CN109262131B - Vacuum electron beam welding method for special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin - Google Patents

Vacuum electron beam welding method for special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109262131B
CN109262131B CN201811074297.0A CN201811074297A CN109262131B CN 109262131 B CN109262131 B CN 109262131B CN 201811074297 A CN201811074297 A CN 201811074297A CN 109262131 B CN109262131 B CN 109262131B
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welding
electron beam
casting
end frame
skin
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CN109262131A (en
Inventor
孙少波
任金欣
王毅
李宏伟
李保永
王志敏
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/06Electron-beam welding or cutting within a vacuum chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0033Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0046Welding
    • B23K15/0053Seam welding

Abstract

The invention discloses a vacuum electron beam welding method for a special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin. Before welding, acid washing and mechanical polishing are adopted to polish the joint area of the workpiece, firstly two end frames and a casting are assembled, and after the assembly, tack welding and formal welding are carried out; then 2 skins and end frames are assembled, and spot welding and formal welding are carried out after the assembly is finished; and finally, spot-fixing and welding of welding seams among skins and between skins and castings are completed. In the welding process, a small upper-focus current electron beam is used for spot welding, and a large upper-focus current electron beam is used for formal welding (X, Y is applied to scan the beam simultaneously). The fuel tank welding seam manufactured by the welding method meets the requirement of a GJB1718A-2005 electron beam welding I-level joint, the welding deformation is small, and the overall profile degree is controlled within 1.5 mm.

Description

Vacuum electron beam welding method for special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aluminum alloy electron beam welding, and relates to a vacuum electron beam welding method for an aircraft special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin.
Background
With the development of the aerospace industry, the dimensional accuracy of aircraft is also becoming higher and higher with the improvement of flight speed, stealth requirements and the requirement of aerodynamic shape. Important structural members of aircrafts such as a fuel tank and the like are developed from a traditional 'casting + welding' structure form to a 'metal plate + welding' structure form with higher light weight degree, the regular shape of the structural members is gradually changed to a complex special-shaped structure, welding joints are connected to different materials through the same material, and a welding seam form is changed from a regular straight welding seam and a circular welding seam to a space curve welding seam. Taking an aircraft fuel tank as an example (figure 1), the aircraft fuel tank consists of 2 end frames, 1 casting and 2 pieces of skin. The material of the casting is ZL114A aluminum alloy, and the material of the end frame and the skin is 5A06 aluminum alloy. The fuel tank has the total length of 1100mm, the diameter of 900mm and a complex structure, comprises welding seams in various forms such as straight lines, circular arcs, space curves and the like, the number of the welding seams is as large as 11, and the welding thickness variation range is large (6-15 mm). The requirement of postwelding indexes is high, and the overall profile tolerance does not exceed 2 mm. For the welding of the fuel tank, the traditional argon arc welding method has the problems of large heat input quantity and difficult control of softening and deformation of a heat affected zone; laser welding, however, is difficult to achieve 8-10mm thick joints due to power limitations.
The electron beam welding has the characteristics of high capacity density, low heat input, small welding deformation, narrow welding line, large depth-to-width ratio of the welding line, good welding line protection and the like, is widely applied to the field of metal welding, and is particularly suitable for welding large-thickness special-shaped complex components.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem solved by the invention is as follows: the method can realize the vacuum electron beam welding of the special-shaped large-thickness (6-15mm) metal plate welding fuel cabin by utilizing the characteristics of strong penetration capacity, small heat input, small welding deformation, small residual stress and the like of the electron beam welding, effectively solves the problems of incomplete welding, excessive air holes and the like in the welding process, simultaneously controls the deformation of a skin and an end frame, and ensures the size precision of a product.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows: a vacuum electron beam welding method for a special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank comprises the following steps:
step 1: preparing before welding;
pickling the end frame and the skin of the fuel tank, removing oil stains and oxidation films on the surface, and drying; polishing the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting until the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting are bright and have metallic luster, and wiping the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting with acetone;
step 2: welding and assembling the end frame and the casting;
assembling the end frame and the casting by using a welding tool to ensure that the gap and the misalignment at the position of a to-be-welded joint are not more than 0.2mm and not more than 0.2mm, hoisting the assembled assembly and tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level and fixing, vacuumizing to ensure that the vacuum degree of a vacuum chamber is 2-7 × 10-2Pa;
And step 3: the end frame is welded with the casting by electron beams;
step 3.1: performing electron beam centering, and performing welding track teaching by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 3.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the end frame and the casting; using upper focus small current electron beam parameters during point fixation;
step 3.3: formal welding is carried out on the welding seams, and scanning upper focus electron beam welding is adopted;
and 4, step 4: welding and assembling the skin and the end frame;
assembling the end frame and the skin by using a welding tool to ensure that the assembly position is correct, the gap at the position of a to-be-welded joint is not more than 0.2mm, the misalignment is not more than 0.2mm, hoisting the assembled assembly and tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level and fixing, vacuumizing to ensure that the vacuum degree of a vacuum chamber is 2-7 × 10-2Pa;
And 5: e, welding a skin and an end frame by using an electron beam;
step 5.1: performing electron beam centering after the vacuum degree meets the requirement, and demonstrating a welding track by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 5.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the skin and the end frame; point fixation uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters;
step 5.3: formal welding is carried out on the welding seams, and scanning upper focus electron beam welding is adopted;
step 6: e, welding a skin with a casting by using an electron beam;
step 6.1: performing electron beam centering, and performing welding track teaching by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 6.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the two skins and a welding seam between the skins and the casting; point fixation uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters;
step 6.3: carrying out formal welding on the welding seam; formal welding adopts upper focus electron beam welding with scanning.
The structural form of the welding seam among the end frame, the casting and the skin is lock bottom butt joint.
The thickness of the welding joint between the end frame and the casting is within the range of 6-15 mm; the thickness of the welding joint between the skin and the end frame and between the skin and the casting is 10 mm.
In steps 3.2 and 3.3, the order of point fixing and formal welding of the end frame and the casting is as follows: inner circle segment → outer circle segment → left side straight line segment → right side straight line segment.
The parameters of the upper-focus small current electron beam used in the tack-fixing in the step 3.2, the step 5.2 and the step 6.2 comprise: the accelerating voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 20-40mA, and the welding speed v is 800-1200 mm/min.
The specific parameters of the upper focus electron beam welding adopting the scanning in the step 3.3 are as follows: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 40-100mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 1mm, scan frequency f 300-600 Hz.
And 3.3, when the thickness of the joint is increased from 6mm to 15mm during welding of the weld joint between the end frame and the casting, increasing the electron beam current from 45mA to 100 mA.
The specific parameters of the upper focus electron beam welding adopting the scanning in the step 5.3 are as follows: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 40-70mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 300-600 Hz.
In the steps 6.2 and 6.3, the formal sequence of the welding line between the two skins and the welding line between the skins and the casting is that welding is carried out from the middle to the two ends.
The specific parameters of the upper focus electron beam welding adopting the scanning in the step 6.3 are as follows: formal welding technological parameters: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 40-80mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 400-600 Hz.
After step 6, the method also comprises
And 7: detecting the quality after welding;
after welding, performing appearance quality detection on the electron beam welding seam, and determining whether the surface of the welding seam has the defects of cracks, undercut, burn-through and pores; detecting the internal quality of the welding seam by adopting X-ray detection; and measuring the overall dimension of the fuel tank by adopting a laser three-dimensional scanner.
The invention has the advantages that:
1. the upper-focus large-current electron beam is used for formal welding, so that the welding quality of the surface of a welding seam can be improved, one-time welding forming is realized, and welding deformation caused by finish welding is avoided. The formation of welding seams can be improved and the formation of air holes and nail tips in the joints can be inhibited by using the electron beam current which is added with scanning.
2. The formal sequence of the welding line h7 between the two skins and the welding line h8 between the skins and the casting is welding from the middle to the two ends, so that the heat accumulation in the middle of the welding line can be avoided, and the middle of the skins is prevented from being sunken.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank;
in the figure, 1-end frame, 2-casting, 3-skin, h7, h 8-welding.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of an end frame structure of a special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel compartment; wherein, in the figure 2(1), the front view is shown, and in the figure 2(2), the side view is shown, wherein, a and b are rotating circle centers, and h1-h6 are welding seams.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the drawings and examples.
Taking an aircraft fuel tank as an example (figure 1), the aircraft fuel tank consists of 2 end frames, 1 casting and 2 pieces of skin. The material of the casting is ZL114A aluminum alloy, and the material of the end frame and the skin is 5A06 aluminum alloy. The fuel tank has the total length of 1100mm, the diameter of 900mm and the maximum thickness of a welding joint of 15 mm.
The specific implementation scheme comprises the following steps:
step 1: preparing before welding;
pickling the end frame and the skin of the fuel tank, removing oil stains and oxidation films on the surface, and drying at 50-80 ℃ for 20-30 min. Polishing the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting by using a steel wire brush until the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting show bright metallic luster, and wiping the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting clean by using acetone;
step 2: welding and assembling the end frame and the casting;
assembling 2 end frames and castings by using a welding tool to ensure that the assembling positions are correct, the gap at the position of a to-be-welded joint is not more than 0.2mm, the misalignment amount is not more than 0.2mm, hoisting the assembled assembly and tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level, fixing and vacuumizing to ensure that the vacuum degree of a vacuum chamber is 2-7 × 10-2Welding under the condition of Pa.
And step 3: the end frame is welded with the casting by electron beams;
step 3.1: and after the vacuum degree meets the requirement, performing electron beam centering, and demonstrating a welding track by adopting NC (numerical control) programming.
Step 3.2: and (3) spot-fixing the welding seams h1, h2, h3 and h4 between the end frame and the casting in the process of FIG. 2. Spot-fixing uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters. The tack sequence h1 → h4 → h2 → h 3.
Solidifying process parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1740mA (upper focus), the electron beam current Ib is 30mA, and the welding speed v is 1000 mm/min.
Step 3.3: and performing formal welding on the welding seam. The spot-welding process of the welding track is consistent, and the formal welding adopts the upper focus electron beam welding with scanning. The welding circle center of the welding seam h1 is a point a, and the welding circle center of the welding seam h4 is a point b.
Formal welding technological parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1730mA, the electron beam current Ib is 45-100mA, the welding speed v is 1000mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude Vx 2mm, VY 1mm, and scan frequency f 400 Hz. When welding seams of h2 and h3 are carried out, the electron beam current is linearly increased to 100mA from 45mA when the thickness of the joint is increased to 15mm from 6 mm.
And 4, step 4: welding and assembling the skin and the end frame;
assembling 2 end frames and 2 skins by using a welding tool to ensure that the assembling position is correct, the gap at the position of a to-be-welded joint is not more than 0.2mm, the misalignment amount is not more than 0.2mm, hoisting the assembled assembly and tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level, fixing and vacuumizing to ensure that the vacuum degree of a vacuum chamber is 2-7 × 10-2Welding under the condition of Pa.
And 5: e, welding a skin and an end frame by using an electron beam;
step 5.1: and after the vacuum degree meets the requirement, performing electron beam centering, and demonstrating a welding track by adopting NC (numerical control) programming.
Step 5.2: and (3) spot-fixing h5 and h6 welding seams between the skin and the end frames in the figure 2. Spot-fixing uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters.
Solidifying process parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1740mA, the electron beam current Ib is 35mA, and the welding speed v is 1100 mm/min.
Step 5.3: and performing formal welding on the h5 and h6 welding seams. The spot-welding process of the welding track is consistent, and the formal welding adopts the upper focus electron beam welding with scanning.
Formal welding technological parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1730mA, the electron beam current Ib is 60mA, the welding speed v is 900mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 300 Hz.
Step 6: e, welding a skin with a casting by using an electron beam;
step 6.1: and after the vacuum degree meets the requirement, performing electron beam centering, and demonstrating a welding track by adopting NC (numerical control) programming.
Step 6.2: and (4) spot-fixing a welding seam h7 between the two skins and a welding seam h8 between the skins and the casting. Spot-fixing uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters.
Solidifying process parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1730mA, the electron beam current Ib is 30mA, and the welding speed v is 1000 mm/min.
Step 6.3: and performing formal welding on the h7 and h8 welding seams. Formal welding adopts upper focus electron beam welding with scanning, and the welding sequence is from the middle to two ends.
Formal welding technological parameters:
the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1720mA, the electron beam current Ib is 70mA, the welding speed v is 1000mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 500 Hz.
And 7: detecting the quality after welding;
and after welding, the appearance quality of the electron beam welding seam is detected, and the surface has no defects of cracks, undercut, burn-through, air holes and the like. And detecting the internal quality of the welding seam by adopting X-ray detection. The weld quality meets the requirements of grade I joints of GJB1718A-2005 Electron Beam welding. And measuring the overall dimension of the fuel tank by adopting a laser three-dimensional scanner, and controlling the profile tolerance of the fuel tank within 1.5 mm.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention in any way. Any simple modification, change and equivalent changes made to the above embodiments according to the technical essence of the invention still belong to the protection scope of the technical solution of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A vacuum electron beam welding method of a special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank is disclosed, wherein the thickness of the large-thickness fuel tank is 6-15 mm; the method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1: preparing before welding;
pickling the end frame and the skin of the fuel tank, removing oil stains and oxidation films on the surface, and drying; polishing the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting until the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting are bright and have metallic luster, and wiping the end frame, the skin and the to-be-welded area of the casting with acetone;
step 2: welding and assembling the end frame and the casting;
assembling the end frame and the casting by using a welding tool; after the assembly is finished, hoisting the assembly and the tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level and fixing; carrying out vacuum-pumping treatment;
and step 3: the end frame is welded with the casting by electron beams;
step 3.1: performing electron beam centering, and performing welding track teaching by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 3.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the end frame and the casting; point fixation uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters;
step 3.3: formal welding is carried out on the welding seams, and scanning upper focus electron beam welding is adopted;
and 4, step 4: welding and assembling the skin and the end frame;
assembling the end frame and the skin by using a welding tool to ensure that the assembling position is correct; after the assembly is finished, hoisting the assembly and the tool to a vacuum electron beam welding machine platform, adjusting the level and fixing; carrying out vacuum-pumping treatment;
and 5: e, welding a skin and an end frame by using an electron beam;
step 5.1: performing electron beam centering after the vacuum degree meets the requirement, and demonstrating a welding track by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 5.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the skin and the end frame; point fixation uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters;
step 5.3: formal welding is carried out on the welding seams, and scanning upper focus electron beam welding is adopted;
step 6: e, welding a skin with a casting by using an electron beam;
step 6.1: performing electron beam centering, and performing welding track teaching by adopting NC numerical control programming;
step 6.2: performing point fixing on a welding seam between the two skins and a welding seam between the skins and the casting; point fixation uses upper focus small current electron beam parameters;
step 6.3: carrying out formal welding on the welding seam; formal welding adopts upper focus electron beam welding with scanning;
the parameters of the upper-focus small current electron beam used in the tack-fixing in the step 3.2, the step 5.2 and the step 6.2 comprise: the accelerating voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 20-40mA, and the welding speed v is 800-1200 mm/min.
2. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 1, wherein the structural form of the welding seam among the end frame, the casting and the skin is lock bottom butt joint.
3. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complicated large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 1, wherein the thickness of the welding joint between the end frame and the casting is in the range of 6-15 mm; the thickness of the welding joint between the skin and the end frame and between the skin and the casting is 10 mm.
4. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank is characterized in that in the steps 3.2 and 3.3, the order of the point fixing and the formal welding of the end frame and the casting is as follows: inner circle segment → outer circle segment → left side straight line segment → right side straight line segment.
5. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complex large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 1, wherein the specific parameters of the scanning upper focus electron beam welding adopted in the step 3.3 are as follows: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 45-100mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 1mm, scan frequency f 300-600 Hz.
6. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel tank is characterized in that in the step 3.3, when the thickness of the joint is increased from 6mm to 15mm during welding of the welding seam between the end frame and the casting, the electron beam current is increased from 45mA to 100 mA.
7. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complicated large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 1, wherein the specific parameters of the scanning upper focus electron beam welding adopted in the step 5.3 are as follows: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 40-70mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 300-600 Hz.
8. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complex large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the steps 6.2 and 6.3, the weld joint between the two skins and the weld joint between the skin and the casting are welded from the middle to the two ends in the formal sequence.
9. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complicated large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in claim 8, wherein the specific parameters of the scanning upper focus electron beam welding adopted in the step 6.3 are as follows: the acceleration voltage U is 50kV, the focusing current Ic is 1700-1760mA, the electron beam current Ib is 40-80mA, the welding speed v is 800-1200mm/min, and the scanning mode is as follows: double cosine, scan amplitude VX 2mm, VY 2mm, scan frequency f 400-600 Hz.
10. The vacuum electron beam welding method for the profiled complicated large-thickness fuel tank as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, further comprising the step of performing vacuum electron beam welding after the step 6
And 7: detecting the quality after welding;
after welding, performing appearance quality detection on the electron beam welding seam, and determining whether the surface of the welding seam has the defects of cracks, undercut, burn-through and pores; detecting the internal quality of the welding seam by adopting X-ray detection; and measuring the overall dimension of the fuel tank by adopting a laser three-dimensional scanner.
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CN109978866B (en) * 2019-03-28 2021-06-04 中国核电工程有限公司 Online detection device and method for peripheral surface defects of fuel pellets
CN110625242B (en) * 2019-09-02 2021-04-06 北京星航机电装备有限公司 Device and method for controlling welding deformation of ultra-long longitudinal weld by using electron beam
CN110788464A (en) * 2019-10-16 2020-02-14 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Electron beam welding method for large-thickness structural steel cylinder
CN111761189A (en) * 2020-06-09 2020-10-13 中国船舶重工集团公司第七二五研究所 Window skin welding method for thin-wall high-temperature high-strength titanium alloy casting
CN112548300B (en) * 2020-11-27 2022-07-12 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt-joint electron beam welding method

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CN106134327B (en) * 2010-11-19 2013-05-08 北京卫星制造厂 A kind of vacuum electron beam welding method for large thickness magnesium alloy
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