CN112775956A - Implementation method of AWC (automatic guided wave control) deviation correcting system of manipulator - Google Patents

Implementation method of AWC (automatic guided wave control) deviation correcting system of manipulator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112775956A
CN112775956A CN201911084727.1A CN201911084727A CN112775956A CN 112775956 A CN112775956 A CN 112775956A CN 201911084727 A CN201911084727 A CN 201911084727A CN 112775956 A CN112775956 A CN 112775956A
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China
Prior art keywords
wafer
manipulator
robot
coordinate
laser sensor
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CN201911084727.1A
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Inventor
朱洪彪
杨奇峰
徐方
谭学科
姚东东
凌霄
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Shenyang Siasun Robot and Automation Co Ltd
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Shenyang Siasun Robot and Automation Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201911084727.1A priority Critical patent/CN112775956A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1679Programme controls characterised by the tasks executed
    • B25J9/1692Calibration of manipulator
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J11/00Manipulators not otherwise provided for
    • B25J11/0095Manipulators transporting wafers

Abstract

The invention relates to a dynamic deviation rectifying technology of a vacuum manipulator, in particular to a manipulator AWC deviation rectifying system implementation method. The invention comprises the following steps: the system main controller is used for reading a code disc value stored by the manipulator driver, obtaining the position of a wafer on the manipulator through calculation, and connecting the wafer with the system IO board card through a CAN bus; the system IO board card is used for processing the level signal output by the laser sensor and outputting the processed level signal to the manipulator driver; the manipulator driver is used for storing a code disc value generated by the wafer passing through the laser sensor; and the laser sensor is used for generating a level signal when the wafer passes through the laser sensor and outputting the level signal to the system IO board card. The invention realizes that the real-time position of the wafer is dynamically corrected in the process of carrying the wafer by the vacuum manipulator, so that the wafer is in an absolutely accurate position when reaching the station position.

Description

Implementation method of AWC (automatic guided wave control) deviation correcting system of manipulator
Technical Field
The invention relates to a dynamic deviation rectifying technology of a vacuum manipulator, in particular to a manipulator AWC deviation rectifying system implementation method.
Background
The vacuum direct-drive mechanical arm is a key part of semiconductor equipment and is responsible for conveying wafers between different process positions. Because of the vacuum environment, friction is generally used between the robot and the wafer. Therefore, the wafer may be displaced inevitably during the process of transferring the wafer by the robot. This has an effect on the production of the subsequent process. Moreover, with the continuous upgrading and improvement of the semiconductor process, the transmission efficiency of the wafer is continuously improved, the operation speed of the manipulator is continuously accelerated, the probability of position deviation is greatly increased, at present, manufacturers for really developing vacuum series in China hardly have, and related technologies are monopolized by foreign manufacturers. The more mature scheme in the industry is to correct the deviation in the process of carrying the manipulator. This ensures that the wafer is in an absolutely accurate position before subsequent production.
The technical difficulty of the dynamic deviation rectifying technical requirement of the vacuum direct-drive manipulator is high, which is an important factor for limiting the research and development of domestic vacuum manipulators. Therefore, the Active Wafer Centering (AWC) is very important during the Wafer operation. The development success of the mechanical arm also plays a role in promoting the development of subsequent mechanical arms.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention can correct the deviation caused by friction and the like in the process of transferring the wafer by the manipulator, so that the position of the wafer reaching the station can be in an absolutely accurate position.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for realizing the purpose is as follows:
the utility model provides a manipulator AWC rectifying system realization device, includes:
the system main controller is used for reading a code disc value stored by the manipulator driver, obtaining the position of a wafer on the manipulator through calculation, and connecting the wafer with the system IO board card through a CAN bus;
the system IO board card is used for processing the level signal output by the laser sensor and outputting the processed level signal to the manipulator driver;
the manipulator driver is used for storing a code wheel value generated when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
and the laser sensor is used for generating a level signal when the wafer passes through the laser sensor and outputting the level signal to the system IO board card.
The two laser sensors are arranged and are asymmetric relative to the motion track of the robot hand.
The system main controller reads coded disc values stored by the manipulator driver into 4 groups, each coded disc value corresponds to a unique manipulator space coordinate value, the wafer position on the manipulator can be uniquely determined through any three groups of manipulator space coordinate values, and the wafer position can be calculated by comparing the wafer position with a standard position which is set at the beginning.
A manipulator AWC deviation rectifying system implementation method comprises the following steps:
1) AWC data acquisition: collecting the center coordinates of the fingers of the robot hand recorded by the laser sensor when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
2) AWC calibration: calculating to obtain the coordinate of the laser sensor under the robot hand base coordinate through the robot hand finger center coordinate and the wafer radius, and performing an automatic deviation rectifying function by taking the coordinate as a reference;
3) the AWC data was collected again: collecting the center coordinates of the fingers of the robot hand recorded by the laser sensor when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
4) AWC deviation calculation: and obtaining a deviation value through the coordinate of the laser sensor under the robot base coordinate, the coordinate of the finger center under the robot base coordinate, the coordinate of the wafer center and the included angle of the trigger point relative to the original point of the robot base coordinate, so as to realize the automatic deviation rectifying function of the robot.
The step 1) is as follows: the wafer blocks the laser sensor A, B and 4 sets of coordinates of the finger center of the robot hand from t1 to t4 at 4 triggering times generated when the robot hand leaves the laser sensor A, B during the wafer transferring process.
The positions of the laser sensors A and B cannot be symmetrical relative to the movement track of the robot hand.
The step 2) is as follows: calculating the coordinate of the laser sensor A or B under the machine hand base coordinate through the coordinate obtained in the step 1) and the wafer radius R, wherein the calculation formula is as follows:
(x2-a)^2+(y2-b)^2=R^2 (1)
(x3-a)^2+(y3-b)^2=R^2 (2)
finishing to obtain:
(C2^2+1)*b^2+(2*x2*C2-2*C1*C2-2*y2)*b+x2^2-2*x2*C1+C1^2+y2^2-R^2=0
C1=(x3^2-x2^2+y3^2-y2^2)/(2*(x3-x2))
C2=(y3-y2)/(x3-x2)
solving the formulas (1) and (2) can obtain the value of b, and substituting the formula can obtain the value of a;
wherein, (x2, y2), (x3, y3) are the center O of the robot finger respectively2、O3Coordinates under the robot hand base coordinate, (a, B) are coordinates of the laser sensor a or B under the robot hand base coordinate, and C1, C2 are constants converted from the coordinates acquired in step 1).
The step 4) is as follows: calculating to obtain an offset value according to the coordinates of the laser sensor A, B under the robot base coordinate obtained in the step 2), the coordinates of the centers of the 4 groups of robot fingers obtained in the step 3), the coordinates of the wafer center at the time of t 1-t 4 and an included angle of the trigger point relative to the robot base coordinate origin at the time of t 1-t 4, wherein the calculation formula is as follows:
X1=x1+d*cos(θ1+ψ-π/2)
Y1=y1+d*sin(θ1+ψ-π/2);
X2=x2+d*cos(θ2+ψ-π/2)
Y2=y2+d*sin(θ2+ψ-π/2)
X3=x3+d*cos(θ3+ψ-π/2)
Y3=y3+d*sin(θ3+ψ-π/2)
X4=x4+d*cos(θ4+ψ-π/2)
Y4=y4+d*sin(θ4+ψ-π/2)
(X1-Xa)^2+(Y1-Ya)^2=R^2①
(X2-Xb)^2+(Y2-Yb)^2=R^2②
(X3-Xb)^2+(Y3-Yb)^2=R^2③
(X4-Xa)^2+(Y4-Ya)^2=R^2④
the coordinates (a, b) of the laser sensor A, B under the robot base coordinate system are respectively (Xa, Ya), (Xb, Yb), R is the wafer radius, (X1, Y1), (X2, Y2), (X3, Y3), (X4, Y4) are the coordinates of the robot finger center at times t1 to t4, (X1, Y1), (X2, Y2), (X3, Y3), (X4, Y4) are the coordinates of the wafer center at times t1 to t4, θ 1, θ 2, θ 3, θ 4 are the included angles of the trigger points at times t1 to t4 relative to the robot base coordinate system origin, d is the deviation distance between the wafer center and the finger center, and ψ is the deviation angle between the wafer center and the finger center relative to the finger coordinate system;
and solving a group of deviation values d and psi according to any three groups of equations from the first to the fourth to obtain 4 groups, respectively calculating the distance between the wafer center (X1, Y1) and the sensor A (Xa, Ya) at the triggering moment by using the 4 groups of deviation values and the corresponding trigger points to be equivalent to the calculated value of the radius of the wafer, selecting a group of deviation values with the calculated radius of the wafer being closest to the actual radius of the wafer as deviation-correcting deviations, and converting the deviations into joint deviation values to correct the deviation.
The invention has the following beneficial effects and advantages:
1. the invention realizes that the real-time position of the wafer is dynamically corrected in the process of carrying the wafer by the vacuum manipulator, so that the wafer is in an absolutely accurate position when reaching the station position.
2. The wafer self-correcting device realizes the self-correcting function of the robot in the wafer transmission process, and ensures the precision of the robot in wafer transmission.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention;
the system comprises a main system controller 1, a system IO board card 2, a manipulator driver 3, a high-precision laser sensor 4 and a high-precision laser sensor 5, wherein the system main controller 2 is a system IO board card;
FIG. 2 is a schematic flow chart of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of AWC data acquisition;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of the AWC calibration principle;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of wafer misalignment.
Detailed Description
The key points of the technology of the invention are as follows:
1. two sensors are mounted on the station.
2. The robot arm triggers the sensor during the telescoping process.
3. And calculating the calibration position through the coded disc value recorded at the triggering moment.
4. And calculating the deviation value between the wafer and the center of the finger according to the code disc value recorded at the triggering moment.
5. The robot automatically corrects the wafer position using the deviation.
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
As shown in fig. 1, when the vacuum robot holds the wafer to operate, it will trigger two high-precision laser sensors with different positions relative to the center of the wafer each time, as 4 in fig. 1 and 5 in fig. 1, and after the laser signal of the sensor is blocked, it will output a level signal at a high speed to the IO board of the system for processing, as 2 in fig. 1. After receiving the high-speed digital signal input, the system IO board generates a low pulse signal with a width of 300us each time the sensor signal changes, and outputs the low pulse signal to the manipulator driver module, as shown in fig. 1 at 3. The manipulator driver can immediately latch the current code wheel value at the falling edge of any low pulse signal, and after the whole wafer passes through the sensor, four groups of code wheel values are generated in total. The system main controller (as 1 in fig. 1) reads four groups of coded disc values latched by the driver module through a communication bus-CAN bus-in the system, each group of coded disc values corresponds to a unique manipulator space coordinate value through a space coordinate conversion relation equation, the wafer position on the manipulator CAN be uniquely determined through the three groups of manipulator space coordinate values, and the wafer deviation CAN be calculated by comparing the wafer position with the standard position which starts to be taught. And after the manipulator reaches the station, compensating the calculated deviation value to the position of the manipulator, thereby realizing the dynamic deviation rectifying function of the manipulator.
As shown in fig. 2, the general scheme of AWC (active wafer centering) function includes: AWC data acquisition, AWC calibration and AWC deviation calculation.
As shown in fig. 3, AWC data is collected by two laser sensors, the robot arm will sequentially block the laser sensors A, B during wafer transportation, and the driver records the code wheel value of each axis of the robot arm at this moment while generating the trigger signal, and similarly, the trigger signal will also be generated and the code wheel value of each axis will be recorded when the wafer leaves the sensors. The robot hand records four code wheel values in total during the passage of the two laser sensors.
The robot hand needs to carry out AWC calibration before realizing the AWC deviation rectifying function, the AWC calibration aims at recording the standard position of the wafer on the finger of the robot hand, and the automatic deviation rectifying function is carried out by taking the position as the reference. In the AWC calibration process, the robot can record the code disc values of all axes at four triggering moments, and then transmits data to the robot controller through the bus. And the robot hand calculates the coordinate value of the sensor relative to the base coordinate of the robot hand at the moment through a calibration algorithm.
After calibration is completed, when the robot carries the wafer again and transmits the wafer to the designated station, the robot records the code disc values of all axes triggered four times again, and then transmits data to the robot controller through the bus. The robot hand calculates the deviation value between the wafer and the finger center of the robot hand by using the code disc values of all the axes at the 4-time triggering moment, and then converts the deviation into the joint deviation value of each axis, thereby realizing the automatic deviation rectifying function of the robot hand.
AWC calibration principle:
as shown in fig. 4, the solid black box is the position of the sensor A, B, which requires that the sensor position is not symmetrical to the robot motion trace, ensuring that the two triggers have a time interval.
The calibration aims to calculate the coordinate value of the sensor under the robot base coordinate by recording the code disc value of the finger center twice and the wafer radius R. The principle is as follows: the center of the circle is found by two points and the radius on the known circle as the dotted line circle. The code wheel value of the center of the robot finger recorded when the wafer triggers the sensor B for the first time is O2, the distance from O2 to the sensor B is the wafer radius R at this time, the code wheel value of the center of the robot finger recorded when the wafer leaves the sensor B is O3, the distance from O3 to the sensor B is the wafer radius R at this time, and O2 and O3 can be regarded as two points on a circle (i.e., a dashed line circle) with the sensor B as the center and R as the radius. Knowing the coordinates and radius of the two points on the circle, the coordinates (a, B) of sensor B can be found. The coordinates of sensor a can be found in the same way.
Let the coordinate values of O2 and O3 under the robot hand base coordinate be (x2, y2), (x3, y3), the wafer radius be R, and the center of the dotted line (i.e., the coordinate of sensor B) be (a, B).
The coordinate values of a and b can be obtained by the following formula:
(x2-a)^2+(y2-b)^2=R^2
(x3-a)^2+(y3-b)^2=R^2
finishing to obtain:
(C2^2+1)*b^2+(2*x2*C2-2*C1*C2-2*y2)*b+x2^2-2*x2*C1+C1^2+y2^2-R^2=0
C1=(x3^2-x2^2+y3^2-y2^2)/(2*(x3-x2))
C2=(y3-y2)/(x3-x2)
solving a quadratic equation with one element can solve the value of b, substituting the quadratic equation into a formula can solve the value of a, and solving the coordinate value of the sensor A in the same way.
Principle of deviation calculation
The coordinate values of the two sensors under the base coordinate can be determined A, B through calibration, the sensors are triggered by the wafer 4 times during rectification, because the wafer has deviation on the finger, the coordinate value of the center of the finger recorded at the moment is not the coordinate value of the center of the finger at the calibration moment, and the deviation distance between the center of the wafer and the center of the finger is assumed to be d, and the angle is psi (the included angle between the line segment from the center of the wafer to the center of the finger and the positive direction of the x axis of the finger coordinate system). As shown in fig. 5. The coordinate value of the center of the wafer can be calculated through 4 coordinate values recorded during triggering, and the coordinates of the two sensors are set to be A (Xa, Ya) and B (Xb, Yb); the radius is R; the coordinate values of the finger centers of the 4 triggering sensors are a (X1, Y1), B (X2, Y2), C (X3, Y3) and D (X4, Y4), and the coordinate values of the corresponding wafer centers at the corresponding time are A (X1, Y1), B (X2, Y2), C (X3, Y3) and D (X4, Y4). Theta 1, theta 2, theta 3 and theta 4 are included angles between 4 trigger points a, B, c and d and a robot base coordinate (the included angles are included angles between the trigger points and the robot base coordinate origin and the positive direction of the x axis of the robot base coordinate), according to physical significance, the distance from the circle centers of A, D to the sensor A is the wafer radius R, and the distance from the circle centers of B, C to the sensor B is the wafer radius R. The standard equation for 4 circles can be listed. The formula is as follows:
X1=x1+d*cos(θ1+ψ-π/2)
Y1=y1+d*sin(θ1+ψ-π/2);
X2=x2+d*cos(θ2+ψ-π/2)
Y2=y2+d*sin(θ2+ψ-π/2)
X3=x3+d*cos(θ3+ψ-π/2)
Y3=y3+d*sin(θ3+ψ-π/2)
X4=x4+d*cos(θ4+ψ-π/2)
Y4=y4+d*sin(θ4+ψ-π/2)
(X1-Xa)^2+(Y1-Ya)^2=R^2①
(X2-Xb)^2+(Y2-Yb)^2=R^2②
(X3-Xb)^2+(Y3-Yb)^2=R^2③
(X4-Xa)^2+(Y4-Ya)^2=R^2④
the method comprises the steps of solving a group of deviation values d and psi according to equations (i), (ii) and (iv), solving a group of deviation values d and psi according to equations (i), (iii) and (iv), calculating a calculated value of a radius at a trigger time by using 4 groups of deviation values and corresponding trigger points respectively, selecting a group of deviation values calculated to be the closest to the radius of a wafer as deviation-correcting deviations, and converting the deviations into joint deviation values to correct the deviation.

Claims (4)

1. The utility model provides a manipulator AWC rectifying system realization device which characterized in that includes:
the system main controller (1) is used for reading a code disc value stored by the manipulator driver (3), obtaining the position of a wafer on the manipulator through calculation, and connecting the wafer with the system IO board card (2) through a CAN bus;
the system IO board card (2) is used for processing the level signal output by the laser sensor and outputting the processed level signal to the manipulator driver (3);
the manipulator driver (3) is used for storing a code disc value generated when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
and the laser sensor is used for generating a level signal when the wafer passes through the laser sensor and outputting the level signal to the system IO board card (2).
2. A manipulator AWC deviation rectification system realization device according to claim 1, characterized in that the laser sensors are two and are positioned asymmetrically relative to the robot motion trajectory.
3. A robot AWC alignment system implementation apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein the system main controller (1) reads 4 coded disc values stored in the robot driver (3), each coded disc value corresponds to a unique robot spatial coordinate value, the wafer position on the robot can be uniquely determined by any three sets of robot spatial coordinate values, and the wafer deviation can be calculated by comparing with the standard position set at the beginning.
4. A manipulator AWC deviation rectifying system implementation method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) AWC data acquisition: collecting the center coordinates of the fingers of the robot hand recorded by the laser sensor when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
2) AWC calibration: calculating to obtain the coordinate of the laser sensor under the robot hand base coordinate through the robot hand finger center coordinate and the wafer radius, and performing an automatic deviation rectifying function by taking the coordinate as a reference;
3) the AWC data was collected again: collecting the center coordinates of the fingers of the robot hand recorded by the laser sensor when the wafer passes through the laser sensor;
4) AWC deviation calculation: and obtaining a deviation value through the coordinate of the laser sensor under the robot base coordinate, the coordinate of the finger center under the robot base coordinate, the coordinate of the wafer center and the included angle of the trigger point relative to the original point of the robot base coordinate, so as to realize the automatic deviation rectifying function of the robot.
CN201911084727.1A 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 Implementation method of AWC (automatic guided wave control) deviation correcting system of manipulator Pending CN112775956A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN115167198A (en) * 2022-06-21 2022-10-11 沈阳新松机器人自动化股份有限公司 Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm
CN116872218A (en) * 2023-09-05 2023-10-13 泓浒(苏州)半导体科技有限公司 Eccentric correction method and system in semiconductor wafer conveying process
CN117524964A (en) * 2024-01-08 2024-02-06 泓浒(苏州)半导体科技有限公司 Method and system for detecting and correcting wafer center offset in conveying process

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CN115167198A (en) * 2022-06-21 2022-10-11 沈阳新松机器人自动化股份有限公司 Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm
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CN117524964A (en) * 2024-01-08 2024-02-06 泓浒(苏州)半导体科技有限公司 Method and system for detecting and correcting wafer center offset in conveying process
CN117524964B (en) * 2024-01-08 2024-03-22 泓浒(苏州)半导体科技有限公司 Method and system for detecting and correcting wafer center offset in conveying process

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