CN108623246B - Frost-resistant concrete and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Frost-resistant concrete and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108623246B
CN108623246B CN201710183310.5A CN201710183310A CN108623246B CN 108623246 B CN108623246 B CN 108623246B CN 201710183310 A CN201710183310 A CN 201710183310A CN 108623246 B CN108623246 B CN 108623246B
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parts
concrete
chitosan
acrylic acid
water
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CN108623246A (en
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李存宏
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Beijing City Xiaohongmen Concrete LLC
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Beijing City Xiaohongmen Concrete LLC
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/04Portland cements
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/76Use at unusual temperatures, e.g. sub-zero
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2201/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values
    • C04B2201/50Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values for the mechanical strength

Abstract

The invention relates to antifreeze concrete which comprises the following components in parts by weight: cement 275-285 parts; 30-40 parts of mineral powder; 30-40 parts of fly ash; 735 and 740 parts of sand; 1100 portions of pebbles and 1110 portions; 8-9 parts of an additive; 40-45 parts of an expanding agent; 145 portions of water and 150 portions of water; the admixture comprises vermiculite, polysiloxane binder and water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 2:5: 4. And the expansion agent and the water reducing agent grafted with the fibers are added, so that cracks of the concrete caused by temperature difference are reduced.

Description

Frost-resistant concrete and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to antifreezing concrete for alpine regions and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Most areas in China belong to severe cold regions, and the requirement on the frost resistance of buildings is high. Under the conditions of severe cold and extreme temperature difference, the internal and external contraction of the conventional concrete is inconsistent, so that the internal stress of the concrete is increased, and cracks are generated.
In order to improve the frost resistance of concrete, an expanding agent is generally added to the concrete, and the expansion property of the expanding agent is relied on to counteract the cracks of the concrete caused by shrinkage. However, in the later stage of concrete curing, fine cracks still can be generated inside concrete due to large temperature difference between the inside and the outside in severe cold areas, and the internal cracks gradually increase along with continuous freezing and melting, so that the strength of the whole concrete construction building is influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide antifreezing concrete and a preparation method thereof.
The above object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions: the antifreeze concrete comprises the following components in parts by weight: cement 275-285 parts; 30-40 parts of mineral powder; 30-40 parts of fly ash; 735 and 740 parts of sand; 1100 portions of pebbles and 1110 portions; 8-9 parts of an additive; 40-45 parts of an expanding agent; 145 portions of water and 150 portions of water; the admixture comprises vermiculite, polysiloxane binder and water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 2:5: 4.
By adopting the technical scheme, the sand and the stones are used as basic lapping frameworks of the concrete, the quantity of the stones is large, and the sand is filled in gaps among the stones and forms the basic lapping frameworks of the concrete with the stones. After the cement, the mineral powder and the fly ash are dissolved in water, viscous slurry is formed, and the slurry is wrapped outside the lapping frameworks to enhance the bonding effect between the lapping frameworks, so that the strength of the concrete basic framework is improved. The expanding agent is added into the concrete, and micro-expansion occurs in the early hydration process of the concrete, so that the effect of shrinkage compensation is achieved, and shrinkage cracks of the concrete are prevented.
In addition, the admixture comprises vermiculite, polysiloxane binder and water reducing agent. The vermiculite has larger specific surface area and can absorb more water. The polysiloxane binder can improve the binding property between the concrete lapped frameworks and the slurry, and the water reducing agent added into the concrete can further reduce the using amount of water and increase the binding strength between the lapped frameworks.
Further, the water reducing agent comprises chitosan composite fiber and an acrylic acid water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 1: 1.
By adopting the technical scheme, the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are compounded to be used as the water reducing agent. Wherein the chitosan composite fiber has strong water retention property and bonding property. The chitosan composite fiber is filled between the concrete lapping aggregates, so that the bonding strength of the whole concrete can be improved, and the crack expansion can be prevented in the concrete freeze-thawing process. The cross-linked network structure has good water absorption and retention capacity, and prevents concrete from segregation and delamination. The chitosan and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are compounded, when the chitosan and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are mixed with other aggregates and slurry in concrete, the chitosan and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are filled in an interface transition area of stones and sand, a network hydration structure is formed by the chitosan and the acrylic acid water reducing agent, and the concrete is more compact.
Further, the viscosity of the silicone binder was 80mPa · s.
By adopting the technical scheme, the polysiloxane adhesive with the viscosity of 80 mPas is used, so that the polysiloxane adhesive has good adhesive property with the lapping aggregate in the concrete, if the viscosity is too low, a good adhesive effect cannot be achieved, and if the viscosity is too high, the polysiloxane adhesive is not easy to disperse in water.
Further, the stones are continuously graded with a particle size of 5-25 mm.
Further, the sand uses natural medium sand in the II area.
Further, class F class II fly ash is used as the fly ash.
By adopting the technical scheme, the stones with 5-25mm continuous gradation are used as basic lapping frameworks, the sizes of the stones are different, the stones with smaller particles are filled among the stones with larger particle sizes, and the concrete frameworks with different lapping levels are integrally formed. The natural medium sand in the area II has smaller grain diameter and is filled in gaps among stones, so that the strength of the lapped framework is further enhanced. The F class II fly ash has low hydration heat and contains a large amount of active silica and alumina, so that the cement is more fully hydrated. In addition, the active silica and the alumina have smaller particle sizes and are filled among cement particles, so that the compactness of concrete can be improved.
Preferably, the frost-resistant concrete comprises the following components in parts by weight: 280 parts of cement; 35 parts of mineral powder; 35 parts of fly ash; 737 parts of sand; 1105 parts of stones; 8.6 parts of an additive; 43 parts of an expanding agent; 147 parts of water.
Through multiple experiments, the concrete prepared by using the proportion has good compression resistance and bending resistance, and the strength loss is small after multiple circulating freeze thawing.
Further, the preparation method of the frost-resistant concrete comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: dissolving a polysiloxane binder in 1/3 water to form a polysiloxane solution, adding vermiculite into the polysiloxane solution, and uniformly stirring;
step two: the chitosan composite fiber is prepared by graft polymerization of chitosan and acrylic acid;
step three: introducing sand and pebbles into respective raw material bins for pre-homogenization;
step four: heating the other 2/3 water to 35 ℃, and adding the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent under the stirring state until the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are completely dissolved;
step five: putting the sand and the stones into a forced stirrer, adding the polysiloxane solution, and stirring for 2 min;
step six: adding cement, mineral powder, fly ash, an expanding agent and a water reducing agent into a forced stirrer and stirring for 5 min.
By adopting the technical scheme, the polysiloxane binder and the vermiculite are uniformly stirred in advance, the specific surface of the vermiculite is large, a large amount of the polysiloxane binder can be adsorbed, and the vermiculite and the polysiloxane binder can be uniformly mixed with other materials in the concrete in the later stirring process. After the sand and the stones are pre-homogenized, the surfaces of the sand and the stones are rubbed with each other to form new sections, and the new sections are easily mixed with the slurry and have strong adhesion.
When the concrete is prepared, sand and stones for constructing a concrete framework are added into the polysiloxane solution in advance and uniformly stirred, and a layer of polysiloxane solution is uniformly coated on the surfaces of the sand and the stones. And then, the concrete is stirred and mixed with cement, mineral powder, fly ash, an expanding agent and a water reducing agent to form a uniformly dispersed concrete system, and the slurry, the sand and the stones are bonded through a polysiloxane solution to be wrapped more tightly.
Further, the preparation method of the chitosan composite fiber comprises the following steps:
s1, treating chitosan in 40% hydrogen peroxide water for 10min in advance;
s2, setting the mass ratio of acrylic acid monomer to chitosan to be 2.5:1, placing the acrylic acid monomer in 100mL of glacial acetic acid, treating at 65 ℃ for 30min, dropwise adding ammonium persulfate at the speed of 1 drop/S, wherein the mass of the ammonium persulfate is 4% of the total mass of the acrylic acid monomer and the chitosan, dropwise adding acrylic acid after 10min to prepare the chitosan composite fiber, and adjusting the pH to be 5-6.
Preferably, the chitosan has a relative molecular mass of 40 ten thousand.
By adopting the technical scheme, chitosan with the relative molecular mass of 40 ten thousand is selected and grafted with the acrylic monomer. The chitosan is treated in hydrogen peroxide in advance, so that the molecular weight of the chitosan is reduced, and later-stage polymerization is facilitated. Under the conditions that the pH value is 5-6 and the temperature is 65 ℃, chitosan and acrylic acid monomers are grafted to form the chitosan composite fiber. The chitosan composite fiber prepared under the condition is dissolved in water to form viscous liquid, but solid blocks are not formed, and the chitosan composite fiber is uniformly mixed with cement, mineral powder and fly ash in concrete and wraps the outside of stones and sand, so that the bonding effect is better.
In conclusion, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the continuous graded stones and sands are mutually filled and overlapped to form a stable concrete framework, so that the compressive strength of the concrete is increased.
2. The expanding agent added into the concrete can counteract the cracks generated in the early stage due to cement hydration.
3. Vermiculite is added into the concrete, and polysiloxane adhesive is included outside the vermiculite, so that the adhesive effect between the basic overlapping framework and the gel substance of the concrete is improved. The vermiculite has large specific surface area, is of a layered structure and can be uniformly coated outside stones and sands.
4. The water reducing agent is prepared by compounding chitosan composite fiber and an acrylic acid water reducing agent, wherein chitosan is grafted on an acrylic acid monomer in the chitosan composite fiber, so that the bonding strength between the lap joint skeleton and a gel substance in concrete is further improved. The chitosan composite fiber has the performances of expansion, water absorption and water retention, can offset cracks generated due to hydration heat by being combined with an expanding agent at the early stage of concrete preparation, and can also reduce cracks generated due to the fact that the surface temperature is reduced quickly before and after concrete form removal.
5. During the preparation process of the concrete, the silicone adhesive is wrapped outside the sand and the stones in advance, so that the strength between the sand and the stones is increased. Then other gel substances are added, the sand and the stones are wrapped layer by layer, and the strength between the lapped frameworks is further improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a preparation process of the antifreeze concrete
Detailed Description
The present invention is described in further detail below with reference to fig. 1.
The raw materials related to the invention are all commercially available, and the specific specifications and manufacturers are shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 specification and manufacturer of raw materials used in the examples
The first embodiment is as follows:
a method of making frost resistant concrete comprising the steps of:
the method comprises the following steps: 3.9kg of polysiloxane binder is dissolved in 49kg of water to form a polysiloxane solution, 1.56kg of vermiculite is added into the polysiloxane solution, and the mixture is uniformly stirred;
step two: the chitosan composite fiber is prepared by graft polymerization of chitosan and acrylic acid;
step three: 737kg of sand and 1105kg of stones are introduced into respective raw material bins for pre-homogenization;
step four: heating 98kg of water to 35 ℃, and adding 1.56kg of chitosan composite fiber and 1.56kg of acrylic acid water reducing agent under the stirring state until the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent are completely dissolved;
step five: 737kg of sand and 1105kg of stones are placed in a forced stirrer, and polysiloxane solution is added and stirred for 2 min;
step six: 280kg of cement, 35kg of mineral powder, 35kg of fly ash, 43kg of expanding agent and 3.12kg of water reducing agent are added into a forced stirrer and stirred for 5 min.
The preparation method of the chitosan composite fiber comprises the following steps:
s1, treating chitosan in 40% hydrogen peroxide water for 10min in advance;
s2, setting the mass ratio of acrylic acid monomer to chitosan to be 2.5:1, placing the acrylic acid monomer in 100mL of glacial acetic acid, treating at 65 ℃ for 30min, dropwise adding ammonium persulfate at the speed of 1 drop/S, wherein the mass of the ammonium persulfate is 4% of the total mass of the acrylic acid monomer and the chitosan, dropwise adding acrylic acid after 10min to prepare the chitosan composite fiber, and adjusting the pH to be 5-6.
Wherein the admixture comprises vermiculite, polysiloxane binder and water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 2:5: 4. The water reducing agent comprises chitosan composite fiber and an acrylic acid water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 1: 1.
The other examples are different from this example in the ratio of the components, and are specifically shown in table 2.
TABLE 2 Components and proportions of the examples
The compression strength and the bending strength of the anti-freezing concrete prepared by the mixture ratio are tested according to GB/T50081-2002 Standard of testing methods of mechanical properties of common concrete.
The frost resistance test of the pervious concrete is as follows: soaking a concrete test block which is maintained for 28 days in water for 24 hours, wiping the concrete test block to a saturation surface, drying the concrete test block, then loading the concrete test block into a rubber barrel, placing the rubber barrel into a quick refrigerator for freeze-thaw cycle test, and testing the compressive strength after 25 cycles. The ratio of the compressive strength of the test block before and after freeze thawing is the freezing resistance coefficient. The test data for each example is shown in table 3.
TABLE 3 test data for the frost-resistant concretes obtained in the examples
From the above data, the concrete prepared by using the formulation of each example has a compressive strength of 42.7-45MPa and a flexural strength of 8-9.3MPa, and the concrete can bear sufficient strength. After 25 times of circulating freeze thawing, cracks are hardly generated in the concrete test block, the strength of the concrete test block is reduced slightly after the freeze thawing, and the concrete test block has good freezing resistance.
Comparative example: compared with the first example, the additive only uses a commercial polycarboxylic acid water reducing agent in the first comparative example; in comparative example two, the additive used only a polysiloxane binder; in the third comparative example, only vermiculite was used as the additive; in comparative example four, only the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent in the weight ratio of 1:1 were used as the external agent. The components and the formulation of each ratio are shown in table 4.
TABLE 4 Components and proportions used in the respective proportions
The results of the performance tests of the concrete prepared according to the above-mentioned proportions are shown in Table 5.
TABLE 5 Performance test results for each comparative example
From the above data, it can be seen that if only the commercially available polycarboxylate water reducing agent is used, although it has good effects of dispersing cement and reducing the amount of water used, the bonding effect between the overlapping aggregate composed of sand and gravel and the slurry is still poor, the overlapping strength between aggregates is weak, and the compressive strength is poor. In the repeated freezing and thawing process, cracks are gradually generated in the concrete, and the strength of the whole concrete test block is greatly reduced.
The additive of the concrete only uses the polysiloxane adhesive, so that the adhesive action between the concrete lapping aggregate and the slurry is increased, and the lapping aggregate forms spherical particles with adhesive property under the coating of the polysiloxane adhesive. After external force is applied, relative slippage can occur between the overlapped aggregates, and the compressive strength of the concrete is correspondingly reduced.
If the admixture only uses vermiculite, the cement, the fly ash and the mineral powder are bonded together to form slurry, and the slurry is wrapped on the outer sides of the sand and the stones, the vermiculite can increase the viscosity of the slurry, but the bonding property is poor, so that the compressive strength of the concrete is reduced. Meanwhile, because the gaps among the aggregates are large, the gaps are gradually expanded in the repeated freezing and thawing process, and the strength of the concrete is correspondingly reduced.
The chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent in the weight ratio of 1:1 are used as the additive, so that the using amount of water in concrete is reduced, and the viscosity of the slurry is increased. The bonding between the lapping skeleton formed by the sand and the pebbles and the slurry is firmer under the action of the chitosan composite fiber and the acrylic acid water reducing agent. The chitosan composite fiber can form a three-dimensional cross-linked network structure after being dissolved in water, can effectively control the shrinkage or segregation of a cement matrix to generate fine cracks, can prevent the cracks from continuously expanding, avoids the formation of a through capillary channel, and improves the anti-cracking capacity of concrete. In addition, the chitosan composite fiber has good toughness, improves the impact resistance of concrete, plays a good role in relieving temperature stress, and further improves the frost resistance of the concrete.
The present embodiment is only for explaining the present invention, and it is not limited to the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make modifications of the present embodiment without inventive contribution as needed after reading the present specification, but all of them are protected by patent law within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. The antifreeze concrete is characterized by comprising the following components in parts by weight:
cement 275-285 parts; 30-40 parts of mineral powder; 30-40 parts of fly ash; 735 and 740 parts of sand; 1100 portions of pebbles and 1110 portions; 8-9 parts of an additive; 40-45 parts of an expanding agent; 145 portions of water and 150 portions of water; the admixture comprises vermiculite, polysiloxane binder and water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 2:5: 4; the water reducing agent comprises chitosan composite fiber and an acrylic acid water reducing agent in a weight ratio of 1: 1; the preparation method of the anti-freezing concrete comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: dissolving a polysiloxane binder in 1/3 water to form a polysiloxane solution, adding vermiculite into the polysiloxane solution, and uniformly stirring;
step two: the chitosan composite fiber is prepared by graft polymerization of chitosan and acrylic acid;
step three: introducing sand and pebbles into respective raw material bins for pre-homogenization;
step four: heating additional 2/3 water to 35 ℃, and adding chitosan composite fiber and acrylic acid water reducing agent under stirring state until completely dissolved;
step five: putting the sand and the stones into a forced stirrer, adding the polysiloxane solution, and stirring for 2 min;
step six: adding cement, mineral powder, fly ash, an expanding agent and a water reducing agent into a forced stirrer and stirring for 5 min.
2. Frost concrete according to claim 1, wherein the polysiloxane binder has a viscosity of 80 mPa.s.
3. Frost concrete according to claim 2, wherein the stones are of continuous gradation with a grain size of 5-25 mm.
4. Frost concrete according to claim 3, wherein the sand is natural medium sand in zone II.
5. Frost concrete according to claim 4, wherein class F class II fly ash is used as fly ash.
6. Frost concrete according to claim 1, comprising the following components in parts by weight: 280 parts of cement; 35 parts of mineral powder; 35 parts of fly ash; 737 parts of sand; 1105 parts of stones; 8.6 parts of an additive; 43 parts of an expanding agent; 147 parts of water.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the chitosan composite fiber is prepared by a method comprising:
s1, treating chitosan in 40% hydrogen peroxide water for 10min in advance;
s2, placing acrylic acid monomer in 100mL of glacial acetic acid, treating at 65 ℃ for 30min, fully mixing the chitosan treated in the step S1 with the treated acrylic acid monomer, wherein the mass ratio of the acrylic acid monomer to the chitosan is 2.5:1, then dropwise adding ammonium persulfate at the speed of 1 drop/S, the mass of the ammonium persulfate is 4% of the total mass of the acrylic acid monomer and the chitosan, dropwise adding acrylic acid after 10min, and adjusting the pH =5-6 to obtain the chitosan composite fiber.
8. Process for the preparation of frost-resistant concrete according to claim 7, wherein the chitosan has a relative molecular mass of 40 ten thousand.
CN201710183310.5A 2017-03-24 2017-03-24 Frost-resistant concrete and preparation method thereof Active CN108623246B (en)

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CN110467413A (en) * 2019-08-22 2019-11-19 北京城建九秋实混凝土有限公司 A kind of crack resistance mass concrete and preparation method thereof
CN110972893A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-10 青岛冠中生态股份有限公司 Freeze-thawing resistant planting base material for greening in ultrahigh altitude area and use method thereof

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