CN109441456A - A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata - Google Patents

A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109441456A
CN109441456A CN201811540479.2A CN201811540479A CN109441456A CN 109441456 A CN109441456 A CN 109441456A CN 201811540479 A CN201811540479 A CN 201811540479A CN 109441456 A CN109441456 A CN 109441456A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
lid
pile
tunnel
facility
joist
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201811540479.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨波
刘越洋
王磊
杨建民
舒东利
张涵
岳磊
李正辉
陈朗
周志民
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China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co Ltd CREEC
Original Assignee
China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co Ltd CREEC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co Ltd CREEC filed Critical China Railway Eryuan Engineering Group Co Ltd CREEC
Priority to CN201811540479.2A priority Critical patent/CN109441456A/en
Publication of CN109441456A publication Critical patent/CN109441456A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/04Driving tunnels or galleries through loose materials; Apparatus therefor not otherwise provided for
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E01CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS, RAILWAYS, OR BRIDGES
    • E01FADDITIONAL WORK, SUCH AS EQUIPPING ROADS OR THE CONSTRUCTION OF PLATFORMS, HELICOPTER LANDING STAGES, SIGNS, SNOW FENCES, OR THE LIKE
    • E01F7/00Devices affording protection against snow, sand drifts, side-wind effects, snowslides, avalanches or falling rocks; Anti-dazzle arrangements ; Sight-screens for roads, e.g. to mask accident site
    • E01F7/04Devices affording protection against snowslides, avalanches or falling rocks, e.g. avalanche preventing structures, galleries
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/22Piles
    • E02D5/34Concrete or concrete-like piles cast in position ; Apparatus for making same
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/08Lining with building materials with preformed concrete slabs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A10/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE at coastal zones; at river basins
    • Y02A10/23Dune restoration or creation; Cliff stabilisation

Abstract

The invention discloses the tunnel structures and its construction method of a kind of weak Facility-sliding strata, it include the two rows of anchor piles being equipped in tunnel portal into hole structure, the joist being equipped on every row's anchor pile, and the lid being connected between two joists, and backfill stone is backfilled at the top of lid, anchor pile passes through the surface layer soft rock at hole and is embedded in lower layer's basement rock;Construction method includes performing anchor pile;Joist is performed after anchor pile reaches design strength, performs lid after the completion of joist construction;After lid reaches design strength, backfill stone is backfilled at the top of lid.Anchor pile of the invention passes through surface layer soft rock and is embedded in lower layer's basement rock, is effective against the skid force of two sides side slope, improves formation strength;Lid is performed at hole, solves the problems, such as that hole face-upward slope slump influences staff's construction safety;Different height soil stone is backfilled according to soft rock range at the top of lid, back-pressure is formed to slope soft rock is faced upward, can effectively ensure that the stability for facing upward slope and side slope.

Description

A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of tunnel construction, in particular to the tunnel structure of a kind of weak Facility-sliding strata and its Construction method.
Background technique
Weak Facility-sliding strata is that surface layer is soft rock, and lower layer is the geological stratification of basement rock, is normally at mountain area, and this geological stratification is special Sign is exactly that the surface layer soft rock is easily generated along Weak face by external force (such as earthquake, heavy rain, mud-rock flow or other perturbed forces act on) The phenomenon that displacement slides out existing collapsing.Therefore, when tunnel portal is located in soft rock, when the start tunneling of hole, soft rock is being applied Under the external factor such as infiltration act under work disturbance and under surface rain, easily there is the sliding of soft rock and cause Landslide, jeopardize tunnel Road safe construction.
For this purpose, Design of Tunnel Portal is both needed to carry out brush slope to face-upward slope under normal circumstances, if without other reinforcement measures, side It is relatively slow to face upward slope ratio of slope, brush slope range is larger.In soft rock entrance construction, face-upward slope brush slope range is big, after face-upward slope excavates, is formed Biggish free face, the unloading of face-upward slope slope foot;The loose lower layer in soft rock upper layer is closely knit, and surface water easily permeates softening country rock;In synthesis Outer two kinds of factors easily cause face-upward slope to generate displacement along weak bedding surface, cause slope instability, and form tunnel portal and apply into hole The pattern of work difficulty, constructing tunnel duration are even more to be difficult to control.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the above-mentioned deficiency in the presence of the prior art, a kind of weak Facility-sliding strata is provided Tunnel structure and its construction method.
In order to achieve the above-mentioned object of the invention, the present invention provides following technical schemes:
A kind of tunnel structure of weakness Facility-sliding strata, including the two rows of anchor piles being equipped in tunnel portal, in every row The joist being equipped on anchor pile, and the lid being connected between two joists, and be backfilled with back at the top of the lid Banket stone, and the anchor pile passes through the surface layer soft rock at hole and is embedded in lower layer's basement rock.
Tunnel structure of the present invention is integrally to be different from existing open cut tunnel knot positioned at the outside of tunnel portal Structure, guiding wall construction etc., tunnel structure of the present invention primarily serves protective action, to guarantee construction safety.Specifically , anchor pile passes through surface layer soft rock and is embedded in lower layer's basement rock, is effective against the skid force of two sides side slope, while improving stratum Intensity;Lid is performed at hole, solves the problems, such as that hole face-upward slope slump influences staff's construction safety, ensure that Construction safety;Further, different height soil stone is backfilled according to soft rock range at the top of lid, forms back-pressure to slope soft rock is faced upward, It can effectively ensure that the stability for facing upward slope and side slope.The present invention is since equipment is simple, place is easy to arrange, it is weak easy to be conducive to stablize Sliding stratum reduces the features such as construction risk, forms preferable economic benefit.
Preferably, the lid is domes, at this point, the size of lid can be roughly the same with the guiding size of wall, Lid is directly connected with guiding wall, forms overall structure, facilitates construction.Certainly, lid is also possible to other shapes, such as slot The material of type, rectangle etc., lid is also unlimited, as long as can play the role of rock-fall protection.
Preferably, the anchor pile, joist and lid are reinforced concrete structure, and the position that is connected is connect by reinforcing bar Stubble is connected, easy for construction, and bonding strength is high, and durability is good.
Preferably, further include face upward slope and with the safeguard structure and drainage system facing upward the adjacent side slope in slope and being equipped with. The drainage system mainly includes performing earth's surface drain dyke, and the construction of drainage system carries out at first, and the purpose is to reduce Extraneous factor is to the influence to hole face-upward slope soft rock stability.The safeguard structure includes rotary churning pile and/or anchored pile, and/ Or steel floral tube and/or steel tube shed, safeguard structure can effectively stable face-upward slope, avoid face-upward slope stability failure and slide and influence tunnel and apply Work safety.
The invention also discloses a kind of construction methods of the tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata, and one as described in any The tunnel structure of kind of weak Facility-sliding strata, construction method the following steps are included:
Step 1: two rows of anchor piles, including pore digging and protection, pile body reinforcement fabrication and peace are performed in tunnel portal Dress and pour stake body by concrete;
Step 2: after the anchor pile reaches design strength, joist is performed at the top of every row's anchor pile, to the support After the completion of beam construction, lid is performed between two joists;
Step 3: after the lid reaches design strength, backfill stone is backfilled at the top of lid.
Potential slide surface is truncated by anchor pile in the present invention, and open cut tunnel and back-pressure backfill stablize the method for facing upward slope, ensure that hole The stability of the mouth easy gliding mass of soft rock.Technology construction feasibility is high, using conventional construction equipment it is achieved that than traditional It excavates and shifts to an earlier date into the hole mode duration, unit in charge of construction can be with effectively save manpower and material resources.Tunnel is effectively reduced using the technology The depth and width of excavation can reduce about 40% land area compared with traditional slope is excavated, and total investment is controllable, It can effectively estimate investment.
Preferably, before the step 1, earth's surface drain dyke is first performed, and perform on facing upward slope and/or side slope Rotary churning pile or anchored pile or steel floral tube, the rotary churning pile or anchored pile or steel floral tube pass through surface layer soft rock and are embedded in lower layer's basement rock.
It preferably, further include performing guiding wall and steel tube shed before backfilling backfill stone, the basis of the guiding wall is set It is placed on the joist, prevents guiding wall from sinking, after the completion of subject-oriented wall applies, the guiding wall wall aperture applies described Steel tube shed advance support.
Preferably, performing joist includes joist template construct and installation, joist reinforcement fabrication and installation and joist concrete It pours;Performing lid includes lid template construct and installation, lid reinforcement fabrication and installation, and maintenance detection.
It preferably, further include that tunneling section, the first step are excavated to the anchoring stake top in two steps at open cut tunnel hole Elevation location, after the lid construction after the completion of, second step excavate be from it is described anchoring stake top elevation location be excavated to Tunnel bottom elevation location.In this way, excavation height can be effectively controlled, small to the disturbance of easy sliding bottom, excavation is small, securely and reliably.
Compared with prior art, it is of the present invention into hole structure the utility model has the advantages that
Anchor pile of the invention passes through surface layer soft rock and is embedded in lower layer's basement rock, is effective against the skid force of two sides side slope, The intensity on stratum is improved simultaneously;Lid is performed at hole, efficiently solving hole face-upward slope slump influences staff's construction peace Full problem, ensure that construction safety;Further, different height soil stone is backfilled according to soft rock range at the top of lid, to facing upward Slope soft rock forms back-pressure, can effectively ensure that the stability for facing upward slope and side slope.The present invention due to equipment is simple, place is easy to arrange, Be conducive to stablize weak Facility-sliding strata, reduce the features such as construction risk, forms preferable economic benefit.
Compared with prior art, the construction method of the present invention into hole structure the utility model has the advantages that
Potential slide surface is truncated by anchor pile in the present invention, and open cut tunnel and back-pressure backfill stablize the method for facing upward slope, ensure that hole The stability of the mouth easy gliding mass of soft rock.Technology construction feasibility is high, using conventional construction equipment it is achieved that than traditional It excavates and shifts to an earlier date into the hole mode duration, unit in charge of construction can be with effectively save manpower and material resources.Tunnel is effectively reduced using the technology The depth and width of excavation can reduce about 40% land area compared with traditional slope is excavated, and total investment is controllable, It can effectively estimate investment.
Detailed description of the invention:
Fig. 1 is a kind of structure of the tunnel structure (concealing backfill stone) of weak Facility-sliding strata of the present invention Schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata of the present invention (including guiding wall and steel tube shed) Structural schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is the structural schematic diagram of guiding wall and steel tube shed of the present invention.
Marked in the figure: 1- anchor pile, 2- joist, 3- lid, 4- backfill stone, 5- guiding wall, 6- steel tube shed, the tunnel 7-, 01- faces upward slope, 02- side slope, the surface layer 03- soft rock, 04- lower layer basement rock.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to test example and specific embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.But this should not be understood It is all that this is belonged to based on the technology that the content of present invention is realized for the scope of the above subject matter of the present invention is limited to the following embodiments The range of invention.
Embodiment 1
As Figure 1-Figure 2, a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata, including the two rows being equipped in tunnel portal Anchor pile 1, the joist 2 being equipped on every row's anchor pile 1, and the lid 3 of arch being connected between two joists 2, And backfill stone 4 is backfilled at the top of the lid 3, the anchor pile 1 passes through the surface layer soft rock 03 at hole and is embedded in lower layer's base Rock 04.The anchor pile 1, joist 2 and lid 3 are reinforced concrete structure, and the position that is connected connects stubble by reinforcing bar and is connected It connects.
It further include in the safeguard structure for facing upward slope 01 and side slope 02 is equipped with, specifically, slope 01 can faced upward and side slope 02 carries out Rotary churning pile carries out the above-mentioned construction into hole structure after reinforcing again, to guarantee construction safety.Meanwhile as shown in figure 3, in order to smoothly Tunneling 7, the safeguard structure further include the guiding wall 5 and steel tube shed 6 being equipped in the penumbra in tunnel 7, are played super The effect of preceding supporting, guiding 5 basis of wall are placed on the joist 2, are provided vertical counter-force for guiding wall 5, are reduced sedimentation, be oriented to wall Open cut tunnel is closely followed at 5 rears, provides horizontal direction counter-force for guiding wall 5, reduces the outside extrusion displacement of guiding wall 5.
In the construction process, the shape of lid 3 can be similar with guiding wall 5, and lid 3 can directly withstand on guiding wall 5 On, or can be connected by reinforcing bar therebetween, then cast-in-place integral.After the completion of lid 3 and guiding wall 5 are constructed, Again in the top backfill stone and concrete of lid 3 and guiding wall 5, backfill stone 4 forms back-pressure to slope soft rock is faced upward, so as to have Effect guarantees to face upward the stability on slope.
Embodiment 2
A kind of construction method of the tunnel structure of weakness Facility-sliding strata, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: preparation of construction, including earth's surface drain dyke is performed, to reduce extraneous factor to hole face-upward slope soft rock The influence of stability, to slope 01 is faced upward and side slope 02 is reinforced, specifically, surface layer can be fixed by rotary churning pile or steel-pipe pile Soft rock 03.
Step 2: two rows of anchor piles 1, including pore digging and protection, pile body reinforcing bar system are performed in the earth's surface of tunnel portal Work and installation and pour stake body by concrete.Pile foundation uses diameter for the drilled pile of 1.5m, the long thickness according to surface layer soft rock 03 of stake Degree is drafted, stake spacing 4.5m.It is protected between stake using soil nail wall, soil nail wall is set between each stake, soil nail wall metope uses C35 reinforcing bar Concreting, wall high 3~4m laterally use 3 column soil nailings between stake, be anyhow 1.0m, soil nailing bore diameter 32mm to spacing, Soil nail wall metope ratio of slope 1: 0.2,11.31 ° of soil nailing angle with horizontal plane, soil-nail parameter 10m.
Step 3: after the anchor pile 1 reaches design strength, performing joist 2 at the top of every row's anchor pile 1 respectively, Including joist template construct and installation, joist reinforcement fabrication and installation and joist concreting, 2 sectional dimension 1.5m of joist The bound fraction reinforcing bar of × 1.5m, mono- section of every 8m, the outer cantilever 1m of pile foundation, joist 2 and anchor pile 1 connects stubble.
Step 4: after the completion of pile foundation joist 2 applies, lid 3 is applied between two joists 2, lid 3 is mixed using reinforcing bar Xtah Crude Clay structure performs lid 3 and includes lid template construct and installation, lid reinforcement fabrication and installation, and maintenance detection, lid 3 Thickness 80cm, be placed on joist 2 and connect stubble in binding site reinforcing bar.
Step 5: after the lid 3 reaches design strength, backfill stone 4 and C20 coagulation are backfilled at the top of lid 3 Soil after Tunnel slope protection, faces upward slope back-pressure and carries out on tunnel 7 half section excavation again after the completion of earth's surface reinforcing applies and apply into hole Work.In open cut tunnel hole tunneling section in two steps, the first step is excavated to elevation location (and the dark hole of 1 stake top of anchor pile Top bar it is similar), second step excavation be to be excavated to tunnel bottom elevation location from the elevation location of 1 stake top of anchor pile (similar with getting out of a predicament or an embarrassing situation for dark hole).Excavating in two steps can be effectively controlled excavation height, small to the disturbance of easy sliding bottom, and excavation is small, Securely and reliably.
The construction of guiding wall 5 and steel tube shed 6 can be carried out while performing anchor pile 1, joist 2 and lid 3, it is described to lead To wall 5 basis instrument on the joist 2, the 5 wall aperture of guiding wall applies the steel tube shed 6, advanced to play The effect of supporting lays the foundation for the smooth excavation in tunnel, finally native stone backfill is carried out in guiding wall and lid 3 again, to rise To the effect for facing upward slope back-pressure.
Above embodiments are only to illustrate the present invention and not limit the technical scheme described by the invention, although this explanation The present invention has been described in detail referring to above-mentioned each embodiment for book, but the present invention is not limited to above-mentioned specific implementation Mode, therefore any couple of present invention modifies or equivalent replacement;And the technical side of all spirit and scope for not departing from invention Case and its improvement, are intended to be within the scope of the claims of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of tunnel structure of weakness Facility-sliding strata, which is characterized in that including the two rows of anchorings being equipped in tunnel portal Stake (1), the joist (2) being equipped on every row's anchor pile (1), and the lid (3) being connected between two joists (2), And be backfilled with backfill stone (4) at the top of the lid (3), the anchor pile (1) passes through the surface layer soft rock (03) at hole and embedding Enter lower layer's basement rock (04).
2. a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the lid It (3) is domes.
3. a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the anchor pile (1), joist (2) and lid (3) are reinforced concrete structure, and the position that is connected connects stubble by reinforcing bar and is connected.
4. a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 1 to 3, which is characterized in that also wrap It includes in the safeguard structure facing upward slope (01) and being equipped with.
5. a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 4, which is characterized in that the protection knot Structure includes rotary churning pile and/or anchored pile and/or steel floral tube and/or steel tube shed.
6. a kind of tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 4, which is characterized in that faced upward with described The safeguard structure also is provided in the adjacent side slope (02) in slope (01).
7. a kind of construction method of the tunnel structure of weakness Facility-sliding strata, which is characterized in that such as any institute of claim 1-6 A kind of tunnel structure for the weak Facility-sliding strata stated, construction method the following steps are included:
Step 1: performing two rows of anchor piles (1), including pore digging and protection, pile body reinforcement fabrication and installation in tunnel portal, And pour stake body by concrete;
Step 2: after the anchor pile (1) reaches design strength, performing joist (2) at the top of every row's anchor pile (1), to After the completion of joist (2) construction, lid (3) are performed between two joists (2);
Step 3: after the lid (3) reaches design strength, backfill stone (4) are backfilled at the top of lid (3).
8. a kind of construction method of the tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 7, which is characterized in that Before the step 1, first perform earth's surface drain dyke, and perform on facing upward slope (01) and/or side slope (02) rotary churning pile or Anchored pile or steel floral tube, the rotary churning pile or anchored pile or steel floral tube pass through surface layer soft rock (03) and are embedded in lower layer's basement rock (04).
9. a kind of construction method of the tunnel structure of weak Facility-sliding strata according to claim 7, which is characterized in that Further include performing guiding wall (5) and steel tube shed (6) before backfill backfill stone (4), the basis instrument for being oriented to wall (5) in On the joist (2), guiding wall (5) the wall aperture applies the steel tube shed (6).
10. special according to a kind of construction method of the tunnel structure of any weak Facility-sliding strata of claim 7-9 Sign is, further includes that tunneling section, the first step are excavated to the absolute altitude of the anchor pile (1) stake top in two steps at open cut tunnel hole Position, second step excavation is to be excavated to tunnel bottom elevation location from the elevation location of the anchor pile (1) stake top.
CN201811540479.2A 2018-12-14 2018-12-14 A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata Pending CN109441456A (en)

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CN201811540479.2A CN109441456A (en) 2018-12-14 2018-12-14 A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201811540479.2A CN109441456A (en) 2018-12-14 2018-12-14 A kind of the tunnel structure and its construction method of weakness Facility-sliding strata

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110924434A (en) * 2019-12-12 2020-03-27 岳阳市公路桥梁基建总公司 UHPC (ultra high performance polycarbonate) fabricated tunnel open cut tunnel lining structure and construction method
CN111305849A (en) * 2020-03-19 2020-06-19 重庆渝高科技产业(集团)股份有限公司 Construction method of anti-sinking shed tunnel structure for tunnel construction
CN112663625A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-04-16 哈尔滨工业大学 Construction and protection method for shallow-buried bias-pressure weak surrounding rock tunnel portal in alpine region

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110924434A (en) * 2019-12-12 2020-03-27 岳阳市公路桥梁基建总公司 UHPC (ultra high performance polycarbonate) fabricated tunnel open cut tunnel lining structure and construction method
CN110924434B (en) * 2019-12-12 2021-06-01 岳阳市公路桥梁基建总公司 UHPC (ultra high performance polycarbonate) fabricated tunnel open cut tunnel lining structure and construction method
CN111305849A (en) * 2020-03-19 2020-06-19 重庆渝高科技产业(集团)股份有限公司 Construction method of anti-sinking shed tunnel structure for tunnel construction
CN112663625A (en) * 2020-12-29 2021-04-16 哈尔滨工业大学 Construction and protection method for shallow-buried bias-pressure weak surrounding rock tunnel portal in alpine region

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