CN110242301A - A kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer - Google Patents

A kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer Download PDF

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CN110242301A
CN110242301A CN201910225492.7A CN201910225492A CN110242301A CN 110242301 A CN110242301 A CN 110242301A CN 201910225492 A CN201910225492 A CN 201910225492A CN 110242301 A CN110242301 A CN 110242301A
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water
bearing layer
coal
slip casting
mining
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CN110242301B (en
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范钢伟
张东升
信连凯
张世忠
梁帅帅
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/18Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of modified water-protection coal-mining methods of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer, the water-bearing layer including coal seam and above coal seam, specific implementation step are as follows: get parms;By the way that the first spatial dimension is calculated;Arrange several the first inlet wells;First slurries are injected water-bearing layer bottom, carry out normal back production;The second space range of the second slurries of injection is calculated with parameter;Drill out the second inlet well;Reinject the second slurries with high-intensitive and low-permeability.Beneficial effect is: this method before adopting, after adopting to top plate water-bearing layer by being injected separately into the slurries of different materials, on the one hand increase impermeable layer thickness before adopting, weaken disturbance of the Seam Mining to top plate water-bearing layer, on the other hand prevented also from rear water producing fractures conducting water-bearing layer and goaf is adopted, to realize water-retaining production.

Description

A kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of water-protection coal-mining method in mine field, specially a kind of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer changes Property water-protection coal-mining method.
Background technique
During pit mining, overlying strata occur movement and deformation and form conduit pipe, make top plate water-bearing layer and goaf Perforation, causes water resource to be largely lost, or even constitutes security risk to the diggings space such as working face of coal seam and tunnel, particularly with China western water resources are deficient, for ecological environment frailty mine, and these problems are more serious.How Seam Mining pair is reduced The disturbance in top plate water-bearing layer prevents water-bearing layer and goaf from penetrating through, and is that realize that safety, water-retaining production must solve key is asked One of topic.
Currently, having more research and practice in relation to the processing method to water-bearing layer, and achieve good results.Example Such as, unrestrained top plate water-bearing layer water body is shifted to an earlier date by construction drill, to reduce the watery in water-bearing layer;The water guide that Xiang Caidong is formed is split Slip casting blocks water producing fractures and pours in prevent water-stop body in gap.
However, there are following several respects in these methods: (1) angle that from mine water disaster prevents and treats, it is unrestrained aqueous Layer causes water resource to be largely lost to reduce exploitation security risk;(2) it is mainly used for preventing and treating bottom plate to water-bearing layer slip casting at present Pressure-bearing floods disaster, and for top plate water-bearing layer using less;(3) previous research is that crack occurs in top plate after adopting mostly After blocked to administer top plate water damage, however water resource has occurred at this time and has been largely lost;(4) it is directed to the protection in top plate water-bearing layer It is mostly realized with sacrificing resource recovery and back production efficiency, such as increases the thickness of reserved coal pillar, limits mining height, using filling mining side Method etc..
Therefore, for the limitation of existing research, a kind of modified water protection mining side of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer is proposed Method.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of modified water-protection coal-mining methods of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer, on solving State the problem of proposing in background technique.
To achieve the above object, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
A kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer, it is aqueous including coal seam and above coal seam Layer, further comprising the steps of:
A, the Basic Geological parameter and production technique parameter in place of working are obtained;By calculating, obtains and need modification before adopting First spatial dimension of aquifer and aquifuge;
B, the first spatial dimension described in step a arranges several the first slip castings from earth's surface to water-bearing layer bottom interval Drilling, the first inlet well include vertical drilling hole, drilling kick-off section and the horizontal drilling for being bonded water-bearing layer bottom;
C, the first slurries with soft plasticity and water-resisting property are injected by the first inlet well by b step by surface grout injection pumping plant In water-bearing layer bottom in rapid, so that water-bearing layer is modified;
D, after the completion of slip casting is modified, normal back production is carried out to the working face in coal seam;
E, after working face of coal seam exploitation, the second sky of the second slurries of injection is calculated according to the parameter in step a Between range;
F, the second inlet well is drilled out from earth's surface toward the second space range, then the second note is passed through by surface grout injection pumping plant Slurry drilling and/or the first inlet well are adopted in the new water producing fractures that rear unstable overlying strata activity may cause to due to step d Inject second slurries with high-intensitive and low-permeability.
One embodiment of the present of invention: Basic Geological parameter described in step a and production technique parameter include: water-bearing layer away from Coal seam distance H, seam inclination α, δ is moved towards to mining face mining height m, strike length l, tendency length l ', travelling limit angle, is gone up a hill β, γ of going down the hill, crush coefficient q, and further, calculating the modified water-bearing layer bulk of needs is: along the working face side of trend To, thickness d=qm cos α, length L=l+2H cot δ from the bottom of water-bearing layer, along working face tendency direction length B=l '+ H (cot β+cot γ), then slip casting modified range in water-bearing layer is right above working face from water-bearing layer bottom L × B × d size sky Between region.
One embodiment of the present of invention: the first inlet well further includes several separated from horizontal drilling in step b Horizontal branch drilling.
One embodiment of the present of invention: as the first slurries are clay plasmoid humors in step c.
One embodiment of the present of invention: the slip casting step as injected the first slurries in step c is:
The solidification of the plugging action and lower part water in water-bearing layer low portion crack is made 1. first being primarily served with dilute slurry With;
2. reinjecting underflow, by adjusting grouting pressure, guarantee that slurries are full of to slip casting region and are uniformly distributed, until reaching To estimated transformation impermeable layer thickness.
One embodiment of the present of invention: the second slurries in step e are the height mixed by water, cement slurry, waterglass Strong hypotonic slurries.
One embodiment of the present of invention: second space range described in step e is closed ring structure, and specific size is such as Under: it is moved towards on direction in working face, is H cot δ from coal wall surface to entity coal side width, along working face tendency direction, Upper and lower end, from right above coal wall to entity coal side width be respectively H cot γ, H cot β an annular region.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention are: this method before adopting, after adopting to top plate water-bearing layer by dividing Not Zhu Ru different materials slurry, increase impermeable layer thickness before on the one hand adopting, weaken disturbance of the Seam Mining to top plate water-bearing layer, On the other hand prevented also from rear water producing fractures conducting water-bearing layer and goaf is adopted, to realize water-retaining production.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is positive structure schematic of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the top view of water-bearing layer of the present invention after modification;
Fig. 3 is the cross-sectional view in Fig. 2 at A-A.
In figure: 1, surface grout injection pumping plant, the 2, first inlet well, 3, topsoil, 4, water-bearing layer, 41 water barriers, 5, coal Layer, 6, working face, the 7, first space, 8, goaf, 9, second space, the 91, second inlet well.
Specific embodiment
Following will be combined with the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention carries out clear, complete Site preparation description, it is clear that described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.It is based on Embodiment in the present invention, it is obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts every other Embodiment shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Describe the application technical problems to be solved in detail in the background technology, it may be assumed that propose that one kind can be protected both Water, and the coal-mining method of output capacity can be improved, specific embodiment can be such that
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer, including coal seam 5 and it is located at coal The water-bearing layer 4 of 5 top of layer after coal seam 5 is mined out, will result in the rock stratum of the water barrier 41 of 4 lower section of water-bearing layer under normal circumstances There is damaged crack, when crack continued development and links up water-bearing layer and coal seam, gushing water will be formed.Using the present processes Before, it needs first to implement according to following step:
Such as Fig. 1, a, the Basic Geological parameter and production technique parameter for obtaining place of working, there are many mode for obtaining parameter, can With by field exploring or inquiry data etc., the parameter mainly obtained include water-bearing layer 4 away from coal seam distance H, seam inclination α, δ is moved towards to the mining height m of mining face 6, strike length l, tendency length l ', travelling limit angle, the β that goes up a hill, γ of going down the hill, is crushed Coefficient q obtains the first spatial dimension that modified water-bearing layer 4 and water barrier 41 are needed before adopting by the calculating of these data.This In spatial dimension specifically need the modified water-bearing layer bulk to be: direction is moved towards along working face, from 4 bottom of water-bearing layer Thickness d=qm cos α, the length L=l+2H cot δ that portion rises are inclined to direction length B=l '+H (cot β+cot along working face γ), then the modified range of 4 slip casting of water-bearing layer is right above working face from water-bearing layer bottom L × B × d size area of space.
In Fig. 1,2, b, 7 range of the first space described in step a are arranged several from earth's surface to water-bearing layer bottom interval A first inlet well 2, the first inlet well include that vertical drilling hole, drilling kick-off section and the horizontal of fitting water-bearing layer bottom are bored Hole.Here it in order to ensure being all modified by the first slurries in bottom L × B × d size area of space in entire water-bearing layer 4, needs First inlet well 2 is just drilled out every a distance in earth's surface, specific spacing distance can be according to live water-bearing layer 4 Water penetration calculating is learnt.
And the first inlet well 2 in step b is to make the first slurries stronger comprehensively modified to water-bearing layer 4, it can be with The first inlet well 2 is allowed to include several horizontal branch drilling separated from horizontal drilling.Here horizontal branch, which drills, to be belonged to In the prior art of drilling field, just it is not described in detail here.
C, the first slurries with soft plasticity and water-resisting property are injected by the first inlet well 2 by b by surface grout injection pumping plant In 4 bottom of water-bearing layer in step, so that making water-bearing layer 4 modified.
Clay plasmoid humor can be for the first slurries specific formula used, can be the first slurries in more detail Formula is clay: water: cement=5:10:1.
It, can be according to following operating method also, in order to allow the first slurries preferably to inject in the rock stratum in water-bearing layer 4:
The solidification of the plugging action and lower part water in 4 low portion crack of water-bearing layer is made 1. first being primarily served with dilute slurry With;
2. reinjecting underflow, by adjusting grouting pressure, guarantee that slurries are full of to slip casting region and are uniformly distributed, until reaching To estimated transformation 41 thickness of water barrier.
According to capillary theory, diluter first slurries can utilize this expansion quickly to the capillary diffusion inside water-bearing layer 4 The capillary in water-bearing layer 4 can all be blocked by dissipating, thus covert that water-bearing layer 4 is modified as water barrier 41.It infuses again Enter underflow, so again can clogging thicker capillary achieved the purpose that modified to water-bearing layer 4 by above-mentioned method.
In Fig. 3, after the completion of d, slip casting are modified, normal back production is carried out to the working face 6 in coal seam 5, but due to water-bearing layer 4 It has been to be modified with certain anti-interference ability, thereby it can be assured that entire water-bearing layer 4 is not in the feelings of gushing water Condition.
In Fig. 3, the present invention consider face roof deflection, modified water-bearing layer 4 also want one it is prior Effect: the height in modified water-bearing layer 4 can just supplement sink caused by depressed area.
In Fig. 2 and 3, although there is not the case where gushing water in water-bearing layer 4 in step d, due to face roof Sinking, there is new stretching slight crack in the edge that will lead to modified aqueous layer 4.Therefore, in order to remove a hidden danger, in step e, coal After layer working face mining, 9 range of second space of the second slurries of injection is calculated according to the parameter in step a, specifically Range it is as follows:
9 range of second space is closed ring structure, and specific size is as follows: being moved towards on direction in working face, from coal wall Surface to entity coal side width be H cot δ, along working face tendency direction along, upper and lower end, from right above coal wall to entity Coal side width is respectively an annular region of H cot γ, H cot β.The specific course of work such as step f: from earth's surface toward described the Two spatial dimensions drill out the second inlet well 91, then pass through the second inlet well 91 and/or the first slip casting by surface grout injection pumping plant 1 Drilling 2 is injected to since step d is adopted in the issuable new water producing fractures of rear unstable overlying strata activity with high-intensitive and low Second slurries of permeability.
Second slurries can be to be mixed by water, cement slurry, waterglass, specifically their ratio, water: water Mud: the proportion of waterglass is 2:2:3.
The principle of the present invention is roughly divided into 2 steps: first step is that the bottom in water-bearing layer 4 is modified to water barrier.By In 4 bottom of water-bearing layer inherently in the top of septum primum water layer 41, and because using clay plasmoid humor, Ability of Resisting Disturbance is stronger, therefore For modified latter aspect after septum primum water layer 41 is broken, the first slurries used can play impermeable role;On the other hand, modified After water-bearing layer 4 afterwards is superimposed upon water barrier 41, the thickness of water barrier is increased, it is mined out that this extra thickness can be used as supplement The difference in height that area sinks.
And the effect of second step of the present invention is that the emerging crack in modified 4 edge of water-bearing layer is blocked in slip casting again, the The effect of two steps is in addition to blocking crack, there are also an other effect: to a pulling force at modified 4 edge of water-bearing layer, Both modified water-bearing layer 4 and second slurries are allowed to constitute an entirety, it can be ensured that the water source of entire water layer will not be exhausted, and And the coal full extraction of entire working face 6 can also be fallen using this method, improve output efficiency.
Illustrate practice of the invention below with reference to a specific case study on implementation.
Northwest China portion mine surface environment is severe, shortage of water resources.It can be obtained according to mine side's data, research coal seam is Flat seam, 7 ° of seam inclination, coal seam buried depth 260m, minable coal seam thickness 8m, advance of the face length 1800m, working face Length 200m, using the exploitation of longwall full-mechanized mining technique coal caving mining method is moved towards, whole caving methods manage top plate.Through geological prospecting, coal seam There are the water-bearing layers of a thickness 15m or so at the 165m of top, under the conditions of data shows one's respective area, adopt subsidence factor 0.6, rock Layer traveling angle, which is respectively as follows:, moves towards 65 ° of traveling angle, goes down the hill 55 ° of traveling angle, goes up a hill 60 ° of traveling angle.Under original recovery method, water Resource loss is serious.
1) working face Basic Geological parameter and production technique parameter are obtained.By consult mine basic document, water-bearing layer away from Coal seam distance H=165m, water-bearing layer thickness 15m, seam inclination α=7 °, coal seam buried depth 260m, minable coal seam thickness m=8m, work Make face and promotes length l=1800m, face length l'=200m.Subsidence factor q=0.6 is adopted, travelling limit angle is respectively as follows: Traveling angle δ=65 ° are moved towards, traveling angle β=55 ° of going down the hill, traveling angle γ=60 ° of going up a hill.
2) modified to slip casting is carried out from water-bearing layer bottom a certain range before working face mining.Specific steps are as follows:
(1) before working face mining, first according to the basic parameter, the modified range of slip casting before adopting is determined by calculation: from Water-bearing layer bottom thickness d=qmcos α moves towards direction length L=l+2Hcot δ along working face, is inclined to direction length along working face B=l'+H (cot β+cot γ).By relevant parameter substitution formula can be calculated, from water-bearing layer bottom thickness d=0.6 × 8 × Cos7 °=4.8m, direction length L=1800+2 × 165 × cot65 °=1954m is moved towards along working face, along working face tendency side To length B=200+165 × (cot55 °+cot65 °)=411m, then the range for needing slip casting is right above working face from aqueous Layer bottom 1954m × 411m × 4.8m size region, forms the first space 7 as shown in figure 1.
(2) according to 1) in the obtained water-bearing layer position of detection and the modified range of the slip casting being calculated, pumped by surface grout injection It stands and arranges inlet well into water-bearing layer, inlet well is bored by vertical drilling hole, drilling kick-off section, horizontal drilling and horizontal branch Four part of hole is constituted.As shown in figure 1 shown in (2), vertical drilling hole is drilled at buried depth 55m, away from water-bearing layer vertical range 20m~30m, is Drilling kick-off provides enough curved spaces later;Drilling kick-off is carried out later, and enable main borehole level squeezes into water-bearing layer Lower part;Horizontal drilling is arranged in the transformation water barrier position being calculated, and strike length 1980m is moved towards slightly larger than water barrier Length L, above entire working face;Finally by no magnetic drilling rod adjusting position, arranged in water-bearing layer slip casting modification area Several branch holes, branch hole length are 420m, using equally distributed arrangement, guarantee that injection slurries can be in determination Region in be uniformly distributed, form the water barrier of anticipated thickness.
(3) grouting serous fluid uses clay hardening slurry, and match as clay: water: cement=5:10:1 can according to circumstances be added Appropriate waterglass properly increases rate of set.Grouting sequence is primarily served using first dilute rear dense grouting mode, dilute thick slurry The solidification of plugging action and lower part water to water-bearing layer low portion crack, is then injected into underflow, by adjusting slip casting pressure Power guarantees that slurries are full of to slip casting region and are uniformly distributed, until reaching estimated transformation impermeable layer thickness.
3) after the completion of slip casting is modified before adopting, working face carries out normal back production.
4) after working face mining, the mining influence that transformation water barrier is subject to, especially overlying rock deformation cause to exploit side Boundary top plate upper section region generates tensioning crack, needs to block these issuable water producing fractures by slip casting epistasis.Tool Body step are as follows:
(1) after working face mining, firstly, 9 model of second space for adopting grouting behind shaft or drift lining is calculated according to the basic parameter Enclose: working face moves towards on direction, is Hcot δ from coal wall surface to entity coal side width, along working face tendency direction, upper Lower end is respectively Hcot γ, Hcot β from coal wall surface to entity coal side width.Relevant parameter is substituted into formula calculating can , it is moved towards on direction along working face, it is δ=165 Hcot × cot65 °=77m, edge that entity coal two sides, which need the width in slip casting region, Working face is inclined on direction, and upper end entity coal side width is γ=165 Hcot × cot60 °=95m, lower end entity coal side Width is β=165 Hcot × cot55 °=116m.Range of grouting is an annular region.
(2) need the region of slip casting as shown in figure 3, being directly arranged into drilling from ground, the whole hole that drills pierce transformation every Water layer bottom, drilling depth 95m are located at range of grouting center, inlet well every 50m arrangement on trend, tendency direction One.It is 411m that the working face, which is inclined to slip casting length, and moving towards slip casting length is 1954m, therefore is inclined to the every side arrangement note in direction Slurry drilling 8 moves towards the every side in direction and arranges inlet well 40.
(3) injecting paste material suggestion uses high-intensitive, low-permeability slurries.In this example, grouting serous fluid selects water glass Glass, cement slurry mixed serum, match as water: cement: waterglass=2:2:3.
It although an embodiment of the present invention has been shown and described, for the ordinary skill in the art, can be with A variety of variations, modification, replacement can be carried out to these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the present invention by understanding And modification, the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer, including coal seam (5) and is located above coal seam (5) Water-bearing layer (4), it is characterised in that:
A, the Basic Geological parameter and production technique parameter in place of working are obtained;By calculating, obtains and need the aqueous of modification before adopting The first space (7) range of layer (4) and water barrier (41);
B, the first space (7) range described in step a arranges that several first slip castings are bored from earth's surface to water-bearing layer bottom interval Hole (2), the first inlet well (2) include vertical drilling hole, drilling kick-off section and the horizontal drilling for being bonded water-bearing layer (4) bottom;
C, the first slurries with soft plasticity and water-resisting property are injected b step by the first inlet well (2) by surface grout injection pumping plant In water-bearing layer (4) bottom in rapid, so that water-bearing layer (4) are modified;
D, after the completion of slip casting is modified, normal back production is carried out to the working face (6) in coal seam;
E, after working face of coal seam (6) exploitation, the second space of the second slurries of injection is calculated according to the parameter in step a (9) range;
F, it drills out the second inlet well (91) from earth's surface toward the second space (9) range, then is passed through by surface grout injection pumping plant (1) Second inlet well (91) and/or the first inlet well (2) to due to step d adopt rear unstable overlying strata activity may cause it is new Water producing fractures in injection there are high-intensitive and low-permeability the second slurries.
2. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Basic Geological parameter described in a and production technique parameter include: water-bearing layer (4) away from coal seam (5) distance H, coal seam (5) inclination alpha, to Mining face (6) mining height m, strike length l, tendency length l, travelling limit angle (moving towards δ, the β that goes up a hill, γ of going down the hill), crush Coefficient q.
3. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: need Modified water-bearing layer bulk is: direction is moved towards along working face (6), thickness d=qmcos α from water-bearing layer (4) bottom, Length L=l+2Hcot δ is inclined to direction length B=l '+H (cot β+cot γ) along working face (6), then water-bearing layer (4) slip casting changes Property range be right above working face (6) from the area of space of water-bearing layer (4) bottom L × B × d size.
4. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step The first inlet well (2) further includes several horizontal branch drilling separated from horizontal drilling in b.
5. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step The first slurries are clay plasmoid humors in c.
6. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step The slip casting step that the first slurries are injected in c is:
The solidification of the plugging action and lower part water in water-bearing layer (4) low portion crack is made 1. first being primarily served with dilute slurry With;
2. reinjecting underflow, by adjusting grouting pressure, guarantee that slurries are full of to slip casting region and are uniformly distributed, until reaching pre- Meter transformation water barrier (41) thickness.
7. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step The second slurries in e are the high-strength hypotonic slurries mixed by water, cement slurry, waterglass.
8. the modified water-protection coal-mining method of two step slip casting of top plate water-bearing layer according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: step Second space described in e (9) range is closed ring structure, and specific size is as follows: it is moved towards on direction in working face (6), To entity coal side width be Hcot δ right above the coal wall, along working face (6) tendency direction, upper and lower end, from coal wall just on Direction entity coal side width is respectively an annular region of Hcot γ, Hcot β.
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