CN112548300A - Aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt-joint electron beam welding method - Google Patents

Aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt-joint electron beam welding method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112548300A
CN112548300A CN202011368697.XA CN202011368697A CN112548300A CN 112548300 A CN112548300 A CN 112548300A CN 202011368697 A CN202011368697 A CN 202011368697A CN 112548300 A CN112548300 A CN 112548300A
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saddle
welding
shaped structure
butt
aluminum alloy
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CN112548300B (en
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武俊飞
孙璐璐
王志敏
李宏伟
姚为
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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Beijing Hangxing Machinery Manufacturing Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0046Welding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/0033Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K15/00Electron-beam welding or cutting
    • B23K15/06Electron-beam welding or cutting within a vacuum chamber
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K2103/00Materials to be soldered, welded or cut
    • B23K2103/08Non-ferrous metals or alloys
    • B23K2103/10Aluminium or alloys thereof

Abstract

The invention discloses an electron beam welding method for a butt-joint curved surface of a saddle-shaped structure of an aluminum alloy material, and belongs to the technical field of welding. The method comprises the steps that the welding sequence is outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface, the welding efficiency is guaranteed without deformation, the welding parameters of each area are determined through tests, the penetration of a welding seam is guaranteed, no defect exists, the welding deformation and the welding seam quality are effectively controlled, the time required by electron beam welding is saved, and the efficiency is improved; the quality of the electron beam weld joint reaches the first-grade welding standard of GJB 1718A-2005.

Description

Aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt-joint electron beam welding method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of metal material welding, and particularly relates to a butt electron beam welding method for a saddle-shaped structure of an aluminum alloy material.
Background
The aluminum alloy has the characteristics of good corrosion resistance, higher specific strength and thermal conductivity, good mechanical property maintenance at low temperature and the like, and is widely applied in the fields of aerospace, rail transit, weaponry and the like. In the field of aerospace, the integration and lightweight degree of aluminum alloy closed special-shaped pneumatic component parts and parts products is higher and higher, and the requirement on manufacturing precision is higher and higher. The butt joint surface of the large oil tank is of a saddle-shaped structure, and the butt joint surface is observed by taking a horizontal central line as a reference, welding seams on the upper side and the lower side of a horizontal line are not uniformly distributed, most of the welding seams are distributed at positions below the horizontal line, and the shapes of the welding seams are asymmetric. The nonuniformity and asymmetry of the weld distribution will inevitably cause deformation of the oil tank due to uneven welding stress generated in the welding process, thereby affecting the straightness of the oil tank in the horizontal direction. Because the butt joint surface is a complex saddle-shaped structure, the whole space structure is divided into a form of combining a plurality of plane areas, and a plurality of corner structures exist. The butt joint thickness of the planes in the structure is 3-6 mm, and the two sides of the central symmetry line of the structure have the condition of 8-20 mm thickness mutation, so that the planning requirement on the welding sequence is high, welding defects are easily formed on multiple corners and variable thickness areas, and the requirement on the determination of welding parameters is high. The reasonable welding sequence and the reasonable welding parameters are adopted to ensure that the welding deformation is reduced, the probability of the defects of the welding line is reduced, and the good welding quality is obtained.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects and provides the butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material, aiming at the welding of the complex butt curved surface of the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material, the method can ensure that the welding deformation is reduced, the probability of the defects of the welding line is reduced, and good welding quality is obtained.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
the saddle-shaped structure consists of an inner arc surface, an outer side surface, a large plane, a small plane, a variable thickness area and corner surfaces, wherein the inner arc surface is a lower arc surface of the saddle-shaped structural member, the outer side surface is a folding surface on the left side and the right side of the saddle-shaped structural member, the large plane is a horizontal plane above the saddle-shaped structural member, the small plane is a horizontal plane between the inner arc surface and the outer side surface, the corner surfaces are folding surfaces between the large plane and the outer side surface, the variable thickness area is welded in the whole variable thickness area between the inner arc surface and the large plane, and the thickness is gradually increased from the middle to the two sides; the thickness of the inner arc surface, the outer side surface, the large plane, the small plane and the corner surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded is 3-6 mm;
the section of the saddle-shaped structure is saddle-shaped, and the butt joint surface is the end surfaces of two saddle-shaped structures;
the aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt electron beam welding method comprises the following steps:
(1) parameter debugging: determining welding parameters by using a test plate with the same thickness as each surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded, wherein the parameters comprise acceleration voltage, welding current, focus position, welding speed and vacuum degree;
(2) pretreating the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded;
(3) assembling products to be welded: assembling the product by utilizing the tool;
(4) product welding: welding at the corresponding working distance of each plane by using the parameters obtained in the step (1), wherein the welding sequence is outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface;
and when the variable-thickness area is welded, the current is gradually increased from the middle to two ends, and the difference value between the maximum value and the minimum value of the gradually increased current ranges from 20mA to 60 mA.
Further, the pretreatment process of the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded in the step (2) comprises the steps of polishing, scraping and alcohol wiping the butt joint surface of the product and areas 15 mm-35 mm away from two sides of the center of the welding seam on the butt joint surface, and removing oil stains and oxide skin on the surface of the aluminum alloy until the luster of the metal body is exposed.
Further, in the step (3), the butt joint height difference of each butt joint surface after the saddle-shaped structure to be welded is assembled is within +/-1 mm, and the width of the weld gap is less than 1 mm.
Further, the welding process is carried out in a vacuum chamber with a vacuum degree of 6X 10-4Pa~8×10-4Pa;
Further, in the step (4), when the variable thickness area is welded, the gradual current comprises four stages of 80mA to 60mA, 60mA to 40mA, 40mA to 60mA and 60mA to 80 mA; the current may vary within a range of ± 5 mA.
Further, in step (3), assembly fixture includes that outer armful encircles a frock and internal stay and supports the frock, outer armful ring frock shape is the same with the surface shape that two lateral surfaces are constituteed of the big plane of saddle structure, and the big plane and two lateral surfaces of laminating saddle structure, internal stay support frock are the same with the interior surface shape that the intrados of saddle structure and facet are constituteed, and the intrados and the facet of laminating saddle structure, outer armful ring frock and internal stay support frock fixed connection back treat the stable in structure butt joint.
Furthermore, the assembly tool further comprises a blocking disc and a pull rod, the blocking disc is arranged at two ends of the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop tool, and the pull rod is inserted into the blocking disc and fastened to enable the structures to be welded to be stably butted; the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop tool are made of aluminum alloy materials.
Furthermore, when the corner surface is welded, a sectional welding method is adopted, and the arc striking position of the next section of welding line is in the middle position of the previous section of welding line.
Furthermore, the welding parameters used in the step (4) for welding the large plane, the outer side surface and the small plane are 40-60 Kv of accelerating voltage, 35-45 mA of beam current, 800-1000 mm/min of welding speed, Jsur +0.03A of focus position, O-shaped scanning mode and +/-2 mm of scanning width.
Further, the current used for welding the corner surface in the step (4) is 30mA-50 mA.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the invention aims at the saddle-shaped structure to carry out welding area division and welding sequence design. In the electron beam welding process, the welding sequence is planned to be outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface, so that the problem of welding deformation is solved, and the times of entering and exiting the vacuum chamber are reduced, so that the time of vacuum pumping is shortened, and the efficiency is improved.
(2) The invention aims at the parameter design of welding of a variable thickness area in a saddle-shaped structure. The problem that the deformation is large is caused because the heat accumulation is easily generated in the area with gradually reduced thickness by adopting a general method for increasing the current, the method for reducing the welding current according to the thickness change is provided, the welding current is reduced according to a certain proportion according to the trend of the thickness change, and the current is flexibly changed according to different thicknesses, so that the relatively reasonable heat input can be realized in the areas with different thicknesses by welding.
(3) Aiming at the shape following tool design of the saddle-shaped structural member. This frock is to this saddle-shaped member characteristic design, embraces the big plane and two lateral surfaces of annular form laminating this saddle-shaped structure outward, and the intrados and the facet of this saddle-shaped structure of then laminating are propped in, avoid fish tail spare part surface, guarantee that the welding is stable high-efficient.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional butt weld shape of a saddle-shaped structural member according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a welding area of a saddle-shaped structural member according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a shape diagram of a variable thickness portion of a saddle-shaped structural member according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the electron beam welding working distance of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a welding test plate according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent and appreciated from the following detailed description of the invention.
The word "exemplary" is used exclusively herein to mean "serving as an example, embodiment, or illustration. Any embodiment described herein as "exemplary" is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other embodiments. While the various aspects of the embodiments are presented in drawings, the drawings are not necessarily drawn to scale unless specifically indicated.
As shown in fig. 1, 2 and 3, the saddle-shaped structure is composed of an inner arc surface, an outer side surface, a large plane, a small plane, a variable thickness region and corner surfaces, wherein the inner arc surface is a lower arc surface of the saddle-shaped structural member, the outer side surface is a folding surface at the left side and the right side of the saddle-shaped structural member, the large plane is a horizontal plane above the saddle-shaped structural member, the small plane is a horizontal plane between the inner arc surface and the outer side surface, the corner surfaces are small folding surfaces between the large plane and the outer side surface, the variable thickness region is arranged between the inner arc surface and the large plane, the variable thickness region is welded in a whole surface, and the thickness gradually becomes thicker from the middle to the; the thickness of the inner arc surface, the outer side surface, the large plane, the small plane and the corner surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded is 3-6 mm; the section of the saddle-shaped structure is saddle-shaped, and the butt joint surface is the end surfaces of two saddle-shaped structures;
a butt electron beam welding method for a saddle-shaped structure of an aluminum alloy material comprises the following steps:
(1) parameter debugging: determining welding parameters by using a test plate with the same thickness as each surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded, wherein the parameters comprise acceleration voltage, welding current, focus position, welding speed and vacuum degree; aiming at the saddle-shaped structural member, firstly measuring the thickness of all butt joint surfaces needing to be welded, and carding the butt joint thickness and seam allowance thickness of all welding seams. Preparing an aluminum alloy test plate with the same specification according to the carded butt joint surface thickness data, wherein the test plate specification is 300 x 100 x h, and the test plate thickness h is 3 mm-10 mm, as shown in figure 5;
after pretreatment, determining welding parameters under corresponding working distance, wherein the parameters comprise accelerating voltage, welding current, focus position, welding speed and vacuum degree; the working distance of the saddle-shaped member can be freely adjusted according to the size of the vacuum chamber, the working distance corresponding to each corresponding specification test board is required to be consistent with the working distance of each plane of the member, namely, one plane corresponds to one working distance corresponding to one specification test board.
(2) Pretreating the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded;
(3) assembling products to be welded: assembling the product by utilizing the tool;
(4) product welding: and (2) welding at the corresponding working distance of each plane by using the parameters obtained in the step (1), and verifying through multiple tests, aiming at the characteristics of the saddle-shaped member, the welding sequence is outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface in order to minimize deformation and reduce the times of entering and exiting the electron beam vacuum chamber. The welding sequence aims at the characteristic that two outer side surfaces of the saddle shape are symmetrically distributed, two symmetrical inclined side surfaces are welded firstly, and the risk of overall distortion when a large plane or an inner arc surface is welded firstly is avoided. The structure of the outer side surfaces of the two welding heads is the same in the sequence, the butt joint thickness is the same, and welding parameters do not need to be changed frequently during welding.
The normal vertical distance from each surface of the saddle-shaped structure to the center of the inner groove is measured, and the working distance of each surface of the saddle-shaped structure during electron beam welding can be calculated, wherein the working distance is the normal vertical distance from the ceiling height of the vacuum chamber, the height of the central shaft and the distance from each surface of the saddle-shaped structure to the center of the inner groove, and is shown in fig. 4.
And when the variable-thickness area is welded, the current is gradually increased from the middle to two ends, and the difference value between the maximum value and the minimum value of the gradually increased current ranges from 20mA to 60 mA.
Further, the pretreatment process of the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded in the step (2) comprises the steps of polishing, scraping and alcohol wiping the butt joint surface of the product and areas 15 mm-35 mm away from two sides of the center of the welding seam on the butt joint surface, and removing oil stains and oxide skin on the surface of the aluminum alloy until the luster of the metal body is exposed.
Furthermore, in the step (3), the butt joint height difference of the butt joint surfaces of the assembled products is within +/-1 mm, and the width of the weld gap is smaller than 1 mm. The butt joint thickness refers to the thickness of a butt joint surface required to be attached in the actual welding process, and the thickness of the lock bottom in the saddle-shaped member is not counted.
Further, the welding process is carried out in a vacuum chamber with a vacuum degree of 6X 10-4Pa~8×10-4Pa;
Further, in the step (4), when the variable thickness area is welded, the gradual current comprises four stages of 80mA to 60mA, 60mA to 40mA, 40mA to 60mA and 60mA to 80 mA; the current may vary within a range of ± 5 mA. Because the butt joint thickness of the variable thickness region has a sudden change, and the thickest position reaches 20mm, the problem that the deformation is large is caused by heat accumulation easily in the region with gradually reduced thickness by adopting a general method of increasing the current, the patent proposes that the variable thickness region is symmetrically divided into four sections of 20mm-12mm, 12mm-8mm, 8mm-12mm and 12mm-20mm when the variable thickness region is welded, as shown in fig. 3, by adopting a method of changing the current according to the change of the thickness. According to the trend of thickness change, the welding current is reduced in a certain proportion, in the structure, the current is gradually changed from 80mA to 60mA when a 20mm-12mm area is welded, the current is gradually changed from 60mA to 40mA when a 12mm-8mm area is welded, the current is gradually changed from 40mA to 60mA when a 8mm-12mm area is welded, and the current is gradually changed from 60mA to 80mA when a 12mm-20mm area is welded; the current changing mode can flexibly change the current according to different thicknesses, so that relatively reasonable heat input can be realized in the welding of areas with different thicknesses.
Further, in step (3), assembly fixture includes that outer armful encircles a frock and internal stay and supports the frock, outer armful ring frock shape is the same with the surface shape that two lateral surfaces are constituteed of the big plane of saddle structure, and the big plane and two lateral surfaces of laminating saddle structure, internal stay support frock are the same with the interior surface shape that the intrados of saddle structure and facet are constituteed, and the intrados and the facet of laminating saddle structure, outer armful ring frock and internal stay support frock fixed connection back treat the stable in structure butt joint. The outer hoop tool and the inner support tool are connected through bolts, 20-40 mm extension is conducted at the position of the inner support tool attachment facet, the screw hole is machined, the outer hoop tool and the inner support tool attachment facet are attached to the support pad through 0.5-1 mm thickness aluminum sheets during assembly, and the outer surface of a part is prevented from being scratched. The assembling tool tightly presses each surface of the saddle-shaped component, so that the plane of the component is prevented from sinking and the component is prevented from shaking in the carrying process;
furthermore, the assembly tool further comprises a blocking disc and a pull rod, the blocking disc is arranged at two ends of the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop tool, and the pull rod is inserted into the blocking disc and fastened to enable the structures to be welded to be stably butted; the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop tool are made of aluminum alloy materials.
Furthermore, when the corner surface is welded, a sectional welding method is adopted, the arc striking position of the next section of welding line is in the middle position of the previous section of welding line, the shallow depth of the arc-ending part is avoided, and the complete welding of the corner surface is ensured. In the saddle-shaped member, the corner surface is positioned at the joint position of the large plane and the outer side surface of one side, and because the welding sequence of the basic forming surfaces is that the outer side surface is welded firstly and then the large plane and the variable thickness area are welded, after the large plane and the variable thickness area are welded, the arc is started from one side close to the large plane when the corner surface is welded, the area parallel to the large plane in the corner surface is welded, and then the planes at the other positions are rotated to the horizontal position to be welded.
Furthermore, the welding parameters used in the step (4) for welding the large plane, the outer side surface and the small plane are 40-60 Kv of accelerating voltage, 35-45 mA of beam current, 800-1000 mm/min of welding speed, Jsur +0.03A of focus position, O-shaped scanning mode and +/-2 mm of scanning width.
There are 2 corner portions in the major plane, not identical to the aforementioned corner faces, as shown in fig. 2. When the corner part in the large plane is welded, because the angle of the corner part is small, the change is gentle, the integral length is less than 40mm, and welding parameters can be consistent with the plane area of the large plane during welding.
Further, the current used for welding the corner surface in the step (4) is 30mA-50 mA.
Example 1
Step one, preparing a dissimilar material aluminum alloy test plate according to the butt joint thickness of a product welding line for parameter debugging, wherein the thickness comprises 3mm (welding line butt joint thickness) +2mm (spigot thickness), 3mm +3mm locking bottoms, 4mm +2mm, 4mm +3mm and 20mm-8mm-20mm variable cross-section butt joints, and the characteristic of step difference existing in material butt joint is fully considered in the parameter adjusting process. The heat input is controlled in the case of achieving weld penetration. According to the complex space structure of the butt joint surface and the clamping mode of a tool in the actual welding process, a reasonable welding sequence of welding seams is set, namely the complex space structure of the butt joint surface is mainly divided into a small plane, a large plane, an outer side surface, an inner arc surface, a variable thickness area and a corner surface, and the welding sequence of each area is outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface.
Step two: assembling the product, polishing, scraping and wiping the butt joint surface of the welding seam with alcohol before assembly to remove oil stains and oxide scales on the surface of the aluminum alloy, wherein the polishing area is 15-35 mm of each of two sides of the welding seam, and scraping the butt joint surface and the seam allowance of the welding seam to require seeing a white and bright metal body; the assembly of the product is completed by utilizing the tool, the welding seam is determined to meet the welding condition, and the assembly rigidity of the tool meets the support fastening requirement of the product, wherein the inner support is attached to the inner arc surface to support the inner arc surface, so that the inner arc surface cannot shrink and deform after the welding is completed, and the hoop is fastened on the outer side surface; the welding seam can be sheltered from to the pull rod between the closure disc in welding process, consequently need adjust the position to the pull rod when the welding, for reducing business turn over cabin number of times, adjusts the pull rod distribution position, can play taut supporting role and also can not increase pull rod adjustment number of times. And after entering the vacuum chamber, welding each welding line of the product by adopting the debugged parameters according to the set welding sequence.
Example 2
Taking a certain structural member product as an example, the shape and size of the structural member product are shown in fig. 1, the cross section is a non-circular cross section, namely a straight line + a quadratic curve, and the cross section is symmetrical about the Y axis. The section is a phi 514mm circle inscribed non-circular section.
The treatment process of the cylinder body comprises the following steps:
taking an extrusion product as an example, the shape and the size of the extrusion product are shown in FIG. 1, the cross section is a non-circular cross section, namely a straight line and a quadratic curve, and the cross section is symmetrical about the Y axis. The section is a phi 514mm circle inscribed non-circular section.
The specific implementation mode is carried out according to the following process steps:
(1) preparing a test plate: the test plate (as shown in fig. 2) is a test plate with the same thickness of the welding seam of each part of the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structural member. The thickness of the test plate is respectively 3mm +2mm (lock bottom), 3mm +3mm lock bottom, 4mm +2mm (lock bottom), 4mm +3mm (lock bottom) and 20mm-8mm-20mm variable cross-section butt joint. The test plates are 6005A and 5A06, respectively, and the spigots are on the side of 5A 06.
(2) Parameter debugging: and performing parameter tests on test plates corresponding to the welding seams according to the height of the welding seams when the structural member is actually welded, and adjusting the parameters. When the 6005A and 5A06 dissimilar materials are welded, due to the difference of saturated vapor pressures, the two materials have different weld penetration depths under the same electron beam welding power, and are more prone to have defects such as air holes and the like, which affect mechanical properties. Other positions of big plane and lateral surface in this scheme, the used welding parameter of facet is: the acceleration voltage is 50Kv, the beam current is 35-45 mA, the welding speed is 800-1000 mm/min, the focal position Jsur +0.03A, the scanning mode is O-shaped, and the scanning width is +/-2 mm
(3) Assembling a tool: an outer hoop tool and an inner support supporting tool of the tool are respectively placed on the outer side surface and the inner arc surface of the welding joint part of the extrusion part, fastening studs are used for pre-screwing at the two ends of the tool, the tool clamps a workpiece, pull rods are arranged on the two end blocking discs and fastened, the gap between welding end faces of the end frames and the structural parts to be welded is smaller than 0.3mm, and the height difference of butt joint faces is smaller than 1 mm.
(4) Point fixing welding: and (4) performing spot welding according to the sequence of the outer side surface, the inner arc surface, the large plane and the small plane, wherein the length of a spot welding seam is about 25mm, the interval size is about 45mm, and the spot welding current is half of the formal welding current. Formal welding is carried out after tack welding is finished, the welding sequence is carried out according to the outer side surface, the inner arc surface, the small plane, the large plane, the variable thickness area and the corner surface, the pull rod is positioned above the welding seam, the welding seam below the pull rod can be shielded in the actual electron beam welding process, the distribution position of the pull rod is disassembled and replaced after the weldable part is welded, the welding of the shielding part of the pull rod is finished, the problem of thickness change needs to be considered in the welding of the corner surface between planes, the changed welding parameters are not prone to change violently, and the edge of the welding seam can be knocked properly to release stress after the welding is finished.
(5) Dismantling the tool: and (5) cooling the to-be-welded parts to room temperature, and then dismantling the tools one by one.
In the embodiment, the fastening stud of the tool is a rigid fixing mechanism, and the purpose of clamping the upper die and the lower die of the tool with the metal of the longitudinal seam joint of the cylinder is achieved by screwing the stud.
And (3) exterior evidence data: after the method is adopted, the electron beam welding of the welding line of the saddle-shaped structural member can be completed, the deformation and the quality of the welding line are effectively controlled, the time required by the electron beam welding is saved, and the efficiency is improved; the quality of the electron beam welding seam joint reaches the first-grade welding standard of GJB 1718A-2005; the strength of the welded joint of the dissimilar aluminum alloys with the thicknesses of 5A06 and 6005A is not lower than 80% of the lower limit value of the base material, and the straightness of the structural member after electron beam welding is not more than 0.8 mm.
The invention has been described in detail with reference to specific embodiments and illustrative examples, but the description is not intended to be construed in a limiting sense. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that various equivalent substitutions, modifications or improvements may be made to the technical solution of the present invention and its embodiments without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, which fall within the scope of the present invention. The scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims.
Those skilled in the art will appreciate that those matters not described in detail in the present specification are well known in the art.

Claims (11)

1. A butt electron beam welding method of a saddle-shaped structure of an aluminum alloy material is characterized in that,
the saddle-shaped structure consists of an inner arc surface, an outer side surface, a large plane, a small plane, a variable thickness area and corner surfaces, wherein the inner arc surface is a lower arc surface of the saddle-shaped structural member, the outer side surface is a folding surface on the left side and the right side of the saddle-shaped structural member, the large plane is a horizontal plane above the saddle-shaped structural member, the small plane is a horizontal plane between the inner arc surface and the outer side surface, the corner surface is a folding surface between the large plane and the outer side surface on one side, the variable thickness area is arranged between the inner arc surface and the large plane, the variable thickness area is welded in a whole surface manner, and the thickness is gradually increased from the middle; the thickness of the inner arc surface, the outer side surface, the large plane, the small plane and the corner surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded is 3-6 mm;
the section of the saddle-shaped structure is saddle-shaped, and the butt joint surface is the end surfaces of two saddle-shaped structures;
the aluminum alloy material saddle-shaped structure butt electron beam welding method comprises the following steps:
(1) parameter debugging: determining welding parameters by using a test plate with the same thickness as each surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded, wherein the parameters comprise acceleration voltage, welding current, focus position, welding speed and vacuum degree;
(2) pretreating the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded;
(3) assembling products to be welded: assembling the product by utilizing the tool;
(4) product welding: welding at the corresponding working distance of each plane by using the parameters obtained in the step (1), wherein the welding sequence is outer side surface-inner arc surface-small plane-large plane-variable thickness area-corner surface;
and when the variable-thickness area is welded, the current is gradually increased from the middle to two ends, and the difference value between the maximum value and the minimum value of the gradually increased current ranges from 20mA to 60 mA.
2. The butt electron beam welding method of the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material according to claim 1, wherein the pre-treatment process of the butt joint surface of the saddle-shaped structure to be welded in the step (2) is to perform polishing, scraping and alcohol wiping on the butt joint surface of the product and areas 15 mm-35 mm away from two sides of the center of the weld joint on the butt joint surface, and remove oil stains and oxide scales on the surface of the aluminum alloy until the luster of the metal body is exposed.
3. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material as recited in claim 1, wherein in the step (3), the butt height difference of each butt surface after the saddle-shaped structure to be welded is assembled is within ± 1mm, and the width of the weld gap is less than 1 mm.
4. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the welding process is carried out in a vacuum chamber with the vacuum degree of 6 x 10-4Pa~8×10-4Pa。
5. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of aluminum alloy material as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (4), when welding the variable thickness region, the gradual current comprises four stages of 80mA to 60mA, 60mA to 40mA, 40mA to 60mA and 60mA to 80 mA; the current may vary within a range of ± 5 mA.
6. The butt electron beam welding method of the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material according to claim 1, wherein in the step (3), the assembling tool comprises an outer hoop tool and an inner support supporting tool, the outer hoop tool is the same in shape as the outer surface formed by the large plane and the two outer side surfaces of the saddle-shaped structure and is attached to the large plane and the two outer side surfaces of the saddle-shaped structure, the inner surface formed by the inner arc surface and the small plane of the inner support supporting tool and the saddle-shaped structure is the same in shape as the inner surface formed by the inner arc surface and the small plane of the saddle-shaped structure, and the outer hoop tool and the inner support supporting tool are fixedly connected and then are subjected to stable butt joint of welding structures.
7. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material according to claim 6, wherein the assembling tool further comprises a blocking disc and a pull rod, the blocking disc is arranged at two ends of the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop supporting tool, and the pull rod is inserted into the blocking disc and fastened to enable the structures to be welded to be in butt joint stably.
8. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material according to claim 6, wherein the inner support supporting tool and the outer hoop holding tool are made of aluminum alloy materials.
9. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material as claimed in claim 1, wherein a sectional welding method is adopted when the corner face is welded, and the arc striking position of the next section of welding line is in the middle position of the previous section of welding line.
10. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of the aluminum alloy material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the welding parameters used for welding the large plane, the outer side surface and the small plane in the step (4) are acceleration voltage of 40-60 Kv, beam current of 35-45 mA, welding speed of 800-1000 mm/min, focus position Jsur +0.03A, scanning mode of O-shaped structure and scanning width of +/-2 mm.
11. The butt electron beam welding method for the saddle-shaped structure of aluminum alloy material as claimed in claim 1, wherein the current used in the corner surface in step (4) is 30mA-50 mA.
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