the stability of surrounding rocks and building structures under the complex environment need to be considered.
The method carries out presplitting blasting along the final boundary line of the step blasting, namely the design contour line, the presplitting hole is initiated more than 100ms before the main blasting hole, a crack is pre-blasted between the main blasting hole and the protected rock mass, after the presplitting is formed, the blasting buffer blasting hole group and the main blasting hole group are initiated, the presplitting can reduce the blasting earthquake effect of the main blasting hole group, the damage to the surrounding rock mass is slight, the integrity of the rock mass is protected, and the workload is reduced.
The delay time of the detonators in the holes is required to be set in advance for the digital electronic detonators, and when accurate short-delay detonation is carried out layer by layer or hole by hole, the edge stress distribution of the edges of the blast holes is changed through the time difference, so that the stress of the blast holes is concentrated, cracks are expanded and communicated in the direction of the blast hole connecting line, and the vibration is effectively reduced compared with simultaneous blasting.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problem is as follows:
a method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack formation of an open-air deep hole step presplitting hole by hole under a complex environment comprises the following specific steps:
(1) uniformly arranging inclined pre-splitting holes on the outline of the foundation pit excavated by the open-air deep hole step in a complex design environment, and arranging axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices in the pre-splitting holes;
(2) a plurality of rows of main blasting holes are arranged in a main blasting area of a foundation pit excavation surface, the row spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, the hole spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, a row of buffer holes are arranged between the main blasting holes and the pre-cracking holes, the direction angles of the buffer holes and the pre-cracking holes are the same, axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices are arranged in the buffer holes and the main blasting holes,
(3) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the pre-splitting hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(4) the axial uncoupled air spaced charging device of the buffer hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(5) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the main explosion hole controls accurate delay to detonate row by row and hole by hole through a digital electronic detonator; and the pre-crack hole, the buffer hole and the main explosion hole are sequentially detonated to form the pre-crack.
The aperture of the pre-splitting hole is 50-200 mm, the hole spacing of the pre-splitting hole is 8-12 times of the diameter of the pre-splitting hole, and the delay time of the digital electronic detonator of the pre-splitting hole is 8-12 ms; the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the orifices of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 3-3.5 m, and the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the bottoms of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 2.5-3 m.
The aperture of the buffer hole is 50-200 mm, the distance between the buffer hole and the pre-splitting hole is 2-4 m, and the hole distance between the buffer holes is 4-5 m; loose slag with the height of 1-1.5 m is filled at the bottom of the buffer hole, the delay time of the pre-splitting hole and the buffer hole is 100-200 ms, and the delay time of the buffer hole and the adjacent row of main blast holes is 12-25 ms.
The hole interval of each row of main blast holes is 8-12 times of the aperture of the main blast holes, the row interval of the main blast holes in adjacent rows is 1-1.2 times of the hole interval of the main blast holes, the inter-hole delay time of the digital electronic detonators in the main blast holes is 25-75 ms, the inter-row delay time of the digital electronic detonators in the main blast holes is 50-400 ms, the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is 0-30 degrees, and the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is the same or different.
Further, the main blast hole is a vertical deep hole (see fig. 5).
The complex environment is that civil houses, cultural relics and other surrounding building structures are arranged in the range of 100m around the explosion area.
The digital electronic detonator is an electric detonator which controls the detonation process by adopting an electronic control module, wherein the electronic control module is a special circuit module which is arranged in the digital electronic detonator, has the functions of controlling the detonation delay time and the detonation energy of the detonator, is internally provided with a detonator identity information code and a detonation password, can test the self function and performance and the electrical performance of a detonator ignition element, and can communicate with a detonation controller and other external control equipment.
The digital electronic detonator is a commercially available product;
the electronic detonator can be selected from a strong detonator MFB-50, a CZQBQ-50, a 90, a 150, a 200 type and the like.
Preferably, the axial non-coupling air spaced charges of the pre-splitting holes and the buffer holes adopt the axial non-coupling air spaced charges in the literature 'corundum (gold) open-pit metal mine pre-splitting blasting technology' (see fig. 2);
preferably, the axial non-coupling air spaced charge of the main blasting hole adopts the axial non-coupling air spaced charge in the literature "exploring open stope high step side slope deep hole presplitting blasting technology" (see fig. 4);
the delay time between main blast holes and the delay time between main blast hole rows of the main blast area are determined according to the rock mechanical property of the main blast area;
the invention has the beneficial effects that:
according to the invention, through design optimization of blasting parameters such as the diameter of blast holes, the hole pitch, the row pitch, the loading amount and the like, and design of an initiation system, delay time is selected, hole-by-hole initiation is realized, and pre-cracks are formed; compared with the simultaneous initiation of the presplitting holes, the presplitting hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting seam forming method for the presplitting holes of the open deep-hole step is used for initiating the open-hole step, the presplitting can reduce the blasting earthquake effect of the main blasting hole group in a certain range, the damage to the surrounding rock mass is slight, the integrity of the rock mass is protected, the vibration to the surrounding civil houses, cultural relics and other surrounding structures is small, the disturbance of the reserved rock mass is small, the stability is good, the seam forming effect is good, and the like; the smooth rock wall surface can be obtained, the overbreak is greatly reduced, and the stability of surrounding rocks is kept.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a diagram of blast hole arrangement and pre-splitting blasting effect;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an axially decoupled air-spaced charge configuration for a pre-split hole and a buffer hole;
FIG. 3 is a schematic sectional view of a blast hole arrangement;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a main charge configuration;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a vertical deep hole of a main blast hole.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the following embodiments.
Example 1: as shown in fig. 1 to 4, a method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack formation hole by hole for an open deep hole step presplitting hole under a complex environment comprises the following specific steps:
a method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack formation of an open-air deep hole step presplitting hole by hole under a complex environment comprises the following specific steps:
(1) uniformly arranging inclined pre-splitting holes on the outline of the foundation pit excavated by the open-air deep hole step in a complex design environment, and arranging axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices in the pre-splitting holes; the complex environment is that civil houses, cultural relics and other surrounding building structures are arranged around the explosion area. The aperture of the pre-splitting hole is 50-200 mm, the hole spacing of the pre-splitting hole is 8-12 times of the diameter of the pre-splitting hole, the rock mass is completely large, and the rock mass is crushed to be small; the delay time of the digital electronic detonator with the pre-cracked hole is 8-12 ms; the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the orifices of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 3-3.5 m, and the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the bottoms of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 2.5-3 m;
(2) arranging a plurality of rows of main blasting holes in a main blasting area of a foundation pit excavation surface, wherein the row spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, the hole spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, a row of buffer holes are formed between the main blasting holes and the pre-cracking holes, the direction angle of the buffer holes is the same as that of the pre-cracking holes, axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices are arranged in the buffer holes and the main blasting holes, the aperture of each buffer hole is 50-200 mm, the distance between each buffer hole and the pre-cracking holes is 2-4 m, and the hole spacing of the buffer holes is 4-5 m; the method comprises the following steps that loose slag with the height of 1-1.5 m is filled at the bottom of a buffer hole, the delay time of a pre-splitting hole and the buffer hole is 100-200 ms, the delay time of the buffer hole and adjacent rows of main blast holes is 12-25 ms, the hole pitch of each row of main blast holes is 8-12 times of the aperture of the main blast hole, the row pitch of the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 1-1.2 times of the hole pitch of the main blast holes, the inter-hole delay time of digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 25-75 ms, the inter-row delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 50-400 ms, the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is 0-30 degrees, and the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is the same or different;
(3) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the pre-splitting hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(4) the axial uncoupled air spaced charging device of the buffer hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(5) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the main explosion hole controls accurate delay to detonate row by row and hole by hole through a digital electronic detonator; sequentially detonating the pre-crack hole, the buffer hole and the main explosion hole to form a pre-crack;
the main blasting hole is a vertical deep hole (see figure 5);
each layer of main blast holes is according to formula Qk=qahtWDCalculating the charge to obtain the single-hole charge of the 1 st row of main blast holes as Qk, and during porous blasting, taking 1.1-1.3 times of the single-hole charge of the 1 st row of holes in the rear row of holes; the filling length b is 12-20 times of the aperture, and if the blocking length is 1.0-1.2 m, the delay interval time is 6-18 ms;
the digital electronic detonator is an electric detonator which controls the detonation process by adopting an electronic control module, wherein the electronic control module is a special circuit module which is arranged in the digital electronic detonator, has the functions of controlling the detonation delay time and the detonation energy of the detonator, is internally provided with a detonator identity information code and a detonation password, can test the self function and performance and the electrical performance of a detonator ignition element, and can communicate with a detonation controller and other external control equipment;
the digital electronic detonator is a commercial product;
the electronic detonator can be a strong detonator MFB-50, CZQBQ-50, 90, 150, 200 and the like;
axial non-coupling air spaced charging of the pre-splitting hole and the buffer hole adopts axial non-coupling air spaced charging in a literature 'diamond (gold) open-pit metal mine pre-splitting blasting technology' (see figure 2);
axial non-coupling air spaced charging of the main blasting hole adopts axial non-coupling air spaced charging in the literature 'exploration open pit high step side slope deep hole presplitting blasting technology' (see figure 4);
the decoupling coefficient of the axial decoupling air interval charging device for the pre-splitting hole, the buffer hole and the main explosion hole is 2-4, the hard rock is small, the linear charge density is 2.0-2.5 kg/m, if the hardness of the rock is large, the hard rock is large, due to deep hole explosion, the linear charge density at the bottom of the hole needs to be correspondingly increased and is generally 3-5 times of the normal linear charge density, and the linear charge density at the hole opening needs to be reduced and is 0.5-0.8 times of the normal linear charge density.
Example 2: the complex environment of the embodiment is the current application situation of presplitting blasting of a Yunnan UnionZn-in open-pit mine;
the method for initiating and presplitting blasting to form the seam by the step presplitting hole of the open-air deep hole in the complex environment is basically the same as that of the embodiment 1, and the difference is that: the aperture of the pre-split hole is 120mm, the hole pitch of the pre-split hole is 8 times of the diameter of the pre-split hole, and the delay time of the digital electronic detonator of the pre-split hole is 12 ms; the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the orifices of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 4.4m, and the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the bottoms of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 2 m; the aperture of the buffer hole is 140mm, the distance between the buffer hole and the pre-splitting hole is 4.4m, and the hole distance of the buffer hole is 5 m; the height of the loose slag is 1m, the delay time of the pre-splitting holes and the buffer holes is 100ms, the delay time of the buffer holes and the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 25ms, the hole interval of each row of main blast holes is 8 times of the aperture of the main blast holes, the row interval of the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 1.2 times of the hole interval of the main blast holes, the inter-hole delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 50 ms, the inter-row delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 75ms, and the drilling inclination angles of the main blast hole rows and the rows are the same and are 0 degrees.
Example 3: the complex environment of the embodiment is the hole-by-hole detonation application of the open bench of a certain mine;
the method for initiating and presplitting blasting to form the seam by the step presplitting hole of the open-air deep hole in the complex environment is basically the same as that of the embodiment 1, and the difference is that: the aperture of the pre-split hole is 120mm, the hole pitch of the pre-split hole is 10 times of the diameter of the pre-split hole, and the delay time of the digital electronic detonator of the pre-split hole is 12 ms; the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the orifices of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 3m, and the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the bottoms of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 2.5 m; the aperture of the buffer hole is 120mm, the distance between the buffer hole and the pre-splitting hole is 3m, and the hole distance between the buffer holes is 4 m; the height of the loose slag is 1.5m, the delay time of the pre-splitting holes and the buffer holes is 100ms, the delay time of the buffer holes and the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 25ms, the hole interval of each row of main blast holes is 10 times of the aperture of the main blast hole, the row interval of the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 1 time of the hole interval of the main blast holes, the inter-hole delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 25ms, the inter-row delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 100ms, and the drilling inclination angles of the main blast hole rows and the rows are the same and 10 degrees.
While the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the embodiments shown in the drawings, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments, and various changes and modifications can be made within the knowledge of those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A method for initiating and presplitting blasting crack formation of an open-air deep hole step presplitting hole one by one under a complex environment is characterized by comprising the following specific steps:
(1) uniformly arranging inclined pre-splitting holes on the outline of the foundation pit excavated by the open-air deep hole step in a complex design environment, and arranging axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices in the pre-splitting holes; the aperture of the pre-split hole is 50-200 mm, the hole pitch of the pre-split hole is 8-12 times of the diameter of the pre-split hole, and the delay time of the digital electronic detonator of the pre-split hole is 8-12 ms; the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the orifices of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 3-3.5 m, and the horizontal distance between the pre-cracked holes and the bottoms of the adjacent rows of main blasting holes is 2.5-3 m;
(2) arranging a plurality of rows of main blasting holes in a main blasting area of a foundation pit excavation surface, wherein the row spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, the hole spacing of the main blasting holes is equal, a row of buffer holes are formed between the main blasting holes and the pre-cracking holes, the direction angles of the buffer holes and the pre-cracking holes are the same, loose slag with the height of 1-1.5 m is filled at the bottom of each buffer hole, and axial uncoupled air spaced charging devices are arranged in the buffer holes and the main blasting holes;
(3) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the pre-splitting hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(4) the axial uncoupled air spaced charging device of the buffer hole controls accurate delay hole-by-hole detonation through a digital electronic detonator;
(5) the axial uncoupled air spaced explosive charging device in the main explosion hole controls accurate delay to detonate row by row and hole by hole through a digital electronic detonator; and the pre-crack hole, the buffer hole and the main explosion hole are sequentially detonated to form the pre-crack.
2. The method for hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting of the open-air deep-hole step presplitting hole to form the crack under the complex environment according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: the aperture of the buffer hole is 50-200 mm, the distance between the buffer hole and the pre-splitting hole is 2-4 m, and the hole pitch of the buffer hole is 4-5 m; the delay time of the pre-splitting holes and the buffer holes is 100-200 ms, and the delay time of the buffer holes and the adjacent main blast holes is 12-25 ms.
3. The method for hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting of the open-air deep-hole step presplitting hole to form the crack under the complex environment according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: the hole spacing of each row of main blast holes is 8-12 times of the aperture of the main blast holes, the row spacing of the adjacent rows of main blast holes is 1-1.2 times of the hole spacing of the main blast holes, the inter-hole delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 25-75 ms, the inter-row delay time of the digital electronic detonators of the main blast holes is 50-400 ms, the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is 0-30 degrees, and the drilling inclination angle of the main blast hole row and the row is the same or different.
4. The method for hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting of the open-air deep-hole step presplitting hole to form the crack under the complex environment according to claim 3, which is characterized in that: the main blasting hole is a vertical deep hole.
5. The method for hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting of the open-air deep-hole step presplitting hole to form the crack under the complex environment according to claim 1, which is characterized in that: the complex environment is that civil houses, cultural relics or other building structures exist within 100m around the explosion area.
CN201910908591.5A 2019-09-25 2019-09-25 Hole-by-hole initiation and presplitting blasting crack forming method for open deep hole step presplitting hole under complex environment Active CN110779403B (en)

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