CN109268028A - A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method - Google Patents

A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109268028A
CN109268028A CN201810999079.1A CN201810999079A CN109268028A CN 109268028 A CN109268028 A CN 109268028A CN 201810999079 A CN201810999079 A CN 201810999079A CN 109268028 A CN109268028 A CN 109268028A
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China
Prior art keywords
range
excavation
cavern
supporting
away
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Pending
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CN201810999079.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王红军
金怀锋
董春芳
张利生
晏明
张淳
重建忠
尚立斌
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Sinohydro Bureau 14 Co Ltd
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Sinohydro Bureau 14 Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201810999079.1A priority Critical patent/CN109268028A/en
Publication of CN109268028A publication Critical patent/CN109268028A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • E21D20/021Grouting with inorganic components, e.g. cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/006Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries by making use of blasting methods
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/12Devices for removing or hauling away excavated material or spoil; Working or loading platforms
    • E21D9/126Loading devices or installations
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F17/00Methods or devices for use in mines or tunnels, not covered elsewhere
    • E21F17/18Special adaptations of signalling or alarm devices

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistakes away from excavation supporting method, belong to underground engineering construction field, the present invention is according to features such as large-span underground chamber structure feature and stress distributions, form the excavation supporting method of " hard after first soft, draining is advanced, half range mistake is closely followed away from, supporting ", principle is built according to " first soft rear hard, draining is in advance ", unfavorable half range cavern first is stablized to cavern and carries out excavation supporting, then lag it is wrong away from, stay close the other half range cavern of excavation supporting.The adaptability of technology, strong operability substantially increase excavation supporting work efficiency, and ensure that construction safety and excavation quality.

Description

A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method
Technical field
The invention belongs to underground engineering construction fields, specifically, being related to a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake away from opening Dig method for protecting support.
Background technique
In the underground engineering constructions such as water conservancy and hydropower, highway, harbour, underground chamber is in large scale, buried depth is big, crustal stress Height, design supporting parameter, the excavation construction method of such special construction are different, and unscientific design supporting parameter excavates The safety accidents such as Instability of Rock Body, landslide may occur for construction method for supporting, thus, integral construction progress and economic benefit are influenced, Therefore, a kind of scientific and rational design supporting parameter of exploration and practice and safe, high-quality, efficient excavation supporting method, top are needed The excavation supporting method of layer conventional security generally uses: the 1. leading excavation supporting of middle drift, then the method that two sides dig follow-up;② Two sides are first excavated, the rear method for excavating middle part.The second layer and its general use of following excavation: 1. first intermediate hidden hole drilling heading blast The method that protective layer excavation is reserved in kerve, rear two sides;2. full face tunneling.The excavation method is unfavorable for the long anchor bolt construction of system, Also it is unfavorable for geomantic omen electricity arrangement, excavates higher cost, full face tunneling opposite side wall adjoining rock stability is also unfavorable below the second layer.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve the problems, such as background technique, the invention proposes a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistakes away from opening Method for protecting support is dug, overcomes the shortcoming of traditional excavation supporting method, and verified the geology of excavated underground chamber in advance Condition, extremely advantageous to stress release and Stress relief, technological innovation applicability, strong operability substantially increase excavation Supporting work efficiency, and guarantee construction safety and excavation quality.
To achieve the above object, the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method, specific steps are as follows:
1) according to the required structure feature for excavating underground rock cavern, to geology such as surrounding rock category, unfavorable structural plane, formation strikes Condition makes judge, according to first soft rear excavation principle hard, draining is advanced, selects the half range preferentially to excavate and the branch taken Shield measure;
2) unfavorable half range first is stablized to cavern's the first crown layer crown and carries out excavation supporting, then lag it is wrong away from, stay close excavation branch Other half range is protected, half range cavern is first excavated and excavates the distance of half range cavern afterwards in advance and first excavate half not less than 1.5 times of its hole diameter Width cavern hole diameter;
3) after the completion of the first crown layer excavation supporting, second layer half range mistake is sequentially entered away from excavation supporting, first excavates half range cavern The distance of excavation half range cavern is not less than its hole diameter after advanced 1.5 times first excavate half range cavern hole diameter;
4) after the completion of second layer half range mistake is away from excavation supporting, using first layer, the digging mode of the second layer, sequentially enter third, 4th ... until the last layer half range mistake is away from excavation supporting, and cavern's bottom plate reserves 1.5m thickness protective layer, and protective layer uses light Face explosion, horizontal artillery salvo Blasting Excavation mode are excavated.
Further, the half range cavern cross dimensions of the first crown of cavern layer first excavated need to be taken into account, meet digging, dress, fortune, branch Equipment, the working space demand of system anchor bolt length are protected, excavated section is not less than width × height=9.0 × 9.0m, and the first crown layer is opened It digs using hand air drill with the quick-fried trolley pore-creating of bench drill or using the quick-fried trolley pore-creating of large-scale rock drill, light is implemented by design profile line in periphery Face explosion, periphery hole and other blast holes, by explosion design control, and regard country rock situation supporting immediately following excavating away from, powder charge, networking, The Safety Monitoring Instruments such as the embedded temporary or permanent convergence gauge in part, anchor stress, multipoint displacement meter, to monitor cavern in time Surrouding rock stress strained situation.
Further, if immediate support is needed to follow excavation closely, the left and right half range cavern excavation of each layer, supporting plane can multi-process Parallel operations, supporting use three arm rock drilling jumbo pore-creating, and hand fit's equipment of ascending a height carries out rockbolt installation, slip casting and linked network branch Shield.
Further, the left and right half range hole of each layer closes dumper using loading machine or backhoe assembly and slags tap, and carries out bottom using backhoe Portion's scar is cleared up, is smooth, to facilitate subsequent cycle pore-creating, and guarantees excavation quality.
Further, it the second layer and its is excavated with lower leaf using thin layer, excavation height need to consider to facilitate equipment pore-creating for original Then, it is highly 4.0~5.0m, first digs 2/3 that half range is cavern's width, and typically no less than 9.0m.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:
The present invention according to features such as large-span underground chamber structure feature and stress distributions, form " it is hard after first soft, draining is super Before, half range mistake closely follows away from, supporting " excavation supporting method, i.e., principle is built according to " after first soft hard, draining is advanced ", first to hole Room stablizes unfavorable half range cavern and carries out excavation supporting, then lag it is wrong away from, stay close the other half range cavern of excavation supporting.The technology is suitable With property, strong operability, excavation supporting work efficiency is substantially increased, and ensure that construction safety and excavation quality.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is large-span underground chamber half range mistake away from excavation floor map;
Fig. 2 is large-span underground chamber half range mistake away from excavation diagrammatic cross-section.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention and attached drawing, technical solution in the embodiment of the present invention carries out clear, complete Ground description, it is clear that described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based on this Embodiment in invention, every other reality obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts Example is applied, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment
A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method, specific steps are as follows:
1) according to generally large-span underground chamber surrounding rock category, the unfavorable structural plane, rock stratum of 18.0~20.0m to be excavated The geological conditions such as trend excavate principle according to " after first soft hard, draining is advanced ", select the half range cavern preferentially to excavate and adopt The supporting measure taken.
2) half range cavern first unfavorable to Stability of Tunnels carries out excavation supporting, and the half range cavern cross dimensions preferentially excavated needs Take into account, meet excavation, loading, transport, support apparatus, system anchor bolt length working space demand, it is typically no less than wide × high= 9.0 × 9.0m, the distance that first half range cavern is excavated afterwards in advance by excavation half range cavern are not less than 1.5 times of first digging half range hole diameter.The One crown layer is excavated using hand air drill with the quick-fried trolley pore-creating of bench drill or using large-scale rock drill quick-fried trolley (such as three arm drilling stagings Vehicle) pore-creating, periphery implements photoface exploision by design profile line, and periphery hole and other blast holes are designed away from, powder charge, networking by explosion Control, and country rock situation supporting is regarded immediately following excavation.Under normal circumstances, blast hole aperture is Φ 50mm or Φ 56mm, periphery hole hole Away from 50~60cm, II, III cyclic advance of class surrounding rock 3.0-3.5m mono-, IV, V cyclic advance of class surrounding rock 0.8-1.5m mono-, week Marginal ray blast hole uses bamboo chip spaced loading, and by blasters' permit's powder charge, networking, strict implement " three quasi- " explosion system, Combined bolting and shotcrete regards country rock situation immediately following excavating, in principle Excavation blasting and after the completion of getting rid of the danger, and at least needing to carry out scar, just to spray 5cm thick Concrete and part system anchor pole then hang steel mesh and gunite concrete to 15~20cm of design thickness by design parameter, are Unite anchor bolt construction when and notice that vertical with rock stratum angle as far as possible, and according to demand, it is temporary or permanent to bury part for bolthole The Safety Monitoring Instruments such as convergence gauge, anchor stress, multipoint displacement meter, to monitor surrounding rock of chamber ess-strain situation in time, and Optimize and revise supporting parameter.
After the completion of half range cavern excavation supporting after first excavate, and meet wrong away from (not less than the 1.5 of first digging half range hole diameter After requiring again), according to the excavation supporting method for the half range cavern first excavated, start the excavation supporting of rear half range cavern.
First crown layer is that next layer of excavation increases a free face after excavating, and has verified surrounding rock category, formation strike Equal geological conditions, and stress, effectively influence of the control blasting vibration to country rock are discharged in advance, it excavates it is noted that Excavation blasting parameter And drilling depth control.
3) after the completion of the first crown layer excavation supporting, second layer half range cavern mistake is sequentially entered away from excavation supporting.Its half range Cavern's mistake away from distance be not less than 1.5 times of hole diameters, generally 30~50m, to facilitate supporting operation as principle, generally follow " first It is hard after soft, draining is advanced, half range mistake is closely followed away from, supporting " excavate.Using along the vertical presplitting in advance of two sides abutment wall design profile line, Then, horizontal artillery salvo thin layer excavation or horizontal artillery salvo thin layer photoface exploision excavation and supporting, thickness of thin layer are 4.0~5.0m. The half range cavern cross dimensions first excavated take into account excavation, loading, transport, support apparatus, system anchor bolt length working space need Ask, typically no less than wide × height=9.0 × 9.0m, blast hole aperture be Φ 50mm or Φ 56mm, periphery hole pitch-row 50~ 60cm, II, III cyclic advance of class surrounding rock 4.0-4.5m mono-, IV, V cyclic advance of class surrounding rock 1.0-1.5m mono-, abutment wall light are quick-fried Holes bamboo chip spaced loading sets up sample rack using 1.5 inch scaffolding steel pipes when vertical pore-creating, excavates pore-creating matter to control abutment wall Amount.
4) second layer " half range " is wrong completes away from excavation supporting, and the layer " half range " that sequentially enters third, the 4th, the ... is wrong away from opening Dig supporting.The second layer and its following supporting, slag tapping method are carried out referring to first layer.Cavern's bottom plate reserves 1.5m thickness protective layer, protects Sheath is excavated using photoface exploision, horizontal artillery salvo Blasting Excavation mode, and excavation supporting method is carried out according to step 3).Cavern Bottom plate reserves 1.5m thickness protective layer, and protective layer is excavated using photoface exploision, horizontal artillery salvo Blasting Excavation mode, is conducive to bottom Sheet metal forming quality efficiently controls bottom plate out break.
In the present invention, if immediate support is needed to follow excavation closely, left and right " half range " excavate, supporting can plane multi-process it is flat Row operation, supporting use three arm rock drilling jumbo pore-creating, and hand fit's equipment (such as spray anchor station vehicle or linked network trolley) of ascending a height carries out Rockbolt installation, slip casting and linked network supporting.
In the present invention, 20t dumper is closed using 3.0m3 loading machine or 1.4m3 backhoe assembly to slag tap, it is anti-using 1.4m3 Shovel carries out cleaning bottom scar, to facilitate subsequent cycle pore-creating, and guarantees excavation quality.
The present invention forms " hard after first soft, draining according to features such as large-span underground chamber structure feature and stress distributions In advance, half range mistake is closely followed away from, supporting " excavation supporting method, i.e., build principle according to " after first soft hard, draining is advanced ", it is first right Cavern stablizes unfavorable half range cavern and carries out excavation supporting, then lag it is wrong away from, stay close the other half range cavern of excavation supporting.The technology Applicability, strong operability substantially increase excavation supporting work efficiency, and ensure that construction safety and excavation quality.
Finally, it is stated that the above examples are only used to illustrate the technical scheme of the present invention and are not limiting, although by upper It states preferred embodiment the present invention is described in detail, however, those skilled in the art should understand that, can be in form Various changes are made to it in upper and details, without departing from claims of the present invention limited range.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method, it is characterised in that: specific steps are as follows:
1) according to the required structure feature for excavating underground rock cavern, to geology such as surrounding rock category, unfavorable structural plane, formation strikes Condition makes judge, according to first soft rear excavation principle hard, draining is advanced, selects the half range preferentially to excavate and the branch taken Shield measure;
2) unfavorable half range first is stablized to cavern's the first crown layer crown and carries out excavation supporting, then lag it is wrong away from, stay close excavation branch Other half range is protected, half range cavern is first excavated and excavates the distance of half range cavern afterwards in advance and first excavate half not less than 1.5 times of its hole diameter Width cavern hole diameter;
3) after the completion of the first crown layer excavation supporting, second layer half range mistake is sequentially entered away from excavation supporting, first excavates half range cavern The distance of excavation half range cavern is not less than its hole diameter after advanced 1.5 times first excavate half range cavern hole diameter;
4) after the completion of second layer half range mistake is away from excavation supporting, using first layer, the digging mode of the second layer, sequentially enter third, 4th ... until the last layer half range mistake is away from excavation supporting, and cavern's bottom plate reserves 1.5m thickness protective layer, and protective layer uses light Face explosion, horizontal artillery salvo Blasting Excavation mode are excavated.
2. a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake according to claim 1 is away from excavation supporting method, it is characterised in that: hole The half range cavern cross dimensions of room the first crown floor first excavated need to take into account, meet digging, dress, fortune, support apparatus, system anchor bolt are long The working space demand of degree, excavated section are not less than width × height=9.0 × 9.0m, and the first crown layer is excavated to be cooperated using hand air drill Bore quick-fried trolley pore-creating or using the large-scale quick-fried trolley pore-creating of rock drill, photoface exploision is implemented by design profile line in periphery, periphery hole and Other blast holes, by explosion design control, and regard country rock situation supporting immediately following excavating away from, powder charge, networking, bury part it is interim or The Safety Monitoring Instruments such as permanent convergence gauge, anchor stress, multipoint displacement meter, to monitor surrounding rock of chamber ess-strain feelings in time Condition.
3. a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake according to claim 1 is away from excavation supporting method, it is characterised in that: if Need immediate support to follow excavation closely, then the left and right half range cavern excavation of each layer, supporting plane can multi-process parallel operations, supporting use Three arm rock drilling jumbo pore-creating, hand fit's equipment of ascending a height carry out rockbolt installation, slip casting and linked network supporting.
4. a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake according to claim 1 is away from excavation supporting method, it is characterised in that: each The left and right half range hole of layer closes dumper using loading machine or backhoe assembly and slags tap, and carries out bottom scar cleaning, smooth using backhoe, To facilitate subsequent cycle pore-creating, and guarantee excavation quality.
5. a kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake according to claim 1 or 2 is away from excavation supporting method, feature exists It is excavated in: the second layer and its with lower leaf using thin layer, it is highly 4.0 that excavation height, which need to consider that facilitating equipment pore-creating is principle, ~5.0m first digs 2/3 that half range is cavern's width, and typically no less than 9.0m.
CN201810999079.1A 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 A kind of large-span underground chamber half range mistake is away from excavation supporting method Pending CN109268028A (en)

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Cited By (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110821521A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-02-21 中铁建大桥工程局集团第五工程有限公司 Construction method for excavation and support of hydropower station spillway cavern
CN111550267A (en) * 2020-05-26 2020-08-18 中山大学 Tunnel primary support structure and construction method

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110821521A (en) * 2019-11-15 2020-02-21 中铁建大桥工程局集团第五工程有限公司 Construction method for excavation and support of hydropower station spillway cavern
CN111550267A (en) * 2020-05-26 2020-08-18 中山大学 Tunnel primary support structure and construction method
CN111550267B (en) * 2020-05-26 2021-04-30 中山大学 Tunnel primary support structure and construction method

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Application publication date: 20190125