CN109262131A - A kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment - Google Patents

A kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109262131A
CN109262131A CN201811074297.0A CN201811074297A CN109262131A CN 109262131 A CN109262131 A CN 109262131A CN 201811074297 A CN201811074297 A CN 201811074297A CN 109262131 A CN109262131 A CN 109262131A
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welding
electron
casting
frame
covering
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CN109262131B (en
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孙少波
任金欣
王毅
李宏伟
李保永
王志敏
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Beijing Hangxing Technology Development Co Ltd
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Beijing Hangxing Technology Development Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/06Electron-beam welding or cutting within a vacuum chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0033Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0046Welding
    • B23K15/0053Seam welding

Abstract

A kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment of the present invention.Pickling and mechanical grinding workpiece joints region are used before weldering, assembles two end frames and casting first, carry out solid point and formal welding after the completion;Then the assembly of 2 coverings and end frame is carried out, carries out solid point and formal welding after the completion;It finally completes between covering, the solid point of weld seam and welding between covering and casting.Welding process, solid point use part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam, and formal welding uses part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs large-current electric beamlet (while applying X, the scanning of Y-direction line).I grades of jointing requirements of GJB1718A-2005 " electron beam welding " are met using the fuel compartment weld seam that the welding method manufactures, welding deformation is small, and overall profile degree controls in 1.5mm.

Description

A kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment
Technical field
The invention belongs to aluminium alloy electric beamlet welding technology fields, are related to a kind of for the special-shaped complicated big thickness combustion of aircraft Expect the vacuum electron beam welding method in cabin.
Background technique
With the development of aerospace industry, the dimensional accuracy of aircraft also with flying speed raising, it is stealthy require, it is pneumatic The needs of shape and become higher and higher.The aircraft important feature part such as fuel compartment is from traditional " casting+welding " to lightweight Higher " metal plate+welding " the structure type development of degree, the structural member also regular shape gradually abnormally-structured transformation to complexity, Welding point is also connected to the connection of dissimilar material by same material, and weld seam form becomes empty by regular straight weld, girth joint Half interval contour weld seam.By taking certain aircraft fuel cabin as an example (Fig. 1), it is made of 2 end frames, 1 casting, 2 pieces of coverings.The material of casting For ZL114A aluminium alloy, holding the material of frame and covering is 5A06 aluminium alloy.The fuel compartment overall length 1100mm, diameter 900mm, knot Structure is complicated, and the weld seam comprising diversified forms such as straight line, circular arc, space curves, quantity up to 11, throat thickness variation range is big (6-15mm).Postwelding index request is high, and overall profile degree is no more than 2mm.The fuel compartment is welded, traditional argon arc welding method There is a problem of what big heat input, heat-affected zone softened and deformation were difficult to control;And Laser Welding is due to power limit, it is difficult to realize The welding of the big thickness connector of 8-10mm.
Electron beam welding is high with energy force density, heat input is low, welding deformation is small, weld seam is narrow, welding seam deep width ratio is big and weldering The features such as seam protection is good, is widely used in metal welding field, is particularly suitable for carrying out big thickness abnormal shape complex component Welding.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem solved by the present invention is overcoming the deficiencies of the prior art and provide a kind of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel The vacuum electron beam welding method in cabin, this method is using electron beam welding penetration capacity is strong, heat input is small, welding deformation and remaining The features such as stress is small is, it can be achieved that the vacuum electron beam welding of fuel compartment, effectively solution weldering are tied in big thickness (6-15mm) the metal plate weldering of abnormal shape Lack of penetration in termination process, the problems such as stomata is exceeded, while covering, end frame deformation are controlled, guarantee product size precision.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows: a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment, The following steps are included:
Step 1: welding preparation;
The end frame of fuel compartment, covering are subjected to pickling, remove surface and oil contaminant, oxidation film, and dry;By end frame, covering and Casting to-be-welded region is polishing in seeing bright metal gloss, and with acetone wiped clean;
Step 2: end frame and casting assemble welding;
Using welding tooling assembly side frame and casting, guarantee joint gap to be welded no more than 0.2mm, unfitness of butt joint is not more than 0.2mm;Component and tooling are lifted to vacuum electron beam welder platform after the assembly is completed, and adjustment is horizontal and is fixed;It is taken out It is vacuum-treated, guarantees vacuum degree in vacuum chamber in 2-7 × 10-2Pa;
Step 3: end frame and casting electron beam welding;
Step 3.1: carrying out electron beam centering, welding track teaching is carried out using NC numerical control programming;
Step 3.2: the weld seam between opposite end frame and casting carries out solid point;Joined when solid point using part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam Number;
Step 3.3: weld seam formally being welded, using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning;
Step 4: covering and end frame assemble welding;
Using welding tooling assembly side frame and covering, guarantee that rigging position is correct, joint gap to be welded is not more than 0.2mm, unfitness of butt joint are not more than 0.2mm;Component and tooling are lifted to vacuum electron beam welder platform after the assembly is completed, and adjustment is horizontal And it is fixed;Vacuumize process is carried out, guarantees vacuum degree in vacuum chamber in 2-7 × 10-2Pa;
Step 5: covering and end frame electron beam welding;
Step 5.1: vacuum degree carries out electron beam centering after meeting the requirements, and carries out welding track using NC numerical control programming and shows Religion;
Step 5.2: solid point is carried out to the weld seam between covering and end frame;Solid point uses part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter;
Step 5.3: weld seam formally being welded, using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning;
Step 6: covering and casting electron beam welding;
Step 6.1: carrying out electron beam centering, welding track teaching is carried out using NC numerical control programming;
Step 6.2: solid point is carried out to the weld seam between weld seam, covering and the casting between two coverings;Solid point uses upper Burnt low current electron beam parameter;
Step 6.3: weld seam is formally welded;Formal welding is using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning.
Holding frame, casting, the welding line structure form between covering is the docking of lock bottom.
Hold the welding point thickness between frame and casting within the scope of 6-15mm;Welding between covering and end frame, casting Joint thickness is 10mm.
In step 3.2 and 3.3, solid point, the formal welding sequence of frame and casting are held are as follows: inner arc section → outer arc section → left side straightway → right side straightway.
The part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter used when solid point in the step 3.2, step 5.2 and step 6.2 includes: to add Fast voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=20-40mA, speed of welding v=800- 1200mm/min。
Using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 3.3 are as follows: acceleration voltage U=50kV, Focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-100mA, speed of welding v=800-1200mm/min, scanning side Formula: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=1mm, scan frequency f=300-600Hz.
In step 3.3, when carrying out weld seam welding between end frame and casting, when joint thickness increases to 15mm by 6mm, electricity Beamlet stream increases to 100mA by 45mA.
Using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 5.3 are as follows: acceleration voltage U=50kV, Focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-70mA, speed of welding v=800-1200mm/min, scanning side Formula: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=300-600Hz.
In step 6.2 and 6.3, weld seam, covering between two coverings and the formal of the weld seam between casting are sequentially served as reasons Centre is to both ends welding.
Using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 6.3 are as follows: formal welding condition: Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-80mA, speed of welding v=800- 1200mm/min, scanning mode: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=400-600Hz.
Further include after step 6
Step 7: postwelding quality testing;
Postwelding to electron beam weld carry out appearance quality detection, confirmation face of weld with the presence or absence of crackle, undercut, burn-through, Gas hole defect;Weld seam internal soundness is detected using X-ray detection;Using laser 3 d scanner to fuel compartment shape ruler It is very little to measure.
The present invention has the advantages that
1. formally being welded using part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs large-current electric beamlet, face of weld welding quality can be improved, realize primary weldering It is connected into shape, welding deformation caused by avoiding modification from welding.Using the electronic beam current for adding scanning, appearance of weld can be improved, inhibit to connect The formation of head internal porosity, nail tip.
2. the formal sequence of weld seam h7, covering between two coverings and the weld seam h8 between casting is from centres to both ends Welding can accumulate in the middle part of weld seam to avoid heat, prevent from being recessed among covering.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment schematic diagram;
In figure, the end 1- frame, 2- casting, 3- covering, h7, h8- weld seam
Fig. 2 is special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment end mount structure schematic diagram;Wherein Fig. 2 (1) front view, Fig. 2 (2) side view, A, b- rotation center in figure, h1-h6- weld seam.
Specific embodiment
With reference to the accompanying drawing and example, invention is described further.
By taking certain aircraft fuel cabin as an example (Fig. 1), it is made of 2 end frames, 1 casting, 2 pieces of coverings.The material of casting is ZL114A aluminium alloy, holding the material of frame and covering is 5A06 aluminium alloy.Fuel compartment overall length 1100mm, diameter 900mm, welding connect It is 15mm at head maximum gauge.
Specific embodiment sequentially includes the following steps:
Step 1: welding preparation;
The end frame of fuel compartment, covering are subjected to pickling, surface and oil contaminant, oxidation film is removed, dries 20- at 50-80 DEG C 30min.Frame, covering and casting to-be-welded region will be held to be polishing to using wire brush is in see bright metal gloss, and wiped with acetone It wipes clean;
Step 2: end frame and casting assemble welding;
2 end frames and casting are assembled using welding tooling, guarantee that rigging position is correct, joint gap to be welded is not more than 0.2mm, unfitness of butt joint are not more than 0.2mm.Component and tooling are lifted to vacuum electron beam welder platform after the assembly is completed, and adjustment is horizontal And it is fixed.It vacuumizes, guarantees vacuum degree in vacuum chamber in 2-7 × 10-2Welding under the conditions of Pa.
Step 3: end frame and casting electron beam welding;
Step 3.1: vacuum degree carries out electron beam centering after meeting the requirements, and carries out welding track using NC numerical control programming and shows Religion.
Step 3.2: solid point is carried out to weld seam h1, h2, h3, h4 between Fig. 2 middle-end frame and casting.Solid point is small using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs Current electron beam parameter.Solid point sequence h1 → h4 → h2 → h3.
Solid point technological parameter:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1740mA (part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs), electronic beam current Ib=30mA, speed of welding v= 1000mm/min。
Step 3.3: weld seam is formally welded.Welding track tack welding process is consistent, and formal welding is used plus swept The part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding retouched.The welding center of circle of weld seam h1 is a point, and the welding center of circle of weld seam h4 is b point.
Formal welding condition:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1730mA, electronic beam current Ib=45-100mA, speed of welding v= 1000mm/min, scanning mode: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=1mm, scan frequency f=400Hz.Carry out h2 and When h3 weld seam welds, when joint thickness increases to 15mm by 6mm, electronic beam current is linearly increasing to 100mA by 45mA.
Step 4: covering and end frame assemble welding;
2 end frames and 2 coverings are assembled using welding tooling, guarantee that rigging position is correct, joint gap to be welded is little In 0.2mm, unfitness of butt joint is not more than 0.2mm.Component and tooling are lifted to vacuum electron beam welder platform after the assembly is completed, adjust water It puts down and is fixed.It vacuumizes, guarantees vacuum degree in vacuum chamber in 2-7 × 10-2Welding under the conditions of Pa.
Step 5: covering and end frame electron beam welding;
Step 5.1: vacuum degree carries out electron beam centering after meeting the requirements, and carries out welding track using NC numerical control programming and shows Religion.
Step 5.2: solid point is carried out to h5, h6 weld seam between covering in Fig. 2 and end frame.Solid point uses part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electricity Beamlet parameter.
Solid point technological parameter:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1740mA, electronic beam current Ib=35mA, speed of welding v= 1100mm/min。
Step 5.3: h5, h6 weld seam are formally welded.Welding track tack welding process is consistent, and formal welding uses Add the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding of scanning.
Formal welding condition:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1730mA, electronic beam current Ib=60mA, speed of welding v=900mm/ Min, scanning mode: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=300Hz.
Step 6: covering and casting electron beam welding;
Step 6.1: vacuum degree carries out electron beam centering after meeting the requirements, and carries out welding track using NC numerical control programming and shows Religion.
Step 6.2: solid point is carried out to the weld seam h8 between weld seam h7, covering and the casting between two coverings.Solid point makes With part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter.
Solid point technological parameter:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1730mA, electronic beam current Ib=30mA, speed of welding v= 1000mm/min
Step 6.3: h7, h8 weld seam are formally welded.Formal welding is using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning, weldering Sequence is connect as from centre to both ends welding.
Formal welding condition:
Acceleration voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1720mA, electronic beam current Ib=70mA, speed of welding v= 1000mm/min, scanning mode: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=500Hz
Step 7: postwelding quality testing;
Postwelding carries out appearance quality detection to electron beam weld, the defects of surface flawless, undercut, burn-through, stomata.Using X-ray detection detects weld seam internal soundness.Weldquality meets I grades of connectors of GJB1718A-2005 " electron beam welding " It is required that.Fuel compartment outer dimension is measured using laser 3 d scanner, the control of the profile tolerance of fuel compartment 1.5mm with It is interior.
The above, only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not do any restrictions to the present invention.It is all according to invention skill Art any simple modification, change and equivalence changes substantially made to the above embodiment, still fall within the guarantor of technical solution of the present invention Protect range.

Claims (11)

1. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment, it is characterised in that the following steps are included:
Step 1: welding preparation;
The end frame of fuel compartment, covering are subjected to pickling, remove surface and oil contaminant, oxidation film, and dry;By end frame, covering and casting To-be-welded region is polishing in seeing bright metal gloss, and with acetone wiped clean;
Step 2: end frame and casting assemble welding;
Use welding tooling assembly side frame and casting;Component and tooling are lifted to vacuum electron beam welder platform after the assembly is completed, Adjustment is horizontal and is fixed;Carry out vacuumize process;
Step 3: end frame and casting electron beam welding;
Step 3.1: carrying out electron beam centering, welding track teaching is carried out using NC numerical control programming;
Step 3.2: the weld seam between opposite end frame and casting carries out solid point;Part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter is used when solid point;
Step 3.3: weld seam formally being welded, using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning;
Step 4: covering and end frame assemble welding;
Using welding tooling assembly side frame and covering, guarantee that rigging position is correct;Component and tooling are lifted to true after the assembly is completed Empty electron beam welding machine platform, adjustment is horizontal and is fixed;Carry out vacuumize process;
Step 5: covering and end frame electron beam welding;
Step 5.1: vacuum degree carries out electron beam centering after meeting the requirements, and carries out welding track teaching using NC numerical control programming;
Step 5.2: solid point is carried out to the weld seam between covering and end frame;Solid point uses part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter;
Step 5.3: weld seam formally being welded, using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning;
Step 6: covering and casting electron beam welding;
Step 6.1: carrying out electron beam centering, welding track teaching is carried out using NC numerical control programming;
Step 6.2: solid point is carried out to the weld seam between weld seam, covering and the casting between two coverings;Solid point is small using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs Current electron beam parameter;
Step 6.3: weld seam is formally welded;Formal welding is using the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning.
2. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, end frame, casting, the welding line structure form between covering are the docking of lock bottom.
3. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, holds the welding point thickness between frame and casting within the scope of 6-15mm;Welding point between covering and end frame, casting With a thickness of 10mm.
4. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, in the step 3.2 and 3.3, holds solid point, the formal welding sequence of frame and casting are as follows: inner arc section → outer arc Section → left side straightway → right side straightway.
5. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs low current electron beam parameter used when solid point in the step 3.2, step 5.2 and step 6.2 includes: to accelerate Voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=20-40mA, speed of welding v=800- 1200mm/min。
6. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 3.3 are as follows: acceleration voltage U=50kV is focused Electric current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-100mA, speed of welding v=800-1200mm/min, scanning mode: Double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=1mm, scan frequency f=300-600Hz.
7. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 6, feature It is, in the step 3.3, when carrying out weld seam welding between end frame and casting, when joint thickness increases to 15mm by 6mm, Electronic beam current increases to 100mA by 45mA.
8. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 5.3 are as follows: acceleration voltage U=50kV is focused Electric current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-70mA, speed of welding v=800-1200mm/min, scanning mode: double Cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=300-600Hz.
9. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 1, feature It is, in the step 6.2 and 6.3, weld seam, covering between two coverings and the formal of the weld seam between casting are sequentially served as reasons Centre is to both ends welding.
10. a kind of vacuum electron beam welding method of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartment according to claim 9, feature It is, using the design parameter for the part of the body cavity above the diaphragm housing the heart and lungs electron beam welding for adding scanning in the step 6.3 are as follows: formal welding condition: add Fast voltage U=50kV, focus current Ic=1700-1760mA, electronic beam current Ib=40-80mA, speed of welding v=800- 1200mm/min, scanning mode: double cosine, scan amplitude VX=2mm, VY=2mm, scan frequency f=400-600Hz.
11. the vacuum electron beam welding side of -10 any a kind of special-shaped complicated big thickness fuel compartments according to claim 1 Method, which is characterized in that further include after step 6
Step 7: postwelding quality testing;
Postwelding carries out appearance quality detection to electron beam weld, and confirmation face of weld whether there is crackle, undercut, burn-through, stomata Defect;Weld seam internal soundness is detected using X-ray detection;Using laser 3 d scanner to fuel compartment outer dimension into Row measurement.
CN201811074297.0A 2018-09-14 2018-09-14 Vacuum electron beam welding method for special-shaped complex large-thickness fuel cabin Active CN109262131B (en)

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