CN111174771A - Method for measuring verticality of stand column - Google Patents

Method for measuring verticality of stand column Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111174771A
CN111174771A CN202010058970.2A CN202010058970A CN111174771A CN 111174771 A CN111174771 A CN 111174771A CN 202010058970 A CN202010058970 A CN 202010058970A CN 111174771 A CN111174771 A CN 111174771A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
total station
column
angle
center
measuring
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN202010058970.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈曙霞
吕雨
干明
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China MCC17 Group Co Ltd
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China MCC17 Group Co Ltd
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Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by China MCC17 Group Co Ltd filed Critical China MCC17 Group Co Ltd
Priority to CN202010058970.2A priority Critical patent/CN111174771A/en
Publication of CN111174771A publication Critical patent/CN111174771A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C15/00Surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C13/00
    • G01C15/12Instruments for setting out fixed angles, e.g. right angles
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
    • G01B21/22Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups for measuring angles or tapers; for testing the alignment of axes

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for measuring the verticality of a stand column, which adopts a total station instrument without prism ranging to measure, and comprises the following steps: preparing more than two control points with known three-dimensional coordinates and a centering rod in advance, erecting the total station at one control point, and leveling, centering and orienting the total station; determining an upper section and a lower section on an upright post, measuring azimuth angles on the left side and the right side of the upper section by using a total station, taking the average value of the two azimuth angles as the center azimuth angle of the upper section, measuring the parallel distance of the center azimuth angle of the upper section to the center azimuth angle direction surface of the upper section without a prism by using the center azimuth angle of the total station, and calculating the center three-dimensional coordinate of the upper section according to the parallel distance, the radius of the upright post and the vertical angle of the center azimuth angle direction surface of the upper section by the total station; measuring and calculating the lower section according to the same method to obtain the central three-dimensional coordinate of the lower section; and calculating the inclination angle and the inclination azimuth angle of the stand column by using the central three-dimensional coordinates obtained by calculating the upper and lower sections, and finally obtaining the verticality of the stand column.

Description

Method for measuring verticality of stand column
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical application of building engineering, and relates to a method for measuring the perpendicularity of a road and bridge upright post.
Background
The bridge is a supporting system of the bridge by the upright posts, and all loads of the superstructure are transferred to the foundation of the bridge. The vertical columns should be vertical, otherwise, side stress is generated on the foundation, and displacement of the foundation is caused, so that the service life of the bridge is influenced. Bridge construction specifications have a regulation to the straightness that hangs down of stand, and during the bridge was checked and accepted, the straightness that hangs down of stand needed to detect. The traditional method adopts a guiding rule, a plumb bob and the like, and can adopt a theodolite and a total station at present. At present, when the total station is adopted for measurement, the inclination of the stand column can be measured only by matching with a small steel ruler which needs to be observed in two mutually perpendicular directions of the stand column, and the measurement is complex and inconvenient.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provides a method for measuring the verticality of an upright post, which adopts a total station without prism ranging to observe, can measure the inclination of the upright post from one direction and is simple to use and high in measuring speed.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
the invention discloses a method for measuring the verticality of a stand column, which is characterized by being carried out by using a total station with a prism-free distance measurement function, and specifically comprises the following steps:
1) preparing before measurement, preparing more than two control points with known three-dimensional coordinates and a centering rod in advance, erecting the total station at one known control point, and leveling, centering and orienting the total station;
2) during measurement, an upper section is determined at the upper part of an upright post, azimuth angles at the left side and the right side of the upper section are measured by using the total station, then the average value of the two azimuth angles is calculated to be used as the center azimuth angle of the upper section, the total station is rotated to the center azimuth angle for prism-free distance measurement to obtain the plane distance of the total station to the center azimuth surface of the upper section, and then the center three-dimensional coordinate of the upper section is calculated according to the plane distance, the radius of the upright post and the vertical angle of the surface in the direction of the center azimuth angle of the upper section by the;
3) determining a lower section at the lower part of the upright post, measuring and calculating the lower section according to the same method of the step 2) to obtain a central three-dimensional coordinate of the lower section;
4) and calculating the inclination angle and the inclination azimuth angle of the upright column by using the central three-dimensional coordinates obtained by calculating the upper and lower sections, and finally obtaining the verticality of the upright column.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the invention, the upper section is 30-50 cm away from the top of the upright post, and the lower section is 1.5-2 m above the ground of the upright post.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the present invention, during measurement, the total station is erected at a control point near the column, and the control point may be a turning point or an encrypted control point measured by the total station.
As a further improvement of the technical solution of the present invention, in the measuring method, if two known control points are in sight but the control point is far from the upright, the total station is used to rotate one point to the vicinity of the upright for measurement.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the invention, if the observation point where the total station is rotated is in sight with the measured stand column, the number of the rotation points is not more than two in order to ensure that the precision rotation points is not more than two, namely the rotation points are used for rotating the rotation points after the rotation points, and the rotation points can only be rotated from the known control points, so as to reduce the accumulated error of the rotation points, because the height difference of the bottoms of different stand columns is different, or some stand columns block the sight of the total station for observing other stand columns.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the invention, if the known control points are not seen through, the total station can be used for freely setting the station or setting the station by a rear intersection program.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the invention, the intersection angle between the survey station and two known control points is controlled to be 60-120 degrees when the station is freely set or the station is intersected backwards.
As a further improvement of the technical scheme of the present invention, if the radius of the column is unknown, the radius can be obtained by calculating with a conventional trigonometric function according to the measured mean distance and the included angle between the total station and the center of the cross section and between the total station and the side of the cross section.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the method for measuring the verticality of the stand column has the advantages of simple measuring process, high measuring speed and high practicability.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a method for measuring the verticality of a vertical column according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic illustration of the calculation of column radius according to the present invention;
in the figure: 1. a total station; 2. and (4) a column.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1-2, the method for measuring the perpendicularity of the upright column of the present invention can be performed by only one total station 1 without a prism distance measurement function, when the total station 1 is used for measuring the absolute offset of the upright column 2, a centering rod for orientation and more than two control points are needed, when measuring, the total station 1 does not need to be too far away from the upright column 2 so as to avoid that the side surface of the upright column 2 cannot be clearly distinguished, the background of the erected position of the total station 1 after the upright column 2 is viewed is better than the sky, and the side surface of the upright column 2 is easily clearly distinguished.
As shown in fig. 1, in the present measurement method, point O is a position where the total station 1 is erected, an upper cross section and a lower cross section of one column 2 need to be observed, ABCD is an arbitrary upper cross section of the column, a is a center of the upper cross section of the column 2, the upper cross section is preferably 30-50 cm below a top of the column 2, EFGH is a lower cross section near a bottom of the column 2, and 1.5-2 m above a ground of the column is preferably selected, where E is a center of the column, at this time, D and H are directions in which the total station 1 can observe the center of the column 2, which are surface portions of the column 2, and an average value calculated by using azimuth angles of left and right sides of two cross sections observed by the total station 1 is used, and if the cross section of the column is not strictly circular, the direction can be. The method comprises the following specific steps:
1) preparing before measurement, preparing more than two control points with known three-dimensional coordinates and a centering rod in advance, erecting the total station at a known control point O, setting coordinates and instrument height of a measuring station for the total station, and setting an azimuth angle at the known control point in an oriented manner;
2) during measurement, an upper section, namely ABCD in figure 1, with the center of A is determined at the upper part of the upright post, then measuring the azimuth angles of the left side and the right side of the upper section ABCD at the point O by using the total station, observing the azimuth angle of the left side (O to B), recording the azimuth angle of the left side, horizontally rotating the total station to the point C at the right side, wherein the telescope of the total station cannot rotate up and down, observing the azimuth angle of the right side (O to C), recording the azimuth angle of the right side, then the total station telescope is horizontally rotated to the direction of the center azimuth angle according to the average value of the left and right side azimuth angles as the center azimuth angle of the upper section, namely the direction of the center of the upper section of the upright post, at this time, the D point of the upright post is aimed at, the prism-free distance measurement is carried out through the total station, the horizontal distance from the total station to the center position surface of the upper section is obtained, and then the center three-dimensional coordinate of the upper section is calculated according to the horizontal distance, the radius of the upright post and the vertical angle from the total station to the center position surface of the upper section; during calculation, the radius of the stand column needs to be known, the radius of the stand column can be obtained by using a design drawing, or can be obtained by calculating measured data, at the moment, the three-dimensional center coordinate of the upper section of the stand column can be calculated by adding the radius of the stand column and the center azimuth angle of the upper section, and the elevation of the three-dimensional center coordinate can be calculated by multiplying the radius of the stand column and the straight column by the tangent of the vertical angle from O to D (if the vertical angle is zenith distance, the elevation angle can be converted into the elevation angle), the left time (the zenith angle is 0-180 degrees), the elevation angle is 90-a (a is the zenith angle), the elevation angle is positive, the negative is the depression angle, the right time (the zenith angle is 180-360 degrees) of the total station, and the;
3) determining a lower section, namely a lower section EFGH in the figure 1, at the lower part of the upright column, and measuring and calculating the lower section according to the same method of the step 2) to obtain a central three-dimensional coordinate of the lower section;
4) and calculating the inclination angle and the direction of the upright post by using the central three-dimensional coordinates obtained by calculating the upper and lower sections, and finally obtaining the verticality of the upright post. The calculation method is that elevation difference dh is calculated by using elevations of upper and lower section centers A and E, offset of upper and lower section centers A and E is calculated by using plane coordinate differences dx and dy, a strake distance dl is calculated by using the pythagorean theorem, the inclination of the upright post is dl/dh, the inclination angle is calculated by using arctangent, the inclination azimuth angle is calculated by using the arctangent of dy/dx, and data can be provided for stress analysis of the bridge.
In this embodiment, because the column has an inclination, the upper section ABCD or the lower section EFGH is not strictly circular, and the projection horizontal plane is an ellipse, but the inclination of the column is generally not too large, and the influence on the section is small, and the column can be calculated as a circular section.
In general, the existing total station has a tank center measurement and cylinder measurement program, and is directly used without knowing the radius of the cylinder. If the total station does not have a built-in cylinder center measuring program, the radius of the upright column can be manually calculated, as shown in fig. 2, and if the radius of the upright column is unknown, the radius can be obtained by calculating by using a conventional trigonometric function according to the measured horizontal distance and the included angle between the total station and the center of the section and between the total station and the side edge of the section. During calculation, the difference between the azimuth angles of the left side and the right side is divided by 2, an included angle aa from the center to one side is calculated, the surface horizontal distance dd from the measured total station to the center direction of the upright post is calculated (the total station can directly calculate the horizontal distance, and the measured oblique distance is multiplied by the cosine of the elevation angle or the depression angle), the radius of the upright post is set to be r, an equation r is written into (dd + r) sin (aa) by using a right triangle, wherein dd is actually measured, aa is calculated by using the azimuth angles of the left side and the right side, the equation is solved to obtain the radius r of the upright post, and then the inclination angle and the inclination azimuth angle of the upright post.
In this embodiment, if two known control points are in sight but the control point is far from the upright, the total station is used to rotate one point to be close to the upright for measurement.
In this embodiment, if the observation point where the total station changes is viewed from the measured column, but the height difference of the bottoms of different columns is different, if the lower part of a column is on the bearing platform, the height difference of the bearing platforms at the lower parts of different piers is different, the lower part of the column near the bottom cannot be observed, the total station cannot measure a plurality of columns simultaneously, cannot observe the lower part of the column, or some columns block the view of the total station for observing other standing, and cannot measure a plurality of columns simultaneously, then the total station changes the point again, so as to ensure that the number of the precision change points is not more than two.
In this embodiment, if the known control points are not visible, the total station can be freely set up or set up by a rear intersection program.
In this embodiment, the intersection angle between the survey station and two known control points is controlled to be 60 to 120 degrees when the station is freely set or the station is intersected backwards.
Although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes in the embodiments and/or modifications of the invention can be made, and equivalents and modifications of some features of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims (8)

1. The method for measuring the verticality of the stand column is characterized by being carried out by using a total station with a prism-free distance measuring function, and comprises the following specific steps of:
1) preparing more than two control points with known three-dimensional coordinates and a centering rod in advance before measurement, erecting the total station at one known control point, and leveling, centering and orienting the total station;
2) during measurement, an upper section is determined at the upper part of an upright post, azimuth angles at the left side and the right side of the upper section are measured by using the total station, then the average value of the two azimuth angles is calculated to be used as the center azimuth angle of the upper section, the total station is rotated to the center azimuth angle for prism-free distance measurement to obtain the plane distance of the total station to the center azimuth surface of the upper section, and then the center three-dimensional coordinate of the upper section is calculated according to the plane distance, the radius of the upright post and the vertical angle of the surface in the direction of the center azimuth angle of the upper section by the;
3) determining a lower section at the lower part of the upright post, measuring and calculating the lower section according to the same method of the step 2) to obtain a central three-dimensional coordinate of the lower section;
4) and calculating the inclination angle and the inclination azimuth angle of the upright column by using the central three-dimensional coordinates obtained by calculating the upper and lower sections, and finally obtaining the verticality of the upright column.
2. The method for measuring the verticality of the upright post according to claim 1, wherein the upper section is 30-50 cm away from the top of the upright post, and the lower section is 1.5-2 m above the ground of the upright post.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein said total station is mounted at a control point near the vertical column, and said control point can be a turning point or an encrypted control point of the total station.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein if two known control points are in sight but far from the column, the measurement is performed by rotating a total station to a point near the column.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein if the observation point after the total station is shifted is in communication with the measured column, due to the difference in height between the bottoms of different columns, or some columns blocking the view of other columns observed by the total station, the shifting point is shifted again, so as to ensure that the number of the accuracy shifting points does not exceed two, that is, the number of the shifting points after the shifting point is shifted again cannot exceed two, and only the shifting point is shifted from the control point, so as to reduce the accumulated error of the shifting point.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein if there is no visibility between the known control points, the total station can be used to establish the vertical column freely or by a rear intersection procedure.
7. The method for measuring the verticality of the vertical column according to claim 6, wherein the intersection angle between the survey station and two known control points is controlled to be 60-120 degrees when the vertical column is freely set up or intersected at the rear.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein if the radius of said column is unknown, it can be calculated by using a conventional trigonometric function according to the measured mean distance and the included angle between the total station to the center of the cross section and the total station to the side of the cross section.
CN202010058970.2A 2020-01-19 2020-01-19 Method for measuring verticality of stand column Pending CN111174771A (en)

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Cited By (5)

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CN111649715A (en) * 2020-07-14 2020-09-11 临沂矿业集团菏泽煤电有限公司 Method for measuring eccentricity of azimuth angle of winch drum of main shaft and auxiliary shaft
CN112066958A (en) * 2020-08-27 2020-12-11 中铁大桥局第七工程有限公司 Method and system for positioning structure in cofferdam
CN112161611A (en) * 2020-09-07 2021-01-01 中铁大桥局集团第五工程有限公司 In-plant concentricity positioning method for offshore wind power guide frame
CN112797946A (en) * 2021-03-12 2021-05-14 重庆师范大学 Non-contact type verticality detection method for tall and large structure
CN113483735A (en) * 2021-06-10 2021-10-08 中铁大桥局上海工程有限公司 Prefabricated stand template straightness detection device that hangs down of assembled bridge

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111649715A (en) * 2020-07-14 2020-09-11 临沂矿业集团菏泽煤电有限公司 Method for measuring eccentricity of azimuth angle of winch drum of main shaft and auxiliary shaft
CN112066958A (en) * 2020-08-27 2020-12-11 中铁大桥局第七工程有限公司 Method and system for positioning structure in cofferdam
CN112161611A (en) * 2020-09-07 2021-01-01 中铁大桥局集团第五工程有限公司 In-plant concentricity positioning method for offshore wind power guide frame
CN112161611B (en) * 2020-09-07 2022-03-18 中铁大桥局集团第五工程有限公司 In-plant concentricity positioning method for offshore wind power guide frame
CN112797946A (en) * 2021-03-12 2021-05-14 重庆师范大学 Non-contact type verticality detection method for tall and large structure
CN112797946B (en) * 2021-03-12 2022-05-24 重庆师范大学 Non-contact type verticality detection method for tall and large structure
CN113483735A (en) * 2021-06-10 2021-10-08 中铁大桥局上海工程有限公司 Prefabricated stand template straightness detection device that hangs down of assembled bridge

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