CN108166981A - Tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology - Google Patents

Tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108166981A
CN108166981A CN201711495254.5A CN201711495254A CN108166981A CN 108166981 A CN108166981 A CN 108166981A CN 201711495254 A CN201711495254 A CN 201711495254A CN 108166981 A CN108166981 A CN 108166981A
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Prior art keywords
slip casting
grouting
pressure
pipe
hole
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CN201711495254.5A
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CN108166981B (en
Inventor
张松
弯晓林
赵忠洋
苏影
成赫
李飞
成栋
徐迎
常涛
邹来生
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Second Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 19th Bureau Group Co Ltd
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Second Engineering Co Ltd of China Railway 19th Bureau Group Co Ltd
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • E21D11/107Reinforcing elements therefor; Holders for the reinforcing elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/15Plate linings; Laggings, i.e. linings designed for holding back formation material or for transmitting the load to main supporting members
    • E21D11/152Laggings made of grids or nettings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/14Lining predominantly with metal
    • E21D11/18Arch members ; Network made of arch members ; Ring elements; Polygon elements; Polygon elements inside arches
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/003Machines for drilling anchor holes and setting anchor bolts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • E21D20/021Grouting with inorganic components, e.g. cement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/001Improving soil or rock, e.g. by freezing; Injections

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  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Mining & Mineral Resources (AREA)
  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Geology (AREA)
  • General Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Geochemistry & Mineralogy (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Architecture (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Consolidation Of Soil By Introduction Of Solidifying Substances Into Soil (AREA)
  • Excavating Of Shafts Or Tunnels (AREA)

Abstract

Tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology is related to constructing tunnel technique.It mainly solves situations such as current large deformation section construction is easily caused danger and invents.Advance geologic prediction is carried out plus the method for deepening blasthole detection plus method and advance geologic the probing method of geological radar using TSP;The process of advanced middle pipe canopy of constructing is:Cloth hole, pore-forming, intubation, sealing, slip casting;Construction advanced tubule process be:Cloth hole, pore-forming, intubation, sealing, slip casting;Then preliminary bracing is carried out, measure mainly has:Hollow bolt, grouting rock bolt, reinforced mesh and steelframe;Last gunite concrete.Advantage is can to ensure construction safety and quality, and the construction period is short.

Description

Tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology
Technical field:
The present invention relates to constructing tunnel techniques, are specifically related to a kind of construction technology of tunnel soft rock large deformation section.
Background technology:
When deep tunnel is by soft rock and shear-zone, large deformation is generally produced under the conditions of high-ground stress and rich water.This big change Feature is:Rock deformation is big, can generally reach several tens cm, quickly, if supporting is improper, preliminary bracing will for velocity of displacement It deforms, crack or even caves in.
Mechanism of great distortion is usually divided into two major class by people:
(1) it is to excavate the stresses re-distribution formed to be more than Surrounding Rock Strength and plasticity variation occurs one of the reason of large deformation.If Generation slowly just belongs to extrusion(Just belong to rock burst if immediately occurred).
(2) two the reason of large deformation are that the certain mineralogical compositions and water in rock are reacted and expanded.Expand deformation Country rock generally have higher intensity when excavating, during deformation occurs mainly in tunnel operation, normally behave as bottom drum It rises, and tunnel top and abutment wall keep preferable working condition.
This large deformation harm is huge, and serious threat engineering safety affects construction quality, constrains the duration.If It deals with improperly, easily causes danger.
Invention content:
The technical problems to be solved by the invention, which are to provide one kind, can ensure construction safety and quality, the construction period it is short tunnel it is soft Rock large deformation section construction technology.
What above-mentioned purpose was realized in:
One, advance geologic prediction:
Using geophysical prospecting(TSP+ geological radars), Advance Drilling method(Advance geologic probing method+intensification blasthole detection);
TSP:Weak, broken formation or Karst Area, forecast distance is 100-120m, front and rear lap of splice 10m twice every time More than;Forecast distance is 120-150m every time in rock mass complete hard rock stratum area, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m;
Geological radar method:Geologic radar detection is mainly used for Karst, also uneven available for fault belt, weak intercalated layer The detection of body, every 25m is primary, once ranging from 30m, front and rear more than lap of splice 5m twice;
Advance boreholes:Intend using impact drill and revolution coring, closely physical prospecting forward probe has abnormal ground in verification Section, bore diameter use 89. active breaking belt forward probe length 80-100m of ф, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m, remaining location Forward probe length is not less than 30m.The front and rear lap of splice twice is not less than 5m.Whether coring is according to different geological conditions for drilling It is determined with detection purpose;
Deepen blasthole:Deepen blasthole forward probe, geological information is obtained using path shallow bore hole is bored on tunnel excavation working face A kind of method, each cycle lays 3-20 intensification blasthole when being drilled with blasthole, deepen more than 3m as detecting compared with cyclic advance Hole;
Two, Specific construction scheme:
(1), advanced middle pipe canopy:
Advance support is to ensure adjoining rock stability, and the major measure of excavation construction safety is the critical process for ensureing smoothly to excavate, edge Excavation contour line, with 5~7 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to the pre- of country rock square in face of excavating Supporting;
Conduit uses 76 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 6mm, single long 6m;Guan Peng is processed into front end tip, tube body It is drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, extrapolation angle 5 °~7 ° tail end of conduit, 0.3 meter of model It encloses and does not drill, pipe tail welding 8 mm of φ put more energy into hoop;
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of middle pipe canopy and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control middle pipe canopy;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, using pipe canopy machine pore-forming, boring direction requirement It is straight, it must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on pipe canopy length;Steel pipe and tunnel Road axis is parallel to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 5 °~7 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:Conduit, is pushed into, and make every effort to pipe by the direction of requirement alignment pore and angle using pipe canopy machine when installing middle pipe canopy Dingle end is advisable in same profile and protruded length with being less than 30cm;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
In the complete rows of e every dozen after tube shed grouting, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 2.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence, and slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting;
The drilling of injected hole:Using pipe canopy machine drill hole, when push pipe, pays attention to steel pipe tail portion is protected not to be damaged for construction, so as to high pressure Grouting Pipe connects, and squeezes into country rock length as 6m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded together;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:In scheduled position, the spindle plunger not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay, In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, make flax silk plunger with Hole wall fully squeezes tightly, then fills aperture with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
The control of grouting pump amount:Pump amount size according to stratum midge rate or water absorption rate or drilling water yield determine, can in no water hole The midge rate of drilling is measured using the method for first pressure injection list liquid cement mortar or clear water;When there is water, according to drilling water yield and Pump capacity determines pump amount:It is general to require pump amount not less than water yield, but when water yield is more than the maximum pump discharge of pump, pump should be made Under the conditions of mixture ratios met the requirements, as far as possible with big pump amount slip casting;
Slip casting terminates using single hole ending standard:Grouting pressure is stepped up, and final pressure and stable 10min, slip casting are designed when reaching 80% of amount not less than design grouting amount is to start to use level pressure slip casting into the 1/4. of slurry speed into slurry speed, when grouting pressure reaches It arrives or close to when designing final pressure value, terminates slip casting, and the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, snare such as occur Spillage, after interval slip casting, slip casting can be terminated;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(2), advanced tubule:
Along excavation contour line, with 10~15 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to side in face of excavating The pre support of country rock;
Conduit uses 42 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 3.5mm, single long 3.5m -4.0m, and catheter proximal end is processed into Tip, tube body are drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, 10 °~15 ° conduits of extrapolation angle 0.3 meter of range of tail end does not drill;
Conduit is inserted into after being drilled using air pressure gun, manually or mechanically external force is driven into or just heads into;
Construction process:
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of ductule and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control ductule;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, and using drilling jumbo pore-forming, boring direction will It asks straight, must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on ductule length;Steel pipe It is parallel with tunnel axis to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 10 °~15 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:The direction of requirement alignment pore and angle, make drilling jumbo be pushed into conduit when necessary when installing ductule;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
After the complete row grouting with small pipe of e every dozen, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 1.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence;Slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting, consider that single-pipe grouting amount is smaller, using aperture mixer complete opening Pressure injection;
It is prepared by slurries:Cement mortar uses cement paste blender pulping, and is stored with special slurry storing tube;
The drilling of injected hole:Construction is drilled using air rock drill, special to head into, and when push pipe pays attention to protecting steel pipe tail portion not It is damaged, to be connect with high-pressure slip-casting pipe, squeezes into country rock length as 3.5m -4m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded on one It rises;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:With holes using pipe shaft, Grouting Pipe is made in one end for the steel floral tube of tip;
The installation method of Grouting Pipe is:In scheduled position, the spindle not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay Shape plunger;In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, makes fiber crops Silk plunger fully squeezes tightly with hole wall;Then aperture is filled with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
Slip casting ending standard:Under normal circumstances, using level pressure slip casting;When grouting pressure reaches or approaches design final pressure value, Terminate slip casting;And the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, and such as there is the spillage of snare, it, can after interval slip casting Terminate slip casting;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(3), preliminary bracing:
System supporting measure mainly has:Gunite concrete, hollow bolt, grouting rock bolt, reinforced mesh and steelframe, interim inverted arch, False stull;After tunnel excavation, the concrete of 3~5cm thickness is just sprayed immediately first;It treats that muck removal finishes to apply by design requirement again Anchor, net, bracing members combined supporting, and gunite concrete is to design thickness;
Mortar anchor constructing method:
It is drilled using air rock drill, bolthole position is vertical with scar, and design hole position deviation ± 150mm, drilling depth permit Perhaps error ± 50mm;With aggregate chips in high-pressure blast cleaning hole after drilling, then anchor pole is installed, intubating length is not less than design length 95%;With after high-pressure blast borehole cleaning after pore-forming, first by 4~5mm of internal diameter, the flexible plastic exhaust pipe of 1~1.5mm of wall thickness with anchor pole together Drilling is sent into bottom hole, and stays outside hole the excess length of 0.5m or so, Grouting Pipe is then fixed on orifice position, and by anchor Rod aperture mouth blocks, and after confirming that exhaust pipe is unimpeded, using dual exhaust method slip casting, stops when comb gas is not vented or overflows thin pulp Only, exhaust pipe is extracted, backing plate tightening nuts are installed after mortar reaches intensity;
Hollow grouting anchor construction method:
A drills:
Hollow bolt boring method is the same as grouting rock bolt boring method;
B anchor poles are installed:
Drilling finishes, and before installing anchor pole, first cleans aggregate chips in bolthole, then hollow bolt is inserted into bolthole, anchor with high-pressure blast Bar insertion depth should meet design code, the exposed 10~20cm of anchor pole, in order to be connect with pneumatic mortar machine grout outlet;
C mud jacking:
Before mud jacking, the special stop grouting plug of anchor pole is pre-installed at bolthole, during mud jacking, anchor pole head is connect with slip casting machine grout outlet, starts to press Slurry;After cement mortar pressure is full in hole, stop grouting plug is held out against immediately, prevents slurries from flowing out;
D backing plates are installed:
Mud jacking finishes, and after nominal strength to be achieved, starts to install anchor pole special backing plate, tightening nuts, backing plate should ensure that and supporting Face scar is closely connected;
(4), screwing steel bars net;
(5), bracing members construction:
Steelframe support is using 2 kinds of profile steel frame and grillage;
For bracing members as rigid arch, the rigidity and intensity of support are big, can make temporary support and individually bear larger country rock pressure Power needs the occasion carried immediately to use in weak broken wall rock;
Bracing members processing and fabricating:
Bracing members press design size welding production, and the radian for ensureing during making often to save meets design requirement with size, according to setting Count size first examination processing 1-2 pieces on steel arch-shelf forming mill, during processing adjustment jack steel arch-shelf radius is examined to meet design will After asking, jack is fixed, carries out batch production processing;
The bracing members that clod wash is completed, on-site consolidation is carried out on the spot on the terrace of setting-out, often saved both ends and welded connecting plate, between node It is connected with securely, ensureing that steel arch-shelf is non-warping, size meets design requirement by connecting plate;
Bracing members are installed:
Steelframe is installed by design requirement, and installation tolerance should meet code requirement, is utilized after installation and is locked foot anchor tube(Bar)Positioning; When backbreaking larger, hogback spray is filled out and first branch peer concrete, so that supporting is closely connected with country rock, the further hair of deformation controlling for rock surrounding gateways It opens up, it is longitudinally connected securely with connection steel bar rod between two rows of steelframes, to form whole force structure;
(6), gunite concrete:
Construction method:
The loosening stone of scar is cleared up before injection, and embedded jetting thickness control mark nail, every 1~2m set one;It is mixed Solidifying soil concentrates mix with concrete spraying station, mixes and stirs material and is transported to setting using concrete special conveying;
It sprays at the beginning of construction of shotcrete point and sprays secondary progress again, be just sprayed on excavation (or partial excavation) and carry out immediately after the completion, To close scar as early as possible, surface layer peeling is prevented;Multiple pneumatically placed concrete carries out after the installation of anchor pole, linked network and steelframe, forms connection as early as possible Support system is closed, to inhibit surrouding rock deformation;It is sprayed and put down with concrete between steelframe, protective layer cannot be less than 4cm;
Mixture will be with mixing with spray, and feed is continuously;Spraying operation segmentation, fragment, layering, from bottom to top carry out successively;Layering spray When penetrating, later layer should carry out after previous layer concrete final set, if 1h row injections again after final set, need first to clean spray-up with geomantic omen Face;Spraying machine wind pressure of work is stablized, and for nozzle with being maintained in the range of 0.6~1.5 meter by the distance of spray plane, the angle of injection is best Keep vertical with by spray plane, sprinkler operational should continuously move in a circle, and form helical form, gunite concrete final set 3h After can carry out subsequent cycle operation.
It is an advantage of the invention that:This construction technology is mainly using advance support, advance geologic prediction, advance reinforcement;Supporting Measure in place, quick closure in place, technical measures carry out overall control country rock large deformation in place etc. for lining cutting follow-up.It should be into construction Row advance geologic prediction tests crustal stress, and large deformation is judged whether according to monitoring data, and according to deformation size and Actual conditions take following working measure:It is big to forecast that means are established by advanced predictions such as horizontal protruded drill hole, detecting earth stress Deformation Prediction system;Using anchor, note, the integrated surrounding rock consolidation support system of spray;Immediate support after excavation lays work using loopful Word steelframe, makes full use of self;Preliminary bracing anchor pole uses hollow grouting anchor, when necessary using lengthening anchor pole; Increase preliminary bracing deformation allowance, improve secondary liner structure intensity, using reinforcement composite lining structure.It can ensure to construct Safety and quality, construction period are short.
Specific embodiment:
One, advance geologic prediction:
Using geophysical prospecting(TSP+ geological radars), Advance Drilling method(Advance geologic probing method+intensification blasthole detection);
TSP:Weak, broken formation or Karst Area, forecast distance is 100-120m, front and rear lap of splice 10m twice every time More than;Forecast distance is 120-150m every time in rock mass complete hard rock stratum area, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m;
Geological radar method:Geologic radar detection is mainly used for Karst, also uneven available for fault belt, weak intercalated layer The detection of body, every 25m is primary, once ranging from 30m, front and rear more than lap of splice 5m twice;
Advance boreholes:Intend using impact drill and revolution coring, closely physical prospecting forward probe has abnormal ground in verification Section, bore diameter use 89. active breaking belt forward probe length 80-100m of ф, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m, remaining location Forward probe length is not less than 30m.The front and rear lap of splice twice is not less than 5m.Whether coring is according to different geological conditions for drilling It is determined with detection purpose;
Deepen blasthole:Deepen blasthole forward probe, geological information is obtained using path shallow bore hole is bored on tunnel excavation working face A kind of method, each cycle lays 3-20 intensification blasthole when being drilled with blasthole, deepen more than 3m as detecting compared with cyclic advance Hole;
Two, Specific construction scheme:
(1), advanced middle pipe canopy:
Advance support is to ensure adjoining rock stability, and the major measure of excavation construction safety is the critical process for ensureing smoothly to excavate, edge Excavation contour line, with 5~7 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to the pre- of country rock square in face of excavating Supporting;
Conduit uses 76 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 6mm, single long 6m;Guan Peng is processed into front end tip, tube body It is drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, extrapolation angle 5 °~7 ° tail end of conduit, 0.3 meter of model It encloses and does not drill, pipe tail welding 8 mm of φ put more energy into hoop;
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of middle pipe canopy and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control middle pipe canopy;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, using pipe canopy machine pore-forming, boring direction requirement It is straight, it must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on pipe canopy length;Steel pipe and tunnel Road axis is parallel to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 5 °~7 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:Conduit, is pushed into, and make every effort to pipe by the direction of requirement alignment pore and angle using pipe canopy machine when installing middle pipe canopy Dingle end is advisable in same profile and protruded length with being less than 30cm;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
In the complete rows of e every dozen after tube shed grouting, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 2.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence, and slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting;
The drilling of injected hole:Using pipe canopy machine drill hole, when push pipe, pays attention to steel pipe tail portion is protected not to be damaged for construction, so as to high pressure Grouting Pipe connects, and squeezes into country rock length as 6m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded together;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:In scheduled position, the spindle plunger not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay, In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, make flax silk plunger with Hole wall fully squeezes tightly, then fills aperture with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
The control of grouting pump amount:Pump amount size according to stratum midge rate or water absorption rate or drilling water yield determine, can in no water hole The midge rate of drilling is measured using the method for first pressure injection list liquid cement mortar or clear water;When there is water, according to drilling water yield and Pump capacity determines pump amount:It is general to require pump amount not less than water yield, but when water yield is more than the maximum pump discharge of pump, pump should be made Under the conditions of mixture ratios met the requirements, as far as possible with big pump amount slip casting;
Slip casting terminates using single hole ending standard:Grouting pressure is stepped up, and final pressure and stable 10min, slip casting are designed when reaching 80% of amount not less than design grouting amount is to start to use level pressure slip casting into the 1/4. of slurry speed into slurry speed, when grouting pressure reaches It arrives or close to when designing final pressure value, terminates slip casting, and the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, snare such as occur Spillage, after interval slip casting, slip casting can be terminated;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(2), advanced tubule:
Along excavation contour line, with 10~15 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to side in face of excavating The pre support of country rock;
Conduit uses 42 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 3.5mm, single long 3.5m -4.0m, and catheter proximal end is processed into Tip, tube body are drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, 10 °~15 ° conduits of extrapolation angle 0.3 meter of range of tail end does not drill;
Conduit is inserted into after being drilled using air pressure gun, manually or mechanically external force is driven into or just heads into;
Construction process:
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of ductule and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control ductule;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, and using drilling jumbo pore-forming, boring direction will It asks straight, must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on ductule length;Steel pipe It is parallel with tunnel axis to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 10 °~15 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:The direction of requirement alignment pore and angle, make drilling jumbo be pushed into conduit when necessary when installing ductule;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
After the complete row grouting with small pipe of e every dozen, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 1.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence;Slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting, consider that single-pipe grouting amount is smaller, using aperture mixer complete opening Pressure injection;
It is prepared by slurries:Cement mortar uses cement paste blender pulping, and is stored with special slurry storing tube;
The drilling of injected hole:Construction is drilled using air rock drill, special to head into, and when push pipe pays attention to protecting steel pipe tail portion not It is damaged, to be connect with high-pressure slip-casting pipe, squeezes into country rock length as 3.5m -4m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded on one It rises;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:With holes using pipe shaft, Grouting Pipe is made in one end for the steel floral tube of tip;
The installation method of Grouting Pipe is:In scheduled position, the spindle not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay Shape plunger;In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, makes fiber crops Silk plunger fully squeezes tightly with hole wall;Then aperture is filled with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
Slip casting ending standard:Under normal circumstances, using level pressure slip casting;When grouting pressure reaches or approaches design final pressure value, Terminate slip casting;And the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, and such as there is the spillage of snare, it, can after interval slip casting Terminate slip casting;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(3), preliminary bracing:
System supporting measure mainly has:Gunite concrete, hollow bolt, grouting rock bolt, reinforced mesh and steelframe;Tunnel excavation Afterwards, the concrete of 3~5cm thickness is just sprayed immediately first;It treats that muck removal finishes and applies anchor, net, bracing members joint branch by design requirement again Shield, and gunite concrete is to design thickness;
Mortar anchor constructing method:
It is drilled using air rock drill, bolthole position is vertical with scar, and design hole position deviation ± 150mm, drilling depth permit Perhaps error ± 50mm;With aggregate chips in high-pressure blast cleaning hole after drilling, then anchor pole is installed, intubating length is not less than design length 95%;With after high-pressure blast borehole cleaning after pore-forming, first by 4~5mm of internal diameter, the flexible plastic exhaust pipe of 1~1.5mm of wall thickness with anchor pole together Drilling is sent into bottom hole, and stays outside hole the excess length of 0.5m or so, Grouting Pipe is then fixed on orifice position, and by anchor Rod aperture mouth blocks, and after confirming that exhaust pipe is unimpeded, using dual exhaust method slip casting, stops when comb gas is not vented or overflows thin pulp Only, exhaust pipe is extracted, backing plate tightening nuts are installed after mortar reaches intensity;
Hollow grouting anchor construction method:
A drills:
Hollow bolt boring method is the same as grouting rock bolt boring method;
B anchor poles are installed:
Drilling finishes, and before installing anchor pole, first cleans aggregate chips in bolthole, then hollow bolt is inserted into bolthole, anchor with high-pressure blast Bar insertion depth should meet design code, the exposed 10~20cm of anchor pole, in order to be connect with pneumatic mortar machine grout outlet;
C mud jacking:
Before mud jacking, the special stop grouting plug of anchor pole is pre-installed at bolthole, during mud jacking, anchor pole head is connect with slip casting machine grout outlet, starts to press Slurry;After cement mortar pressure is full in hole, stop grouting plug is held out against immediately, prevents slurries from flowing out;
D backing plates are installed:
Mud jacking finishes, and after nominal strength to be achieved, starts to install anchor pole special backing plate, tightening nuts, backing plate should ensure that and supporting Face scar is closely connected;
(4), screwing steel bars net;
(5), bracing members construction:
Steelframe support is using 2 kinds of profile steel frame and grillage;
For bracing members as rigid arch, the rigidity and intensity of support are big, can make temporary support and individually bear larger country rock pressure Power needs the occasion carried immediately to use in weak broken wall rock;
Bracing members processing and fabricating:
Bracing members press design size welding production, and the radian for ensureing during making often to save meets design requirement with size, according to setting Count size first examination processing 1-2 pieces on steel arch-shelf forming mill, during processing adjustment jack steel arch-shelf radius is examined to meet design will After asking, jack is fixed, carries out batch production processing;
The bracing members that clod wash is completed, on-site consolidation is carried out on the spot on the terrace of setting-out, often saved both ends and welded connecting plate, between node It is connected with securely, ensureing that steel arch-shelf is non-warping, size meets design requirement by connecting plate;
Bracing members are installed:
Steelframe is installed by design requirement, and installation tolerance should meet code requirement, is utilized after installation and is locked foot anchor tube(Bar)Positioning; When backbreaking larger, hogback spray is filled out and first branch peer concrete, so that supporting is closely connected with country rock, the further hair of deformation controlling for rock surrounding gateways It opens up, it is longitudinally connected securely with connection steel bar rod between two rows of steelframes, to form whole force structure;
(6), gunite concrete:
Construction method:
The loosening stone of scar is cleared up before injection, and embedded jetting thickness control mark nail, every 1~2m set one;It is mixed Solidifying soil concentrates mix with concrete spraying station, mixes and stirs material and is transported to setting using concrete special conveying;
It sprays at the beginning of construction of shotcrete point and sprays secondary progress again, be just sprayed on excavation (or partial excavation) and carry out immediately after the completion, To close scar as early as possible, surface layer peeling is prevented;Multiple pneumatically placed concrete carries out after the installation of anchor pole, linked network and steelframe, forms connection as early as possible Support system is closed, to inhibit surrouding rock deformation;It is sprayed and put down with concrete between steelframe, protective layer cannot be less than 4cm;
Mixture will be with mixing with spray, and feed is continuously;Spraying operation segmentation, fragment, layering, from bottom to top carry out successively;Layering spray When penetrating, later layer should carry out after previous layer concrete final set, if 1h row injections again after final set, need first to clean spray-up with geomantic omen Face;Spraying machine wind pressure of work is stablized, and for nozzle with being maintained in the range of 0.6~1.5 meter by the distance of spray plane, the angle of injection is best Keep vertical with by spray plane, sprinkler operational should continuously move in a circle, and form helical form, gunite concrete final set 3h After can carry out subsequent cycle operation.

Claims (1)

1. tunnel soft rock large deformation section construction technology, it is characterized in that:
One, advance geologic prediction:
Using geophysical prospecting(TSP+ geological radars), Advance Drilling method(Advance geologic probing method+intensification blasthole detection);
TSP:Weak, broken formation or Karst Area, forecast distance is 100-120m, front and rear lap of splice 10m twice every time More than;Forecast distance is 120-150m every time in rock mass complete hard rock stratum area, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m;
Geological radar method:Geologic radar detection is mainly used for Karst, also uneven available for fault belt, weak intercalated layer The detection of body, every 25m is primary, once ranging from 30m, front and rear more than lap of splice 5m twice;
Advance boreholes:Intend using impact drill and revolution coring, closely physical prospecting forward probe has abnormal ground in verification Section, bore diameter use 89. active breaking belt forward probe length 80-100m of ф, and the lap of splice is not less than 10m, remaining location Forward probe length is not less than 30m, and the front and rear lap of splice twice is not less than 5m, and whether coring is according to different geological conditions for drilling It is determined with detection purpose;
Deepen blasthole:Deepen blasthole forward probe, geological information is obtained using path shallow bore hole is bored on tunnel excavation working face A kind of method, each cycle lays 3-20 intensification blasthole when being drilled with blasthole, deepen more than 3m as detecting compared with cyclic advance Hole;
Two, Specific construction scheme:
(1), advanced middle pipe canopy:
Advance support is to ensure adjoining rock stability, and the major measure of excavation construction safety is the critical process for ensureing smoothly to excavate, edge Excavation contour line, with 5~7 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to the pre- of country rock square in face of excavating Supporting;
Conduit uses 76 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 6mm, single long 6m;Guan Peng is processed into front end tip, tube body It is drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, extrapolation angle 5 °~7 ° tail end of conduit, 0.3 meter of model It encloses and does not drill, pipe tail welding 8 mm of φ put more energy into hoop;
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of middle pipe canopy and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control middle pipe canopy;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, using pipe canopy machine pore-forming, boring direction requirement It is straight, it must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on pipe canopy length;Steel pipe and tunnel Road axis is parallel to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 5 °~7 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:Conduit, is pushed into, and make every effort to pipe by the direction of requirement alignment pore and angle using pipe canopy machine when installing middle pipe canopy Dingle end is advisable in same profile and protruded length with being less than 30cm;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
In the complete rows of e every dozen after tube shed grouting, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 2.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence, and slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting;
The drilling of injected hole:Using pipe canopy machine drill hole, when push pipe, pays attention to steel pipe tail portion is protected not to be damaged for construction, so as to high pressure Grouting Pipe connects, and squeezes into country rock length as 6m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded together;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:In scheduled position, the spindle plunger not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay, In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, make flax silk plunger with Hole wall fully squeezes tightly, then fills aperture with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
The control of grouting pump amount:Pump amount size according to stratum midge rate or water absorption rate or drilling water yield determine, can in no water hole The midge rate of drilling is measured using the method for first pressure injection list liquid cement mortar or clear water;When there is water, according to drilling water yield and Pump capacity determines pump amount:It is general to require pump amount not less than water yield, but when water yield is more than the maximum pump discharge of pump, pump should be made Under the conditions of mixture ratios met the requirements, as far as possible with big pump amount slip casting;
Slip casting terminates using single hole ending standard:Grouting pressure is stepped up, and final pressure and stable 10min, slip casting are designed when reaching 80% of amount not less than design grouting amount is to start to use level pressure slip casting into the 1/4. of slurry speed into slurry speed, when grouting pressure reaches It arrives or close to when designing final pressure value, terminates slip casting, and the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, snare such as occur Spillage, after interval slip casting, slip casting can be terminated;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(2), advanced tubule:
Along excavation contour line, with 10~15 ° of outer limbs, steel pipe, slip casting are squeezed into excavation face front, is formed to side in face of excavating The pre support of country rock;
Conduit uses 42 mm hot rolled seamless steel tubes of specification Φ, wall thickness 3.5mm, single long 3.5m -4.0m, and catheter proximal end is processed into Tip, tube body are drilled with slurry hole, aperture 6-8mm, 10~20cm of pitch of holes, quincuncial arrangement, 10 °~15 ° conduits of extrapolation angle 0.3 meter of range of tail end does not drill;
Conduit is inserted into after being drilled using air pressure gun, manually or mechanically external force is driven into or just heads into;
Construction process:
A cloth holes:According to the detail design of ductule and the center line of excavated section, along vault outer contour center elevation and offset distance Cloth hole setting-out is carried out, and to plug in pricker as the spacing of marking of control ductule;
B pore-formings:Orientation stand is set up first, determines punching direction, position and the elevation angle, and using drilling jumbo pore-forming, boring direction will It asks straight, must not be bent and collapse hole, aperture is mating with diameter of steel tube, and no more than 50mm, hole depth is determined depending on ductule length;Steel pipe It is parallel with tunnel axis to squeeze into arch country rock, steel pipe circumferential direction spacing 40cm to design 10 °~15 ° of the elevation angle;
C is intubated:The direction of requirement alignment pore and angle, make drilling jumbo be pushed into conduit when necessary when installing ductule;
D is sealed:Pneumatically placed concrete 10~15cm thickness, to strengthening closing around pipe tail;
After the complete row grouting with small pipe of e every dozen, excavate arch and apply radial system anchor pole, bar-mat reinforcement, gunite concrete and exist side by side Steel arch-shelf after the completion of preliminary bracing, makes next row conduit and slip casting, the lap of splice is more than 1.0m between often arranging again by design;
Slip casting:
From bottom to top, slip casting uses single tube or multitube parallel slip casting to grouting sequence;Slurries convert step by step from thin to thick, after first dilute It is dense, after slip casting is complete, aperture is blocked immediately, prevents slurries from outflowing;
Grouting mode:TBW-250 grouting pump slip castings are selected in slip casting, consider that single-pipe grouting amount is smaller, using aperture mixer complete opening Pressure injection;
It is prepared by slurries:Cement mortar uses cement paste blender pulping, and is stored with special slurry storing tube;
The drilling of injected hole:Construction is drilled using air rock drill, special to head into, and when push pipe pays attention to protecting steel pipe tail portion not It is damaged, to be connect with high-pressure slip-casting pipe, squeezes into country rock length as 3.5m -4m, and itself and I-steel steelframe are welded on one It rises;
The installation of Grouting Pipe:With holes using pipe shaft, Grouting Pipe is made in one end for the steel floral tube of tip;
The installation method of Grouting Pipe is:In scheduled position, the spindle not less than aperture is wound in the flax silk for speckling with CS clay Shape plunger;In tube inserting holes, with good screw thread protective cap, then with impact device pipe is driven into the depth of requirement, makes fiber crops Silk plunger fully squeezes tightly with hole wall;Then aperture is filled with CS clay again;
Periphery is discharged to for water is squeezed, mud jacking sequence is:First note no water hole, after be marked with water hole;Small water hole is first noted, notes big water hole afterwards;
Grouting pressure controls:Grouting pressure is subject to the value that orifice pressure gage is shown, is controlled to adjust by grouting pump, when pipeline hinders During power≤0.2MPa, drag losses can be omitted, and are monitored by being pumped, oil pressure value are set according to pump pressure and the relationship of oil pressure, really It is convenient to protect slip casting process safety;
Slip casting ending standard:Under normal circumstances, using level pressure slip casting;When grouting pressure reaches or approaches design final pressure value, Terminate slip casting;And the 80% of final pressure is designed when grouting pressure is close to or up to, and such as there is the spillage of snare, it, can after interval slip casting Terminate slip casting;
The processing of slip casting abnormal phenomenon:
Grout leaking phenomenon occurs for a, i.e., when slurry is flowed out from other holes, using more pump slip castings simultaneously or blocks grout leaking hole slip casting;
B slurry pressures increase suddenly, it may occur however that plugging, shutdown inspection;
C slurries grouting amounts are very big, and lengthy pressure does not increase, then should adjust concentration of slurry and match ratio, shorten gel time, A small amount of low-pressure slip castings or intermittent slip casting are carried out, slurries is made to have relative retention time in crack, so as to gel, but during stop Between no more than mixing slurry gel time, be just avoided that generate slip casting it is not full;
(3), preliminary bracing:
System supporting measure mainly has:Gunite concrete, hollow bolt, grouting rock bolt, reinforced mesh and steelframe;Tunnel excavation Afterwards, the concrete of 3~5cm thickness is just sprayed immediately first;It treats that muck removal finishes and applies anchor, net, bracing members joint branch by design requirement again Shield, and gunite concrete is to design thickness;
Mortar anchor constructing method:
It is drilled using air rock drill, bolthole position is vertical with scar, and design hole position deviation ± 150mm, drilling depth permit Perhaps error ± 50mm;With aggregate chips in high-pressure blast cleaning hole after drilling, then anchor pole is installed, intubating length is not less than design length 95%;With after high-pressure blast borehole cleaning after pore-forming, first by 4~5mm of internal diameter, the flexible plastic exhaust pipe of 1~1.5mm of wall thickness with anchor pole together Drilling is sent into bottom hole, and stays outside hole the excess length of 0.5m or so, Grouting Pipe is then fixed on orifice position, and by anchor Rod aperture mouth blocks, and after confirming that exhaust pipe is unimpeded, using dual exhaust method slip casting, stops when comb gas is not vented or overflows thin pulp Only, exhaust pipe is extracted, backing plate tightening nuts are installed after mortar reaches intensity;
Hollow grouting anchor construction method:
A drills:
Hollow bolt boring method is the same as grouting rock bolt boring method;
B anchor poles are installed:
Drilling finishes, and before installing anchor pole, first cleans aggregate chips in bolthole, then hollow bolt is inserted into bolthole, anchor with high-pressure blast Bar insertion depth should meet design code, the exposed 10~20cm of anchor pole, in order to be connect with pneumatic mortar machine grout outlet;
C mud jacking:
Before mud jacking, the special stop grouting plug of anchor pole is pre-installed at bolthole, during mud jacking, anchor pole head is connect with slip casting machine grout outlet, starts to press Slurry;After cement mortar pressure is full in hole, stop grouting plug is held out against immediately, prevents slurries from flowing out;
D backing plates are installed:
Mud jacking finishes, and after nominal strength to be achieved, starts to install anchor pole special backing plate, tightening nuts, backing plate should ensure that and supporting Face scar is closely connected;
(4), screwing steel bars net;
(5), bracing members construction:
Steelframe support is using 2 kinds of profile steel frame and grillage;
For bracing members as rigid arch, the rigidity and intensity of support are big, can make temporary support and individually bear larger country rock pressure Power needs the occasion carried immediately to use in weak broken wall rock;
Bracing members processing and fabricating:
Bracing members press design size welding production, and the radian for ensureing during making often to save meets design requirement with size, according to setting Count size first examination processing 1-2 pieces on steel arch-shelf forming mill, during processing adjustment jack steel arch-shelf radius is examined to meet design will After asking, jack is fixed, carries out batch production processing;
The bracing members that clod wash is completed, on-site consolidation is carried out on the spot on the terrace of setting-out, often saved both ends and welded connecting plate, between node It is connected with securely, ensureing that steel arch-shelf is non-warping, size meets design requirement by connecting plate;
Bracing members are installed:
Steelframe is installed by design requirement, and installation tolerance should meet code requirement, is utilized after installation and is locked foot anchor tube(Bar)Positioning; When backbreaking larger, hogback spray is filled out and first branch peer concrete, so that supporting is closely connected with country rock, the further hair of deformation controlling for rock surrounding gateways It opens up, it is longitudinally connected securely with connection steel bar rod between two rows of steelframes, to form whole force structure;
(6), gunite concrete:
Construction method:
The loosening stone of scar is cleared up before injection, and embedded jetting thickness control mark nail, every 1~2m set one;It is mixed Solidifying soil concentrates mix with concrete spraying station, mixes and stirs material and is transported to setting using concrete special conveying;
It sprays at the beginning of construction of shotcrete point and sprays secondary progress again, be just sprayed on excavation (or partial excavation) and carry out immediately after the completion, To close scar as early as possible, surface layer peeling is prevented;Multiple pneumatically placed concrete carries out after the installation of anchor pole, linked network and steelframe, forms connection as early as possible Support system is closed, to inhibit surrouding rock deformation;It is sprayed and put down with concrete between steelframe, protective layer cannot be less than 4cm;
Mixture will be with mixing with spray, and feed is continuously;Spraying operation segmentation, fragment, layering, from bottom to top carry out successively;Layering spray When penetrating, later layer should carry out after previous layer concrete final set, if 1h row injections again after final set, need first to clean spray-up with geomantic omen Face;Spraying machine wind pressure of work is stablized, and for nozzle with being maintained in the range of 0.6~1.5 meter by the distance of spray plane, the angle of injection is best Keep vertical with by spray plane, sprinkler operational should continuously move in a circle, and form helical form, gunite concrete final set 3h After can carry out subsequent cycle operation.
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CN111997624A (en) * 2020-08-18 2020-11-27 中交二公局第三工程有限公司 Shallow-buried large-section underground excavation rectangular tunnel construction method
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CN112814697A (en) * 2020-12-28 2021-05-18 中铁十九局集团第六工程有限公司 Advanced pre-support process method for tunnel with tillite layer
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CN114320303A (en) * 2021-12-09 2022-04-12 中国铁建大桥工程局集团有限公司 Method for excavating vertical shaft flood discharge tunnel body support
CN114961790A (en) * 2022-05-27 2022-08-30 中南大学 Shield synchronous grouting construction method and construction effect evaluation method thereof
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CN108678772A (en) * 2018-07-17 2018-10-19 湖南科技大学 A kind of multilevel hierarchy suspension device and its construction method for rich water sandy gravel stratum tunnel
CN108868843A (en) * 2018-08-21 2018-11-23 华东建工集团有限公司 A kind of anchor rod support method in tunnel
CN109989777B (en) * 2019-04-03 2020-06-09 中铁十八局集团有限公司 Method for controlling initial support large deformation of tunnel small-mileage extrusion deformation section
CN109989777A (en) * 2019-04-03 2019-07-09 中铁十八局集团有限公司 The method for being squeezed and deformed Duan Chuzhi large deformation for controlling the small mileage in tunnel
CN110130924A (en) * 2019-05-09 2019-08-16 中国电建集团华东勘测设计研究院有限公司 By force to tunnel combined support system and construction method under the conditions of strong rock burst on active
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CN110284889A (en) * 2019-06-24 2019-09-27 中铁隧道局集团有限公司 A kind of flat pilot tunnel Enlargement excavation method of TBM
CN110195604A (en) * 2019-06-24 2019-09-03 中铁隧道局集团有限公司 A kind of threaded list road main tunnel TBM driving section constructing method
WO2020259059A1 (en) * 2019-06-24 2020-12-30 中铁隧道局集团有限公司 Tbm parallel heading tunnel trunk construction method
CN110985063A (en) * 2019-12-20 2020-04-10 交通运输部公路科学研究所 Tunnel advanced large pipe shed detection and karst cave treatment construction method
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CN111485890A (en) * 2020-04-08 2020-08-04 内蒙古金陶股份有限公司 Tunneling method of roadway
CN111997624A (en) * 2020-08-18 2020-11-27 中交二公局第三工程有限公司 Shallow-buried large-section underground excavation rectangular tunnel construction method
CN112814697A (en) * 2020-12-28 2021-05-18 中铁十九局集团第六工程有限公司 Advanced pre-support process method for tunnel with tillite layer
CN114320303A (en) * 2021-12-09 2022-04-12 中国铁建大桥工程局集团有限公司 Method for excavating vertical shaft flood discharge tunnel body support
CN114320362A (en) * 2021-12-18 2022-04-12 中国建筑一局(集团)有限公司 Primary support structure and support method for mountain-crossing highway tunnel in complex area
CN114320362B (en) * 2021-12-18 2024-04-09 中国建筑一局(集团)有限公司 Primary support structure and support method for mountain-penetrating highway tunnel in complex area
CN114961790A (en) * 2022-05-27 2022-08-30 中南大学 Shield synchronous grouting construction method and construction effect evaluation method thereof
CN117052344A (en) * 2023-08-04 2023-11-14 内蒙古平庄煤业(集团)有限责任公司老公营子煤矿 Leakage blocking drilling method for goaf of close-range coal seam group
CN117052344B (en) * 2023-08-04 2024-05-31 内蒙古平庄煤业(集团)有限责任公司老公营子煤矿 Leakage blocking drilling method for goaf of close-range coal seam group

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