CN108775585B - Waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system - Google Patents

Waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108775585B
CN108775585B CN201810724091.1A CN201810724091A CN108775585B CN 108775585 B CN108775585 B CN 108775585B CN 201810724091 A CN201810724091 A CN 201810724091A CN 108775585 B CN108775585 B CN 108775585B
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temperature
flue gas
waste
air
melting
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CN108775585A (en
Inventor
周春光
张庆麟
严圣军
陈竹
李军
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Aplas Ltd
Jiangsu Tianying Environmental Protection Energy Equipment Co Ltd
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Aplas Ltd
Jiangsu Tianying Environmental Protection Energy Equipment Co Ltd
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/02Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment
    • F23G5/027Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor with pretreatment pyrolising or gasifying stage
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J1/00Removing ash, clinker, or slag from combustion chambers
    • F23J1/08Liquid slag removal
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/02Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material
    • F23J15/04Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of purifiers, e.g. for removing noxious material using washing fluids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/30Pyrolysing
    • F23G2201/302Treating pyrosolids
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2201/00Pretreatment
    • F23G2201/40Gasification
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2202/00Combustion
    • F23G2202/20Combustion to temperatures melting waste
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2206/00Waste heat recuperation
    • F23G2206/10Waste heat recuperation reintroducing the heat in the same process, e.g. for predrying
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/10Intercepting solids by filters
    • F23J2217/102Intercepting solids by filters electrostatic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2217/00Intercepting solids
    • F23J2217/50Intercepting solids by cleaning fluids (washers or scrubbers)
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J2700/00Ash removal, handling and treatment means; Ash and slag handling in pulverulent fuel furnaces; Ash removal means for incinerators
    • F23J2700/003Ash removal means for incinerators

Abstract

The invention discloses a waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system, which comprises a waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device, a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device and a flue gas purification treatment device, wherein the waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting device is connected with the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device; the outlet of the waste high-temperature gasification melting combustion device is communicated with a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device, and the outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device is communicated with a flue gas purification treatment device. The waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device comprises a waste feeding system, a high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, a plasma ash melting furnace, a high-temperature cyclone dust collector and a synthesis gas combustion chamber; the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device comprises a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device and a waste heat boiler; the flue gas purification treatment device comprises a deacidification reactor, a bag-type dust collector, an advanced oxidation chamber, a temperature reduction tower and a wet electrostatic dust collector. The invention greatly improves the energy efficiency of the system and saves the waste disposal cost.

Description

Waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system
Technical Field
The invention is mainly applied to the technical field of environmental protection and the field of disposal of wastes such as medical wastes, hazardous wastes and the like, and particularly relates to a high-energy utilization efficiency, high-efficiency and clean waste gasification treatment system and a treatment method.
Background
The incineration treatment of waste is generally adopted in industry, but the concentration of pollutants in combustion smoke and bottom slag is higher and more kinds are generated in the incineration treatment of hazardous waste such as medical waste, industrial waste liquid and waste slag because the hazardous waste has higher specific gravity than common waste such as domestic waste and the like, namely PVC or benzene ring structural substances. For example, the concentration of hydrogen chloride in the untreated flue gas generated by the incineration of medical wastes can be as high as 7000mg/Nm3, and the concentration of dioxin is one to two orders of magnitude higher than that generated by the incineration of household wastes.
Therefore, different process designs and pollutant removal technologies are needed for the treatment of hazardous waste such as medical waste. For example, after the hazardous waste is incinerated in the rotary kiln for the first time, secondary combustion needs to be carried out in a combustion chamber at the downstream, and the temperature of the secondary combustion needs to be controlled to be more than 1100 ℃, so that the dioxin pollutants can be effectively removed. For wastes with lower heat value or larger fluctuation, auxiliary energy sources need to be provided by means of a burner and a plasma torch in order to reach the temperature in the furnace of 1100-1200 ℃. In addition, solid by-products such as bottom ash and fly ash generated by incineration are also widely treated by a plasma torch melting technology.
The pollutant removal technology is realized by providing auxiliary energy, and if the energy is not efficiently recycled in the flue gas post-treatment system, the energy efficiency of the system is reduced, and the technical economy is greatly influenced. The high-temperature flue gas after incineration is subjected to steam generation by a waste heat boiler, and the steam can be used for steam turbine power generation or industrial systems such as printing and dyeing factories and the like. However, due to the extremely strong corrosion of the waste incineration flue gas on the boiler pipeline, the power generation efficiency of the steam system is far lower than that of a coal or gas turbine power generation system. The waste treatment system is difficult to reach the scale of the systems of domestic garbage, coal and the like, so that waste flue gas is not adopted for preheating and power generation in industry, and low-pressure and low-temperature steam is produced for supplying other industrial requirements. At present, the industrial hazardous waste treatment process system does not solve the problems of low energy efficiency of the system and overlarge electric energy consumption of high-grade energy.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a novel waste gasification combustion melting system based on high-temperature heat accumulation type flue gas heat recycling, aiming at the problems of high energy consumption and low efficiency of a traditional waste incineration system after comprehensive consideration of efficient removal of pollutant byproducts, so that the energy efficiency is remarkably improved while the pollutants are efficiently treated in the waste treatment process.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system comprises a waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device, a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device and a flue gas purification treatment device; the outlet of the waste high-temperature gasification melting combustion device is communicated with a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device, and the outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device is communicated with a flue gas purification treatment device.
Furthermore, the waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device comprises a waste feeding system, a high-temperature air/steam gasification furnace, a plasma ash melting furnace, a high-temperature cyclone dust collector and a synthesis gas combustion chamber; the waste feeding system is arranged above the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, and wastes are put into the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace; the plasma ash melting furnace is connected with the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and is used for melting ash fly generated by the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace; the bottom of the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a glass melting ash outlet; the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace is provided with a synthesis gas outlet; the synthesis gas outlet is connected with the high-temperature cyclone dust collector and the synthesis gas combustion chamber in sequence; the bottom of the high-temperature cyclone dust collector is provided with a dust outlet; the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a cyclone dust collector ash inlet; the dust discharge port is connected with the dust inlet of the cyclone dust collector.
Further, the high-temperature air/steam gasification furnace and the plasma ash melting furnace may be of an upper-lower integrated structure or a separate structure.
Further, the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a plasma torch and a high-power burner.
Further, the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device comprises a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device and a waste heat boiler; and a flue gas outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat accumulation type flue gas heat recycling device is connected with a waste heat boiler.
Further, the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device comprises a device body; more than two operation chambers are arranged in the device body; the lower part of each operation chamber is provided with a high-temperature dust removal device, and the upper part of each operation chamber is provided with a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator; the lower part of the device body is provided with a high-temperature flue gas inlet, and the bottom of the device body is provided with a high-temperature air/water vapor outlet; the upper part of the device body is provided with a low-temperature flue gas outlet, and the top of the device body is provided with an air supply inlet and a low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet; the high-temperature flue gas inlet is connected with the combustion chamber; the high-temperature air/water vapor outlet is connected with the plasma ash melting furnace; the low-temperature flue gas outlet is connected with a waste heat boiler; the air supply inlet is connected with an air supply fan; the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet is connected with the waste heat boiler; one of the two operation chambers is used for removing the smoke particulate dust and cooling the high-temperature smoke, the other operation chamber is used for preheating air and water vapor, and the preheated air and water vapor purge the high-temperature dust removal device to remove the deposited dust.
Furthermore, the airflow media of the high-temperature flue gas inlet, the low-temperature flue gas outlet, the air supply inlet and the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet are switched by a high-temperature end reversing valve and a low-temperature end reversing valve to be adjusted; a high temperature end reversing valve and a low temperature end reversing valve; switching to a flue gas passage state, allowing high-temperature flue gas to enter and sequentially pass through a high-temperature dust removal device and a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, and discharging the flue gas from a low-temperature flue gas outlet; the reversing valve is switched to an air/steam passage, and air and low-pressure low-temperature steam sequentially pass through the high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator and the high-temperature dust removal device and are discharged from the high-temperature air/steam outlet.
Further, the waste heat boiler is a fire tube boiler and is used for realizing rapid quenching of the flue gas in the temperature range of 450-250 ℃ and generating low-pressure low-temperature steam at the same time.
Further, the flue gas purification treatment device comprises a deacidification reactor, a bag-type dust collector, an advanced oxidation chamber, a temperature reduction tower, a wet electrostatic dust collector, a demister, a deacidification reactor, a bag-type dust collector, a temperature reduction tower and a wet electrostatic dust collector which are sequentially connected; the wet electrostatic dust collector is connected with the chimney through the induced draft fan; the bottom of the bag-type dust collector is connected with the plasma ash melting furnace, and the fly ash collected at the bottom of the bag-type dust collector is input into the plasma ash melting furnace for melting.
The invention relates to a waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting method, which comprises the following steps:
1) feeding waste from the top of a high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace through a waste feeding system, fully contacting and reacting the waste with a high-temperature air/water vapor gasifying agent in the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, wherein the gasification temperature of a material layer is over 1000 ℃, the outlet temperature of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace is over 800 ℃, high-quality synthetic gas with low tar content is generated in the furnace and is discharged from the top, and other incombustible residues are discharged from the bottom of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and enter a plasma ash melting furnace; carrying out melting conversion on harmless glass bodies;
2) the synthesis gas generated in the step 1) enters a combustion chamber after being dedusted in a high-temperature cyclone dust collector, the combustion temperature of the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 1100 ℃, the air and the synthesis gas are fully mixed through reasonable air distribution, and the retention time of flue gas in the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 2 s; the residue in the high-temperature cyclone dust collector enters a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
3) the high-temperature flue gas generated in the step 2) is further dedusted in the flue gas high-temperature dedusting device, and is cooled by a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, the heat of the flue gas is stored in a heat accumulating material, and the cooled flue gas enters a waste heat boiler for further cooling to generate low-pressure and low-temperature steam;
4) the cooled flue gas in 3) enters a deacidification reactor to react with an acid gas absorbent for deacidification, and the absorbent and fly ash are removed by a bag-type dust collector; fly ash collected by the bag-type dust collector into a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
5) removing dioxin, sulfide or other pollutants from the purified flue gas in the advanced oxidation chamber, then washing the flue gas by alkali liquor in a temperature reduction tower for cooling, and capturing residual pollutants by a wet electrostatic dust collector to realize deep purification of the flue gas;
6) introducing the low-temperature and low-pressure steam generated in the step 3) into a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator to preheat to high temperature, back flushing and cleaning a high-temperature dust removal device, partially entering a plasma ash melting furnace, and partially directly entering a high-temperature air steam gasification furnace; the carried ash particles and the fly ash bottom ash are melted in a plasma melting furnace and converted into harmless vitreous slag;
7) the high-temperature air/water vapor in the step 5) is preheated to a higher temperature in the plasma melting furnace and enters the gasification furnace from the bottom of the gasification furnace to participate in gasification reaction.
The invention adopts a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization system to realize flue gas cooling, preheats the recovered heat and produces high-temperature air/steam gasification agent, thereby improving the overall energy efficiency of the system.
The invention adopts a plasma high-temperature gasification combustion melting system to realize the high-efficiency gasification of wastes, the low-pollution combustion of synthesis gas and the plasma melting harmless treatment of bottom ash and fly ash. For the conventional wastes such as household garbage, the post-treatment system can meet the requirements by adopting a deacidification reactor and a bag-type dust remover. For hazardous wastes containing high chlorine, a wet deacidification process is combined to deeply remove acidic components such as HCl and the like.
Has the advantages that: the invention adopts a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization system and a plasma high-temperature gasification combustion melting system, obtains a high-temperature steam air gasifying agent by recovering high-temperature flue gas waste heat for preheating, realizes high-temperature air/steam gasification, and has high material gasification efficiency; due to sensible heat carried by the high-temperature gasifying agent, the air quantity required by gasification is reduced, the heat value of the synthetic gas is increased, and the tar content is reduced; in addition, the high-efficiency utilization of energy also reduces the requirement on auxiliary fuel in the plasma ash melting furnace and the catalytic combustion process of the synthesis gas, and improves the energy efficiency of the system; the distribution of the gasifying agent and the temperature in the furnace is uniform in the high-temperature air/steam gasification process, and the generation of pollutants such as dioxin is greatly inhibited.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments are briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments described in the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art that other drawings can be obtained according to these drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a waste high temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural view of a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention will be clearly and completely described by the following detailed description.
As shown in fig. 1, the waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of the present invention comprises a waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device, a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and residual heat utilization device and a flue gas purification treatment device; the outlet of the waste high-temperature gasification melting combustion device is communicated with a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device, and the outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device is communicated with a flue gas purification treatment device.
The waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device comprises a waste feeding system (comprising a feeding machine 4, a hopper and a crushing feeding device 3), a high-temperature air/steam gasification furnace 1, a plasma ash melting furnace 2, a high-temperature cyclone dust collector 5, a synthetic gas combustion chamber 6 and a combustion chamber fan 14, wherein the combustion chamber fan 14 is connected with the waste feeding system. The waste feeding system of the invention is arranged above the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, and wastes are put into the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace 1; the plasma ash melting furnace 2 is connected with the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace 1 and is used for melting ash fly generated by the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace. The high-temperature air/steam gasification furnace 1 and the plasma ash melting furnace 2 may be of an upper and lower integrated structure or a separate structure. The plasma ash melting furnace 2 is equipped with a plasma torch and a high-power burner. The bottom of the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a glass melting ash outlet 21, a cyclone dust collector ash inlet 20, a high-temperature air/steam inlet 53, a flue gas high-temperature dust collection dust inlet 24 and a bag-type dust collector fly ash inlet 25; the ash inlet 20 of the cyclone dust collector, the high-temperature air/water vapor inlet 53, the flue gas high-temperature dust-removing dust inlet 24 and the fly ash inlet 25 of the bag-type dust collector are respectively connected with the cyclone dust collector, the heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling device high-temperature air/water vapor outlet 23, the heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling device high-temperature air/water vapor ash-blowing outlet and the bag-type dust collector.
A synthesis gas outlet is arranged on the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace; the synthesis gas outlet is connected with the high-temperature cyclone dust collector 5 and the synthesis gas combustion chamber 6 in sequence;
the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device comprises a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device 7 and a waste heat boiler 8. The flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device comprises a device body; more than two operation chambers are arranged in the device body; the lower part of each operation chamber is provided with a high-temperature dust removal device 34 and 43, and the upper part is provided with a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator 35 and 42; the lower part of the device body is provided with a high-temperature flue gas inlet 37, and the bottom of the device body is provided with a high-temperature air/water vapor outlet 39; the upper part of the device body is provided with a low-temperature flue gas outlet 36, and the top part of the device body is provided with an air supply inlet 40 and a low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet 38; the high-temperature flue gas inlet 37 is connected with the combustion chamber; the high-temperature air/water vapor outlet 39 and the dust outlet are connected with the high-temperature air/water vapor inlet 23 and the flue gas high-temperature dust removal dust inlet 24 of the plasma ash melting furnace; the low-temperature flue gas outlet 36 is connected with the waste heat boiler 8; the air supply inlet 40 is connected with the air supply fan 15; the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet 38 is connected with the waste heat boiler 8; one of the two operation chambers is used for removing the smoke particulate dust and cooling the high-temperature smoke, the other operation chamber is used for preheating air and water vapor, and the preheated air and water vapor purge the high-temperature dust removal device to remove the deposited dust. The two operation chambers realize alternate cycle work.
The airflow media of the high-temperature flue gas inlet 37, the low-temperature flue gas outlet 36, the air supply inlet 40 and the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet 38 of the invention are switched and adjusted through the high-temperature end reversing valves 31 and 32 and the low-temperature end reversing valves 30 and 33; direction change valves 32 and 33; switching to a flue gas passage state, allowing high-temperature flue gas to enter and sequentially pass through a high-temperature dust removal device and a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, and discharging the flue gas from a low-temperature flue gas outlet 36; the reversing valve is switched to an air/steam passage, and air and low-pressure low-temperature steam sequentially pass through the high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator and the high-temperature dust removal device and are discharged from the high-temperature air/steam outlet 39. After a certain operating time, the switching valves 32 and 33 are switched to the air/water vapor passage state and the switching valves 30 and 31 are switched to the smoke passage state, and thus the switching is performed for continuous operation. The waste heat boiler is a fire tube boiler, and is fed with deionized water 29 for realizing rapid quenching of flue gas in a temperature range of 450-250 ℃ and generating low-pressure low-temperature steam.
The flue gas purification treatment device comprises a deacidification reactor 9, a bag-type dust remover 10, an advanced oxidation chamber 51, a temperature reduction tower 22 and a wet electrostatic dust collector 12; the deacidification reactor 9, the bag-type dust collector 10, the desuperheating tower 22, the wet electrostatic precipitator 12 and the demister 52 are connected in sequence; the wet electrostatic dust collector 12 is connected with a chimney 13 through an induced draft fan 16; the deacidification reactor is a dry reactor. The bottom of the bag-type dust collector 10 is connected with a plasma ash melting furnace, and fly ash collected at the bottom of the bag-type dust collector is input into the plasma ash melting furnace for melting. The advanced oxidation chamber 51 may generate an oxidizing agent by low-temperature plasma, or may directly introduce an oxidizing agent such as ozone or hydrogen peroxide. The temperature reduction tower adopts alkali liquor circulation, and the alkali liquor is NaOH solution with a certain concentration.
The invention relates to a waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting method, which comprises the following steps:
1) feeding waste from the top of a high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace through a waste feeding system, fully contacting and reacting the waste with a high-temperature air/water vapor gasifying agent in the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, wherein the gasification temperature of a material layer is over 1000 ℃, the outlet temperature of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace is over 800 ℃, high-quality synthetic gas with low tar content is generated in the furnace and is discharged from the top, and other incombustible residues are discharged from the bottom of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and enter a plasma ash melting furnace; carrying out melting conversion on harmless glass bodies;
2) the synthesis gas generated in the step 1) enters a combustion chamber after being dedusted in a high-temperature cyclone dust collector, the combustion temperature of the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 1100 ℃, the air and the synthesis gas are fully mixed through reasonable air distribution, and the retention time of flue gas in the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 2 s; the residue in the high-temperature cyclone dust collector enters a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
3) the high-temperature flue gas generated in the step 2) is further dedusted in the flue gas high-temperature dedusting device, and is cooled by a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, the heat of the flue gas is stored in a heat accumulating material, and the cooled flue gas enters a waste heat boiler for further cooling to generate low-pressure and low-temperature steam;
4) the cooled flue gas in 3) enters a deacidification reactor to react with an acid gas absorbent for deacidification, and the absorbent and fly ash are removed by a bag-type dust collector; fly ash collected by the bag-type dust collector into a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
5) removing dioxin, sulfide or other pollutants from the purified flue gas in the advanced oxidation chamber, then washing the flue gas by alkali liquor in a temperature reduction tower for cooling, and capturing residual pollutants by a wet electrostatic dust collector to realize deep purification of the flue gas;
6) introducing the low-temperature and low-pressure steam generated in the step 3) into a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator to preheat to high temperature, back flushing and cleaning a high-temperature dust removal device, partially entering a plasma ash melting furnace, and partially directly entering a high-temperature air steam gasification furnace; the carried ash particles and the fly ash bottom ash are melted in a plasma melting furnace and converted into harmless vitreous slag;
7) the high-temperature air/water vapor in the step 5) is preheated to a higher temperature in the plasma melting furnace and enters the gasification furnace from the bottom of the gasification furnace to participate in gasification reaction.
The above-mentioned embodiments are merely descriptions of the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and do not limit the concept and scope of the present invention, and various modifications and improvements made to the technical solutions of the present invention by those skilled in the art should fall into the protection scope of the present invention without departing from the design concept of the present invention, and the technical contents of the present invention as claimed are all described in the technical claims.

Claims (6)

1. A waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system is characterized in that: comprises a waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device, a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device and a flue gas purification treatment device; the outlet of the waste high-temperature gasification melting combustion device is communicated with a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device, and the outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device is communicated with a flue gas purification treatment device;
the waste high-temperature gasification combustion melting device comprises a waste feeding system, a high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, a plasma ash melting furnace, a high-temperature cyclone dust collector and a synthesis gas combustion chamber; the waste feeding system is arranged above the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, and wastes are put into the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace; the plasma ash melting furnace is connected with the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and is used for melting ash fly generated by the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace; the bottom of the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a glass melting ash outlet; the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace is provided with a synthesis gas outlet; the synthesis gas outlet is connected with the high-temperature cyclone dust collector and the synthesis gas combustion chamber in sequence; the bottom of the high-temperature cyclone dust collector is provided with a dust outlet; the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a cyclone dust collector ash inlet; the dust discharge port is connected with the dust inlet of the cyclone dust collector;
the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and waste heat utilization device comprises a flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device and a waste heat boiler; the flue gas outlet of the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat accumulation type flue gas heat recycling device is connected with a waste heat boiler;
the flue gas high-temperature dust removal and heat storage type flue gas heat recycling device comprises a device body; more than two operation chambers are arranged in the device body; the lower part of each operation chamber is provided with a high-temperature dust removal device, and the upper part of each operation chamber is provided with a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator; the lower part of the device body is provided with a high-temperature flue gas inlet, and the bottom of the device body is provided with a high-temperature air/water vapor outlet; the upper part of the device body is provided with a low-temperature flue gas outlet, and the top of the device body is provided with an air supply inlet and a low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet; the high-temperature flue gas inlet is connected with the combustion chamber; the high-temperature air/water vapor outlet is connected with the plasma ash melting furnace; the low-temperature flue gas outlet is connected with a waste heat boiler; the air supply inlet is connected with an air supply fan; the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet is connected with the waste heat boiler; one of the two operation chambers is used for removing the particulate dust in the flue gas and cooling the high-temperature flue gas, the other operation chamber is used for preheating air and water vapor, and the preheated air and water vapor purge the high-temperature dust removal device to remove the deposited dust;
the airflow media of the high-temperature flue gas inlet, the low-temperature flue gas outlet, the air supply inlet and the low-pressure low-temperature steam inlet are switched by the high-temperature end reversing valve and the low-temperature end reversing valve to be adjusted; a high temperature end reversing valve and a low temperature end reversing valve; switching to a flue gas passage state, allowing high-temperature flue gas to enter and sequentially pass through a high-temperature dust removal device and a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, and discharging the flue gas from a low-temperature flue gas outlet; the reversing valve is switched to an air/steam passage, and air and low-pressure low-temperature steam sequentially pass through the high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator and the high-temperature dust removal device and are discharged from the high-temperature air/steam outlet.
2. The waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of claim 1, wherein: the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and the plasma ash melting furnace can be of an upper-lower integrated structure or a separated structure.
3. A waste high temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein: the plasma ash melting furnace is provided with a plasma torch and a high-power burner.
4. The waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of claim 1, wherein: the waste heat boiler is a fire tube boiler and is used for realizing rapid quenching of smoke in a temperature range of 450-250 ℃ and generating low-pressure low-temperature steam.
5. The waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of claim 1, wherein: the flue gas purification treatment device comprises a deacidification reactor, a bag-type dust collector, an advanced oxidation chamber, a temperature reduction tower, a wet electrostatic dust collector, a demister, the deacidification reactor, the bag-type dust collector, the temperature reduction tower and the wet electrostatic dust collector which are sequentially connected; the wet electrostatic dust collector is connected with the chimney through the induced draft fan; the bottom of the bag-type dust collector is connected with the plasma ash melting furnace, and the fly ash collected at the bottom of the bag-type dust collector is input into the plasma ash melting furnace for melting.
6. The waste high-temperature air/steam gasification combustion melting system of claim 1, wherein: the combustion melting process comprises the following steps:
1) feeding waste from the top of a high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace through a waste feeding system, fully contacting and reacting the waste with a high-temperature air/water vapor gasifying agent in the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace, wherein the gasification temperature of a material layer is over 1000 ℃, the outlet temperature of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace is over 800 ℃, high-quality synthetic gas with low tar content is generated in the furnace and is discharged from the top, and other incombustible residues are discharged from the bottom of the high-temperature air/water vapor gasification furnace and enter a plasma ash melting furnace; carrying out melting conversion on harmless glass bodies;
2) the synthesis gas generated in the step 1) enters a combustion chamber after being dedusted in a high-temperature cyclone dust collector, the combustion temperature of the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 1100 ℃, the air and the synthesis gas are fully mixed through reasonable air distribution, and the retention time of flue gas in the combustion chamber is controlled to be more than 2 s; the residue in the high-temperature cyclone dust collector enters a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
3) the high-temperature flue gas generated in the step 2) is further dedusted in the flue gas high-temperature dedusting device, and is cooled by a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator, the heat of the flue gas is stored in a heat accumulating material, and the cooled flue gas enters a waste heat boiler for further cooling to generate low-pressure and low-temperature steam;
4) the cooled flue gas in 3) enters a deacidification reactor to react with an acid gas absorbent for deacidification, and the absorbent and fly ash are removed by a bag-type dust collector; fly ash collected by the bag-type dust collector into a plasma ash melting furnace for melting and converting harmless glass bodies;
5) removing dioxin, sulfide or other pollutants from the purified flue gas in the advanced oxidation chamber, then washing the flue gas by alkali liquor in a temperature reduction tower for cooling, and capturing residual pollutants by a wet electrostatic dust collector to realize deep purification of the flue gas;
6) introducing the low-temperature and low-pressure steam generated in the step 3) into a high-temperature heat accumulating type flue gas heat recycling heat accumulator to preheat to high temperature, back flushing and cleaning a high-temperature dust removal device, partially entering a plasma ash melting furnace, and partially directly entering a high-temperature air steam gasification furnace; the carried ash particles and the fly ash bottom ash are melted in a plasma melting furnace and converted into harmless vitreous slag;
7) the high-temperature air/water vapor in the step 5) is preheated to a higher temperature in the plasma melting furnace and enters the gasification furnace from the bottom of the gasification furnace to participate in gasification reaction.
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