CN109107350A - 垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置 - Google Patents

垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置 Download PDF

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CN109107350A
CN109107350A CN201710496535.6A CN201710496535A CN109107350A CN 109107350 A CN109107350 A CN 109107350A CN 201710496535 A CN201710496535 A CN 201710496535A CN 109107350 A CN109107350 A CN 109107350A
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flue gas
gas
connect
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王晓辉
严宇
马吉平
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Hunan Zheng De Environmental Protection Equipment Technology Co Ltd
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    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
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    • B01D53/02Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography
    • B01D53/06Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography with moving adsorbents, e.g. rotating beds
    • B01D53/10Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols by adsorption, e.g. preparative gas chromatography with moving adsorbents, e.g. rotating beds with dispersed adsorbents
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    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
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    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
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    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2258/00Sources of waste gases
    • B01D2258/02Other waste gases
    • B01D2258/0283Flue gases
    • B01D2258/0291Flue gases from waste incineration plants
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage

Abstract

本发明公开了一种垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置。为了克服现有垃圾焚烧冒白烟腐蚀性飞灰排放烟气等不足,本发明通过高效净化装置将垃圾焚烧烟气骤降至400℃以下进行脱酸、冷却脱水,然后升温至140℃、混入活性炭、布袋除尘、烟囱排放;所述高效净化装置包括分别与焚烧炉、急冷脱酸塔连接的组合式气‑气换热器,所述急冷脱酸塔与冷却脱水器连接,所述冷却脱水器依次通过组合式气‑气换热器、活性炭添加装置、布袋除尘器、引风机与烟囱连接。本发明用于垃圾焚烧烟气处理,它显著减少了烟气排放量,防止了烟囱冒白烟排放,不易发生露点腐蚀,投资减少,运行费用低,飞灰排放量少,可实现垃圾焚烧烟气高效净化、环保排放。

Description

垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置
技术领域
本发明涉及一种垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置。
背景技术
生活垃圾焚烧烟气净化工艺有干法、湿法、半干法。因干法脱酸效率较低,湿法需对废水进行处理,我国现有垃圾焚烧烟气净化多采用半干法,即喷雾干燥吸收加活性炭吸附加袋式除尘器组合净化工艺。工作时,被余热锅炉吸收热量后的烟气首先进入喷雾吸收反应塔,同时,高速喷雾器向反应塔内喷入雾状Ca(OH) 2(石灰浆液),雾状的Ca(OH) 2细颗粒与烟气中的 HCl、HF 及 SO2发生反应,反应后的烟气进入除尘器去除颗粒物后排入大气,反应的生成物和飞灰一起从反应器落灰口或除尘器落灰口排出。
现有这种垃圾焚烧烟气半干法净化技术的不足之处是,垃圾和石灰浆液中的水分全部进入烟气由烟囱排出,造成烟气排放量大,烟囱冒白烟(水蒸汽),排放的烟气温度低,烟囱易发生露点腐蚀,且设备复杂、投资大、运行费用高,飞灰(危险废弃物)排放量大。
现有文献中未见解决上述问题的技术方案。
发明内容
本发明的目的就是针对上述不足,提供一种垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置,它可显著减少垃圾和石灰浆液中的水分进入烟气的量,可减少烟气排放量,防止烟囱冒白烟(水蒸汽)排放,排放的烟气温度高,烟囱不易发生露点腐蚀,设备工艺简化,投资减少,运行费用低,飞灰(危险废弃物)排放量少,可实现垃圾焚烧烟气高效净化、环保排放。
为达到上述目的,本发明的技术方案是,该垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法是:
a.将垃圾焚烧产生的高温烟气在0.5秒内骤降至400℃以下,得降温烟气;
b.将所述降温烟气进行脱酸,得100℃以下的脱酸湿烟气;
c.将脱酸湿烟气冷却脱水,得50℃以下脱酸脱水烟气;
d.将脱酸脱水烟气升温至135——145℃,并与喷入的活性炭混合,进行布袋过滤除尘后,通过烟囱排放。
本发明垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法使用的高效净化装置,包括具有烟气出口的焚烧炉,所述焚烧炉的烟气出口通过组合式气-气换热器与急冷脱酸塔连接,所述急冷脱酸塔与冷却脱水器连接,所述冷却脱水器依次通过组合式气-气换热器、活性炭添加装置、布袋除尘器、引风机与烟囱连接;
所述急冷脱酸塔下端的排液口与斜底结晶池加碱池连接,该斜底结晶池加碱池通过碱液泵与急冷脱酸塔上部的喷雾机构连接,所述冷却脱水器分别与斜底结晶池加碱池、凉水塔连接,该凉水塔通过循环水液泵与冷却脱水器连接。
本发明用于垃圾焚烧热解烟气的处理,它显著减少了垃圾和石灰浆液中的水分进入烟气的量,减少了烟气排放量,可防止烟囱冒白烟(水蒸汽)排放,排放的烟气温度高,烟囱不易发生露点腐蚀,设备工艺简化,投资减少,运行费用低,飞灰(危险废弃物)排放量少,实现了垃圾焚烧烟气高效净化、环保排放。
附图说明
图1是本发明部分(冷却脱水器)剖视后的示意图。
图中,1. 焚烧炉,2. 组合式气-气换热器,3. 急冷脱酸塔,4. 斜底结晶池加碱池,5. 碱液泵,6. 冷却脱水器,7. 引风机,8. 凉水塔,9. 布袋除尘器,10. 活性炭添加装置。
具体实施方式
本发明垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法是:
a.将垃圾焚烧产生的高温烟气在0.5秒内骤降至400℃以下,得降温烟气;
b.将所述降温烟气进行脱酸,得100℃以下的脱酸湿烟气;
c.将脱酸湿烟气冷却脱水,得50℃以下脱酸脱水烟气;
d.将脱酸脱水烟气升温至135——145℃,并与喷入的活性炭混合,进行布袋过滤除尘后,通过烟囱排放。
本发明垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法使用的高效净化装置,如图1所示,它包括具有烟气出口的焚烧炉1,所述焚烧炉1的烟气出口通过组合式气-气换热器2与急冷脱酸塔3连接,所述急冷脱酸塔3与冷却脱水器6连接,所述冷却脱水器6依次通过组合式气-气换热器2、活性炭添加装置10、布袋除尘器9、引风机7与烟囱连接;
所述急冷脱酸塔下端的排液口与斜底结晶池加碱池4连接,该斜底结晶池加碱池4通过碱液泵5与急冷脱酸塔上部的喷雾机构连接,所述冷却脱水器6分别与斜底结晶池加碱池4、凉水塔8连接,该凉水塔8通过循环水液泵与冷却脱水器6连接。
所述组合式气-气换热器、斜底结晶池加碱池、凉水塔、布袋除尘器、活性炭添加装置等均可从现有同类装置中选配。
本发明具体基本流程是:从生活垃圾焚烧炉出来的高温烟气,在约0.5秒时间内经过组合式气-气换热器换热,温度下降到400℃以下,再进入急冷脱酸塔,与闭路循环的碱液接触脱酸,烟气温度降到100℃以下,同时有大量水分蒸发进入烟气,脱酸碱洗液被蒸发浓缩,当浓缩至饱和时,盐类物质在斜底结晶池中结晶沉淀,定期清除。清液在加碱池用碱调节pH值后,用碱液泵送至急冷脱酸塔。
急冷脱酸后的湿烟气,经冷却脱水器脱水后,温度进一步下降到50℃以下,然后进入组合式气-气换热器换热升温至140℃左右,与喷入的活性炭一起进入布袋除尘器过滤除尘,净化后的烟气经引风机由烟囱排入大气。这样处理的烟气可达到欧盟排放标准,且烟气有80℃左右的过热,所以烟囱无白烟排放现象。

Claims (2)

1.一种垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法,其特征是:
a.将垃圾焚烧产生的高温烟气在0.5秒内骤降至400℃以下,得降温烟气;
b.将所述降温烟气进行脱酸,得100℃以下的脱酸湿烟气;
c.将脱酸湿烟气冷却脱水,得50℃以下脱酸脱水烟气;
d.将脱酸脱水烟气升温至135——145℃,并与喷入的活性炭混合,进行布袋过滤除尘后,通过烟囱排放。
2.根据权利要求1所述的垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法使用的高效净化装置,包括具有烟气出口的焚烧炉(1),其特征是,所述焚烧炉(1)的烟气出口通过组合式气-气换热器(2)与急冷脱酸塔(3)连接,所述急冷脱酸塔(3)与冷却脱水器(6)连接,所述冷却脱水器(6)依次通过组合式气-气换热器(2)、活性炭添加装置(10)、布袋除尘器(9)、引风机(7)与烟囱连接;
所述急冷脱酸塔下端的排液口与斜底结晶池加碱池(4)连接,该斜底结晶池加碱池(4)通过碱液泵(5)与急冷脱酸塔上部的喷雾机构连接,所述冷却脱水器(6)分别与斜底结晶池加碱池(4)、凉水塔(8)连接,该凉水塔(8)通过循环水液泵与冷却脱水器(6)连接。
CN201710496535.6A 2017-06-26 2017-06-26 垃圾焚烧烟气无白烟环保排放高效净化方法及装置 Pending CN109107350A (zh)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109865397A (zh) * 2019-02-25 2019-06-11 东莞市盛源石油化工有限公司 一种石油化工用废气处理方法

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109865397A (zh) * 2019-02-25 2019-06-11 东莞市盛源石油化工有限公司 一种石油化工用废气处理方法

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