CN112913399A - Garlic directional sowing device and method based on machine vision - Google Patents

Garlic directional sowing device and method based on machine vision Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112913399A
CN112913399A CN202110060763.5A CN202110060763A CN112913399A CN 112913399 A CN112913399 A CN 112913399A CN 202110060763 A CN202110060763 A CN 202110060763A CN 112913399 A CN112913399 A CN 112913399A
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garlic
seed
directional
shaped
hopper
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CN202110060763.5A
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CN112913399B (en
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侯加林
李玉华
刘全程
李天华
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Shandong Agricultural University
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Shandong Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C9/00Potato planters
    • A01C9/08Potato planters with other distributing devices, e.g. flaps, screws, horizontal turning plates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C9/00Potato planters
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Neural networks
    • G06N3/04Architecture, e.g. interconnection topology
    • G06N3/045Combinations of networks
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
    • G06NCOMPUTING ARRANGEMENTS BASED ON SPECIFIC COMPUTATIONAL MODELS
    • G06N3/00Computing arrangements based on biological models
    • G06N3/02Neural networks
    • G06N3/08Learning methods

Abstract

The application discloses a garlic directional sowing device and method based on machine vision, which comprises the following steps: the garlic seed shifting and seed discharging device is characterized in that a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed shifting and seed discharging device is connected with a first end of a garlic seed transmission channel, a second end of the garlic seed transmission channel is arranged at a garlic seed inlet of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism, an image collector is arranged right above the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism correspondingly, an image collecting end of the image collector faces towards the inside of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism and is used for collecting posture information photos of garlic seeds, and the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism recognizes and adjusts garlic seed postures according to the posture information photos. The garlic seed poking and seeding device can complete secondary seed poking and seeding of garlic seeds at one time, directional and ordered transmission of the garlic seeds, image recognition and directional seeding, meets the planting agronomic requirements of the garlic seeds with scale and bud upwards, greatly reduces the occupied space and volume by intensive design, has strong integrity, and meets the requirements of mechanical and intelligent seeding of the garlic.

Description

Garlic directional sowing device and method based on machine vision
Technical Field
The application relates to the technical field of agricultural machinery, in particular to a garlic directional sowing device and method based on machine vision.
Background
The annual output of garlic in China is increasing day by day, the annual planting area of the garlic is more than 1000 ten thousand mu, the garlic is more than 60% of the world planting area and accounts for two thirds of the world planting area, and the garlic becomes an important economic crop in China. The garlic planted in China not only supplies the mass consumption of the country, but also occupies an important position in export of foreign trade, and most products are sold in Russia, Japan and other foreign areas. The planting agronomic requirements that the garlic seeds have upward bulbil during garlic sowing are required to be met, and research data shows that the garlic seeds have downward bulbil and produce adverse effects on the yield and quality of mature garlic after horizontal sowing.
At present, some garlic sowing machines exist in domestic markets, garlic seeds with scaly buds can be directionally sown through certain mechanical structures on the 'cocklebur' garlic with regular shapes and straight, long and hard scaly buds, but the 'golden county' garlic is difficult to directionally sow due to the fact that the garlic seeds with scaly buds are short, bent and irregular in shape and have clamping flaps to cause irregular gravity center positions, and is large in planting area and wide in distribution range compared with the 'cocklebur' garlic.
However, aiming at the irregular appearance of the garlic in Jinxiang and the lack of an effective garlic bulbil direction identification method and a directional sowing device, the garlic planting characterized by the garlic in Jinxiang in China still mainly adopts manual planting, the labor intensity is high, the operation efficiency is low, and the mechanical garlic sowing operation is severely restricted and influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the following technical scheme is provided:
in a first aspect, an embodiment of the present application provides a garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision, including: the garlic seed poking and seed discharging device is characterized in that a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed poking and seed discharging device is connected with a first end of a garlic seed transmission channel, a second end of the garlic seed transmission channel is arranged at a garlic seed inlet of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism, an image collector is arranged right above the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism correspondingly, an image collection end of the image collector faces towards the inside of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism and is used for collecting posture information photos of garlic seeds, and the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism recognizes and adjusts the postures of the garlic seeds according to the posture information photos.
By adopting the implementation mode, the garlic seed poking and seeding device can complete secondary garlic seed poking and seeding, directional and ordered garlic seed transmission, image recognition and directional seeding at one time, meets the planting agronomic requirements of garlic seeds with scales and buds upward, greatly reduces the occupied space and volume by intensive design, has strong integrity, and meets the requirements of mechanical and intelligent garlic seeding.
With reference to the first aspect, in a first possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the seed poking and discharging device includes a seed poking and discharging device housing and a flexible seeding wheel, and the flexible seeding wheel is movably disposed in the seed poking and discharging device housing through a transmission shaft of an electric control system.
With reference to the first possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a second possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the seed poking and seeding device housing includes a seed poking and seeding device inner cavity, an opening through hole, an arc-shaped seed protecting surface and a transition connection arc surface, wherein the flexible seed poking wheel and an electric control system transmission shaft are installed in the seed poking and seeding device inner cavity, and the electric control system transmission shaft is connected to the opening through hole to realize rotation control of the flexible seed poking wheel; the size range of the arc-shaped seed protection surface is larger than the whole size of the flexible seed poking wheel, so that the protective effect of the flexible seed poking wheel on garlic seeds in the garlic seed discharging process is realized, and the garlic seeds are prevented from flying out of the world under the action of inertia force. The transitional connection cambered surface is a connection transitional curved surface of the seed poking and seed discharging device and the garlic seed transmission channel, and ensures that the garlic seeds discharged by the flexible seed poking wheel slide to the garlic seed transmission channel smoothly.
With reference to the second possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a third possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the flexible seed poking wheel comprises a central connecting shaft and flexible seed poking blades, and main materials of the flexible seed poking wheel can be silica gel or rubber, so that damage to garlic seeds is reduced in a seed poking and seeding process, and flexible seeding is realized. The sidelines of the flexible seed poking blades are formed by combining an inward concave arc and an outward convex arc, the whole circumference forms an arc-shaped oblique seed separating curve, so that a bell mouth-shaped seed separating space is formed between every two adjacent flexible seed poking blades, the seed feeding and separating effect of the flexible seed poking wheel is fully utilized, the instantaneous relative speed of garlic seeds falling into the garlic seed conveying channel is reduced or offset in a secondary seed feeding mode, the garlic seed track and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the stable feeding of the garlic seeds is realized, and the garlic seeds are guided into the garlic seed conveying channel to stably slide. The transmission shaft of the electric control system is assembled on the shell of the seed poking and seeding device through a central connecting shaft. The flexible seed poking wheel can be independently driven by a matched electric control transmission system (comprising a power adapter and a self-programming controller) to realize synchronous transmission of garlic seeds falling from the single seed taking device in a fixed rotation proportion.
With reference to the second or third possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a fourth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the garlic seed transmission channel is a V-shaped transmission channel, and includes: the transitional connection cambered surface is connected with a first end of the V-shaped groove, a second end of the V-shaped groove is connected with an inlet of the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism, and a V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove is 45-60 degrees; the V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove is subjected to fillet treatment to form an arc fillet, and the side wall of the V-shaped groove is provided with an asymmetric circular bulge. The design of the V-shaped groove can be formed by scanning the cross section of the V-shaped groove along the falling path of the garlic seeds, and after the garlic seeds discharged by the flexible seed poking wheel smoothly slide to the V-shaped transmission channel, the garlic seeds can slide stably in the V-shaped transmission channel, so that the phenomena of bouncing, rolling and the like of the garlic seeds are reduced; as the quality of the head and the tail of the garlic seeds has obvious difference and the distribution characteristics of the mass centers of the garlic seeds are fully considered, the design of the V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove meets the condition of 45-60 degrees, which is most suitable, and meanwhile, in order to avoid the occurrence of sharp corners, the V-shaped groove is subjected to corresponding fillet treatment according to the designed V-shaped included angle to form the arc-shaped fillet. In order to ensure that the garlic seeds falling along the V-shaped groove can move to the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional sowing mechanism in an orderly (longitudinal sliding) manner, the V-shaped transmission channel needs to be designed to have a certain length, and the side wall of the V-shaped groove is provided with the asymmetric circular bulge, the length design of the V-shaped transmission channel ensures that the garlic seeds have certain self-adjusting time, so that the length of the V-shaped transmission channel is determined to meet the design range of 5-20cm, the asymmetric circular bulge ensures that a rotating moment is generated after the garlic seeds are contacted, the garlic seeds are transferred from horizontal downward transfer to longitudinal downward transfer, and the garlic seeds are guaranteed to slide in an orderly manner in the longitudinal direction. The second end of V type recess is provided with first connecting plate and second connecting plate, for preventing that the garlic kind from appearing the jamming phenomenon in V type transmission path, and V type transmission path and garlic kind feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism's installation contained angle scope should satisfy and be greater than the friction angle of V type transmission path and garlic kind. The first connecting plate is connected with the mounting support of the mounting frame and used for determining the optimal transmission angle, the range of the determined mounting angle is 60-80 degrees, and the second connecting plate is fixedly connected with the mounting frame through bolts and nuts.
With reference to the fourth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a fifth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism comprises a Y-shaped hopper, a turnover mounting bracket, a tensioning spring, a turnover driving steering engine, an opening and closing driving steering engine, a connecting disc, a turnover driving steering engine fixing shaft, an opening and closing driving steering engine fixing shaft and an opening and closing baffle plate; the Y-shaped hopper comprises a first Y-shaped hopper and a second Y-shaped hopper, the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are movably mounted in an asymmetric combination mode, and the asymmetric combination structure can effectively guarantee that garlic is in a vertical state after entering the Y-shaped hopper, so that the accuracy of garlic bulbil identification and the success rate of bulbil adjustment are guaranteed. The opening and closing driving steering engine is fixedly connected with the overturning mounting support through an opening and closing driving steering engine fixing shaft, a driving shaft of the opening and closing driving steering engine is fixedly connected with an opening and closing baffle, the opening and closing baffle is arranged at a connecting gap between the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper, and the opening and closing baffle is driven to rotate when the steering engine is driven, so that the opening and closing of the Y-shaped hopper are completed. Meanwhile, the tail end of the opening and closing baffle is fixedly connected to the output end of the opening and closing driving steering engine, the opening and closing baffle is driven by the opening and closing driving steering engine to rotate, meanwhile, the force for opening the first Y-shaped hopper and the force for opening the second Y-shaped hopper outwards are applied to complete the opening of the hopper. The tensioning spring is used for connecting the supporting and connecting plates of the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper and is mainly used for achieving tensioning effect of the Y-shaped hopper in a natural state and resetting effect of the Y-shaped hopper after the opening and closing baffle is opened. The overturning driving steering engine is fixedly connected with the mounting frame through a bolt and a nut, and a driving shaft of the overturning steering engine is fixedly connected with the connecting disc and fixedly connected with the overturning mounting support through an overturning driving steering engine fixing shaft. When the overturning steering engine is driven, the mounting frame is used as a fixed pivot to drive the Y-shaped hopper, and the overturning mounting bracket and the opening and closing driving steering engine synchronously perform overturning motion.
With reference to the fifth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a sixth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the first Y-shaped hopper includes: the first Y-shaped hopper is rotatably connected with the overturning mounting bracket through the first overturning shaft, and the first tensioning spring connecting hole is fixedly connected with the first end of the tensioning spring; the first hopper cabin body comprises a conical cambered surface, the conical cambered surface is provided with a cambered surface baffle, the conical cambered surface is connected with a first cylindrical channel, and the first cylindrical channel is connected with a first conical channel; a first overturning supporting baffle is arranged on one side of the conical channel, and a first spring connecting through hole is formed in a position corresponding to the first tensioning spring connecting hole.
With reference to the sixth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, in a seventh possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the second Y-shaped hopper includes: the second overturning support baffle is provided with a second tensioning spring connecting hole, and the second tensioning spring connecting hole is fixedly connected with the second end of the tensioning spring; a second turnover shaft is arranged on the second hopper cabin body, and the second Y-shaped hopper is rotatably connected with the turnover mounting bracket through the second turnover shaft; the second hopper cabin body is provided with a guide groove, two ends of the guide groove are provided with sliding surfaces, the guide groove is connected with a second cylindrical channel, and the second cylindrical channel is connected with a second conical channel; and a second overturning supporting baffle is arranged on one side of the second hopper cabin body and provided with a second spring connecting through hole.
The first overturning shaft and the second overturning shaft are respectively installed at the through hole on one side of the overturning installation support and are connected through a long bolt, and the installation positions of the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are horizontally butted in sequence. The first tensioning spring connecting hole and the second tensioning spring connecting hole are respectively formed in the first overturning supporting baffle and the second overturning supporting baffle and used for installing a tensioning spring and guaranteeing tensioning and resetting effects between the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper. The tensioning spring can pass through first spring coupling through-hole and second spring coupling through-hole and realize connecting, first spring coupling through-hole and second spring coupling through-hole have the assurance and open and the closed in-process at the hopper and reduce the effect of interfering the spring, improve the effect of device reliability. First upset backplate and second upset backplate are used for realizing hopper overall structure stability on the one hand, and on the other hand is used for realizing that the baffle that opens and shuts exerts the effort to first upset backplate and second upset backplate to guarantee that the hopper opens smoothly. The guiding groove is used for enabling garlic seeds to fall to the first Y-shaped hopper from the V-shaped conveying channel, the V-shaped conveying channel can effectively achieve longitudinal sliding of the garlic seeds, the garlic seeds which slide longitudinally fall into the receiving hopper through the guiding groove, meanwhile, the guiding groove has the function of guiding the garlic seeds to be discharged from the receiving hopper, and the size design of the guiding groove needs to meet the condition that the width of the groove is larger than or equal to the maximum value of the width or the thickness of the measured garlic seeds is smaller than the maximum value of the length of the garlic seeds. The sliding surface is a concave surface and is used for realizing that garlic seeds which are not transmitted by the guide groove can effectively fall into the receiving hopper through the concave surface after sliding from the V-shaped transmission channel; the first cylindrical channel and the first conical channel form a first receiving hopper, the second cylindrical channel and the second conical channel form a second receiving hopper, the first receiving hopper and the second receiving hopper adopt an asymmetric combination mode, namely, a certain height difference (the difference of the lengths of the first cylindrical channel and the second cylindrical channel) exists between the first receiving hopper and the second receiving hopper, the effective feeding of the garlic seeds can be realized in an asymmetric combination mode, the upright posture of the garlic seeds can be kept, the length and the diameter of the first cylindrical channel and the second cylindrical channel are important indexes for ensuring that the garlic seeds smoothly fall into and limit the posture, therefore, the length range of the second cylindrical channel is 10-30mm, the design range of the height difference is 10-20mm, and the design range of the diameters of the first cylindrical channel and the second cylindrical channel is 20-30 mm. The tapered channel is an important index for keeping the garlic seeds in an upright posture, and the taper angle of the first tapered channel and the second tapered channel is designed to be 20-45 degrees. The cambered baffle is mainly used for shielding a gap for connecting the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper, so that the situation that the characteristic recognition of the bulbil and the root of the garlic is not obvious and even the result that the characteristic recognition is unsuccessful is avoided due to the gap in the photo information collected by the image collector.
With reference to the first aspect or any one of the first to seventh possible implementation manners of the first aspect, in an eighth possible implementation manner of the first aspect, the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism is fixed on the mounting bracket, the mounting bracket is used for connecting agricultural equipment, the image collector is fixed on the mounting bracket through the image collector mounting bracket, and a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism is connected with a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper for realizing collecting and conveying of garlic seeds after directional adjustment and completing directional sowing of garlic seeds. The image acquisition machine is positioned right above the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism, so that the posture information photos of the garlic seeds can be clearly acquired, and the image acquisition machine is used for identifying and processing the garlic root and bulbil characteristics of the garlic seeds. The mounting position of the image collector is higher than the mounting positions of the V-shaped garlic seed transmission channel and the mounting rack, so that the garlic seeds falling from the V-shaped transmission channel are ensured not to generate collision obstruction on the image collector.
In a second aspect, the present application provides a machine vision-based garlic directional sowing method, which adopts the machine vision-based garlic directional sowing device of the first aspect or any one of the possible implementations of the first aspect, and the method includes: s101, when garlic seeds fall from a single seed taking device, the garlic seeds enter a seed poking and discharging device, a self-programming controller independently drives a flexible seed poking wheel to synchronously rotate with the seed discharging device in a fixed proportion, the discharged garlic seeds are reversely separated by the seed poking wheel, garlic seed tracks and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the garlic seeds are connected to a V-shaped transmission channel track to stably slide, and the garlic seeds can be in an orderly longitudinal sliding state until falling into a garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional sowing mechanism in order according to the distribution characteristics of the gravity center positions of the garlic seeds and the asymmetrical circular bulges of the V-shaped transmission channel; s102, a hardware system takes an edge computing processor Jetson Nano as a control core, and a power module, a camera, a PCA9685 module and a turnover driving steering engine form control system hardware by opening and closing the driving steering engine; the edge calculation processor Jetson Nano is used for edge calculation, the fields of image classification, target detection, segmentation, voice processing and the like are carried out, and a plurality of neural networks can be operated in parallel; s103, when the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism, the control system controls the image collector to collect images after initialization, then utilizes the garlic detection network model to carry out reasoning on the collected images, judges whether the images are background images or garlic images, and carries out next frame of image collection and continues judgment if the images are the background images; if the garlic image is the garlic image, inputting the image into the bulbil judgment network model to judge the orientation of the bulbil through reasoning, and matching the garlic detection network model with the bulbil judgment network model to finally complete garlic seed characteristic identification; the garlic detection model mainly processes the acquired images in real time and judges whether garlic seeds are fed, and the garlic detection model is used for performing two classification problems on a background image and a garlic image, because the two images have obvious characteristic difference, a 5-layer convolutional neural network model is adopted, the first four layers are four convolutional blocks consisting of convolutional layers, ReLU layers and pooling layers, and the 5 th layer is a full connection layer; the garlic bulbil judging model classifies the garlic bulbils upwards or downwards by reasoning the garlic images; the garlic bulbil judgment model adopts a ResNet-18 network structure, and network parameters are trained through transfer learning; s104, after image recognition, respectively controlling turnover driving steering engines according to the distinguishing results of garlic seed characteristics, opening and closing the driving steering engines to work, wherein the rotation angle of the driving steering engines can be adjusted within 0-180 degrees, when the garlic seed is distinguished to be upward in scale buds, the opening and closing driving steering engines work to drive opening and closing baffles to open a first Y-shaped hopper and a second Y-shaped hopper, the garlic seeds naturally fall, the direction of the seeds is unchanged, the garlic seeds fall into a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and after the opening and closing driving steering engines reset, the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are closed under the tensioning action of a reset spring; or when the bulbil of the garlic seeds is judged to face downwards, the steering engine is driven to work in a turnover mode to drive the whole garlic seeds to do turnover movement, the garlic seed body direction is changed, the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and bulbil adjustment is achieved.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision according to an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 2 is a top view of a garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision provided by an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 3 is a side view of a garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision according to an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a housing of a seed poking and discharging device provided in an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of a flexible seed poking wheel provided in an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 6 is a front view of a garlic seed conveying passage according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a garlic seed conveying channel provided in an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 8 is a left side view of a garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism provided in an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 9 is a top view of a garlic seed feature recognition and directional seeding mechanism according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 10 is a front view of a garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism provided in an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 11 is a front view of a first Y-hopper provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 12 is a right side view of a first Y-hopper provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 13 is a perspective view of a first Y-hopper provided in an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 14 is a front view of a second Y-hopper provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 15 is a left side view of a second Y-hopper provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 16 is a perspective view of a first Y-hopper provided in an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 17 is an axial view of another garlic seed feature identification and directional seeding mechanism provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 18 is a side view of another garlic seed feature identification and directional seeding mechanism provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
FIG. 19 is an internal view of another garlic seed feature identification and directional seeding mechanism provided in accordance with an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 20 is a block diagram of a hardware control system according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 21 is a schematic flow chart of an image recognition control algorithm provided in an embodiment of the present application;
fig. 22 is a schematic diagram of a network structure for garlic detection and bulbil identification provided in the embodiment of the present application;
in fig. 1-22, the symbols are represented as:
1-an electric control system transmission shaft, 2-a seed-setting and seed-discharging device, 3-a garlic seed transmission channel, 4-an image collector, 5-an image collector installation rack, 6-a garlic seed characteristic identification and directional seed-discharging mechanism, 7-an installation bracket, 8-a garlic seed collection and transmission hopper, 201-a seed-setting and seed-discharging device shell, 202-a flexible seed sowing wheel, 2011-an opening through hole, 2012-a seed-setting and seed-discharging device inner cavity, 2013-an arc seed-protecting surface, 2014-a transition connection arc surface, 2021-a central connection shaft, 2022-an inner concave arc, 2023-an outer convex arc, 2024-a horn mouth-shaped seed-distributing space, 301-a first connection plate, 302-a V-shaped groove, 303-an asymmetric circular bulge, 304-a second connection plate, 305-an arc fillet, 601-a first Y-shaped hopper, 602-a second Y-shaped hopper, 603-an overturning mounting bracket, 604-a tensioning spring, 605-an overturning driving steering engine, 606-a connecting disc, 607-an opening and closing driving steering engine, 608-an overturning driving steering engine fixing shaft, 609-an opening and closing driving steering engine fixing shaft, 610-an opening and closing baffle, 6011-a first supporting baffle, 6012-a first tensioning spring connecting hole, 6013-a conical cambered surface, 6014-a first overturning supporting baffle, 6015-a first spring connecting through hole, 6016-a first cylindrical channel, 6017-a first conical channel, 6018-a first overturning shaft, 6019-a cambered surface baffle, 6021-a second tensioning spring connecting hole, 6022-a second overturning supporting baffle, 6023-a second overturning shaft, 6024-a guiding groove, 6025-a sliding surface, 6026-a second supporting baffle, 6027-a second cylindrical channel, 6028-a second conical channel, 6029-a second spring connecting through hole, 901-a garlic seed introducing port, 902-a garlic seed leading-out port, 903-a garlic seed image collector, 904-a directional overturning steering engine, 905-a fixed connecting plate, 906-a driving square shaft and 907-a trapezoidal directional overturning plate.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3, an embodiment of the present application provides a garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision, which includes: the seed poking and seed discharging device comprises an electric control system transmission shaft 1 and a plurality of seed poking and seed discharging devices 2, wherein the plurality of seed poking and seed discharging devices 2 are connected through the electric control system transmission shaft 1. The garlic seed outlet of the seed poking and seed discharging device 2 is connected with the first end of the garlic seed transmission channel 3, and the second end of the garlic seed transmission channel 3 is arranged at the garlic seed inlet of the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional seeding mechanism 6. An image collector 4 is arranged right above the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6, an image collection end of the image collector 4 faces the inside of the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 and is used for collecting garlic seed posture information photos, and the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 recognizes and adjusts garlic seed postures according to the garlic seed posture information photos.
The garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 is fixed on the mounting support 7, the mounting support 7 is used for being connected with agricultural machinery, the image collector 4 is fixed on the mounting support 7 through the image collector mounting frame 5, a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 is connected with a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper 8, collecting and conveying of garlic seeds after directional adjustment are achieved, and directional sowing of garlic seeds is completed. The image acquisition machine is positioned right above the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism 6, so that the posture information photos of the garlic seeds can be clearly acquired, and the image acquisition machine is used for identifying and processing the garlic root and bulbil characteristics of the garlic seeds. The installation position of the image collector 4 is higher than the installation positions of the garlic seed transmission channel 3 and the installation frame, so that the garlic seeds falling from the garlic seed transmission channel 3 are ensured not to generate collision obstruction on the image collector 4.
The seed-setting and seeding device 2 comprises a seed-setting and seeding device shell 201 and a flexible seeding wheel 202, wherein the flexible seeding wheel 202 is movably arranged in the seed-setting and seeding device shell 201 through a transmission shaft 1 of an electric control system.
Referring to fig. 4, the seed-stirring and seed-discharging device shell 201 includes a seed-stirring and seed-discharging device inner cavity 2012, an opening through hole 2011, an arc-shaped seed-protecting surface 2013 and a transition connection arc surface 2014, wherein the flexible seed-stirring wheel and the electric control system transmission shaft 1 are installed in the seed-stirring and seed-discharging device inner cavity 2012, and the electric control system transmission shaft 1 is connected to the opening through hole 2011 to realize rotation control of the flexible seed-stirring wheel; the size range of the arc-shaped seed protection surfaces 2013 is larger than the whole size of the flexible seed poking wheel, so that the garlic seeds are protected by the flexible seed poking wheel in the garlic seed discharge process, and the garlic seeds are prevented from flying out of the field under the action of inertia force. The transitional connection cambered surface 2014 is a connection transitional curved surface of the seed poking and seed discharging device 2 and the garlic seed transmission channel 3, and ensures that the garlic seeds discharged by the flexible seed poking wheel smoothly slide to the garlic seed transmission channel 3.
Referring to fig. 5, the flexible seed poking wheel comprises a central connecting shaft 2021 and flexible seed poking blades, and the main material of the flexible seed poking wheel can be silica gel or rubber, so that damage to garlic seeds is reduced in the seed poking and seeding process, and flexible seeding is realized. The side lines of the flexible seed poking blades are formed by combining an inner concave arc 2022 and an outer convex arc 2023, the whole circumference forms an arc-shaped tangential seed separating curve, so that a horn mouth-shaped seed separating space 2024 is formed between every two adjacent flexible seed poking blades, the seed feeding and separating effect of the flexible seed poking wheel is fully utilized, the relative speed of the garlic seeds falling into the garlic seed conveying channel 3 at the moment is reduced or counteracted in a secondary seed feeding mode, the garlic seed track and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the stable feeding of the garlic seeds is realized, and the garlic seeds are connected to the garlic seed conveying channel 3 and stably slide. The transmission shaft 1 of the electric control system is assembled on the shell 201 of the seed poking and seeding device through a central connecting shaft 2021. The flexible seed poking wheel can be independently driven by a matched electric control transmission system (comprising a power adapter and a self-programming controller) to realize synchronous transmission of garlic seeds falling from the single seed taking device in a fixed rotation proportion.
Referring to fig. 6 and 7, the garlic seed conveying channel 3 is a V-shaped conveying channel, including: the transition connection cambered surface 2014 is connected with the first end of the V-shaped groove 302, and the second end of the V-shaped groove 302 is connected with an inlet of the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism 6. The V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove 302 is subjected to fillet treatment to form an arc fillet 305, and an asymmetric circular bulge 303 is arranged on the side wall of the V-shaped groove 302. The design of the V-shaped groove 302 can be formed by scanning the cross section of the groove along the falling path of the garlic seeds, and after the garlic seeds discharged by the flexible seed poking wheel smoothly slide to the V-shaped transmission channel, the garlic seeds can slide stably in the V-shaped transmission channel, so that the phenomena of garlic seed bouncing, rolling and the like are reduced.
As the quality of the head and the tail of the garlic seeds has obvious difference and the distribution characteristics of the mass centers of the garlic seeds are fully considered, the design of the V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove 302 meets the requirement of 45-60 degrees, which is most suitable, and meanwhile, in order to avoid the occurrence of sharp corners, the V-shaped groove 302 is subjected to corresponding fillet treatment according to the designed V-shaped included angle to form the arc-shaped fillet 305.
In order to ensure that the garlic seeds falling along the V-shaped groove 302 can move to the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism 6 in an orderly (longitudinal sliding) manner, the V-shaped transmission channel needs to be designed to have a certain length, and the side wall of the V-shaped groove 302 is provided with the asymmetric circular bulge 303, the length design of the V-shaped transmission channel ensures that the garlic seeds have certain self-adjusting time, so that the length of the V-shaped transmission channel is determined to meet the design range of 5-20cm, the asymmetric circular bulge 303 ensures that the garlic seeds generate a rotation moment after contacting, the garlic seeds are transferred from horizontal downward transfer to longitudinal downward transfer, and the garlic seeds are guaranteed to longitudinally slide in an orderly manner.
The second end of the V-shaped groove 302 is provided with a first connecting plate 301 and a second connecting plate 304, and in order to prevent the garlic seeds from being stuck in the V-shaped transmission channel, the installation included angle range of the V-shaped transmission channel and the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 is larger than the friction angle of the V-shaped transmission channel and the garlic seeds. The first connecting plate 301 is connected with the mounting support of the mounting frame and used for determining the optimal transmission angle, the range of the determined mounting angle is 60-80 degrees, and the second connecting plate 304 is fixedly connected with the mounting frame through bolts and nuts.
Referring to fig. 8-10, the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 comprises a Y-shaped hopper, a turnover mounting bracket 6037, a tension spring 604, a turnover driving steering gear 605, an opening and closing driving steering gear 607, a connecting disc 606, a turnover driving steering gear fixing shaft 608, an opening and closing driving steering gear fixing shaft 609 and an opening and closing baffle 610.
The Y-shaped hopper comprises a first Y-shaped hopper 601 and a second Y-shaped hopper 602, the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper 602 are movably mounted in an asymmetric combination mode, and the asymmetric combination structure can effectively guarantee that garlic is in an upright state after entering the Y-shaped hopper, so that the garlic bulbil identification accuracy and the bulbil adjustment success rate are guaranteed. Drive steering wheel 607 that opens and shuts drives steering wheel fixed axle 609 and upset installing support 6037 fixed connection through opening and shutting, the drive shaft and the baffle 610 fixed connection that opens and shuts of drive steering wheel 607, the baffle 610 that opens and shuts sets up the joint gap department between first Y type hopper 601 and the second Y type hopper 602 drives the baffle 610 rotation that opens and shuts when the steering wheel drive to accomplish opening and shutting of Y shape hopper.
Meanwhile, the tail end of the opening and closing baffle 610 is fixedly connected to the output end of the opening and closing driving steering engine 607, the opening and closing baffle 610 is driven by the opening and closing driving steering engine 607 to rotate and apply force to the first Y-shaped hopper 601, and the second Y-shaped material is opened outwards to complete the opening of the hopper. The two ends of the tensioning spring 604 are respectively connected with the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper 602, and the tensioning spring 604 is used for connecting the supporting and connecting plates of the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper 602 and is mainly used for achieving the tensioning effect of the Y-shaped hopper in a natural state and the resetting effect of the Y-shaped hopper after the opening and closing baffle 610 is opened. The turnover driving steering engine 605 is fixedly connected with the mounting rack through bolts and nuts, and a driving shaft of the turnover steering engine is fixedly connected with the connecting disc 606 and fixedly connected with the turnover mounting bracket 6037 through a fixed shaft 608 of the turnover driving steering engine. When the turnover steering engine is driven, the mounting frame is used as a fixed pivot to drive the Y-shaped hopper, the turnover mounting bracket 6037 and the opening and closing driving steering engine 607 to synchronously turn over.
Referring to fig. 11-13, the first Y-hopper 601 includes: a first supporting baffle 6011 and a first hopper cabin body, wherein a first overturning shaft 6018 and a first tensioning spring connecting hole 6012 are arranged on the first overturning supporting baffle 6014, the first Y-shaped hopper 601 is rotatably connected with the overturning mounting bracket 6037 through the first overturning shaft 6018, and the first tensioning spring connecting hole 6012 is fixedly connected with a first end of the tensioning spring 604; the first hopper cabin body comprises a conical cambered surface 6013, the conical cambered surface 6013 is provided with a cambered surface baffle 6019, the conical cambered surface 6013 is connected with a first cylindrical channel 6016, and the first cylindrical channel 6016 is connected with a first conical channel 6017; a first overturn supporting baffle 6014 is disposed at one side of the tapered passage, and a first spring connecting through hole 6015 is disposed corresponding to the first tensioning spring connecting hole 6012.
Referring to fig. 14-16, the second Y-hopper 602 comprises: a second turnover support baffle plate 6022 is provided with a second tensioning spring connecting hole 6021, and the second tensioning spring connecting hole 6021 is fixedly connected with the second end of the tensioning spring 604; a second turnover shaft 6023 is arranged on the second hopper cabin body, and the second Y-shaped hopper 602 is rotatably connected with the turnover mounting bracket 6037 through the second turnover shaft 6023; the second hopper body is provided with a guide groove 6024, the two ends of the guide groove 6024 are provided with sliding surfaces 6025, the guide groove 6024 is connected with a second cylindrical passage 6027, and the second cylindrical passage 6027 is connected with a second conical passage 6028; a second turnover supporting baffle plate 6022 is arranged on one side of the second hopper cabin body, and a second spring connecting through hole 6029 is arranged on the second turnover supporting baffle plate 6022.
The first overturning shaft 6018 and the second overturning shaft are respectively installed at a through hole on one side of the overturning mounting bracket 6037 and are connected through a long bolt, and the installation positions of the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper are horizontally butted in sequence. The first tensioning spring connecting hole 6012 and the second tensioning spring 604 connecting hole are respectively formed in the first overturning supporting baffle 6014 and the second overturning supporting baffle 6022, so that the tensioning spring 604 can be installed, and tensioning and resetting effects between the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped material can be guaranteed. The tension spring 604 can be connected through the first spring connecting through hole 6015 and the second spring connecting through hole 6029, and the first spring connecting through hole 6015 and the second spring connecting through hole 6029 have the effect of ensuring that the interference effect on the spring is reduced in the process of opening and closing the hopper, thereby improving the reliability of the device.
The first overturning supporting baffle 6014 and the second overturning supporting baffle 6022 are used for realizing stability of the whole structure of the hopper on one hand, and are used for realizing that the opening and closing baffle 610 exerts an acting force on the first overturning supporting baffle 6014 and the second overturning supporting baffle 6022 on the other hand, so that the hopper is ensured to be smoothly opened. The guide groove 6024 is used for enabling the garlic seeds to fall from the V-shaped transmission channel to the first Y-shaped receiving hopper 601, the V-shaped transmission channel can effectively realize the longitudinal sliding of the garlic seeds, the garlic seeds which longitudinally slide fall into the receiving hopper through the guide groove 6024, and simultaneously has the function of guiding and discharging the garlic seeds from the receiving hopper, and the size of the guide groove 6024 is designed to meet the condition that the width of the groove is larger than or equal to the maximum value of the width or the thickness of the measured garlic seeds is smaller than the maximum value of the length of the garlic seeds.
The sliding surface 6025 is a concave surface, and is used for realizing that garlic seeds which are not conveyed by the guide groove 6024 can effectively fall into the receiving hopper through the concave surface after sliding from the V-shaped conveying channel; the first cylindrical passage 6016 and the first tapered passage 6017 constitute a first receiving hopper, the second cylindrical passage 6027 and the second tapered passage 6028 constitute a second receiving hopper, the first receiving hopper and the second receiving hopper adopt an asymmetric combination mode, namely, a certain height difference (the difference between the lengths of the first cylindrical channel 6016 and the second cylindrical channel 6027) exists between the first receiving hopper and the second receiving hopper, the effective feeding of the garlic seeds can be realized in an asymmetric combination mode, the upright posture of the garlic seeds can be kept, the length and diameter of the first cylindrical passage 6016 and the second cylindrical passage 6027 are important indexes for ensuring that the garlic seeds smoothly fall into and limit the posture, therefore, the length of the second cylindrical passage 6027 is designed to be in the range of 10-30mm, the height difference is designed to be in the range of 10-20mm, and the diameters of the first cylindrical passage 6016 and the second cylindrical passage 6027 are designed to be in the range of 20-30 mm.
The tapered passage is an important index for maintaining the upright posture of the garlic seeds, and the taper angle of the first tapered passage 6017 and the second tapered passage 6028 is designed to be in the range of 20-45 °. The cambered baffle 6019 is mainly used for shielding a gap between the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper, so that the situation that the characteristic recognition of the bulbil and the root of the garlic is not obvious and even the result of unsuccessful characteristic recognition is caused due to the gap in the photo information acquired by the image acquisition device 4 is prevented.
The flexible seed poking wheel formed by combining the concave arc 2022 and the convex arc 2023 ensures that the damage to garlic seeds is reduced in the seed poking and seed discharging process, the relative speed of the garlic seeds falling into the V-shaped transmission channel at the moment is reduced or counteracted in a secondary seed feeding mode, the garlic seed track and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the stable feeding of the garlic seeds is realized, and the garlic seeds are connected and guided into the V-shaped transmission channel to stably slide. The V-shaped transmission channel ensures the stable sliding of the garlic seeds and reduces the bouncing and rolling of the garlic seeds; can realize the sequential (longitudinal sliding) movement of the garlic seeds to the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism 6. Garlic seeds are mainly in an upright posture in the Y-shaped hopper, image information of the garlic seeds is acquired through the image acquisition device 4, the images are guided into the garlic detection network model and the bulbil judgment network model to carry out garlic seed detection identification and bulbil characteristic information identification, when the garlic seeds are judged to be upwards bulbil, the opening and closing driving steering engine 607 works to drive the opening and closing baffle 610 to rotate, the opening and closing baffle 610 applies acting forces of the first Y-shaped hopper 601 and the second Y-shaped hopper, so that the hopper is opened, and the directional sowing of the garlic seeds is completed; when the garlic seeds are judged to be squashed downwards, the overturning driving steering engine 605 works to drive the Y-shaped hopper, the overturning mounting bracket 6037 and the opening and closing driving steering engine 607 to synchronously overturn by taking the mounting bracket as a fixed pivot, and the garlic seed direction is changed to finish the directional sowing of the garlic seeds.
In an exemplary embodiment, the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 in the present embodiment may also take another form, referring to fig. 18 to 19, in which the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism 6 in the present embodiment includes: a garlic seed introducing port 901, a garlic seed introducing port 902, a garlic seed image collector 903, an orientation turnover steering engine 904, a fixed connecting plate 905, a driving square shaft 906 and a trapezoid orientation turnover plate 907.
The trapezoidal directional turnover plate 907 is designed in a trapezoidal manner, so that the garlic seeds are ensured to be mainly in a lying posture after falling from the garlic seed introducing port, namely the long axis direction of the garlic seeds is consistent with the long axis direction of the trapezoidal directional turnover plate, and the width design of the trapezoidal directional turnover plate 907 meets the maximum value of the width or the thickness of the garlic seeds. The garlic seed image collector 903 is arranged in the axial direction of the trapezoidal directional turnover plate and is mainly used for collecting garlic seed characteristic information; the square shaft at one side of the driving square shaft 906 is arranged in a square groove of the trapezoidal directional turnover plate 907, and a disc at one side is fixedly connected with the fixed connecting plate 905; the directional overturning steering engine 904 is fixedly connected with one side of a fixed connecting plate 905 and connected with a driving square shaft 906.
When garlic seeds fall into the trapezoidal directional turnover plate 907 to present the posture that the garlic seeds lie flat, the garlic seed image collector 903 collects information, and when the garlic seed bulblet information characteristics are collected, the directional turnover steering engine 904 drives the trapezoidal directional turnover plate 907 fixedly connected with the driving square shaft 906 to rotate 90 degrees anticlockwise, the garlic seed body direction is changed, and the garlic seed bulblets fall upwards from the garlic seed outlet 902 to complete sowing. When the garlic seed root information characteristics are collected, the directional overturning steering engine 904 drives the trapezoidal directional overturning plate 907 fixedly connected with the driving square shaft 906 to rotate 90 degrees clockwise, the garlic seed body direction is changed, and the garlic seed squash buds fall upwards from the garlic seed outlet 902 to complete the sowing.
According to the embodiment, the garlic directional seeding device based on machine vision can complete secondary seed poking and seeding, ordered seed conveying, seed direction control, garlic seed scale and bud identification, directional seeding and the like of garlic seeds at one time.
Corresponding to the garlic directional sowing method based on the machine vision provided by the above embodiment, the present application also provides an embodiment of a garlic directional sowing method based on the machine vision, the method comprising:
s101, when garlic seeds fall from the single seed taking device, the garlic seeds enter the seed poking and discharging device, the flexible seed poking wheel is independently driven to synchronously rotate with the seed discharging device in a fixed proportion through the self-programming controller, the discharged garlic seeds are reversely separated through the seed poking wheel, garlic seed tracks and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the garlic seeds are connected to the V-shaped transmission channel track to stably slide, and the garlic seeds can be in an orderly longitudinal sliding state until falling into the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism in order according to the distribution characteristics of the gravity center positions of the garlic seeds and the asymmetrical circular bulges of the V-shaped transmission channel.
S102, referring to FIG. 20, a hardware system takes an edge computing processor Jetson Nano as a control core, and a power module, a camera, a PCA9685 module and a turnover driving steering engine form control system hardware by opening and closing the driving steering engine; the edge calculation processor Jetson Nano is used for edge calculation, image classification, target detection, segmentation, voice processing and other fields, and can run a plurality of neural networks in parallel.
And S103, referring to FIG. 21, when the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism, the control system controls the image collector to collect images after initialization, and then utilizes the garlic detection network model to carry out reasoning on the collected images to judge whether the images are background images or garlic images. If the image is the background image, acquiring the next frame of image and continuously judging; if the garlic image is the garlic image, the image is input into the bulbil judgment network model to judge the orientation of the bulbil through reasoning, and the garlic detection network model and the bulbil judgment network model are matched with each other to finally complete the garlic seed characteristic identification.
The garlic detection model mainly processes the acquired images in real time, judges whether garlic seeds are fed or not, and performs two classification problems on the background image and the garlic images, wherein the two images have obvious characteristic difference, as shown in figure 22, a 5-layer convolutional neural network model is adopted, the first four layers are four convolutional blocks formed by convolutional layers, ReLU layers and pooling layers, and the 5 th layer is a full connection layer; the garlic bulbil judging model classifies the garlic bulbils upwards or downwards by reasoning the garlic images; the garlic bulbil judgment model adopts a ResNet-18 network structure, and network parameters are trained through transfer learning.
8000 RGB images are adopted in training of the garlic detection model, wherein 4000 background images and 4000 garlic images are cut into 112 multiplied by 112. And optimizing the model by adopting an adam optimizer in the training process, setting the initial learning rate to be 0.001, setting the bachsize to be 32, and setting the accuracy of the trained model in the test set to be 99.3%.
4000 RGB images are adopted in training of the garlic bulbil judgment model, wherein 2000 images with bulbil upward and 2000 images with garlic bulbil downward are cut into 224 multiplied by 224. In order to accelerate the training process and improve the training accuracy, the training is based on ResNet-18 network migration learning training, and the accuracy of the trained model in a test set is 99.6%.
S104, after image recognition, respectively controlling turnover driving steering engines according to the distinguishing results of garlic seed characteristics, opening and closing the driving steering engines to work, wherein the rotation angle of the driving steering engines can be adjusted within 0-180 degrees, when the garlic seed is distinguished to be upward in scale buds, the opening and closing driving steering engines work to drive opening and closing baffles to open a first Y-shaped hopper and a second Y-shaped hopper, the garlic seeds naturally fall, the direction of the seeds is unchanged, the garlic seeds fall into a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and after the opening and closing driving steering engines reset, the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are closed under the tensioning action of a reset spring; or when the bulbil of the garlic seeds is judged to face downwards, the steering engine is driven to work in a turnover mode to drive the whole garlic seeds to do turnover movement, the garlic seed body direction is changed, the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and bulbil adjustment is achieved.
It is noted that, in this document, relational terms such as "first" and "second," and the like, may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Also, the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus. Without further limitation, an element defined by the phrase "comprising an … …" does not exclude the presence of other identical elements in a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises the element.
Of course, the above description is not limited to the above examples, and technical features that are not described in this application may be implemented by or using the prior art, and are not described herein again; the above embodiments and drawings are only for illustrating the technical solutions of the present application and not for limiting the present application, and the present application is only described in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments instead, it should be understood by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, additions or substitutions within the spirit and scope of the present application may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present application, and the scope of the claims of the present application should also be covered.

Claims (10)

1. A garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision is characterized by comprising: the garlic seed poking and seed discharging device is characterized in that a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed poking and seed discharging device is connected with a first end of a garlic seed transmission channel, a second end of the garlic seed transmission channel is arranged at a garlic seed inlet of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism, an image collector is arranged right above the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism correspondingly, an image collection end of the image collector faces towards the inside of the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism and is used for collecting posture information photos of garlic seeds, and the garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional seeding mechanism recognizes and adjusts the postures of the garlic seeds according to the posture information photos.
2. The garlic directional sowing device based on the machine vision as claimed in claim 1, wherein the seed-stirring and sowing device comprises a seed-stirring and sowing device housing and a flexible sowing wheel, and the flexible sowing wheel is movably arranged in the seed-stirring and sowing device housing through a transmission shaft of an electric control system.
3. The garlic directional sowing device based on the machine vision as claimed in claim 2, wherein the seed-stirring and seed-discharging device housing comprises a seed-stirring and seed-discharging device inner cavity, an open through hole, an arc-shaped seed-protecting surface and a transition connection arc surface, wherein the flexible seed-stirring wheel and an electric control system transmission shaft are installed in the seed-stirring and seed-discharging device inner cavity, and the electric control system transmission shaft is connected to the open through hole to realize the rotation control of the flexible seed-stirring wheel; the size range of the arc-shaped seed protecting surface is larger than the whole size of the flexible seed poking wheel, and the transitional connection cambered surface is a transitional curved surface for connecting the seed poking and seeding device and the garlic seed transmission channel.
4. The garlic directional sowing device based on the machine vision as claimed in claim 3, wherein the flexible seed poking wheel comprises a central connecting shaft and flexible seed poking blades, the side lines of the flexible seed poking blades are formed by combining concave arcs and convex arcs, the whole circumference forms an arc-shaped tangential seed separating curve, so that a bell mouth-shaped seed separating space is formed between two adjacent flexible seed poking blades, and the transmission shaft of the electric control system is assembled on the seed poking and seeding device shell through the central connecting shaft.
5. The garlic directional sowing apparatus based on machine vision as claimed in claim 3 or 4, wherein the garlic seed conveying channel is a V-shaped conveying channel, comprising: the transitional connection cambered surface is connected with a first end of the V-shaped groove, a second end of the V-shaped groove is connected with an inlet of the garlic seed characteristic identification and directional sowing mechanism, and a V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove is 45-60 degrees; the V-shaped included angle of the V-shaped groove is subjected to fillet treatment to form an arc fillet, and the side wall of the V-shaped groove is provided with asymmetric circular bulges; the second end of V type recess is provided with first connecting plate and second connecting plate, first and the installation of mounting bracket support be connected for confirm best transmission angle, the second connecting plate passes through bolt and nut and mounting bracket fixed connection.
6. The garlic directional sowing device based on machine vision as claimed in claim 5, wherein the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism comprises a Y-shaped hopper, a turnover mounting bracket, a tension spring, a turnover driving steering engine, an opening and closing driving steering engine, a connecting disc, a turnover driving steering engine fixing shaft, an opening and closing driving steering engine fixing shaft and an opening and closing baffle plate; the Y-shaped hopper comprises a first Y-shaped hopper and a second Y-shaped hopper, the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are movably installed in an asymmetric combination mode, an opening-closing driving steering engine is fixedly connected with an overturning installation support through an opening-closing driving steering engine fixing shaft, a driving shaft of the opening-closing driving steering engine is fixedly connected with an opening-closing baffle, the opening-closing baffle is arranged between the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper, and two ends of a tensioning spring are respectively connected with the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper; the overturning driving steering engine is fixedly connected with the mounting frame through a bolt and a nut, and a driving shaft of the overturning steering engine is fixedly connected with the connecting disc and fixedly connected with the overturning mounting support through an overturning driving steering engine fixing shaft.
7. The machine-vision directional garlic seeding device as claimed in claim 6, wherein the first Y-shaped hopper comprises: the first Y-shaped hopper is rotatably connected with the overturning mounting bracket through the first overturning shaft, and the first tensioning spring connecting hole is fixedly connected with the first end of the tensioning spring; the first hopper cabin body comprises a conical cambered surface, the conical cambered surface is provided with a cambered surface baffle, the conical cambered surface is connected with a first cylindrical channel, and the first cylindrical channel is connected with a first conical channel; a first overturning supporting baffle is arranged on one side of the conical channel, and a first spring connecting through hole is formed in a position corresponding to the first tensioning spring connecting hole.
8. The machine-vision directional garlic seeding device as claimed in claim 7, wherein the second Y-shaped hopper comprises: the second overturning support baffle is provided with a second tensioning spring connecting hole, and the second tensioning spring connecting hole is fixedly connected with the second end of the tensioning spring; a second turnover shaft is arranged on the second hopper cabin body, and the second Y-shaped hopper is rotatably connected with the turnover mounting bracket through the second turnover shaft; the second hopper cabin body is provided with a guide groove, two ends of the guide groove are provided with sliding surfaces, the guide groove is connected with a second cylindrical channel, and the second cylindrical channel is connected with a second conical channel; and a second overturning supporting baffle is arranged on one side of the second hopper cabin body and provided with a second spring connecting through hole.
9. The machine-vision garlic directional sowing device according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism is fixed on a mounting bracket, the mounting bracket is used for connecting agricultural machinery, the image collector is fixed on the mounting bracket through an image collector mounting bracket, and a garlic seed outlet of the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism is connected with a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper for realizing collecting and conveying of garlic seeds after directional adjustment and completing directional sowing of garlic seeds.
10. A machine vision based garlic directional sowing method, which is characterized in that the machine vision based garlic directional sowing device of any one of claims 1 to 9 is adopted, and the method comprises the following steps:
s101, when garlic seeds fall from a single seed taking device, the garlic seeds enter a seed poking and discharging device, a self-programming controller independently drives a flexible seed poking wheel to synchronously rotate with the seed discharging device in a fixed proportion, the discharged garlic seeds are reversely separated by the seed poking wheel, garlic seed tracks and speed in the falling process are adjusted and buffered, the garlic seeds are connected to a V-shaped transmission channel track to stably slide, and the garlic seeds can be in an orderly longitudinal sliding state until falling into a garlic seed characteristic recognition and directional sowing mechanism in order according to the distribution characteristics of the gravity center positions of the garlic seeds and the asymmetrical circular bulges of the V-shaped transmission channel;
s102, a hardware system takes an edge computing processor Jetson Nano as a control core, and a power module, a camera, a PCA9685 module and a turnover driving steering engine form control system hardware by opening and closing the driving steering engine; the edge calculation processor Jetson Nano is used for edge calculation, the fields of image classification, target detection, segmentation, voice processing and the like are carried out, and a plurality of neural networks can be operated in parallel;
s103, when the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed feature recognition and directional sowing mechanism, the control system controls the image collector to collect images after initialization, then utilizes the garlic detection network model to carry out reasoning on the collected images, judges whether the images are background images or garlic images, and carries out next frame of image collection and continues judgment if the images are the background images; if the garlic image is the garlic image, inputting the image into the bulbil judgment network model to judge the orientation of the bulbil through reasoning, and matching the garlic detection network model with the bulbil judgment network model to finally complete garlic seed characteristic identification; the garlic detection model mainly processes the acquired images in real time and judges whether garlic seeds are fed, and the garlic detection model is used for performing two classification problems on a background image and a garlic image, because the two images have obvious characteristic difference, a 5-layer convolutional neural network model is adopted, the first four layers are four convolutional blocks consisting of convolutional layers, ReLU layers and pooling layers, and the 5 th layer is a full connection layer; the garlic bulbil judging model classifies the garlic bulbils upwards or downwards by reasoning the garlic images; the garlic bulbil judgment model adopts a ResNet-18 network structure, and network parameters are trained through transfer learning;
s104, after image recognition, respectively controlling turnover driving steering engines according to the distinguishing results of garlic seed characteristics, opening and closing the driving steering engines to work, wherein the rotation angle of the driving steering engines can be adjusted within 0-180 degrees, when the garlic seed is distinguished to be upward in scale buds, the opening and closing driving steering engines work to drive opening and closing baffles to open a first Y-shaped hopper and a second Y-shaped hopper, the garlic seeds naturally fall, the direction of the seeds is unchanged, the garlic seeds fall into a garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and after the opening and closing driving steering engines reset, the first Y-shaped hopper and the second Y-shaped hopper are closed under the tensioning action of a reset spring; or when the bulbil of the garlic seeds is judged to face downwards, the steering engine is driven to work in a turnover mode to drive the whole garlic seeds to do turnover movement, the garlic seed body direction is changed, the garlic seeds fall into the garlic seed collecting and conveying hopper, and bulbil adjustment is achieved.
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CN114018992A (en) * 2021-10-29 2022-02-08 山东农业大学 Capacitive garlic bulb bud detection method and centering device
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CN113816107A (en) * 2021-09-15 2021-12-21 浙江理工大学 Full-automatic garlic accurate posture adjusting conveying device and garlic conveying method thereof
CN113816107B (en) * 2021-09-15 2022-12-06 浙江理工大学 Full-automatic garlic accurate posture adjusting conveying device and garlic conveying method thereof
CN115462221A (en) * 2021-09-17 2022-12-13 山东农业大学 Garlic seed direction adjusting device and method in clamping state
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