CN115167198A - Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm - Google Patents

Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm Download PDF

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Publication number
CN115167198A
CN115167198A CN202210703600.9A CN202210703600A CN115167198A CN 115167198 A CN115167198 A CN 115167198A CN 202210703600 A CN202210703600 A CN 202210703600A CN 115167198 A CN115167198 A CN 115167198A
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deviation
wafer
rectifying
sensor
main controller
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CN115167198B (en
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杨奇峰
魏政鸿
徐方
谭学科
凌霄
王新宇
李卓斌
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Shenyang Xinsong Semiconductor Equipment Co ltd
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Shenyang Siasun Robot and Automation Co Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0423Input/output
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES NOT COVERED BY CLASS H10
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/68Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for positioning, orientation or alignment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES NOT COVERED BY CLASS H10
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/67Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere
    • H01L21/683Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping
    • H01L21/687Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches
    • H01L21/68707Apparatus specially adapted for handling semiconductor or electric solid state devices during manufacture or treatment thereof; Apparatus specially adapted for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or electric solid state devices or components ; Apparatus not specifically provided for elsewhere for supporting or gripping using mechanical means, e.g. chucks, clamps or pinches the wafers being placed on a robot blade, or gripped by a gripper for conveyance
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/24Pc safety
    • G05B2219/24215Scada supervisory control and data acquisition
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P90/00Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions mitigation
    • Y02P90/02Total factory control, e.g. smart factories, flexible manufacturing systems [FMS] or integrated manufacturing systems [IMS]

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of semiconductor manufacturing, in particular to a wafer deviation rectifying system and a wafer deviation rectifying method of a double-end mechanical arm, which comprise the following steps: the system comprises a main controller, a manual operator, an IO board, a driver and a deviation rectifying sensor; the main controller is used for receiving the deviation-rectifying configuration data acquired by the manual operator and sending the deviation-rectifying configuration data to the IO board through the bus; the main controller also receives the wafer position data read by the driver, acquires the actual position of the wafer according to the wafer position data, and calculates a deviation value; and the IO board is used for receiving the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, simultaneously acquiring the state of an IO point corresponding to the deviation rectifying sensor, judging, and generating a position latching signal of the double-end manipulator to send to an input channel corresponding to the driver if the state changes. The invention solves the problem of confusion of the position data of the wafers at the two tail ends of the double-tail-end mechanical arm, realizes the wafer deviation correction of the double-tail-end mechanical arm and improves the wafer transmission efficiency and the position accuracy.

Description

Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of semiconductor manufacturing, and particularly relates to a wafer deviation rectifying system and method of a double-end mechanical arm.
Background
As semiconductor products enter various fields of life, the development of the semiconductor industry is also changing day by day. In semiconductor manufacturing, a vacuum robot is a critical component of semiconductor equipment and is responsible for transporting wafers between different processing locations. Since the requirements for reliability, precision and the like are high, the vacuum manipulator is monopolized by foreign manufacturers for many years, and manufacturers and units for domestic research and manufacturing of vacuum manipulators are very few.
Currently, many wafer correction studies are conducted on a single-end robot, and with the development of semiconductor technology, the wafer transmission efficiency has become one of the main factors that restrict the improvement of the machine productivity, and the demands of double-end robots are gradually increased. But the domestic research on wafer deviation correction of the double-end mechanical arm is almost not available. Different from single-end manipulator wafer deviation correction, the double-end manipulator needs to record the wafer position data on two ends and distinguish the position data of two wafers in the stretching process, and if the existing single-end manipulator wafer deviation correction method is directly used, the problems of abnormal position latching times and wafer position calculation errors can occur.
For the vacuum manipulator, besides the deviation-correcting sensor, other IO signals, such as a vacuum chamber gate valve or an extension enable signal, are often accessed, but in the current method, in the manipulator stretching process, IO state changes corresponding to the non-deviation-correcting sensor or IO state changes of the deviation-correcting sensors of other arms interfere with wafer deviation correction, so that the wafer deviation correction cannot be accurately performed.
Aiming at the application requirements of the double-end manipulator, the invention provides a double-wafer deviation rectifying method, which not only realizes grouping processing of the wafer position data of the double-end manipulator, but also solves the problem of wafer deviation rectifying interference caused by a non-deviation rectifying sensor.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a wafer deviation rectifying method applied to a double-end mechanical arm. In the field of semiconductor manufacturing, different from a common single-end manipulator at present, when the double-end manipulator extends out every time, two wafers can be transmitted to a station at one time, so that the production efficiency is higher, but the deviation correction data of the two wafers can be processed separately, and the accurate deviation correction of the two wafers can be realized.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for realizing the purpose is as follows: a wafer rectification system for a double-ended robot, comprising: the system comprises a main controller, a manual operator, an IO board, a driver and a deviation rectifying sensor;
the main controller is used for receiving the deviation-rectifying configuration data acquired by the hand operator and sending the deviation-rectifying configuration data to the IO board through the bus before sending a motion control command to the manipulator;
the main controller also receives the wafer position data read by the driver, acquires the actual position of the wafer according to the wafer position data, and corrects the extending position of the manipulator according to the calculated deviation value and the wafer calibration position stored in the main controller, so that the carried wafer can reach the accurate position;
the IO board is used for receiving the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, simultaneously collecting the state of an IO point corresponding to the deviation rectifying sensor, judging, and generating a position latching signal of the double-end manipulator and sending the position latching signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver if the state changes;
the plurality of drivers are used for driving the motors to move, and simultaneously are used for respectively receiving two position latching signals sent by the IO board and respectively latching wafer position data corresponding to the two tail ends of the current manipulator;
the deviation rectifying sensors are arranged on two sides of a path extending out of the manipulator to the station and used for detecting whether the current self is shielded by the wafer in real time, outputting IO state signals and waiting for the IO board to collect.
The deviation rectifying sensors are multiple and are respectively as follows: the first deviation correcting sensor, the second deviation correcting sensor, the third deviation correcting sensor and the fourth deviation correcting sensor are connected with the IO board;
the first deviation-rectifying sensor and the second deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of a manipulator carrying a left wafer; the third deviation-rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of the manipulator carrying the right wafer.
The deviation rectifying sensors are all photoelectric sensors.
The first deviation-rectifying sensor and the second deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path formed along the advancing direction of the center of the circle of the wafer on the left side and are arranged asymmetrically, the third deviation-rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of the path formed along the advancing direction of the center of the circle of the wafer on the right side and are arranged asymmetrically, so that the wafers do not trigger the sensors at the same moment, and when the wafers trigger the sensors, the mechanical arm is located at different positions and is used for calculating the positions of the wafers by using different position data through the main controller.
The format of the deviation rectifying configuration data comprises 4 groups of data, and the first group of data and the second group of data respectively represent IO point position serial numbers corresponding to two deviation rectifying sensors corresponding to the left wafer; the third group of data and the fourth group of data respectively represent IO point position serial numbers corresponding to two deviation rectifying sensors corresponding to the right wafer; each set of data is 1 byte or more.
The IO board includes: the DSP, the FPGA and the photoelectric coupler are connected in sequence;
the DSP is respectively connected with the FPGA and the main controller, and the FPGA is connected with the deviation rectifying sensor;
the FPGA comprises: the device comprises a first position latch module, a second position latch module and an IO acquisition module;
the first position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to a first group of data and a second group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for left wafer deviation rectifying, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a first position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a first high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the second position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to the third group of data and the fourth group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for rectifying deviation of the right wafer, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a second position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a second high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the IO acquisition module is a connection module for the FPGA and all IO signals of the correction sensors and is used for the FPGA to acquire all IO signal states;
and the DSP is used for acquiring IO states of all the deviation rectifying sensors from the FPGA, sending the IO states to the main controller, and transmitting the deviation rectifying configuration data and the IO output signals sent by the main controller to the FPGA.
A deviation rectifying method of a wafer deviation rectifying system of a double-end mechanical arm comprises the following steps:
calibrating the wafer position to obtain a calibrated wafer calibration position, and storing the wafer calibration position in a memory of a main controller; and then when the manipulator carries the wafer to run, calculating the deviation between the actual position and the calibration position of the wafer, and correcting the deviation according to the calculated deviation to enable the wafer to reach the accurate position.
1) The main controller receives deviation correction configuration data including IO (input/output) point position serial numbers of IO plates connected with each deviation correction sensor from the manual operator, and sends the deviation correction configuration data to the IO plates and then sends a motion control command to a driver of the manipulator to enable the manipulator to perform telescopic motion;
2) The IO board collects all IO states in real time and sends the IO states to the main controller;
3) The IO board receives the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, detects the IO states of four deviation rectifying sensors corresponding to the deviation rectifying configuration data, if any IO state changes, the corresponding position latch module is triggered to trigger a position latch signal, and the corresponding position latch module sends the position latch signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver; otherwise, the position latch signal is not triggered;
4) After receiving a position latching signal sent by the IO board position latching module, an input channel corresponding to the driver latches current wafer position data to a corresponding register inside;
5) The main controller reads the wafer position data of a corresponding register in the driver through the bus;
6) And the main controller calculates the actual position of the wafer in the movement process of the manipulator according to the wafer position data, compares the actual position with the calibration position to obtain position deviation, sends a position deviation correction instruction to the driver according to the position deviation and executes deviation correction action.
The step 6) is specifically as follows:
for each deviation-correcting sensor, the state change of the sensor IO is triggered twice when the wafer is in one-time movement process and the wafer is at the moment t1 of shielding the deviation-correcting sensor and at the moment t2 of leaving the sensor. Calculating coordinate values of the deviation-correcting sensor under the base coordinates of the manipulator by using data in the wafer calibration process according to formulas (1) and (2);
(x2-a)^2+(y2-b)^2=R^2 (1)
(x3-a)^2+(y3-b)^2=R^2 (2)
wherein, (x 2, y 2), (x 3, y 3) are the coordinates of the robot end centers O2, O3 under the robot base coordinate at the time of t1 and t2 respectively, and are calculated by combining a robot motion model through the position fed back by a motor encoder, wherein R is the wafer radius, and (a, b) are the coordinates of the deviation-correcting sensor under the robot base coordinate. Solving equations (1) (2) for a and b with x2, x3, y2, y3, R as known quantities can yield the values of a and b. By the method, the coordinate values of the four deviation rectifying sensors under the manipulator base coordinates can be respectively calculated;
after calibration is completed, when the manipulator normally runs, the actual position and the deviation of the wafer are calculated through the following formulas:
X1=x1+d*cos(θ1+ψ-π/2) (3)
Y1=y1+d*sin(θ1+ψ-π/2) (4)
X2=x2+d*cos(θ2+ψ-π/2) (5)
Y2=y2+d*sin(θ2+ψ-π/2) (6)
X3=x3+d*cos(θ3+ψ-π/2) (7)
Y3=y3+d*sin(θ3+ψ-π/2) (8)
X4=x4+d*cos(θ4+ψ-π/2) (9)
Y4=y4+d*sin(θ4+ψ-π/2) (10)
(X1-Xa)^2+(Y1-Ya)^2=R^2 (11)
(X2-Xb)^2+(Y2-Yb)^2=R^2 (12)
(X3-Xb)^2+(Y3-Yb)^2=R^2 (13)
(X4-Xa)^2+(Y4-Ya)^2=R^2 (14)
the system comprises a manipulator base coordinate system, a first deviation-correcting sensor, a second deviation-correcting sensor, a manipulator base coordinate system, a wafer radius, coordinates of the first deviation-correcting sensor and the second deviation-correcting sensor under the manipulator base coordinate system, coordinates of the manipulator base coordinate system under the manipulator base coordinate system, coordinates of the manipulator end centers at the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the first deviation-correcting sensor and the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the second deviation-correcting sensor, coordinates of the wafer centers at the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the first deviation-correcting sensor, coordinates of the X1, Y1), (X2, Y2), (X3, Y3), (X4, Y4), included angles of the manipulator end centers relative to the manipulator base coordinate system, d is a deviation distance between the wafer center and the manipulator end center, and psi is an angle deviation between the wafer center and the manipulator end center relative to the manipulator base coordinate system;
according to the first set of equations (3) - (8), (11) - (13), the second set of equations (3), (4), (7) - (10), (11), (13), (14), the third set of equations (3) - (6), (9) - (12), (14), and the fourth set of equations (5) - (10), (12) - (14), d and psi are respectively calculated, 4 sets of d and psi can be obtained, the 4 sets of d and psi are used for respectively calculating the distance from the center of the wafer to the deviation sensor at the IO state change moment of the deviation sensor, namely the calculated value of the radius of the wafer, the deviation value calculated by the set of equations with the calculated radius of the wafer closest to the actual radius of the wafer is selected as the final deviation correction deviation, and the deviation is converted into the motion position deviation value of the robot motor to be sent to a driver, so that the deviation correction operation is realized.
The driver is a driver of a robot motor.
The invention has the following beneficial effects and advantages:
1. according to the invention, the operation of inputting the IO point serial number of the deviation-correcting sensor is added on the manipulator, so that the manipulator main controller and the IO board obtain the IO point serial number information of the deviation-correcting sensor, thereby solving the problem of confusion of left and right tail end wafer position data of the double-tail-end manipulator, realizing wafer deviation correction of the double-tail-end manipulator, and improving wafer transmission efficiency and position accuracy.
2. The method is different from the traditional method of detecting all IO, and solves the problem that other non-deviation-correcting sensors (such as a gate valve state signal of a vacuum chamber) and other arm deviation-correcting sensors interfere the position latch signal in the stretching process of the manipulator. The invention can obviously improve the use convenience of the manipulator, improve the anti-interference capability of the manipulator and enlarge the use scene range of the manipulator.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a wafer deviation rectifying system with dual-end manipulators according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a wafer movement path of a dual-end robot of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a wafer deviation rectifying process of a double-ended robot according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a main controller of a dual-end robot transmitting wafer de-skew configuration data according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
As shown in fig. 1, the present invention is a structural block diagram of a wafer deviation rectifying system of a double-end manipulator, and the system includes a main controller, a manual operator, a deviation rectifying sensor, an IO board, and a driver.
And the main controller, the IO board and the driver are connected by a CAN or Ethercat bus for data communication. The hand operator is connected with the main controller through an RS-232 cable.
The main controller is used for receiving the deviation-rectifying configuration data acquired by the hand operator and sending the deviation-rectifying configuration data to the IO board through the bus before sending a motion control command to the manipulator;
the main controller also receives the wafer position data read by the driver, acquires the actual position of the wafer according to the wafer position data, and corrects the extending position of the manipulator according to the calculated deviation value and the wafer calibration position stored in the main controller, so that the carried wafer can reach the accurate position;
and inside the IO board, the DSP and the FPGA carry out data interaction through a parallel data bus. The user IO signals of the deviation-rectifying sensor and the non-deviation-rectifying sensor are connected with the IO board through the IO cable, and all the IO signals firstly pass through the high-speed photoelectric coupler on the IO board and then are sent to the FPGA. The signal output end of the deviation rectifying sensor is connected to an IO board, the IO board collects the IO state of the sensor in real time and transmits the IO state to the manipulator main controller through a bus, and the bus can be a Canopen industrial field bus, an Ethercat industrial field bus, a Devicenet industrial field bus and the like.
The IO board is used for receiving the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, collecting the state of an IO point corresponding to the deviation rectifying sensor, judging, and generating a position latching signal of the double-end manipulator if the state changes and sending the position latching signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver; IO board, including: the DSP, the FPGA and the photoelectric coupler are connected in sequence;
the DSP is respectively connected with the FPGA and the main controller, and the FPGA is connected with the deviation rectifying sensor;
an FPGA, comprising: the device comprises a first position latch module, a second position latch module and an IO acquisition module;
the first position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to a first group of data and a second group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for rectifying deviation of the wafer on the left side, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a first position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a first high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the second position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to the third group of data and the fourth group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for rectifying deviation of the right wafer, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a second position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a second high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the IO acquisition module is a connection module for the FPGA and all IO signals of the correction sensors and is used for the FPGA to acquire all IO signal states;
and the DSP is used for acquiring IO states of all the deviation rectifying sensors from the FPGA, sending the IO states to the main controller and transmitting the deviation rectifying configuration data and the IO output signals sent by the main controller to the FPGA.
Two groups of position latching signals of the FPGA on the IO board are respectively connected to two high-speed input channels of the driver through an IO cable by a high-speed photoelectric coupler, specifically, a position latching signal 1 of the FPGA is connected to the high-speed input channels 1 of all the drivers, and a position latching signal 2 of the FPGA is connected to the high-speed input channels 2 of all the drivers.
The drivers are all robot motors, are used for driving the motors to move, and are used for respectively receiving two position latching signals sent by the IO board and respectively latching wafer position data corresponding to the two tail ends of the current manipulator;
as shown in fig. 2, which is a schematic diagram of a wafer movement path of a double-end manipulator of the present invention, the deviation-correcting sensors are disposed on two sides of a path where the manipulator extends to a station, and are configured to detect whether the current manipulator is covered by a wafer in real time, and output an IO status signal to wait for an IO board to collect the current signal. The manipulator has two left and right ends, places a wafer on every end, stretches to the route of station at the manipulator on, installs photoelectric sensor for whether the detection wafer shelters from the sensor, the sensor of rectifying promptly.
The deviation rectifying sensors are multiple and respectively comprise: the first deviation correcting sensor, the second deviation correcting sensor, the third deviation correcting sensor and the fourth deviation correcting sensor are connected with the IO board;
the first deviation-rectifying sensor and the second deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of a manipulator carrying a left wafer; the third deviation-rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of the manipulator carrying the right wafer.
The deviation rectifying sensors are all photoelectric sensors.
For the left wafer, the first deviation-correcting sensor and the second deviation-correcting sensor are arranged on two sides of a path formed along the advancing direction of the circle center of the left wafer and are arranged asymmetrically;
for the right wafer, the third deviation-rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path formed along the advancing direction of the center of the right wafer and are arranged asymmetrically.
The purpose of asymmetric setting is that, in the process of extending out of the manipulator, the state of each deviation-rectifying sensor is not sheltered, sheltered and sheltered in turn, each deviation-rectifying sensor undergoes 2 state changes, when the state of each deviation-rectifying sensor changes, a group of wafer position data corresponding to the deviation-rectifying sensor is generated, the 2 deviation-rectifying sensors are asymmetrically arranged relative to the motion path of the wafer, so that the wafer does not trigger the 2 deviation-rectifying sensors at the same moment, when the wafer triggers the sensors, the manipulator is located at different positions, 4 wafer position data are generated in the process of one-time motion of the wafer, and the main controller calculates the actual position of the wafer by using the different position data.
As shown in fig. 3, which is a schematic diagram of the wafer deviation rectifying work flow of the double-end robot of the present invention, the general flow of the present invention is as follows:
the method comprises the steps that a user inputs deviation rectifying configuration data by using a manual operator, a main controller obtains the deviation rectifying configuration data from the manual operator and sends the deviation rectifying configuration data to an IO board through a bus, a DSP in the IO board receives the deviation rectifying configuration data and transmits the deviation rectifying configuration data to an FPGA, a position latch module in the FPGA detects the state of corresponding IO according to the deviation rectifying configuration data, if the IO state changes, the position latch module can send a position latch signal to an input channel of a driver through a cable, the driver receives the position latch signal and then latches the current position value to a register inside the driver, the main controller accesses the register of the driver through the bus and obtains the position value, the main controller calculates the position value obtained from the driver and then sends a deviation rectifying instruction, the driver is sent to the driver through the bus, and a driver driving motor executes deviation rectifying action.
The method specifically comprises the following steps:
1) The main controller receives the deviation correction configuration data including the IO point position serial number of the IO plate connected with each deviation correction sensor from the manual operator, and after the deviation correction configuration data are sent to the IO plate, a motion control instruction is sent to a driver of the manipulator, so that the manipulator executes telescopic motion;
a user of the manipulator inputs the IO point position serial number of the IO plate connected with each deviation rectifying sensor on the manual operator, the sensors connected with the two tail ends of each station are distinguished on a human-computer interaction interface of the manual operator, and the user needs to correspond the stations, the left tail end and the right tail end of the manipulator to the sensors one by one. And the manual operator sends the serial number of the IO point to the main controller.
2) The IO board collects all IO states in real time and sends the IO states to the main controller;
the main controller of the robot obtains the IO point sequence number information of the deviation-correcting sensor through the hand operator, and sends the IO point sequence number information of the deviation-correcting sensor corresponding to the station to be arrived to the bus through the bus according to the predetermined convention before sending the extending or retracting motion command each time;
the main controller sends the deviation-correcting configuration data to the IO board, the format of the deviation-correcting configuration data is schematically shown in FIG. 4, the deviation-correcting configuration data is divided into 4 bytes, the 1 st and 2 nd bytes represent IO point position serial numbers corresponding to the deviation-correcting sensors of the station where the wafer on the left side is going, and the 3 rd and 4 th bytes represent IO point position serial numbers corresponding to the deviation-correcting sensors of the station where the wafer on the right side is going.
3) The IO board receives the deviation rectification configuration data sent by the main controller, detects IO states of four deviation rectification sensors corresponding to the deviation rectification configuration data, if any of the IO states changes, triggers a corresponding position latch module to trigger a position latch signal, and sends the position latch signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver; otherwise, the position latch signal is not triggered;
the method comprises the following steps that an IO board receives IO point position sequence number information of a deviation-correcting sensor sent by a manipulator main controller through a bus, after analysis, the IO point sequence number information is divided into two groups of IO point sequence numbers which respectively correspond to the deviation-correcting sensors connected to the left end and the right end of a manipulator, the state of the IO points is judged by a program of an FPGA (field programmable gate array), when the IO state changes, a position latching signal is sent, the left end and the right end respectively correspond to a position latching signal, and the two position latching signals are independent and do not influence each other;
4) After receiving a position latching signal sent by the IO board position latching module, an input channel corresponding to the driver latches current wafer position data to a corresponding register inside;
5) The main controller reads the wafer position data of a corresponding register in the driver through the bus;
6) And the main controller calculates the actual position of the wafer in the movement process of the manipulator according to the wafer position data, compares the actual position with the calibration position to obtain position deviation, sends a position deviation correction instruction to the driver according to the position deviation and executes deviation correction action.
For the main controller to calculate the actual position of the wafer in the current robot motion process according to the wafer position data, the specific method is as follows:
for each deviation-correcting sensor, the state change of the sensor IO is triggered twice when the wafer is in one-time movement process and the wafer is at the moment t1 of shielding the deviation-correcting sensor and at the moment t2 of leaving the sensor. Calculating coordinate values of the deviation-correcting sensor under the base coordinates of the manipulator by using data in the wafer calibration process according to formulas (1) and (2);
(x2-a)^2+(y2-b)^2=R^2 (1)
(x3-a)^2+(y3-b)^2=R^2 (2)
wherein, (x 2, y 2), (x 3, y 3) are the coordinates of the robot end centers O2, O3 under the robot base coordinate at the time of t1 and t2 respectively, and are calculated by combining a robot motion model through the position fed back by a motor encoder, wherein R is the wafer radius, and (a, b) are the coordinates of the deviation-correcting sensor under the robot base coordinate. Solving equations (1) (2) for a and b with x2, x3, y2, y3, R as known quantities, can yield the values of a and b. By the method, the coordinate values of the four deviation rectifying sensors under the manipulator base coordinates can be respectively calculated;
after calibration is completed, when the manipulator normally runs, the actual position and the deviation of the wafer are calculated through the following formulas:
X1=x1+d*cos(θ1+ψ-π/2) (3)
Y1=y1+d*sin(θ1+ψ-π/2) (4)
X2=x2+d*cos(θ2+ψ-π/2) (5)
Y2=y2+d*sin(θ2+ψ-π/2) (6)
X3=x3+d*cos(θ3+ψ-π/2) (7)
Y3=y3+d*sin(θ3+ψ-π/2) (8)
X4=x4+d*cos(θ4+ψ-π/2) (9)
Y4=y4+d*sin(θ4+ψ-π/2) (10)
(X1-Xa)^2+(Y1-Ya)^2=R^2 (11)
(X2-Xb)^2+(Y2-Yb)^2=R^2 (12)
(X3-Xb)^2+(Y3-Yb)^2=R^2 (13)
(X4-Xa)^2+(Y4-Ya)^2=R^2 (14)
the system comprises a manipulator base coordinate system, a first deviation-correcting sensor, a second deviation-correcting sensor, a manipulator base coordinate system, a wafer radius, coordinates of the first deviation-correcting sensor and the second deviation-correcting sensor under the manipulator base coordinate system, coordinates of the manipulator base coordinate system under the manipulator base coordinate system, coordinates of the manipulator end centers at the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the first deviation-correcting sensor and the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the second deviation-correcting sensor, coordinates of the wafer centers at the t1 moment and the t2 moment of the first deviation-correcting sensor, coordinates of the X1, Y1), (X2, Y2), (X3, Y3), (X4, Y4), included angles of the manipulator end centers relative to the manipulator base coordinate system, d is a deviation distance between the wafer center and the manipulator end center, and psi is an angle deviation between the wafer center and the manipulator end center relative to the manipulator base coordinate system;
according to the first set of equations (3) - (8), (11) - (13), the second set of equations (3), (4), (7) - (10), (11), (13), (14), the third set of equations (3) - (6), (9) - (12), (14), and the fourth set of equations (5) - (10), (12) - (14), d and psi are respectively calculated, 4 sets of d and psi can be obtained, the 4 sets of d and psi are used for respectively calculating the distance from the center of the wafer to the deviation sensor at the IO state change moment of the deviation sensor, namely the calculated value of the radius of the wafer, the deviation value calculated by the set of equations with the calculated radius of the wafer closest to the actual radius of the wafer is selected as the final deviation correction deviation, and the deviation is converted into the motion position deviation value of the robot motor to be sent to a driver, so that the deviation correction operation is realized.
It should be noted that, the user needs to perform position calibration first, and the manipulator retracts after extending to the working position. The master controller calculates a standard position from the position data of this time. And then when the manipulator operates to the station again, the actual position of the wafer is compared with the standard position, the deviation of the wafer is calculated, and the position correction is carried out when the wafer arrives at the station, so that the position of the wafer arriving at the station every time is the same as the standard position.
In the embodiments provided herein, it should be understood that the number of drives, the number of high speed input channels of the drives, the type of bus, the format of deskew configuration data, etc. described may be adjusted according to the variations and constraints of the particular use scenario.
While the above embodiments of the invention have been described in detail for a method of aligning a wafer with a double-ended robot, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the invention is not limited thereto.

Claims (8)

1. A wafer deviation rectifying system of a double-end mechanical arm is characterized by comprising: the system comprises a main controller, a manual operator, an IO board, a driver and a deviation rectifying sensor;
the main controller is used for receiving the deviation-rectifying configuration data acquired by the hand operator and sending the deviation-rectifying configuration data to the IO board through the bus before sending a motion control command to the manipulator;
the main controller also receives the wafer position data read by the driver, acquires the actual position of the wafer according to the wafer position data, calibrates the position according to the wafer stored in the main controller, and calculates the deviation value to correct the extending position of the manipulator so as to enable the carried wafer to reach the accurate position;
the IO board is used for receiving the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, simultaneously collecting the state of an IO point corresponding to the deviation rectifying sensor, judging, and generating a position latching signal of the double-end manipulator and sending the position latching signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver if the state changes;
the plurality of drivers are used for driving the motors to move, and simultaneously used for respectively receiving two position latching signals sent by the IO board and respectively latching the wafer position data corresponding to the two tail ends of the current manipulator;
the deviation rectifying sensors are arranged on two sides of a path extending out of the manipulator to the station and used for detecting whether the current self is shielded by the wafer in real time, outputting IO state signals and waiting for the IO board to collect.
2. The system of claim 1, wherein the plurality of de-skew sensors are a plurality of sensors, each of the plurality of sensors comprising: the first deviation correcting sensor, the second deviation correcting sensor, the third deviation correcting sensor and the fourth deviation correcting sensor are connected with the IO board;
the first deviation-rectifying sensor and the second deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of a manipulator carrying a left wafer; and the third deviation-rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation-rectifying sensor are arranged on two sides of a path extending to the station direction of the manipulator carrying the right wafer.
3. The system of claim 2, wherein the de-skew sensors are all photoelectric sensors.
4. The wafer deviation rectifying system of claim 2, wherein the first deviation rectifying sensor and the second deviation rectifying sensor are disposed at two sides of a path formed along the advancing direction of the center of the left wafer and are asymmetrically disposed, and the third deviation rectifying sensor and the fourth deviation rectifying sensor are disposed at two sides of a path formed along the advancing direction of the center of the right wafer and are asymmetrically disposed, so that the wafers do not trigger the sensors at the same time, and when the wafers trigger the sensors, the manipulators are located at different positions, and the main controller calculates the positions of the wafers by using different position data.
5. The wafer rectification system of a double-ended robot as claimed in claim 1, wherein the format of the rectification configuration data comprises 4 sets of data, and the first set of data and the second set of data respectively represent serial numbers of IO points corresponding to two rectification sensors corresponding to a wafer on the left side; the third group of data and the fourth group of data respectively represent IO point position serial numbers corresponding to two deviation rectifying sensors corresponding to the right wafer; each set of data is 1 byte or more.
6. The system of claim 1, wherein the IO board comprises: the DSP, the FPGA and the photoelectric coupler are connected in sequence;
the DSP is respectively connected with the FPGA and the main controller, and the FPGA is connected with the deviation rectifying sensor;
the FPGA comprises: the device comprises a first position latch module, a second position latch module and an IO acquisition module;
the first position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to a first group of data and a second group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for rectifying deviation of the wafer on the left side, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a first position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a first high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the second position latch module is used for detecting IO states corresponding to the third group of data and the fourth group of data of the deviation rectifying configuration data, namely IO states of 2 deviation rectifying sensors for rectifying deviation of the right wafer, and when the IO state of at least one deviation rectifying sensor changes, a second position latch signal is output and is respectively sent to a second high-speed input channel of each driver through a photoelectric coupler;
the IO acquisition module is a connection module for the FPGA and all IO signals of the correction sensors and is used for the FPGA to acquire all IO signal states;
and the DSP is used for acquiring IO states of all the deviation rectifying sensors from the FPGA, sending the IO states to the main controller, and transmitting the deviation rectifying configuration data and the IO output signals sent by the main controller to the FPGA.
7. The method as claimed in claims 1 to 6, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
calibrating the wafer position to obtain a calibrated wafer calibration position, and storing the wafer calibration position in a memory of a main controller; and then when the manipulator carries the wafer to run, calculating the deviation between the actual position and the calibration position of the wafer, and correcting the deviation according to the calculated deviation to enable the wafer to reach the accurate position.
1) The main controller receives the deviation correction configuration data including the IO point position serial number of the IO plate connected with each deviation correction sensor from the manual operator, and after the deviation correction configuration data are sent to the IO plate, a motion control instruction is sent to a driver of the manipulator, so that the manipulator executes telescopic motion;
2) The IO board collects all IO states in real time and sends the IO states to the main controller;
3) The IO board receives the deviation rectifying configuration data sent by the main controller, detects the IO states of four deviation rectifying sensors corresponding to the deviation rectifying configuration data, if any IO state changes, the corresponding position latch module is triggered to trigger a position latch signal, and the corresponding position latch module sends the position latch signal to an input channel corresponding to the driver; otherwise, the position latch signal is not triggered;
4) After receiving a position latching signal sent by the IO board position latching module, an input channel corresponding to the driver latches current wafer position data to a corresponding register inside;
5) The main controller reads the wafer position data of a corresponding register in the driver through the bus;
6) And the main controller calculates the actual position of the wafer in the movement process of the manipulator according to the wafer position data, compares the actual position with the calibration position to obtain position deviation, sends a position deviation correction instruction to the driver according to the position deviation and executes deviation correction action.
8. The method as claimed in claim 7, wherein the driver is a robot motor driver.
CN202210703600.9A 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 Wafer deviation rectifying system and method of double-end mechanical arm Active CN115167198B (en)

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