CN113152801A - Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method - Google Patents

Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113152801A
CN113152801A CN202110297241.7A CN202110297241A CN113152801A CN 113152801 A CN113152801 A CN 113152801A CN 202110297241 A CN202110297241 A CN 202110297241A CN 113152801 A CN113152801 A CN 113152801A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
rainwater
wall
house
rainwater collection
rural
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CN202110297241.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李山
王倩
仵苗
费良军
李哲
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Xian University of Technology
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Xian University of Technology
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Priority to CN202110297241.7A priority Critical patent/CN113152801A/en
Publication of CN113152801A publication Critical patent/CN113152801A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage ; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/04Roof drainage; Drainage fittings in flat roofs, balconies or the like
    • E04D13/064Gutters
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D24/00Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof
    • B01D24/02Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof with the filter bed stationary during the filtration
    • B01D24/04Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof with the filter bed stationary during the filtration the filtering material being clamped between pervious fixed walls
    • B01D24/042Filters comprising loose filtering material, i.e. filtering material without any binder between the individual particles or fibres thereof with the filter bed stationary during the filtration the filtering material being clamped between pervious fixed walls the filtering material being held in a flexible porous bag
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D36/00Filter circuits or combinations of filters with other separating devices
    • B01D36/02Combinations of filters of different kinds
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B1/00Methods or layout of installations for water supply
    • E03B1/04Methods or layout of installations for water supply for domestic or like local supply
    • E03B1/041Greywater supply systems
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B3/00Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water
    • E03B3/02Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from rain-water
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage ; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/04Roof drainage; Drainage fittings in flat roofs, balconies or the like
    • E04D13/08Down pipes; Special clamping means therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B1/00Methods or layout of installations for water supply
    • E03B1/04Methods or layout of installations for water supply for domestic or like local supply
    • E03B1/041Greywater supply systems
    • E03B2001/047Greywater supply systems using rainwater
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage ; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/04Roof drainage; Drainage fittings in flat roofs, balconies or the like
    • E04D13/08Down pipes; Special clamping means therefor
    • E04D2013/0893Down pipes; Special clamping means therefor incorporated in building structure
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/108Rainwater harvesting

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Public Health (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Hydrology & Water Resources (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Water Supply & Treatment (AREA)
  • Architecture (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Sanitary Device For Flush Toilet (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a rural courtyard wall embedded/externally-hung roof rain collecting system and a construction method thereof. The invention utilizes the current rainwater collection technology to collect free natural rainfall so as to relieve the problem of domestic water in water resource shortage areas, and can realize the reuse of water resources through the septic tank after being used in the toilet.

Description

Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of environmental technology and civil engineering, and particularly relates to a rural courtyard wall externally-hung roof rain collecting system and a rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system, and further relates to a construction method of the rain collecting system.
Background
The toilet is an important mark for measuring civilization, and the improvement of the sanitary condition of the toilet is directly related to the health and environmental conditions of people. The 'toilet revolution' in the rural area is an important work for deeply developing country-loving hygienic sports and promoting the construction of healthy villages. In northern arid regions, the problems of insufficient water resources, dispersed residents, high centralized water supply cost and the like are still one of the main problems in the development process of the rural 'toilet revolution'. Therefore, natural rainfall is collected through rural courtyard roof rain collecting engineering, and the method is an efficient rainwater resource utilization mode for solving the problems of insufficient water resources, dispersed residents, high centralized water supply cost and the like, so that the problem of domestic water in a dry area is effectively relieved, the water supply cost is reduced, and the sustainable development of the rural 'toilet revolution' is promoted. However, the existing roof rain collecting technology is mainly applied to the aspects of urban green roofs and the like, and in the rural roof rain collecting technology, rainwater is usually filtered by a filter tank and then stored in devices such as cellars, rainwater buckets and the like, so that the existing roof rain collecting technology generally occupies a large courtyard area or underground space, and needs power devices such as water pumps and the like in the using process, so that the energy consumption is large.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system, which solves the problems of rural toilet reconstruction and water shortage.
The invention also provides a wall externally-hung roof rain collecting system for the rural courtyard.
The invention also provides a construction method of the rural courtyard wall embedded/externally hung roof rain collecting system.
The first technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: the utility model provides an embedded roof collection rain system of rural courtyard wall, including setting up the slot in one side of bungalow roof top, the lateral wall one end of slot is provided with the drain pipe, the one end bottom of slot is equipped with the rainwater water inlet, the both sides of filter layer are equipped with house outer wall and house interior wall respectively, be equipped with the rainwater between house outer wall and the house interior wall and collect the room, one side that the house outer wall was kept away from to the rainwater collection room is equipped with the filter layer, one side that the rainwater collection room was kept away from to the filter layer is equipped with the rainwater apotheca, the rainwater apotheca is linked together with domestic closestool.
The first technical solution adopted by the present invention is further characterized in that,
the contact surface of the house outer wall and the rainwater collection chamber, the contact surface of the house inner wall and the rainwater storage chamber and the house bottom surface are all designed with impermeable layers.
The filter layer is of an integral structure formed by wrapping a mixed material of quartz sand and activated carbon by non-woven fabrics.
The particle size of the sand in the filter layer is gradually increased along the water flow direction.
The bottom of the rainwater collection chamber is arranged in an inclined mode, the inclination angle is 5-10 degrees, a square movable cover capable of being opened and closed is arranged, and the rainwater collection chamber is hinged to the square movable cover through a hinge.
A filter screen is arranged at the position of the rainwater inlet and is a plastic net or an iron wire net, and the aperture of the filter screen is 5-8 mm.
The bottom of the rainwater collection chamber is provided with a sundries outlet.
The second technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a rural courtyard wall externally-hung roof rain collecting system comprises a rainwater collecting and filtering device arranged outside a house body, a rainwater collecting chamber is provided with a rainwater inlet, and a rainwater storage chamber is communicated with a household closestool.
The third technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a construction method of a roof rain collecting system is specifically completed according to the following steps:
step 1: aiming at the embedded roof rain collecting system, a rainwater collecting groove is arranged, and if the roof rain collecting system is an established house, rainwater collecting and filtering equipment is externally hung outside a house body;
step 2: a rainwater collection chamber is designed, the bottom inclination angle of the rainwater collection chamber is 5 degrees, an openable and closable square movable cover is arranged in the rainwater collection chamber, and the rainwater collection chamber is hinged with the square movable cover through a hinge;
and step 3: designing a wall body, and embedding the grooves and the rainwater collection chamber into the wall body;
and 4, step 4: the design of the filter layer is that the filter layer is made of a mixed material which is externally wrapped by non-woven fabrics and internally filled with quartz sand and active carbon, the total number of the filter layer is 4, and the particle size of the sand and stone is gradually increased along the water flow direction;
and 5: impermeable layers are designed on the contact surface of the outer wall and the rainwater collection chamber, the contact surface of the inner wall and the rainwater storage chamber and the bottom surface, the impermeable layers are mainly made of waterproof paint, and the contact surfaces are coated with paint;
step 6: the sewage and waste treatment device is characterized in that a septic tank is designed behind a toilet to collect and treat sewage and waste, and the septic tank can be applied as fertilizer if necessary.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the utility model provides an embedded/outer hanging roof of rural courtyard wall collection rain system and construction method, has firstly solved the not enough problem of water resource, utilizes collection rain technique to collect natural rainfall, especially to the arid area and the rural area that the water resource is lacked, collects the rainwater and uses can compensate the not enough of water resource. And secondly, the water supply cost is reduced, natural rainfall is not collected, so that rainfall resources run off, and the water consumption cost of farmers can be reduced through a rain collection technology. Thirdly, the sanitation condition of the rural area is improved, and the integral sanitation condition of the rural area can be obviously improved after independent toilets exist in every family. Fourthly, power equipment is not needed, water is used by the aid of the dead weight of water, the free natural rainfall is collected by means of the current rainwater collection technology, the problem of domestic water in water resource shortage areas is solved, and water resources can be reused through the septic tank after the toilet is used.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the in-line water supply system of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the rainwater collection and filtration apparatus of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of the externally-hung rain collecting system of the invention.
In the figure, 1, a flat roof, 2, a rainwater inlet, 3, a drain pipe, 4, a groove, 5, a rainwater collecting chamber, 6, a filtering layer, 7, a rainwater storage chamber, 8, an outer wall of a house, 9, an inner wall of the house, 10, a household closestool, 11, rainwater collecting and filtering equipment and 12, a sundries outlet.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
The invention mainly aims at designing a structure for collecting rain on a rural plane roof for toilet water.
As shown in figure 1, the structure schematic diagram of the rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system comprises a groove 4 arranged on one side of the top of a flat roof 1, a drain pipe 3 is arranged at one end of the right side wall of the groove 4, the drain pipe 3 is generally a PVC pipe, a rainwater inlet 2 is arranged at the bottom of one end of the groove 4, as shown in figure 2, a rainwater collecting chamber 5 is arranged between an outer wall 8 of a house and an inner wall 9 of the house, a filter layer 6 is arranged on one side, far away from the outer wall 8 of the house, of the rainwater collecting chamber 5, the filter layer 6 is of an integral structure formed by wrapping a mixed material of quartz sand and activated carbon with non-woven fabrics, the particle size of sand in the filter layer 6 is gradually increased along the water flow direction, a rainwater storage chamber 7 is arranged on one side, far away from the rainwater collecting chamber 8, of the filter layer 6, and the rainwater storage chamber 7 is communicated with a household closestool 10.
The contact surface of the outer wall and the rainwater collection chamber, the contact surface of the inner wall and the rainwater storage chamber and the bottom surface are all designed with impermeable layers, and the impermeable layers are mainly made of coated waterproof paint and are coated on the contact surfaces.
The bottom of the rainwater collection chamber 5 is obliquely arranged, the inclination angle is 5-10 degrees, and a square movable cover capable of being opened and closed is arranged, and the rainwater collection chamber 5 is hinged with the square movable cover through a hinge.
A filter screen is arranged at the rainwater inlet 2 and is a plastic net or an iron wire net, and the aperture of the filter screen is 5-8 mm.
The bottom of the rainwater collection chamber is provided with a sundries outlet 12.
As shown in figure 3, the rural courtyard wall externally-hung roof rain collecting system comprises a rainwater collecting and filtering device 11 arranged outside a house body, wherein the rainwater collecting and filtering device 11 is provided with a rainwater inlet, and the rainwater collecting and filtering device 11 is communicated with a household closestool 10.
Examples
As shown in figure 1, the length of a rural yard is 13m, the width is 8m, the height is 3.5m, and a toilet is built in a room, the rain collecting system of the invention has the following construction steps:
(1) collecting rainwater: the roof of the courtyard house is designed by plane cement, and rainwater flows into a groove on the right side of the roof through the roof when raining. Rural roof is the design of plane cement mostly, and the roof can be used as and carries out the collection of rainwater for good collecting surface, digs a slot on the roof right side, can make the rainwater flow into in the slot from a left side to the right side. If the building is built, the rainwater collecting and filtering system is externally hung outside the building body, the externally hung part can be designed into a constant load vertical wall, and the strength and the design requirements refer to building structure load specification and civil building design general rules.
(2) Groove design: the rainwater is collected the slot width and is designed 10cm, and length is 2m of house, and highly design is 8cm, designs a square water inlet in the bottom of slot one end, and the design has the filter screen in import department, and the material of filter screen selects for removable plastic mesh or wire netting, and the aperture design is 5 ~ 8 mm. A drain pipe with the outer diameter of 180mm is arranged at the water inlet of the groove, and drainage is carried out when the rainfall exceeds the maximum capacity of the rainwater collection system.
(3) The design of a rainwater collection chamber: the whole rainwater collection chamber is 10cm in width, 7m in length and 2.3m in height, the bottom of the rainwater collection chamber is designed to be inclined, the inclination angle of the rainwater collection chamber is 5 degrees, the rainwater collection chamber is provided with a square movable cover which is hinged with the rainwater collection chamber and can be opened and closed, and sundries accumulated in the rainwater collection chamber for a long time can be washed conveniently.
(4) Wall body design: since the inventive device is entirely located within the wall, the thickness of the wall is directly related to the amount of rainwater collected and stored. The common brick specification of the wall material is 240 multiplied by 115 multiplied by 53mm, the wall thickness is 740mm, the outer wall is used as a bearing wall and is designed as "24 walls', thickness 240mm, rainwater collection chamber width designed as 100mm, filter layer designed as 130mm, rainwater storage layer width designed as 150mm, interior wall designed as 120 mm. The height of the wall body is 3.5m, and the height of the wall body is 0.5-1.0 m in consideration of ensuring that collected rainwater can flow into the toilet for use and reserving necessary height at the bottom of the wall body close to the toilet. (adjusted as needed, if only flushing of toilet is performed, it is designed to be 0.5m, if washing with water is planned, it is designed to be appropriate to increase the height of solid wall, hereinafter, 0.5m is taken as an example.) the rainwater storage layer is designed to be 2.9m in height, the rainwater collection layer is designed to be 2.3m, and the filtering layer is the same as the rainwater collection layer, so that the amount of storable water is 0.15 × 2.9 × 8m — 3.48m3(namely 3.48 square water) is connected with a water pipe for daily use.
(5) Filter layer (anti-filter layer) design: because the requirement of water for water quality is not high, this filter layer adopts the mixed material of outside with non-woven fabrics parcel inside packing quartz sand and active carbon, and dust and the material that can subside in mainly used filtering aquatic are designed as 4 layers altogether, and from the right side to left (along the rivers direction) the particle diameter of grit increases gradually.
(6) And (3) seepage-proofing design: the contact surface of the outer wall and the rainwater collection layer, the contact surface of the inner wall and the rainwater storage box and the bottom surface are provided with impermeable layers, the impermeable layers are mainly used for coating waterproof paint, and the contact surfaces are coated with the waterproof paint.
(7) Sewage and waste treatment: a septic tank is designed behind the toilet to collect and treat sewage and waste, and can be applied as fertilizer if necessary.
The rain collecting system of the invention utilizes the current rain collecting technology to collect free natural rainfall, relieves the problem of domestic water in water resource shortage areas, and can realize the reuse of water resources through the septic tank after being used in a toilet.

Claims (9)

1. The utility model provides an embedded roof collection rain system of rural courtyard wall, its characterized in that, including setting up slot (4) in one side of one-storey house roof (1) top, the lateral wall one end of slot (4) is provided with drain pipe (3), the one end bottom of slot (4) is equipped with rainwater water inlet (2), and the both sides of drain pipe (3) are equipped with house outer wall (8) and house interior wall (9) respectively, are equipped with rainwater collection room (5) between house outer wall (8) and house interior wall (9), one side of keeping away from house outer wall (8) of rainwater collection room (5) is equipped with filter layer (6), and one side that rainwater collection room (5) were kept away from in filter layer (6) is equipped with rainwater apotheca (7), rainwater apotheca (7) are linked together with domestic closestool (10).
2. The rural courtyard wall embedded roof rainwater collection system according to claim 1, wherein the contact surface of the outer wall (8) of the house and the rainwater collection chamber (5), the contact surface of the inner wall (9) of the house and the rainwater storage chamber (7) and the bottom surface of the house are all designed with impermeable layers.
3. The rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the filter layer (6) is a whole structure formed by wrapping a mixed material of quartz sand and activated carbon with non-woven fabric.
4. The rural courtyard wall embedded roof rainwater collection system according to claim 3, wherein the particle size of the sand in the filter layer (6) is gradually increased along the water flow direction.
5. The rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bottom of the rainwater collecting chamber (5) is arranged in an inclined manner, the inclination angle is 5-10 degrees, the rainwater collecting chamber (5) is provided with an openable and closable square movable cover, and the rainwater collecting chamber (5) is hinged with the square movable cover through a hinge.
6. The rural courtyard wall embedded roof rain collecting system is characterized in that a filter screen is arranged at the rainwater inlet (2), the filter screen is a plastic net or an iron wire net, and the aperture of the filter screen is 5-8 mm.
7. A rural yard wall embedded roof rain harvesting system according to claim 1, wherein a sundries discharge port (12) is provided at the junction of the domestic toilet (10) and the bungalow.
8. The utility model provides a rural courtyard wall outer hanging roof collection rain system which characterized in that is equipped with rainwater collection and filtration equipment (11) including the external portion of room, rainwater collection and filtration equipment (11) have the rainwater import, rainwater collection and filtration equipment (11) are linked together with domestic closestool (10).
9. A method for constructing a roof rain collecting system according to claim 1 or 8, comprising the following steps:
step 1: aiming at the embedded roof rain collecting system, a rainwater collecting groove (4) is arranged, and if the roof rain collecting system is an established house, rainwater collecting and filtering equipment (11) is externally hung outside a house body;
step 2: designing a rainwater collection chamber (5), wherein the rainwater collection chamber (5) adopts a square movable cover which can be opened and closed and has an inclination angle of 5 degrees at the bottom, and the rainwater collection chamber (5) is hinged with the square movable cover through a hinge;
and step 3: designing a wall body, and embedding the grooves and the rainwater collection chamber between the house outer wall (8) and the house inner wall (9);
and 4, step 4: the filter layer (6) is designed, the filter layer (6) is made of a mixed material which is externally wrapped by non-woven fabrics and internally filled with quartz sand and active carbon, the total number of the filter layer (6) is 4, and the particle size of the sand and stone is gradually increased along the water flow direction;
and 5: impermeable layers are designed on the contact surface of the outer wall (8) of the house and the rainwater collection chamber (5), the contact surface of the inner wall (9) of the house and the rainwater storage chamber (7) and the bottom surface of the house, the impermeable layers are mainly made of waterproof paint, and the contact surfaces are coated with paint;
step 6: the sewage and waste treatment device is characterized in that a septic tank is designed behind a toilet to collect and treat sewage and waste, and the septic tank can be applied as fertilizer if necessary.
CN202110297241.7A 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method Pending CN113152801A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202110297241.7A CN113152801A (en) 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202110297241.7A CN113152801A (en) 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN113152801A true CN113152801A (en) 2021-07-23

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CN202110297241.7A Pending CN113152801A (en) 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 Rural courtyard wall external hanging/embedded roof rain collecting system and construction method

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Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07229172A (en) * 1994-02-18 1995-08-29 Oshizawa:Kk Rainwater storing house
JP2003064730A (en) * 2001-08-23 2003-03-05 Sasaki:Kk Domestic rain water reservoir
JP2007303203A (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-22 Misawa Homes Co Ltd Building
CN201512826U (en) * 2009-09-28 2010-06-23 郭永晨 Sand filtration wall split rain processing system
JP2013023996A (en) * 2011-07-25 2013-02-04 San Sirius Co Ltd Liquid storage wall part
CN204126000U (en) * 2014-09-11 2015-01-28 章瑶 The external water-storing device of body of wall

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH07229172A (en) * 1994-02-18 1995-08-29 Oshizawa:Kk Rainwater storing house
JP2003064730A (en) * 2001-08-23 2003-03-05 Sasaki:Kk Domestic rain water reservoir
JP2007303203A (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-22 Misawa Homes Co Ltd Building
CN201512826U (en) * 2009-09-28 2010-06-23 郭永晨 Sand filtration wall split rain processing system
JP2013023996A (en) * 2011-07-25 2013-02-04 San Sirius Co Ltd Liquid storage wall part
CN204126000U (en) * 2014-09-11 2015-01-28 章瑶 The external water-storing device of body of wall

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
叶婴齐: "《固液分离原理与工业水处理装置》", 上海科学普及出版社, pages: 140 *

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