CN108544062A - A kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet - Google Patents

A kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108544062A
CN108544062A CN201810356975.6A CN201810356975A CN108544062A CN 108544062 A CN108544062 A CN 108544062A CN 201810356975 A CN201810356975 A CN 201810356975A CN 108544062 A CN108544062 A CN 108544062A
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China
Prior art keywords
welding
aluminium alloy
alloy sheet
automatic
sheet
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CN201810356975.6A
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CN108544062B (en
Inventor
齐芃芃
张德伟
徐鑫
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Liaoning Zhongwang Aluminum Alloy Deep Processing Co Ltd
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Liaoning Zhongwang Aluminum Alloy Deep Processing Co Ltd
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/16Arc welding or cutting making use of shielding gas
    • B23K9/173Arc welding or cutting making use of shielding gas and of a consumable electrode
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K37/00Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups
    • B23K37/04Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work
    • B23K37/0408Auxiliary devices or processes, not specially adapted to a procedure covered by only one of the preceding main groups for holding or positioning work for planar work
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/235Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass

Abstract

The invention belongs to welding technology fields, it is related to a kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet, it include the welding preparation for equidistantly cutting aluminium alloy sheet, the pretreatment of groove at aluminium alloy sheet docking, uniform clamping of the hydraulic clamping tooling to aluminium alloy sheet, automatic welding method for welding is by the postwelding shaping of Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure and small range flame repairing after clamping, it solves and MIG welderings is used to be also easy to produce larger residual stress when being welded to aluminium alloy sheet in the prior art, base material generates moderate finite deformation after leading to welding, although can be finely adjusted by follow-up shaping but problem that result is still undesirable.

Description

A kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet
Technical field
The invention belongs to welding technology fields, are related to a kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet.
Background technology
With the fast development of high-speed railway industry in recent years, aluminium alloy used for rail vehicle is welded into new research heat Point.The critical material that aluminium alloy is manufactured as high-speed EMUs, Welded quality are to determine bullet train long-term safety fortune Capable basis, the service life for improving bullet train are of great significance.Crucial work as high-speed train body manufacture The welding of skill, aluminium alloy has very important status.The welding quality of aluminium alloy how is improved to manufacture as aluminum alloy bodywork In key.Aluminium alloy thin-walled welding structure is light-weight, corrosion-resistant, processing performance is excellent, is easily attached and in high-speed train Body is widely applied.Since the coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminium alloy is big, elasticity modulus is small, welding deformation problem is quite prominent, seriously affects The accuracy of manufacture and performance of structure.Aluminum alloy bodywork is small with thin plate itself constraint (restraint) degree, adds thermal expansion coefficient of aluminum alloy Larger, the larger welding method of traditional heat input is susceptible to molten bath and stays or burn, and easy tos produce the wave for being difficult to correct Wave deformation.At this stage, the advanced welding equipment of a large amount of Introduced From Abroads of High Speed Train in China manufacturer, but to large aluminum alloy car body The theoretical research of the MIG welding of thin plate is less, and the related fields for lacking Instructing manufacture are theoretical, lead to welding product quality stability Difference.
Show that its welding difficulty is about the welding characteristic of aluminium alloy in the prior art:(1) it easily aoxidizes.In air In, aluminium is easy combine with oxygen, generates fine and close aluminum oxide film (about 0.1~0.2 μm of thickness), fusing point height (about 2050 DEG C), considerably beyond aluminium and the fusing point (about 600 DEG C or so) of aluminium alloy.The easy adsorption moisture in surface of aluminum oxide film, when welding, It hinders the defects of fusion of base metal, easily formation stomata, slag inclusion, incomplete fusion, and Weld Performance is caused to decline.(2) easily production Angry hole.The main reason for stomata is generated when aluminium and Welded is hydrogen, since liquid aluminium can dissolve a large amount of hydrogen, and solid-state Aluminium hardly dissolved hydrogen, therefore when bath temperature is quickly cooled down with solidifying, hydrogen has little time to escape, and is easy to assemble shape in weld seam At stomata.(3) seam deformation and formation crackle tendency are big.The linear expansion coefficient and crystallization shrinkage of aluminium are about twice bigger than steel, easily The internal stress for generating larger welding deformation, the structure larger to rigidity will promote the generation of fire check.(4) steaming of alloying element The scaling loss of hair.Contain low-boiling element (such as magnesium, zinc, manganese) in aluminium alloy, under high-temperature electric arc effect, easily evaporation is burnt Damage, to change the chemical composition of weld metal, makes Weld Performance decline.
Currently, it is also easy to produce larger residual stress when being welded to aluminium alloy sheet using MIG welderings, welding is caused to terminate Base material generates moderate finite deformation afterwards, although it is still undesirable to be finely adjusted result by follow-up shaping, uses in the prior art Agitating friction weldering can meet production requirement, but greatly increase production cost.Therefore, how to be produced using MIG welderings Qualified aluminium alloy sheet is a great problem of current area.
Invention content
In view of this, the present invention easily produces to solve the when of using MIG welderings to weld aluminium alloy sheet in the prior art Raw larger residual stress, base material generates moderate finite deformation after leading to welding, although can be finely adjusted by follow-up shaping But the still undesirable problem of result provides a kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention provides a kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet, includes the following steps:
A, welding preparation:By aluminum alloy thin profile material by extrusion die one extrusion forming, after integrated extrusion forming Aluminum alloy thin profile material equidistantly cut, wherein the width of aluminum alloy thin profile material is 250mm, thickness 5mm, and length is 3.5m;
B, it pre-processes:Groove type at aluminium alloy sheet docking is designed as front, and there are the Y type grooves of 3mm depths, slopes Mouth angle of inclination is 30 °, and acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy thin sheet surface greasy dirt is used in the range of 20~30mm near groove;
C, assembly group pair:By two side compression of aluminium alloy sheet and apply side top power using hydraulic clamping tooling, ensures that aluminium closes Golden thin board welding seam gap≤0.8mm, unfitness of butt joint≤0.5mm of weld seam both sides aluminium alloy sheet, by the outside of aluminium alloy sheet every 300 One hydraulic clamping tooling is set at the positions~350mm, ensures the forced position of two neighboring hydraulic clamping tooling not at one On vertical line, ensure the equal stress of aluminium alloy sheet each point, and uniform force;
D, it welds:By automatic welding method for welding by the Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure after clamping together, automatic welding welding behaviour In work, it is 190~200A that bonding machine, which selects IGM automatic welders, welding current, and weldingvoltage is 18~19V, and speed of welding is 100~110cm/min, when welding, are welded using substep back welding, wherein the first passage is the positions 0~1m of front end, the Two passages are the positions 0~1m of rear end, and last is centre position together;
E, postwelding shaping:0.25m is respectively cut away after welding end to end, discharges welding residual stress, reduces welding deformation;Together Shi Jinhang small range flame repairings reduce welding residual stress.
Further, special using mechanical aluminium alloy after the aluminum alloy thin plate surface of groove both sides degreasing in step B With the oxidation film of milling tools removal groove both sides aluminum alloy thin plate surface, with acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy again after polishing The remaining scrap of thin sheet surface.
Further, hydraulic clamping tooling is fluid pressure type pressure arm in step C.
Further, the hydraulic clamping tooling of aluminium alloy sheet both sides is uniformly staggered arrangement in step C.
Further, environment temperature is not less than 20 DEG C when being welded in step D, and humidity is not more than 60%.
Further, welding current is 195A, weldingvoltage 18.5V, speed of welding 110cm/min in step D.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
Aluminium alloy sheet is equidistantly cut into width 250mm by the 1, automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet of the present invention, thick 5mm is spent, the thin-plate element of length 3.5m opens Y type grooves on aluminium alloy sheet to be welded so that aluminium alloy sheet is ensureing to weld On the basis of seam intensity is up to standard, the heat input of welding can be minimized.Using hydraulic clamping tooling by aluminium alloy sheet both sides It compresses and applies side top power, hydraulic clamping tooling is uniformly staggered arrangement, enables to the aluminium alloy clamped by hydraulic clamping tooling Thin plate each point uniform stressed, it is therefore prevented that generate larger residual stress when Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure, lead to base material after welding Moderate finite deformation is generated, follow-up shaping fine tuning effect is undesirable, while improving the welding effect of aluminium alloy sheet, improves aluminium conjunction The solder yield of golden thin plate.
2, the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet of the present invention takes single-run welding welding, so without interlayer temperature, Interlayer temperature need not be controlled, need not also remove interlayer weld blowhole, so need not be preheated, to reduce The welding number of plies, reduces weld defect, improves production efficiency.The present invention is by energy hole and postwelding in pre-welding treatment and weldering One is made in shaping, thin plate aluminum alloy welding point stomata HOT CRACK FOR WELDING P quantity is greatly reduced, and appearance of weld is good, weldering It connects that deflection is small, strength of welded joint is high, to effectively promote the MIG welding qualities of bullet train aluminium alloy sheet, ensures Stability of the welding quality.
3, the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet of the present invention, qualification can not be produced by solving MIG automatic welders The problem of aluminium alloy sheet substantially reduces welding deformation under conditions of ensureing weld strength, and flatness is controlled in ± 5mm Within;Production cost has been saved simultaneously, and has substantially increased production efficiency, has solved the technical barrier in the field.
Description of the drawings
In order to keep the purpose of the present invention, technical solution and advantageous effect clearer, the present invention provides following attached drawing and carries out Explanation:
Fig. 1 is aluminium alloy sheet section structure diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure divided edge structure schematic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the mounting structure schematic diagram of hydraulic clamping tooling of the present invention.
Specific implementation mode
The preferred embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail below.
Embodiment 1
A kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet, includes the following steps:
A, welding preparation:Aluminum alloy thin profile material is passed through into extrusion die one extrusion forming, the section of aluminium alloy sheet Structure is as shown in Figure 1, the aluminum alloy thin profile material after integrated extrusion forming is equidistantly cut, the wherein width of aluminum alloy thin profile material Degree is 250mm, thickness 5mm, length 3.5m;
B, it pre-processes:Groove type at aluminium alloy sheet docking is designed as front, and there are the Y type grooves of 3mm depths, aluminium The section structure of latten welding groove is ensureing that weld strength is up to standard as shown in Fig. 2, groove angle of inclination is 30 ° in this way On the basis of, the heat input of welding is minimized, acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy is used in the range of the neighbouring 20~30mm of groove Thin sheet surface greasy dirt;
C, it is surface-treated:Using the oxygen of mechanical aluminium alloy special grinding tool removal groove both sides aluminum alloy thin plate surface Change film, dips the remaining scrap of acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy thin sheet surface again after polishing with non-woven fabrics;
D, assembly group pair:The mounting structure of aluminium alloy sheet hydraulic clamping tooling is as shown in figure 3, utilize Press arm hydraulic clip Tight tooling is by two side compression of aluminium alloy sheet and applies side top power, ensures aluminium alloy sheet weld gap≤0.8mm, weld seam both sides A hydraulic clamping tooling will be arranged at every positions 300mm on the outside of aluminium alloy sheet in unfitness of butt joint≤0.5mm of aluminium alloy sheet, Ensure that the forced position of two neighboring hydraulic clamping tooling on a vertical line, does not ensure the equal stress of aluminium alloy sheet each point, And uniform force;
E, it welds:By automatic welding method for welding by the Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure after clamping together, automatic welding welding behaviour In work, bonding machine selects the Austrian import IGM automatic welders, welding current 190A, weldingvoltage 18V, speed of welding to be 100cm/min, wherein welding current and weldingvoltage can be adjusted on the basis of weld seam fills up with small range, but speed of welding is not It is recommended that adjustment, is welded using distribution back welding when welding, wherein the first passage is the positions 0~1m of front end, the second passage For the positions 0~1m of rear end, last is centre position together;
F, postwelding shaping:0.25m is respectively cut away after welding end to end, discharges welding residual stress, reduces welding deformation;Together Shi Jinhang small range flame repairings reduce welding residual stress.
Embodiment 2
Difference lies in be arranged one to embodiment 2 on the outside of aluminium alloy sheet in step D at every positions 350mm with embodiment 1 Hydraulic clamping tooling.
Embodiment 3
Difference lies in welding current is 195A, weldingvoltage 18.5V, welding to embodiment 3 in step E with embodiment 1 Speed is 110cm/min.
Embodiment 4
Difference lies in welding current is 200A, weldingvoltage 19V, welding speed to embodiment 4 in step E with embodiment 1 Degree is 110cm/min.
It is found by carrying out tension test test to Examples 1 to 4, the destruction position fracture of bond pull sample is closed in aluminium Apparent ruckbildung does not occur for golden base material, connector.The flatness of aluminium alloy sheet postwelding meets production requirement in ± 5mm.Aluminium closes The weld strength of golden thin plate can also meet scheduled requirement, and entire automatic welding method for welding realizes and welds production qualification using MIG Aluminium alloy sheet, saved production cost, while improving production efficiency.
Finally illustrate, preferred embodiment above is merely illustrative of the technical solution of the present invention and unrestricted, although logical It crosses above preferred embodiment the present invention is described in detail, however, those skilled in the art should understand that, can be Various changes are made to it in form and in details, without departing from claims of the present invention limited range.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
A, welding preparation:By aluminum alloy thin profile material by extrusion die one extrusion forming, by the aluminium after integrated extrusion forming Latten proximate matter is equidistantly cut, and wherein the width of aluminum alloy thin profile material is 250mm, thickness 5mm, length 3.5m;
B, it pre-processes:Groove type at aluminium alloy sheet docking is designed as front there are the Y type grooves of 3mm depths, groove inclines Rake angle is 30 °, and acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy thin sheet surface greasy dirt is used in the range of 20~30mm near groove;
C, assembly group pair:By two side compression of aluminium alloy sheet and apply side top power using hydraulic clamping tooling, ensures aluminum alloy thin Plate welding seams gap≤0.8mm, unfitness of butt joint≤0.5mm of weld seam both sides aluminium alloy sheet, by the outside of aluminium alloy sheet every 300~ One hydraulic clamping tooling is set at the positions 350mm, ensures that the forced position of two neighboring hydraulic clamping tooling erects not at one On straight line, ensure the equal stress of aluminium alloy sheet each point, and uniform force;
D, it welds:By automatic welding method for welding by the Welding of Aluminium Alloy Sheet Structure after clamping together, automatic welding welding operation in, Bonding machine select IGM automatic welders, welding current be 190~200A, weldingvoltage be 18~19V, speed of welding be 100~ 110cm/min, when welding, are welded using substep back welding, wherein the first passage is the positions 0~1m of front end, the second passage For the positions 0~1m of rear end, last is centre position together;
E, postwelding shaping:0.25m is respectively cut away after welding end to end, discharges welding residual stress, reduces welding deformation;While into Row small range flame repairing reduces welding residual stress.
2. the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that by groove both sides in step B Aluminum alloy thin plate surface degrease after, using mechanical aluminium alloy special grinding tool removal groove both sides aluminium alloy sheet The oxidation film on surface, with the remaining scrap of acetone or alcohol cleaning aluminum alloy thin sheet surface again after polishing.
3. the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that hydraulic clamp work in step C Dress is fluid pressure type pressure arm.
4. the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that aluminium alloy sheet in step C The hydraulic clamping tooling of both sides is uniformly staggered arrangement.
5. the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet as described in claim 3 or 4, which is characterized in that ring when being welded in step D Border temperature is not less than 20 DEG C, and humidity is not more than 60%.
6. the automatic welding method for welding of aluminium alloy sheet as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that welding current is in step D 195A, weldingvoltage 18.5V, speed of welding 110cm/min.
CN201810356975.6A 2018-04-19 2018-04-19 Automatic welding method for aluminum alloy sheet Active CN108544062B (en)

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Cited By (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109128433A (en) * 2018-10-31 2019-01-04 安徽忠旺铝合金精深加工有限公司 A kind of aluminium alloy light weight vehicle body automatic Welding Process
CN110039148A (en) * 2019-05-14 2019-07-23 合肥晶澳太阳能科技有限公司 A kind of welding structure and terminal box of photovoltaic component terminal box
CN110977237A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-10 忠旺(辽阳)铝模板制造有限公司 Welding wire for 6-series aluminum alloy template and welding process thereof
CN112743304A (en) * 2020-12-30 2021-05-04 深圳市恩利来科技有限公司 Environment-friendly alloy material deep processing method

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CN104526125A (en) * 2014-11-27 2015-04-22 芜湖中集瑞江汽车有限公司 TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding process of aluminum with thickness of 6-10mm and alloy thereof
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JP2009202226A (en) * 2008-02-29 2009-09-10 Toyota Industries Corp Welding structure of low-output laser beam
CN101745718A (en) * 2009-12-17 2010-06-23 浙江东海岸船业有限公司 Method for welding thin steel plate
JP2013056349A (en) * 2011-09-07 2013-03-28 Furukawa-Sky Aluminum Corp Joining method of aluminum plate material
CN202271114U (en) * 2011-10-15 2012-06-13 江阴市彭利天线有限公司 Tool for realizing both-side formation of thin aluminum sheet by one-side welding
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Cited By (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109128433A (en) * 2018-10-31 2019-01-04 安徽忠旺铝合金精深加工有限公司 A kind of aluminium alloy light weight vehicle body automatic Welding Process
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CN110977237A (en) * 2019-12-26 2020-04-10 忠旺(辽阳)铝模板制造有限公司 Welding wire for 6-series aluminum alloy template and welding process thereof
CN112743304A (en) * 2020-12-30 2021-05-04 深圳市恩利来科技有限公司 Environment-friendly alloy material deep processing method

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