CN109188090B - The nonlinear test method of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil - Google Patents

The nonlinear test method of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil Download PDF

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CN109188090B
CN109188090B CN201810912702.5A CN201810912702A CN109188090B CN 109188090 B CN109188090 B CN 109188090B CN 201810912702 A CN201810912702 A CN 201810912702A CN 109188090 B CN109188090 B CN 109188090B
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soil
copper electrode
electric resistance
current
humidity sensor
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CN109188090A (en
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周利军
王朋成
王路伽
梅诚
古维富
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Southwest Jiaotong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R27/00Arrangements for measuring resistance, reactance, impedance, or electric characteristics derived therefrom
    • G01R27/02Measuring real or complex resistance, reactance, impedance, or other two-pole characteristics derived therefrom, e.g. time constant
    • G01R27/08Measuring resistance by measuring both voltage and current

Abstract

The nonlinear test method of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil, including the nonlinear pilot system of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil is built, system soil chamber interior wall is provided with drip irrigation appliance, and left and right side walls are provided with left and right copper electrode;Impulse current generator is connected to the high-voltage end of divider, and the high-voltage end of divider is connected to left copper electrode;Right copper electrode is connected to the ground terminal of impulse current generator;Further include insulating barrier, when insulating barrier is inserted into soil case, soil case is divided into multiple spaces from bottom to up;Filling soil simultaneously controls water content;Measure voltage and electric current of the pedotheque in current water content percentage accounting H;Assess electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic;Electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic under different humidity of testing and assessing.The present invention carries out vertical demixing to soil, can effective analogue ground system surrounding soil vertical demixing operating condition, accurate evaluation is carried out to vertical demixing electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic.

Description

The nonlinear test method of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil
Technical field
The invention belongs to Grounding Technology of Modern Power System fields, and in particular to different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil Nonlinear test method.
Background technique
Electric power line pole tower is when by being struck by lightning, and because of the presence of pole tower ground resistance, very high current potential can be generated on tower body, Excessively high current potential will cause shaft tower to the counterattack of transmission line of electricity, in turn results in power transmission line short circuit, reduces the stability of electric system And reliability.The major function of electric power line pole tower earthing or grounding means effectively will when tower top or lightning conducter are by being struck by lightning Lightning current leaks into the earth, therefore the electric current for flowing through earthing or grounding means is mainly lightning impulse current.Since amplitude of lightning current is larger, easily Make grounding body surrounding soil that partial breakdown occur, increase soil conductivity, decline soil resistivity, in addition when in soil because scattered When the electric field strength for flowing and generating is more than the critical breakdown strength of soil, similar air will occur in grounding body surrounding soil and hit Wear the same spark discharge process.Soil spark discharge can be substantially reduced on grounding body between each point current potential and grounding body each point Potential difference has the transient state potential rise in reduction electric power line pole tower tower top current potential and power plants and station grounded screen more apparent Effect.
It can be seen that the research of power transmission and distribution tower grounding device Lightning Characteristic is advanced reliable to establishing in smart grid Transmission and distribution networks and power supply system, improve power grid security guarantee and defense system be of great significance.
Since electric power line pole tower earthing pole is embedded in soil, the impact characteristics of impact characteristics and grounding body surrounding soil It is closely related.The dynamic of soil is mainly simulated in the domestic research to electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic at present by Computer Simulation State ionization process and Spark Discharges, and non-linear resistance characteristic shadow by several factors of the soil under dash current It rings, such as: dash current amplitude, soil constituent and structure, soil density, moisture content, temperature, external electrical field intensity etc., this A little factors cause soil its nonlinear characteristic in the effect of high frequency large inrush current to become more complicated, wherein soil water content Soil nonlinear characteristic is often largely influenced, entire earthed system impact transient characterisitics are influenced huge.
Summary of the invention
In order to accurately estimate soil nonlinear characteristic, it is non-linear to electric resistance of soil that there is an urgent need to a kind of intelligent measuring and control devices Analysis test is carried out, and comprehensively considers the influence of soil moisture, soil vertical layering, to assess the safety of electrical power trans mission/distribution system Property.The object of the present invention is to provide the nonlinear test methods of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil, accurately build Transient calculation model of the vertical grounding body under dash current effect provides theories integration for effectively design earthing or grounding means.
Realize that the technical solution of the object of the invention is as follows:
Step 1: building the nonlinear pilot system of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil, including soil case (06);Soil case (06) upper wall is provided with drip irrigation appliance (09);Soil case (06) left side wall is provided with left copper electrode (05), and Control the operating mechanism (04) of left copper electrode (05) transverse shifting;Soil case (06) right side wall is additionally provided with right copper electrode (07); Left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) are circle, vertical to place;Upper left quarter, upper right quarter, lower left quarter and the right side of soil case Lower part be also respectively provided with the first humidity sensor (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and 4th humidity sensor (01d),
Wherein the first humidity sensor (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and the 4th Humidity sensor (01d) is connected respectively to the input terminal of moisture analyser (14), and the output end of moisture analyser (14) connects respectively It is connected to digitial controller (15) and host computer (18);Digitial controller (15) is connected to drip irrigation appliance (09);
It further include impulse current generator (12) and divider (13), impulse current generator (12) output end is connected to point The high-voltage end of the high-voltage end of depressor (13), divider (13) is connected to left copper electrode (05) by high-tension cable (19);Impact electricity The ground terminal and right copper electrode (07) of flow-generator (12) are also connected to earthing or grounding means (11), earthing or grounding means (11) ground connection;Partial pressure The voltage measuring terminal of device (13) is connected to host computer (18), ground terminal ground connection;Current acquisition module (17) test lead is connected to copper Conducting wire (20), for measuring the electric current for flowing through left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07);
It further include more than one insulating barrier (08), insulating barrier (08) can be horizontally inserted into or extract out soil case (06);When When insulating barrier (08) is inserted into soil case (06), soil case (06) is divided into more than two spaces from bottom to up;
Step 2: carrying out soil filling and controlling water content: opening the upper surface of soil case (06) plate, pass through operating mechanism (04) spacing of left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) is controlled;According to the thickness ratio of soil to be tested, insulating barrier is used (08) by filling soil sample after soil case (06) layering;Insulating barrier (08) is removed, pedotheque is made to fit together;First Humidity sensor (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and the 4th humidity sensor (01d) The signal of acquisition reaches moisture analyser (14), monitors the water content of soil case (06) interior pedotheque, moisture analyser (14) Calculate average moisture content H1;Setting experiment water content H0, if average moisture content H1 passes through number lower than setting water content H0 Controller (15) starts drip irrigation appliance (09) and is uniformly slowly injected into distilled water to soil, pedotheque in control soil case (06) Overall moisture content percentage accounting H is within the scope of the allowable error of setting value H0;
Step 3: voltage and electric current of the measurement pedotheque in current water content percentage accounting H: total when pedotheque When body water content percentage accounting H is within the scope of the allowable error of setting value H0, opening impact current feedback circuit (12) passes through partial pressure Device (13) measures the voltage between left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) and is transferred to host computer (18), passes through current acquisition mould Block (17) measurement flows through the electric current of left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) and is transferred to host computer (18);
Step 4: assessment electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic: the voltage and current obtained by host computer obtains impulse resistance Full-time domain R (t) wavy curve, and extract R (t)min, R (t)max, effective ionization time t1And effective recovery time t2, calculate Average fall off rate k of the soil under dash current,
In formula, R (t)minFor resistance minimum value in R (t) wavy curve, R (t)maxIt is maximum for resistance in R (t) wavy curve Value, t1Indicate R (t) from maximum value R (t)maxDrop to minimum value R (t)minTime interval;
It calculates R (t)minWith the compound evaluation factors q of k1:
It calculates R (t)minWith t1Compound evaluation factors q2:
Calculate correction factor k1:
In formula, H is water content percentage accounting, and γ is minimum profile curvature radius, is calculated by following formula:
Wherein,
In formula, tm∈[ta+0.1,tb), taFor R (t)maxCorresponding moment, tbFor R (t)minCorresponding moment, above formula indicate to calculate R (t) wavy curve is within the period of decline, from ta+ 0.1 moment, every 0.1 μ s of minor tick calculate the curvature half at each moment Thus diameter can calculate wherein the smallest radius of curvature;
It calculates and judges remainder:
q3=0.01741log (0.424t1+0.391t2-40.11)
-0.0627log(R(t)min+1.322)
In formula, t2Indicate R (t) from R (t)minIt is restored to R (t)effTime;R(t)eff=0.2R (t)min+0.8R (t)max;R(t)effIt characterizes from R (t)minRestore the 80% poor (R (t) of declinemax-R(t)min) resistance value;
It calculates electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic of the soil under the surge voltage and moisture content and judges factor q,
Q=k1(q1+q2)+q3
Electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic is characterized according to the value range of q;Step 5: the soil electricity under different humidity It hinders non-linear test: according to test requirements document, soil different humidity being set, and repeats third step and the 4th step, carries out different humidity Vertical stratified soil non-linear resistance characteristic evaluation down.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are,
1) vertical demixing is carried out to soil, and measures the non-linear resistance of vertical demixing soil, it can effective analogue ground system System surrounding soil vertical demixing operating condition;
2) can effectively obtain the full-time domain variation wavy curve of vertical stratified soil resistance under dash current effect, judge because Several uses can carry out accurate evaluation to vertical demixing electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic;
3) main operation is completed with control by host computer, realizes vertical demixing soil in conjunction with digitial controller and drip irrigation appliance The accurate control of earth moisture content can effectively carry out vertical stratified soil non-linear resistance attribute testing under different moisture content;
4) experimental provision is easy to operate, securely and reliably, has universality to the test of vertical multi-layer soil.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the general structure schematic diagram of pilot system in the present invention;
Fig. 2 makes the structural schematic diagram of soil case in the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the flow chart of test method in the present invention;
Fig. 4 is to reflect the full-time domain variation waveform legend of the impulse resistance of soil impulse resistance nonlinear characteristic.
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings.
Step 1: building the nonlinear pilot system of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil
The nonlinear pilot system of different humidity electric resistance of soil in a kind of vertical demixing soil, is used for known to as shown in Figure 1, Figure 2 The non-linear resistance for simulating vertical stratified soil under different humidity, mainly by current acquisition module 17, host computer 18, psychrometrc analysis Instrument 14, high-tension cable 19, impulse current generator 12, earthing or grounding means 11, high-voltage bleeder 13, digitial controller 15, exchange 220V power supply 16, cable connector 03, the first humidity sensor 01a, the second humidity sensor 01b, third humidity sensor 01c, 4th humidity sensor 01d, soil case 06, drip irrigation appliance 09, insulating barrier 08, left copper electrode 05, operating mechanism 04, right copper electricity Pole 07, slotted head screw 02 form, in which:
12 electric current outflow end of impulse current generator is connected to the high-voltage end of divider 13, by high-tension cable 19 and soil The left copper electrode 05 of case 06 is connected, and right copper electrode 07 is connect by high-tension cable 19 and divider 13 and impulse current generator 12 Ground terminal is connected, and ground terminal is connected with earthing or grounding means 11, and when impulse current generator 12 issues electric current, divider 13 measures soil case Current acquisition module 17 measures the current signal for flowing through soil case 06 and is transferred to host computer 18 voltage signal at 06 both ends simultaneously, The nonlinear test of electric resistance of soil and analysis are realized on host computer.
The signal that humidity sensor 01a, 01d and 01b, 01c are acquired is transmitted to moisture analyser 14, and moisture analyser 14 calculates Average moisture content H1 out, moisture content in real-time measurement case, and respectively by moisture content value feed back to digitial controller 15 and on Position machine 18, device moisture content can not accomplish invariable, thus moisture content error thinks to meet the requirements in ± 1%, If average moisture content H1 is more than the setting value upper limit, drip irrigation appliance 09 is controlled by digitial controller 15 and is disconnected, if water content is low In setting value lower limit, then drip irrigation appliance 09 is opened by digitial controller 15, to guarantee that moisture content is accidentally in soil case 06 Within poor allowed band, digitial controller 15 is powered by alternating current 220V power supply 16, is controlled drip irrigation appliance 09 with host computer 18 and is adjusted The interior moisture content of soil case 06.
Pedotheque carries out vertical demixing by insulating barrier 08, and every layer of soil interface is parallel to soil in soil case 06 The upper and lower surface of case 06;Hierarchy number is the limited hierarchy number of practical soil, and such as practical soil is divided into 3 layers, and each layer is limited Thickness, then the thickness of soil is than available, insulating barrier 08 along be parallel to electrode surface direction by soil in soil case 06 by It separates, after filling soil sample, insulating barrier 08 is extracted out, and fit closely every layer of soil according to thickness ratio.
Step 2: carrying out soil filling and humidity set to soil case
The upper surface of soil case 06 plate is opened, the spacing of left copper electrode 05 and right copper electrode 07 is controlled by operating mechanism 04, According to the thickness ratio of practical soil, 06 vertical demixing of soil case is filled pedotheque with insulating barrier 08, then remove insulation Partition 08 fits closely different layers soil.
If it exists a certain Soils In The Region be vertical demixing, first layer soil with a thickness of 12m, soil resistivity 500 Ω m, second layer soil with a thickness of 24m, soil resistivity is 1000 Ω m, third layer soil with a thickness of 40m, soil Resistivity is 500 Ω m, is the soil region of infinite thickness other than third layer;Then the thickness ratio of vertical demixing soil is 12: 24:40, if the upper lower inner surface spacing of soil case then divides this distance according to thickness ratio, from for L with insulating barrier 08 Layering, is put into pedotheque, each layer of soil resistivity that pedotheque is arranged is identical as the resistivity of practical soil horizon.
Panel is covered, slotted head screw 02 is screwed on.Open alternating current 220V power supply 16, humidity sensor 01a, 01b, 01c, The signal of acquisition is reached moisture analyser 14, monitors moisture content in soil case 06, and respectively that moisture content value is anti-by 01d It feeds digitial controller 15 and host computer 18, if water content is more than setting water content H0, disconnects drip irrigation appliance 09, water content Lower than setting water content H0, then starts drip irrigation appliance 09, be uniformly injected into distilled water to soil, filled to control soil case 06 The water content of soil is stablized near H0 (± 1%).
Step 3: the voltage signal at soil case both ends and the current signal for flowing through soil case when measurement different moisture content
By the first step, carries out soil and fill the first humidity sensor 01a, the second humidity sensor 01b, third humidity biography Sensor 01c, the 4th humidity sensor 01d are stable to be opened impulse current generator 12 and issues electric current in setting water content H0, point The voltage signal measurement of current acquisition module 17 simultaneously that depressor 13 measures 06 both ends of soil case flows through the current signal of soil case 06 And it is transferred to host computer 18;Then the cut-offfing to change soil of drip irrigation appliance 09 is controlled using digitial controller 15 and host computer 18 The water content of case 06, the above-mentioned voltage signal of duplicate measurements and current signal.
Step 4: assessment electric resistance of soil is non-linear
The voltage current waveform that host computer obtains can obtain full-time domain R (t) wavy curve of impulse resistance, and extract R (t)min(unit Ω), R (t)max(unit Ω), effective ionization time t1(unit is μ s) and effectively recovery time t2It is (single Position is μ s), calculate average fall off rate k of the soil under dash current.
R (t) in formulamin(unit Ω) is resistance minimum value in R (t) wavy curve, R (t)max(unit Ω) is R (t) Resistance maximum value in wavy curve, t1Indicate R (t) from maximum value R (t)maxDrop to minimum value R (t)minTime interval.
Step 1: calculating R (t)minWith the compound evaluation factors q of k1:
Step 2: calculating R (t)minWith t1Compound evaluation factors q2:
Step 3: calculating correction factor k1:
In formula, H is water content percentage accounting, and γ is minimum profile curvature radius, is calculated by following formula:
Wherein,
In formula, tm∈[ta+0.1,tb), taFor R (t)maxCorresponding moment, tbFor R (t)minCorresponding moment, above formula indicate to calculate R (t) wavy curve is within the period of decline, from ta+ 0.1 moment, every 0.1 μ s of minor tick calculate the curvature half at each moment Thus diameter can calculate wherein the smallest radius of curvature;
Step 4: calculating and judge remainder q3:
q3=0.01741log (0.424t1+0.391t2-40.11)
-0.0627log(R(t)min+1.322)
In formula, t2(unit is μ s) indicates R (t) from R (t)minIt is restored to R (t)effTime.Wherein R (t)eff=0.2R (t)min+0.8R(t)max,R(t)effIt characterizes from R (t)minRestore the 80% poor (R (t) of declinemax-R(t)min) resistance value.
Step 5: it calculates non-linear resistance of the soil under the surge voltage and humidity and judges factor q:
Q=k1(q1+q2)+q3
Electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic is characterized according to the value range of q.Step 5: the soil electricity under different humidity Hinder nonlinear characteristic test
According to test requirements document, soil different humidity, that is, different moisture content is set, and repeats third step and the 4th step, is carried out not With stratified soil non-linear resistance characteristic evaluation vertical under humidity.Such as also need vertical stratified soil resistance under test H2, H3 non-thread Property, then after H1 is tested, certain interval of time, set moisture analyser 14 sets water content as H2, and repeatedly the three the Four steps, the native dynamic electric resistor for testing H2 is non-linear, and after certain interval of time, the electric resistance of soil tested under H3 is non-linear.

Claims (1)

1. the nonlinear test method of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil, which is characterized in that include the following steps,
Step 1: building the nonlinear pilot system of different humidity electric resistance of soil in vertical demixing soil, including soil case (06); Soil case (06) upper wall is provided with drip irrigation appliance (09);Soil case (06) left side wall is provided with left copper electrode (05), and control The operating mechanism (04) of left copper electrode (05) transverse shifting;Soil case (06) right side wall is additionally provided with right copper electrode (07);Left copper Electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) are circle, and vertical direction is placed;Upper left quarter, upper right quarter, lower left quarter and the right side of soil case Lower part be also respectively provided with the first humidity sensor (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and 4th humidity sensor (01d);
Wherein, the first humidity sensor (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and the 4th are wet Degree sensor (01d) is connected respectively to the input terminal of moisture analyser (14), and the output end of moisture analyser (14) is separately connected To digitial controller (15) and host computer (18);Digitial controller (15) is connected to drip irrigation appliance (09);
It further include impulse current generator (12) and divider (13), impulse current generator (12) output end is connected to divider (13) high-voltage end of high-voltage end, divider (13) is connected to left copper electrode (05) by high-tension cable (19);Dash current hair The ground terminal and right copper electrode (07) of raw device (12) are also connected to earthing or grounding means (11), earthing or grounding means (11) ground connection;Divider (13) voltage measuring terminal is connected to host computer (18), ground terminal ground connection;Current acquisition module (17) is connected to host computer (18), Current acquisition module (17) test lead is connected to copper conductor (20), flows through left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) for measuring Electric current;
It further include one upper insulating barrier (08), insulating barrier (08) can be horizontally inserted into or extract out soil case (06);When insulation every When plate (08) is inserted into soil case (06), soil case (06) is divided into more than two spaces from bottom to up;
Step 2: carrying out soil filling and controlling water content: opening the upper surface of soil case (06) plate, controlled by operating mechanism (04) Make the spacing of left copper electrode (05) Yu right copper electrode (07);It, will be native with insulating barrier (08) according to the thickness ratio of soil to be tested Filling soil sample after earth case (06) layering;Insulating barrier (08) is removed, pedotheque is made to fit together;First humidity sensor The letter that device (01a), the second humidity sensor (01b), third humidity sensor (01c) and the 4th humidity sensor (01d) acquire It number reaches moisture analyser (14), monitors the water content of soil case (06) interior pedotheque, moisture analyser (14) calculates flat Equal water content H1;Setting experiment water content H0, if average moisture content H1 passes through digitial controller lower than setting water content H0 (15) starting drip irrigation appliance (09) is uniformly slowly injected into distilled water to soil, and the totality of pedotheque contains in control soil case (06) Water percentage accounting H is within the scope of the allowable error of setting value H0;
Step 3: voltage and electric current of the measurement pedotheque in current water content percentage accounting H: when the totality of pedotheque contains When water percentage accounting H is within the scope of the allowable error of setting value H0, opening impact current feedback circuit (12) passes through divider (13) it measures the voltage between left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) and is transferred to host computer (18), pass through current acquisition module (17) measurement flows through the electric current of left copper electrode (05) and right copper electrode (07) and is transferred to host computer (18);
Step 4: assessment electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic: it is full-time to obtain impulse resistance for the voltage and current obtained by host computer Domain R (t) wavy curve, and extract R (t) min, R (t) max, effective ionization time t1And effective recovery time t2, calculate soil Average fall off rate k of the earth under dash current,
In formula, R (t)minFor resistance minimum value in R (t) wavy curve, R (t)maxFor resistance maximum value in R (t) wavy curve, t1 Indicate R (t) from maximum value R (t)maxDrop to minimum value R (t)minTime interval;
It calculates R (t)minWith the compound evaluation factors q of k1:
It calculates R (t)minWith t1Compound evaluation factors q2:
Calculate correction factor k1:
In formula, H is water content percentage accounting, and γ is minimum profile curvature radius, is calculated by following formula:
Wherein,
In formula, tm∈[ta+0.1,tb), taFor R (t)maxCorresponding moment, tbFor R (t)minCorresponding moment, above formula indicate to calculate R (t) Wavy curve is within the period of decline, from ta+ 0.1 moment, every 0.1 μ s of minor tick calculate the radius of curvature at each moment, by This can calculate wherein the smallest radius of curvature;
It calculates and judges remainder:
q3=0.01741log (0.424t1+0.391t2-40.11)-0.0627log(R(t)min+1.322)
In formula, t2Indicate R (t) from R (t)minIt is restored to R (t)effTime;R(t)eff=0.2R (t)min+0.8R(t)max, R (t)effIt characterizes from R (t)minRestore the 80% poor (R (t) of declinemax-R(t)min) resistance value;
It calculates electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic of the soil under the surge voltage and moisture content and judges factor q,
Q=k1(q1+q2)+q3
Electric resistance of soil nonlinear characteristic is characterized according to the value range of q;Step 5: the electric resistance of soil under different humidity is non- Linear test: according to test requirements document, being arranged soil different humidity, and repeat third step and the 4th step, carries out different humidity and is lauched Divide a layer soil dynamic non-linear resistance characteristic evaluation equally.
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