CN109026006A - Exploitation open pit slope covers the new method of mineral products - Google Patents

Exploitation open pit slope covers the new method of mineral products Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109026006A
CN109026006A CN201811118307.6A CN201811118307A CN109026006A CN 109026006 A CN109026006 A CN 109026006A CN 201811118307 A CN201811118307 A CN 201811118307A CN 109026006 A CN109026006 A CN 109026006A
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cave
adopts
odd
exploitation
adopted
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CN109026006B (en
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宿威俊
孟建华
闫林
蒋红军
董辉
张德军
金晓峰
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Ijinholuo Banner Delong Mining Co Ltd
Inner Mongolia Coal Mine Design Research Institute Co Ltd
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Ijinholuo Banner Delong Mining Co Ltd
Inner Mongolia Coal Mine Design Research Institute Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/26Methods of surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/30Methods of surface mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/32Reclamation of surface-mined areas

Abstract

The present invention provides the new methods that a kind of exploitation open pit slope covers mineral products, comprising: is divided into several linear types and is adopted cave, and number consecutively each ore bed that open pit slope covers mineral products by setting width and height along the tendency or trend of ore body;First exploit that odd number adopts cave or even number adopts cave using winning apparatus, each odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted and retains that even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave as ore pillar between cave, and cave adopted to odd number or even number adopt cave implementation adopt-fill parallel operations, successively fill after meeting packing job space to adopting cave;After the two adjacent charges solidifications adopted in cave, then exploit the two adjacent cave of adopting adopted between cave, and to rear exploitation adopt cave also carries out adopt-fill parallel operations, until the exploitation of each ore bed and thick ore body multi-segment is filled and is finished.The recovery method provided by the invention, improves the support strength to highwall, reduces the risk that highwall collapses and comes down, and the mineral products rate of recovery is high, and reduce the pollution to environment such as atmosphere, soil.

Description

Exploitation open pit slope covers the new method of mineral products
Technical field
The present invention relates to the new methods that a kind of exploitation open pit slope covers mineral products, belong to exploitation of mineral resources technical field, more In particular to the method for covering mineral products using mechanical mining equipment exploitation open pit slope.
Background technique
As shown in Figure 1-Figure 3, when surface mine is exploited after the direction of propulsion (direction shown in arrow in Fig. 1) for adopting hole 5 Rectangular at non working slope 13, the two sides that 5 direction of propulsion of hole are adopted in normal progradation form end side 12, are adopting 5 propulsion sides of hole To front formed eventually side 11;Surface mine exploit during adopt hole 5 surroundings formed above-mentioned non working slope 13, end side 12 Highwall 1 is referred to as with side 11 eventually.
Currently, the exploitation of surface mine is because causing the mineral products covered under highwall that cannot exploit, damage there are above-mentioned highwall Mistake Mineral Resource is huge, and for a surface mine, surface mine exploitation losses stock number accounts for entire surface mine 25%-30% etc.;For open coal mine, annual whole nation highwall, which covers, unminds the coal resource amount of loss and is as high as 100,000,000 Ton or more.
Contain a large amount of spoils in the ore that surface mine separates, these spoils generally dump to deslagging field, due to without Cross processing, prolonged air storage can generate the pernicious gases such as a large amount of ammonia, sulfide, polluted source, soil and surrounding air, And the mineral resources covered under some highwalls are easily under fire spontaneous combustion, and atmosphere, environment is caused to pollute.
How highwall is covered into mineral products and carry out recycling and reusing, how spoil reasonably to be disposed, how to avoid side Side covers pollution etc. of the mineral products ignition spontaneous combustion reduction to environment, is that surface mine exploits the realistic problem faced.
To solve the above problems, No. ZL201210179645.7 Chinese, entitled, " recycling open coal mine helps adopting for coal eventually The patent of coal method " gives a kind of coal-mining method for recycling open coal mine end side and covering coal mine.Specifically, which reveals Its coal mine helps the coal-mining method of coal eventually, helps coal seam thickness eventually suitable for open coal mine greater than 2m;Roof is more stable Rock;Coal seam spacing is not less than 5m;Seam inclination is less than 10 °, it can be achieved that the open coal mine of In-pit dumping condition, open coal mine are built Cheng Hou is helped in the coal seam retained in the non working slope of open coal mine, eventually side and adjacent two ends side, eventually as shown in figure 4, edge The inclined direction in coal seam tunnel a wide 2~4m, high 2~7m, it is deep to the long 50~100m's of ore field earth's surface boundary, that is, mineral rights circle First linear coal road road 21, then second straight line of geometric parameter identical as first linear coal road road is tunneled side by side Shape coal road road 22, and so on tunnel third linear coal road road 23 side by side, there are 3.3~6m's wide between each coal road road Coal column, while tunneling second linear coal road road 22, as shown in figure 5, in first 21 center line of linear coal road road Stepped top beat vertical drilling 3, drill 3 diameter be 150~300mm, drill 3 depth be beat first linear Until 21 top of coal road road, after the completion of first drilling 31, continue to play second drilling 32, drill is with the spacing of drilling 2.5~9m, and on centerline, while with the cave mouth in overburden semiclosed first linear coal road road 21, then from first Drilling 31 continues after filling mortar in first drilling 31 toward second drilling toward first inner note mortar in linear coal road road 21 32 inner note mortars, mortar fill first linear coal road road 21, with same method until by third linear coal road road Until 23 fill mortar, first linear coal road road 21 at this moment filling mortar has been retained 1 to 2 month, is then existed Filled first linear coal road road 21 of mortar and filled mortar second linear coal road road 22 between coal column Middle the 4th linear coal road road 24 for tunneling geometric parameter identical as first linear coal road road 21, the 4th linear coal The coal column 4 of 1~1.5m wide, institute are reserved between tunnel 24 and first 21, second, linear coal road road linear coal road road 22 After the completion of stating the 4th linear coal road road 24, should immediately similar first linear coal road road 21 in the 4th linear coal road The top drilling 3 in road 24, semiclosed cave mouth, fills mortar, in time in first 21, the 4th, linear coal road road linear Dump overburden before the cave mouth in 24, the second linear coal road roads 22 in coal road road and form internal dumping, and so on driving phase With the 5th linear coal road road 25 of geometric parameter, and top drilling 3 being carried out, semiclosed cave mouth fills mortar, and the 5th Linear coal road road 25 is located among second linear coal road road 22 and third linear coal road road 23, Opencut coal mine mining When end of a period, recycling open coal mine helps coal resources eventually to be terminated.
The above-mentioned recovery method that the patent provides covers coal mine although being known as and can exploit side eventually, in fact and can not Row, there are many defects:
A, the prior art, which is used, drills at the top of open coal mine highwall and is irrigated sand to having adopted tunnel by drilling Slurry filling, construction drill easily causes Slope of Open Pit Coal Mine landslide, collapses at the top of highwall;And by drilling from top to bottom to having adopted Tunnel is filled, and due to the influence of obturation angle of fall, obturation forms cone shape having adopted in tunnel, not can guarantee That adopts the obturation in tunnel connects top rate and compacting rate, when the later period recycles the coal column between stowboard, since two sides fill It is lower that body does not connect top, compacting rate, has adopted tunnel span and has been gradually increased, has easily caused two sides obturation back to be caving, to make It integrally comes down, collapse at highwall.
B, the prior art using stayed between adjacent tunnel set 1~1.5m wide coal column by the way of to open coal mine eventually side pressure coal Recycled, and the coal column later period can not recycling, influence the rate of recovery that highwall covers coal resource, and may cause to stay and set Coal column ignition spontaneous combustion, pollution environment;
C, the prior art be only limitted to coal seam thickness greater than 2.0m, coal seam spacing not less than 5.0m, seam inclination is less than 10 ° Highwall presses coal recycling, cannot be extended to other kinds of opencut and the not exploitation of the open coal mine in this condition and range time It receives, is of limited application, when coal seam thickness is greater than 6m or when surface mine is that ore bed spacing is less than 5.0m short distance ore bed group When, the prior art can not achieve exploitation, and recovery method restricted application, the resource recovery of the prior art are still very It is low;
D, filler is mortar, at high cost, and is unfavorable for the recycling that mining waste for example removes spoil etc., It cannot achieve development of resources and the coordinated development of ecological environment.
Therefore, it is necessary to from improving safety, improve the rate of recovery, reduce environmental pollution, the type of Expanding decompression mine and discarded The problems such as object processing, sets out, and researches and develops open pit slope safer, more efficient, that the scope of application is wider, more environmentally friendly and covers mineral products Recovery method, to overcome the deficiencies of existing technologies.
Summary of the invention
At least one in order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention provides a kind of exploitation open pit slopes to cover mineral products New method, the hardness of the mineral products are less than the cutting hardness of mechanical mining equipment, comprising the following steps:
Step 10, the open pit slope is covered to each ore beds of mineral products along the tendency of mineral resources or trend by setting Width and height are divided into several linear types and adopt cave, and number consecutively, and number is that the cave of adopting of odd number is known as odd number and adopts cave, all The geometric dimension that odd number adopts cave is identical, and number is that the cave of adopting of even number is known as even number and adopts cave, and whole even numbers adopt the geometric dimension phase of cave Together;
Step 20, the linear type being exploited using mechanical mining equipment driving and adopting cave, first driving exploitation odd number is adopted Cave or even number adopt cave, and each odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted and retains that even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave as ore pillar between cave, with It plays a supportive role to the highwall;And cave adopted to the odd number or even number adopts cave implementation and adopts-fill parallel operations, i.e., in previous odd number It adopts cave or even number is adopted after the completion of cave exploitation and adopts cave to latter odd number or even number adopts cave exploitation and meets packing job space requirement While, using charges, to having adopted, odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted cave and successively filled;
Step 30, during step 20, when two adjacent odds adopt cave or even number is adopted the charges in cave and is frozen by force After degree is greater than the rigid body of the mineral products ore body intensity, is tunneled again using the mechanical mining equipment and exploit two adjacent odd It adopts cave or even number that even number is adopted between cave adopts cave or odd number adopts cave, and cave is adopted to the even number of rear exploitation or odd number is adopted cave and also carried out Parallel operations are adopted-filled, i.e., the latter even number for meeting mining conditions are adopted after the completion of previous even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave exploitation While cave or odd number adopt cave exploitation and meet packing job space requirement, using charges, to having adopted, even number adopts cave or odd number is adopted Cave successively fills;
Step 40, repeating said steps 20 and step 30 are finished and have been filled until whole linear types adopt cave exploitation Finish, the exploitation of each ore bed is completed, to complete the exploitation that the open pit slope covers mineral products;
Wherein, the filling, refer to using the linear type of the filling equipment from after exploiting adopt the end of cave to cave mouth by The charges are gradually filled, and are compacted the charges and the secondary filling charges, so that the charges are frozen into institute After stating rigid body connect top rate and compacting rate meets design requirement.
The above-mentioned exploitation open pit slope of the present invention covers the new method of mineral products, overcomes the defect of the prior art, have with Lower good effect:
1. because the end for adopting cave using linear type of the filling equipment from after exploiting gradually fills charges to cave mouth, and being compacted Charges and secondary filling charges, rather than the prior art punches filling on rock stratum, can make charges connect top rate and Compacting rate greatly improves, to improve the support strength to highwall, reduces the risk that highwall collapses and comes down;
2. because adopting cave using first exploitation odd number or even number adopts cave, object to be filled is frozen into after rigid body and exploits even number again and adopt Cave or odd number adopt cave, while the method for adopting-filling parallel operations, then not only increase the support strength to highwall, reduce Highwall is collapsed and the risk on landslide, and without retaining ore pillar, improving the rate of recovery that highwall covers mineral products, can make the side of opencut Side covers the rate of recovery nearly 100% of mineral products, to reduce surface mine production stripping ratio, extend surface mine service year It limits, reduce cultivated land occupancy and village migration, reducing surface mine and open up quantity, realizing the production of high-efficiency low-carbon environmental protection, Promote development of resources and Coordination Development Between Eco-environment;
3. because the rate of recovery that the highwall of opencut covers mineral products it is high, it is substantially all recycled under highwall it is some be easily under fire from The mineral resources of combustion reduce the pollution to atmosphere, environment;
4. above-mentioned recovery method of the invention, no mineral resources preservation thickness, preservation interlamellar spacing and the requirement at inclination angle, can increase The use scope of big recovery method of the present invention;And the hardness of recovery method exploitation mineral products of the present invention can be cut with mechanical mining equipment Cut the raising of hardness and improve, thus increase can exploit mineral resources range, further expansion recovery method of the present invention opens Adopt the type of opencut.
According to one embodiment of present invention, it is preferable that the linear type adopts the height of cave according to the mechanical mining The mining height of equipment determines that the width that the odd number adopts cave is determined according to following formula (1)-formula (3):
Q=q0+q1+q2+……+qn-1+qn (2)
q0=hr0, q1=h1r1, q2=h2r2……qn-1=hn-1rn-1, qn=hnrn (3)
Wherein, σtFor the tensile strength of mineral products, h is the thickness of the direct rimrock layer of the ore bed, r0For direct rimrock layer Bulk density, hiFor the thickness of i-th layer of main roof strata except direct rimrock layer, riFor the appearance of i-th layer of main roof strata except direct rimrock layer Weight, L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;λ is coefficient, depending on the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed, general value 0.6-0.9, when The intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed gets the small value when smaller, takes large values when the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed is larger;
The width that the even number adopts cave is determined according to following formula (4) formula:
Wherein, a is that even number adopts cave width;L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;M is the mining height that linear type adopts cave;H is straight Line style adopts the mining depth of cave;K is safety coefficient.
The embodiment further provides the determination method that odd number adopts cave and even number adopts cave width, so as to further standardize It exploits process, improve exploitation precision, improve the reliability of production efficiency and exploitation.
Further, it is preferable that it is open pit slope bottom to away from opencut ore field that the linear type, which adopts the mining depth of cave, Distance within boundary at 20 meters.
Linear type adopts the end of cave as far as possible close to opencut ore field boundary, i.e., linear type adopt cave mining depth it is big as far as possible, The rate of recovery that highwall covers mineral products is then improved as much as possible, is maximally utilised mineral resources, is increased economic efficiency.
According to another embodiment of the invention, it is preferable that when the seam thickness of the opencut is greater than the machine When the mining height of tool winning apparatus, the ore bed is layered according to the mining height, from lower layer to every layer of upper layer It is exploited and is filled according to the step 10- step 40, and hole will be adopted before exploitation upper layer and filled and led up to the layer.
The recovery method that the embodiment further provides, workable seam cover mineral products with a thickness of very thick highwall, thus It further increases highwall and covers the rate of recovery of mineral products and the scope of application of recovery method of the present invention.
Still another embodiment in accordance with the present invention, it is preferable that the mechanical mining equipment is with long-range control, navigation It positions, the Intelligentized mining equipment of monitoring remote video, the rear part overlaps rubber conveyer.
It covers in mineral products removal process in highwall and is recycled using the Intelligentized mining equipment of high degree of automation, realized Unmanned, safe production, greatly improves labor productivity and operational security, the rear part overlaps rubber conveyer can Linear type, which is adopted mechanization in cave and remotely conveyed, to be realized to the mineral products produced, convenient for exploiting the discharge of mineral products.
According to still another embodiment of the invention, it is preferable that the filling equipment has automatic walking mechanism and striker plate, institute It states automatic walking mechanism the filling equipment can be made independently to enter linear type and adopt in cave, the striker plate can be such that the charges accumulate And the charges are compacted, and the secondary filling charges can be carried out to the space vacated after being compacted the charges.
In the embodiment, using automatic walking mechanism to adopt cave carry out horizontal or tilting filling, can using striker plate Guarantee to adopt obturation in cave connects top rate and compacting rate, to guarantee the intensity of obturation, avoids the prior art in highwall Top construction drill causes Mine Geological Disasters and the safety accidents such as highwall landslide, collapsing.
A still further embodiment according to the present invention, it is preferable that the charges be using the opencut removing spoil, Building waste or solid waste are handled together with cement, additive, the manufactured material that can be pumped by pipeline, and It is greater than the rigid body of the mineral products ore body intensity after the charges solidification for intensity.
The present invention uses pump type filling process to fill, it can be achieved that filling, filling are convenient at a distance to cave is adopted;Filling material Material is mainly the mixture of surface mine removing spoil, building waste or solid waste and cement, additive, reduces this The discharge and accumulation of a little solid waste, not only save processing cost, and reduce it to generations such as big gas and water, soil Environmental pollution.
Further, it is preferable that the charges are made in Filling Station, and the Filling Station can build adopting for the opencut in In hole or in industrial sites.
It is filled using long distance pumping formula, and charges are made in Filling Station, then Filling Station addressing flexibly, conveniently, can Adaptation to local conditions improves the utilization efficiency in place.
Above-mentioned and/or additional aspect of the invention and advantage, will be apparent from the following description to embodiment and It is readily appreciated that.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the highwall structural schematic diagram of opencut;
Fig. 2 is the AA schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is the BB schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is that the prior art adopts cave mining sequence schematic diagram;
Fig. 5 is that the prior art adopts cave drilling plane schematic diagram;
Fig. 6 is that the new method exploitation highwall for covering mineral products using exploitation open pit slope of the present invention covers the flat of mineral products Face structural schematic diagram;
Fig. 7 is the CC schematic cross-sectional view of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 adopts the division schematic diagram of cave for the linear type in the method for the invention
Fig. 9 is that first exploitation odd number adopts cave schematic diagram;
Figure 10 is that first exploitation even number adopts cave schematic diagram;
Figure 11 is to determine that odd number adopts the mechanical model schematic diagram of cave width;
Figure 12 is to determine that even number adopts the mechanical model schematic diagram of cave width;
Figure 13 is separate zone production structural schematic diagram.
Wherein, corresponding relationship of the Fig. 1 into Fig. 5 between appended drawing reference and component names are as follows:
1, highwall;11, it helps eventually;12, end side;13, non working slope;2, linear coal road road;21, first linear coal Tunnel;22, second linear coal road road;23, third linear coal road road;24, the 4th linear coal road road;25, Five linear coal road roads;3, it drills;31, first drilling;32, second drilling;4, coal column;5, Cai Keng.
Corresponding relationship of the Fig. 6 into Figure 13 between appended drawing reference and component names are as follows:
1, highwall;11, it helps eventually;12, end side;13, non working slope;5, Cai Keng;6, internal dumping;7, mineral products;8, linear type Adopt cave;9, charges;10 mechanical mining equipment;101, rubber conveyer;102, bottom plate;103, top plate;Arrow D is outdoor Mine direction of propulsion;Arrow E is mining haul direction;Arrow F is that direction is arranged in overburden.
Specific embodiment
To better understand the objects, features and advantages of the present invention, illustrating basis with reference to the accompanying drawing A specific embodiment of the invention.It should be noted that in the absence of conflict, in embodiments herein and embodiment Feature can be combined with each other.
In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to facilitate a full understanding of the present invention, still, the present invention may be used also To be implemented using other than the one described here other modes, therefore, protection scope of the present invention is not by described below Specific embodiment limitation.
The present invention provides the new methods that a kind of exploitation open pit slope covers mineral products, as shown in Fig. 6-Figure 10, the mine The hardness of production 7 is less than the cutting hardness of mechanical mining equipment 10, comprising the following steps:
Step 10, as shown in figure 8, by the open pit slope cover each ore beds of mineral products along the tendency of mineral resources or Trend is divided into several linear types by setting width and height and adopts cave 8, and number consecutively, and number is that the cave of adopting of odd number is known as surprise Number adopts cave, and the geometric dimension that whole odd numbers adopt cave is identical, and number is that the cave of adopting of even number is known as even number and adopts cave, and whole even numbers adopt cave Geometric dimension is identical;
Step 20, as shown in fig. 7, exploiting the linear type using the mechanical mining equipment 10 driving adopts cave, such as Fig. 9 Shown, first driving exploitation odd number adopts cave, or as shown in Figure 10, and first driving exploitation even number adopts cave, then accordingly, the odd number is adopted Reservation even number adopts cave between cave or even number adopts reservation odd number between cave and adopts cave, as ore pillar to play a supportive role to the highwall; And cave adopted to the odd number or even number adopts cave implementation and adopts-fill parallel operations, i.e., cave is adopted in previous odd number or even number is adopted cave and exploited At rear and adopt cave to latter odd number or while even number adopts cave exploitation and meets packing job space requirement, using charges to Adopt that odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted cave and successively filled;
The filling refers to that the end for adopting cave 8 using the linear type of the filling equipment from after exploiting gradually is filled out to cave mouth The charges 9 are filled, and are compacted the charges 9 and the secondary filling charges 9, so that the charges 9 are frozen into just After property body connect top rate and compacting rate meets design requirement;
Step 30, during step 20, when two adjacent odds adopt cave or even number is adopted the charges 9 in cave and is frozen by force After degree is greater than the rigid body of the mineral products ore body intensity, is tunneled again using the mechanical mining equipment 10 and exploit the two adjacent surprise Number, which adopts the even number between cave and adopts the odd number that cave or even number are adopted between cave, adopts cave, and adopts cave to the even number of rear exploitation or odd number is adopted Cave, which is also carried out, adopts-fills parallel operations, i.e., meets mining conditions to latter after the completion of previous even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave exploitation Even number adopt cave or while odd number adopts cave exploitation and meets packing job space requirement, adopted using charges 9 to even number has been adopted Cave or odd number are adopted cave and are successively filled;
Step 40, repeating said steps 20 and step 30 are finished and have been filled until whole linear types adopt the exploitation of cave 8 Finish, the exploitation of each ore bed is completed, to complete the exploitation that the open pit slope covers mineral products.
The above-mentioned exploitation new method of the present invention, according to shown in Fig. 8 by each ore bed along the tendency or trend of mineral resources It is divided into after several linear types adopt cave and number consecutively by setting width and height, can first exploit odd number as shown in Figure 9 and adopt Cave, and cave is adopted to the odd number exploited and is successively filled, then it is adopted in cave exploitation and stowing operation in odd number, charges are frozen into When rigid body can support the highwall, then successively exploitation odd number adopts the even number between cave charges and adopts cave, and it is same that dual numbers adopt cave Using adopting-filling parallel operations mode, i.e., while adopting cave in a mined out even number and exploit next even number and adopt cave, to previous Cave is adopted by mined out even number to be filled, so successively adopts-fills, and can be guaranteed while realization covers exploitation of mineral resources to highwall To the support strength of highwall, it is ensured that highwall does not occur and collapses and comes down, safety and reliability is high.
Equally, as shown in Figure 10, can also first exploit even number and adopt cave, at the same dual numbers adopt cave adopt-fill parallel operations Then mode is adopted cave to the even number exploited again and is successively filled and after charges solidification, then exploits even number and adopt between cave Odd number adopt cave, cave is adopted to odd number and equally adopts-fill parallel operations mode, so successively adopts-fills, equally can realize opposite side While side covers exploitation of mineral resources, guarantees the support strength to highwall, ensures not occur highwall collapsing and landslide, it equally can also be real Existing present invention purpose.
The exploitation open pit slope that the above embodiment of the present invention provides covers the new method of mineral products, overcomes the prior art Defect has the positive effect that:
1. because the end for adopting cave using linear type of the filling equipment from after exploiting gradually fills charges to cave mouth, and being compacted Charges and secondary filling charges, rather than the prior art punches filling on rock stratum, can make charges connect top rate and Compacting rate greatly improves, to improve the support strength to highwall, reduces the risk that highwall collapses and comes down;
2. because adopting cave using first exploitation odd number or even number adopts cave, object to be filled is frozen into after rigid body and exploits even number again and adopt Cave or odd number adopt cave, while the method for adopting-filling parallel operations, then not only increase the support strength to highwall, reduce Highwall is collapsed and the risk on landslide, and without retaining ore pillar, improving the rate of recovery that highwall covers mineral products, can make the side of opencut Side covers the rate of recovery nearly 100% of mineral products, to reduce surface mine production stripping ratio, extend surface mine service year It limits, reduces cultivated land occupancy and village migration, reduces the production that surface mine opens up quantity, realizes high-efficiency low-carbon environmental protection Journey promotes development of resources and Coordination Development Between Eco-environment;
3. because the rate of recovery that recovery method of the invention covers mineral products to open pit slope is high, substantially all has recycled highwall Under some easily ignition spontaneous combustions mineral resources, to reduce the pollution to atmosphere, environment;
4. recovery method of the invention, no mineral resources preservation thickness, preservation interlamellar spacing and the requirement at inclination angle, it is possible to increase this The use scope of invention recovery method;And recovery method of the present invention can exploit mineral products hardness can with mechanical mining equipment cut Cut the raising of hardness and improve, thus increase can exploit mineral resources range, further expansion recovery method of the present invention opens Adopt the type of opencut.
Preferably, one embodiment of the present of invention, the linear type adopt the height of cave 8 according to the mechanical mining equipment 10 mining height determines that as shown in figure 11, the width that the odd number adopts cave is determined according to following formula (1)-formula (3):
Q=q0+q1+q2+……+qn-1+qn (2)
q0=hr0, q1=h1r1, q2=h2r2……qn-1=hn-1rn-1, qn=hnrn (3)
Wherein, σtFor the tensile strength of the mineral products, h is the thickness of the direct rimrock layer of the ore bed, r0For direct rimrock The bulk density of layer, hiFor the thickness of i-th layer of main roof strata except direct rimrock layer, riFor i-th layer of old rimrock except direct rimrock layer The bulk density of layer, L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;λ is coefficient, depending on the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed, general value 0.6- 0.9, it gets the small value when the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed is smaller, takes large values when the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of ore bed is larger;
As shown in figure 12, the width that the even number adopts cave is determined according to following formula (4) formula:
Wherein, a is that even number adopts cave width;L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;M is the mining height for adopting cave;H is to adopt opening for cave Adopt depth;K is safety coefficient.
It determines odd number adopts cave and even number adopts cave width according to the method described above, can further standardize exploitation process, mention Height exploitation precision, to improve the reliability of production efficiency and exploitation.This be the determination odd number that applicant develops adopt cave and Even number adopts the preferred method of cave width.
Further, it is preferable that it is open pit slope bottom to away from opencut ore field that the linear type, which adopts the mining depth of cave, Distance within boundary at 20 meters.
Linear type adopts the end of cave as far as possible close to opencut ore field boundary, i.e., linear type adopt cave mining depth it is big as far as possible, The rate of recovery that highwall covers mineral products is then improved as much as possible, is recycled mineral resources to the maximum extent, is increased economic efficiency.
Preferably, another embodiment of the invention, when the seam thickness of the opencut is greater than the mechanization When the mining height of winning apparatus 10, as shown in figure 13, the ore bed is layered according to the mining height, from lower layer to Every layer of upper layer is exploited and is filled according to the step 10- step 40, and will adopt hole 5 before exploitation upper layer and fill and lead up to the layer.
Under the mining height of current existing machinery winning apparatus, when mineral resources thickness is less than 6.0m, cave height is adopted Degree takes mineral resources thickness;When mineral resources thickness is greater than 6.0m, is recycled using separate zone production, adopt the maximum mining height of cave 6.0m is taken, each layering is according to the successively filling mining of sequence from bottom to up.
The recovery method that the embodiment further provides, workable seam cover mineral products with a thickness of very thick highwall, thus It further increases highwall and covers the rate of recovery of mineral products and the scope of application of recovery method of the present invention.
Preferably, yet another embodiment of the present invention, as shown in fig. 7, the mechanical mining equipment 10 is with long-range Control, navigator fix, monitoring remote video Intelligentized mining equipment, the rear part overlap rubber conveyer 101.
It covers in mineral products removal process in highwall and is exploited using the intelligent exploitation of mineral resources equipment of high degree of automation Recycling realizes unmanned, safe production, greatly improves labor productivity and operational security, and the rear part overlaps glue The mineral products produced can be realized with linear type is adopted mechanization in cave and remotely conveyed with conveyer, convenient for exploiting the discharge of mineral products.
Preferably, another embodiment of the invention, the filling equipment have automatic walking mechanism and striker plate, it is described from Walking mechanism can make the filling equipment independently enter directive property to adopt in cave 8, and the striker plate can be such that charges 9 accumulate and be compacted The charges 9, and the secondary filling charges 9 can be carried out to the space vacated after being compacted the charges 9.
In the embodiment, using automatic walking mechanism to adopt cave carry out horizontal or tilting filling, can using striker plate Guarantee to adopt charges in cave connects top rate and compacting rate, to guarantee the intensity of filling, avoids the prior art on highwall top Portion's construction drill causes Mine Geological Disasters and the safety accidents such as highwall landslide, collapsing.
Preferably, another embodiment of the present invention, the charges 9 are the spoil removed using the opencut, built Building refuse or solid waste are handled together with cement, additive, the manufactured material that can be pumped by pipeline, and institute State the rigid body for being greater than exploitation mineral products ore body intensity after charges 9 solidify for intensity.
The present invention uses pump type filling process to fill, it can be achieved that filling, filling are convenient at a distance to cave is adopted;Filling material Material is mainly the mixture of surface mine removing spoil, building waste or solid waste and cement, additive, reduces this The discharge and accumulation of a little solid waste, not only save processing cost, and reduce it to generations such as big gas and water, soil Environmental pollution.
Further, it is preferable that the charges 9 are made in Filling Station, and the Filling Station can build the opencut in It adopts in hole 5 or in industrial sites.
It is filled using long distance pumping formula, and charges are made in Filling Station, then Filling Station addressing flexibly, conveniently, can Adaptation to local conditions improves the utilization efficiency in place.
In conclusion the exploitation open pit slope method that covers mineral products provided by the invention, can efficiently, safety, intelligence opens While adopting highwall and cover mineral products, guarantee the support strength to highwall, it is ensured that do not occur highwall and collapse and landslide accident, and highwall The rate of recovery for covering mineral products is high, overcomes the defect of the prior art, realizes the goal of the invention of this patent.
Below by taking the open coal mine of Ejin Horo Banner De Long mining industry Co., Ltd (former Ejin Horo Banner Wulan Coal Mine) as an example, It is illustrated to exploiting the open coal mine highwall using recovery method of the present invention and covering coal mine, to exploitation of the invention Method is further understood from:
The open coal mine of Ejin Horo Banner De Long mining industry Co., Ltd is located at Ordos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Yi Jinhuo Lip river flag Ulan Mulun town, there is many coal seams in the field with "nine squares" of the open coal mine, and the present embodiment selects the 3rd, No. 4 coal seam to be said It is bright.
After open coal mine mine is transferred, the 3rd, 4 layer of coal mine is inclined to or is moved towards along coal mine preservation in open coal mine highwall It is divided into several straight lines and adopts cave, and carry out number consecutively, number is that the cave of adopting of odd number is known as odd number and adopts cave, and whole odd numbers adopt cave Geometric dimension it is identical, number is that the cave of adopting of even number is known as even number and adopts cave, and the geometric dimension that whole even numbers adopt cave is identical.Wherein, The linear type adopts the width of cave, determines in accordance with the following methods:
1, odd number adopts the determination of cave width
According to geologic report, No. 3 coal seams are directly pushed up based on Sandy Silt in ore field, and depth of stratum h is 1.5~3.0m Between, tensile strength sigmatIt is 2300N/m3 for 4.34Mpa, bulk density r;Directly push up the depth of stratum based on fine sandstone in No. 4 coal seams H is between 2.0~3.0m, tensile strength sigmatIt is 2650N/m3 for 5.25Mpa, bulk density r;
According to formulaOdd number adopts the outstanding dew span i.e. width of the cave limit when available No. 3 coal seams and No. 4 seam minings L0:
No. 3 coal seams:
That is: 2.13≤L0≤3.05
No. 4 coal seams:
That is: 2.53≤L0≤3.10
According to above-mentioned calculating, No. 3 coal seam odd numbers adopt the width L of cave0Between 2.13m and 3.05m;No. 4 coal seam odd numbers Adopt the width L of cave0Between 2.53m and 3.10m.
2, even number adopts the determination of cave width
Even number adopts the width of cave according to being calculated as follows:
In formula: a-even number adopts cave width, m;
L0- odd number adopts cave width, and No. 3 coal seams take 3.05m, No. 4 coal seams to take 3.10m;
M-mining thickness, No. 3 coal seams take 4.25m, No. 4 coal seams to take 4.22mm;
H-adopts cave mining depth, and No. 3 coal seams take average 40m, No. 4 coals etc. to take average 80m;
K-safety coefficient, generally takes 0.5-0.8.
Then value and calculated result are as shown in the table:
3, No. 4 coal seam even numbers adopt cave width list
According to above-mentioned calculated result it is found that it is 3.05m that the odd number in No. 3 coal seams, which adopts cave width, even number adopts cave width and is 1.83m;It is 3.10m that the odd number in No. 4 coal seams, which adopts cave width, and it is 2.89m that even number, which adopts cave width,.
Each coal seam first tunnels 1# using highwall coalcutter and adopts cave to field with "nine squares" near border, after 1# adopts cave driving to field with "nine squares" boundary It exits and adopts highwall coalcutter in cave, close to 1# adopt cave in highwall and stay to set even number and adopt the 2# of cave size and adopt cave coal column opposite side hill start branch Support effect, while cave is adopted with the 1# 3# for adopting the identical size of cave close to staying the 2# set to adopt cave coal column driving on same extension direction; 3#, which adopts cave exploitation and completes backed off after random, adopts highwall coalcutter in cave, close to 3# adopts cave in highwall and stays to set even number and adopt the 4# of cave size and adopts Cave coal column, while cave is adopted with the 1# 5# for adopting the identical size of cave close to staying the 4# set to adopt cave coal column driving on same extension direction, And so on.
Meanwhile the interior or built-in Filling Station of industrial sites is cheated adopting, Filling Station utilizes the spoil or building of open coal mine removing Rubbish or municipal solid wastes, cement, additive pass through broken, stirring and are prepared into charges, and the filled pump of charges passes through pipe It adopts in cave through automatic traveling mechanism into mined out odd number and is successively filled in road.For guarantee adopt charges in cave connect top rate and Compacting rate, walking mechanism front installation automatic telescopic sealing filling baffle, obturation conveyance conduit is reserved in baffle middle and upper part Mouthful.Enter the filling piping for adopting cave by automatic walking mechanism, reserves charges delivery pipe road junction through baffle middle and upper part and enter gear Fill area is filled in front of pulpboard, after the completion of fill area filling is preliminary, squeeze for the first time to mention by baffle High charges connect top rate and compacting rate, carry out secondary filling after the completion of squeezing, until entire fill area is filled with and is compacted. When filling, adopt cave peripheral hardware remotely control, positioning system, security monitoring and video monitoring system.
It adopts each odd number in hole and adopts cave and adopt-fill parallel operations mode, is i.e. 1#, which is adopted, to be adopted cave in 3# after the completion of cave exploitation and exploit While cave adopted to 1# using above-mentioned charges fill, 1#, which is adopted, to be adopted cave to 3# after the completion of cave filling and fills, and 3# adopts cave Cave is adopted to 5# after the completion of filling to fill, and so on.
Meanwhile 5# adopt cave filling after the completion of 1#, 3# adopt cave filled completion about 2 months or so, charges are frozen into rigidity Body, with highwall coalcutter adopts cave to 1# at this time and 2# reserved in advance that 3# adopts between cave adopts cave and exploits, 1#, 3# adopt cave it Between 2# adopt cave exploitation after the completion of the 4# that adopts between cave of exploitation 3#, 5# adopt cave, and so on;Even number adopt cave also adopt-fill it is flat Row operation mode is adopted cave to 2# and is filled, 2# adopts cave and carries out filling completion that is, while adopting cave to 4# and exploiting Cave is adopted to 4# afterwards to fill, and so on.
The whole straight lines for finally completing No. 3 coal seams adopt the exploitation and filling of cave, and completion highwall covers No. 3 coal seams of coal mine Exploitation and recycling, and highwall remains intact, and does not influence other constructions and operation.
The highwall of same method, achievable No. 4 coal seams covers the exploitation and recycling of coal mine.
In this implementation, the rate of extraction less fills promotion 50%, and the rate of extraction reaches the 100% of the highwall amount of covering.After filling not Can recycle because of mineral products influences stability of slope, and earth's surface keeps original appearance and this method can exploit super high seam and multiple seam group, maximum The resource of waste is recycled to limit, and solves spontaneous fire hidden danger.Delay filling amount reaches (the every set equipment of coal mi ning quantity volume 85% Exploit work every year can filling waste rock up to 60~800,000 m3), to reach disposal of waste gas, water and industrial residue purpose, solid spoil is reduced to environment Influence and pollution to soil environment, realize real lasting exploit, play the purpose of Control of Hidden, have significant economical Benefit and social benefit.
The embodiment demonstrate again the exploitation opencut that provides of the present invention cover the new method of mineral products for safely, effectively, The high highwall of environmental protection, the rate of recovery covers exploitation of mineral resources method, overcomes many defects of the prior art, has good economic valence Value and social value.
In description of the invention, it is to be understood that term " on ", " in ", the orientation or positional relationships of the instructions such as "lower" To be based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings, be merely for convenience of description of the present invention and simplification of the description, rather than indicate or Imply that signified device or unit there must be specific direction, be constructed and operated in a specific orientation, it is thus impossible to be interpreted as Limitation of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, term " first ", " second ", " 1# ", " 2# " etc. are used for description purposes only, and cannot be managed Solution is indication or suggestion relative importance.Term " multiple " refers to two or more, unless otherwise restricted clearly.
In the present invention unless specifically defined or limited otherwise, term " installation ", " connected ", " connection ", " fixation " etc. Term shall be understood in a broad sense, for example, it may be being fixedly connected, may be a detachable connection, or be integrally connected;It can be machine Tool connection, is also possible to be electrically connected;It can be directly connected, two members can also be can be indirectly connected through an intermediary Connection inside part.For the ordinary skill in the art, above-mentioned term can be understood in this hair as the case may be Concrete meaning in bright.
In the description of this specification, the description of term " one embodiment ", " some embodiments ", " specific embodiment " etc. Mean that particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics described in conjunction with this embodiment or example are contained at least one reality of the invention It applies in example or example.In the present specification, schematic expression of the above terms are not necessarily referring to identical embodiment or reality Example.Moreover, description particular features, structures, materials, or characteristics can in any one or more of the embodiments or examples with Suitable mode combines.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not intended to restrict the invention, for the skill of this field For art personnel, the invention may be variously modified and varied.All within the spirits and principles of the present invention, made any to repair Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should all be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. the new method that a kind of exploitation open pit slope covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: the hardness of the mineral products is less than mechanization Winning apparatus cutting hardness, comprising the following steps:
Step 10, the open pit slope is covered to each ore beds of mineral products along the tendency of mineral resources or trend by setting width It is highly divided into several linear types and adopts cave, and number consecutively, number is that the cave of adopting of odd number is known as odd number and adopts cave, whole odd numbers The geometric dimension for adopting cave is identical, and number is that the cave of adopting of even number is known as even number and adopts cave, and the geometric dimension that whole even numbers adopt cave is identical;
Step 20, exploit the linear type using mechanical mining equipment driving and adopt cave, first driving exploitation odd number adopt cave or Person's even number adopts cave, and each odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted and retains that even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave as ore pillar, to institute between cave Highwall is stated to play a supportive role;And cave adopted to the odd number or even number adopts cave implementation and adopts-fill parallel operations, i.e., cave is adopted in previous odd number Or even number is adopted after the completion of cave exploitation and adopts cave to latter odd number or even number adopts cave exploitation and meets the same of packing job space requirement When, using charges, to having adopted, odd number adopts cave or even number is adopted cave and successively filled;
Step 30, during step 20, when to be frozen into intensity big for the charges that two adjacent odds adopt cave or even number is adopted in cave After the rigid body of the mineral products ore body intensity, using the mechanical mining equipment again tunnel exploit two adjacent odd adopt cave Or even number adopts that the even number between cave adopts cave or odd number adopts cave, and adopts cave to the even number of rear exploitation or odd number is adopted cave and also carried out and adopts-fill Parallel operations adopt cave or surprise to the latter even number for meeting mining conditions after the completion of previous even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave exploitation While number adopts cave exploitation and meets packing job space requirement, using charges, to having adopted, even number adopts cave or odd number adopts cave successively Filling;
Step 40, repeating said steps 20 and step 30, until whole linear types are adopted, cave exploitation is finished and filling finishes, complete At the exploitation of each ore bed, to complete the exploitation that the open pit slope covers mineral products;
Wherein, the filling refers to that the end for adopting cave using the linear type of the filling equipment from after exploiting gradually is filled out to cave mouth Fill the charges, and be compacted the charges and the secondary filling charges so that the charges be frozen into it is described just After property body connect top rate and compacting rate meets design requirement.
2. the new method that exploitation open pit slope according to claim 1 covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: the linear type The height for adopting cave determines that the odd number adopts the width of cave according to following formula according to the mining height of the mechanical mining equipment (1)-formula (3) determines:
Q=q0+q1+q2+……+qn-1+qn (2)
q0=hr0, q1=h1r1, q2=h2r2……qn-1=hn-1rn-1, qn=hnrn (3)
Wherein, σtFor the tensile strength of the mineral products, h is the thickness of the direct rimrock layer of the ore bed, r0For the direct rimrock The bulk density of layer, hiFor the thickness of i-th layer of main roof strata except the direct rimrock layer, riIt is i-th layer except the direct rimrock layer The bulk density of main roof strata, L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;λ is coefficient, according to the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of the ore bed Depending on, general value 0.6-0.9 gets the small value when the intensity of the direct rimrock layer of the ore bed is smaller, when the ore bed The direct rimrock layer intensity it is larger when take large values;
The width that the even number adopts cave is determined according to following formula (4) formula:
Wherein, a is that even number adopts cave width;L0The width of cave is adopted for odd number;M is the mining height that linear type adopts cave;H is linear type Adopt the mining depth of cave;K is safety coefficient.
3. exploitation open pit slope according to claim 2 covers the new method of mineral products, it is characterised in that: the linear type The mining depth for adopting cave is the open pit slope bottom to away from the distance at 20 meters within opencut ore field boundary.
4. the new method that exploitation open pit slope according to claim 3 covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: when described outdoor When the seam thickness of mine is greater than the mining height of the mechanical mining equipment, to the ore bed according to the mining height It is layered, is exploited and filled according to the step 10- step 40 for every layer from lower layer to upper layer, and will be adopted before exploiting upper layer Hole is filled and led up to the layer.
5. the method that exploitation open pit slope covers mineral products described in any one of -4 according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: institute Stating mechanical mining equipment is the Intelligentized mining equipment with long-range control, navigator fix, monitoring remote video, and the rear part is taken Connect rubber conveyer.
6. the new method that exploitation open pit slope according to claim 5 covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: the filling is set Standby to have automatic walking mechanism and striker plate, the automatic walking mechanism can make the filling equipment independently adopt cave into the linear type Interior, the striker plate can be such that the charges accumulate and be compacted the charges, and being compacted after the charges can be to vacating Space carries out the secondary filling charges.
7. the new method that exploitation open pit slope according to claim 6 covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: the charges To be handled together with cement, additive using spoil, building waste or the solid waste of opencut removing, make At can by pipeline pump material, and the charges solidification after for intensity be greater than the mineral products ore body intensity it is described just Property body.
8. the new method that exploitation open pit slope according to claim 7 covers mineral products, it is characterised in that: the charges It is made in Filling Station, the Filling Station can build adopting for the opencut in and cheat in interior or industrial sites.
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