WO2020259059A1 - Tbm parallel heading tunnel trunk construction method - Google Patents

Tbm parallel heading tunnel trunk construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2020259059A1
WO2020259059A1 PCT/CN2020/087187 CN2020087187W WO2020259059A1 WO 2020259059 A1 WO2020259059 A1 WO 2020259059A1 CN 2020087187 W CN2020087187 W CN 2020087187W WO 2020259059 A1 WO2020259059 A1 WO 2020259059A1
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WO
WIPO (PCT)
Prior art keywords
construction
tunnel
support
tbm
surrounding rock
Prior art date
Application number
PCT/CN2020/087187
Other languages
French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
周建军
李宏波
张兵
王发民
陈桥
王凯
潘东江
孙飞祥
秦银平
杨振兴
吕乾乾
Original Assignee
中铁隧道局集团有限公司
盾构及掘进技术国家重点实验室
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Application filed by 中铁隧道局集团有限公司, 盾构及掘进技术国家重点实验室 filed Critical 中铁隧道局集团有限公司
Publication of WO2020259059A1 publication Critical patent/WO2020259059A1/en

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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/003Linings or provisions thereon, specially adapted for traffic tunnels, e.g. with built-in cleaning devices
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/003Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, e.g. for guiding machines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/06Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining
    • E21D9/08Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield
    • E21D9/087Making by using a driving shield, i.e. advanced by pushing means bearing against the already placed lining with additional boring or cutting means other than the conventional cutting edge of the shield with a rotary drilling-head cutting simultaneously the whole cross-section, i.e. full-face machines
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH OR ROCK DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F16/00Drainage
    • E21F16/02Drainage of tunnels

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the technical field of tunnel construction, in particular to a construction method of a TBM flat guide tunnel body.
  • the TBM construction section of the main tunnel and the flat guide is usually open-type hard rock tunneling construction, using track transportation, belt conveyor ballasting, laying invert blocks, and the main tunnel and flat guide are synchronized for the second lining of the arch wall After the tunnel is penetrated, the machine will be dismantled in the tunnel. Due to the different situations encountered, the construction methods used will be different. In the construction part, it is necessary to pass through hard rock formations, weak rock formations or fractured layers, etc., and soft rock formations and lithological weaknesses are easily softened by groundwater and soft rock control occurs. Large deformation fracture layer or gravel layer is not easy to be disturbed too much. According to these terrains, different tunneling construction methods need to be designed.
  • the purpose of the present invention is to address the shortcomings of the prior art and provide a TBM flat guide tunnel construction method with strong pertinence, high tunneling construction efficiency, high construction safety, and complete tunnel structure stability.
  • the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
  • a construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel body which includes flat guide station section construction, flat guide TBM preparation tunnel, starting hole and receiving tunnel construction, and flat guide TBM tunneling section construction;
  • the flat guide station section construction Including the construction of the shallow buried section of the entrance and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcrete lining section;
  • the construction of the shallow buried section of the opening adopts the three-step method for excavation, and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolted and shotcrete lining section uses the two step method for excavation;
  • the drilling and blasting method is used for the construction of the horizontal guide TBM preparation tunnel, the starting hole and the receiving tunnel.
  • the three-step method is used for excavation at the surrounding rock of grade V, and the full-face excavation method is used for the surrounding rock of grade III and IV.
  • the construction method of the flat-guided TBM tunneling section includes the following steps:
  • Advanced geological prediction Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, geological radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, and geological sketching to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
  • Initial support The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination.
  • the steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of the III and IV surrounding rock arches; the V surrounding rock section
  • the arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame;
  • the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
  • Invert construction including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining steel reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
  • the three-step method includes the following steps:
  • the upper steps in the middle section are excavated alternately from left to right and used for initial support; the middle steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support and temporary support; the lower steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support, and the enclosure shall be carried out at any time.
  • the two-step method includes the following steps:
  • the ventilation method in step 3) adopts press-in ventilation, and the fan of model SDF(B)-No11 is matched with a ⁇ 1.6m air pipe to supply air to the face of the newly added main tunnel through the transverse channel.
  • the length of the steps involved in the three-step method and the two-step method are both 5-6 m.
  • the advanced pipe shed in step 2) is divided into the advanced large pipe shed and the advanced middle pipe shed, both of which are drilled by a down-the-hole drill and grouted by a grouting pump; the advanced large pipe shed adopts a diameter of ⁇ 108 and a thickness of 6mm
  • the hot-rolled seamless steel pipe is processed, and each of the leading large pipe sheds is 35m long; the circumferential spacing between the leading large pipe sheds is 0.4m, and the insertion angle is 3°.
  • the leading small conduit in step 2) is processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipe with a diameter of ⁇ 42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small conduits is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small conduits is The circumferential spacing is 40cm, the overlapping length of the horizontal projection of two adjacent rows in the longitudinal direction is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
  • step 6 three lines and four tracks are used for transportation during the tunneling of the flat-guide TBM, and a crossover switch is arranged every 3km in the tunnel, and the distance between the switch and the tunnel face is 3km.
  • Advanced geological forecasting and a full understanding of the geological conditions of the tunnel to be excavated will help the construction team to make possible construction plans and pre-plans for the tunnels to be worked on, avoiding mud, water, and collapse during the construction process.
  • the occurrence of controlled accidents is beneficial to increase the controllability of emergencies and ensure construction safety.
  • the advanced geological forecast can determine whether it is necessary to strengthen the advanced support and seepage drainage.
  • the advanced support can reduce the disturbance to the surrounding rock, can effectively inhibit the occurrence and development of deformation, and increase the stability and construction of the tunnel Safety: Draining seepage water can reduce water volume and water pressure, avoid the loss of soft rock, and restrain the deformation of rock formations.
  • the initial support can effectively improve the stress condition of the structure, reduce the exposure and loosening of surrounding rocks, and is beneficial to the safety of the structure and construction.
  • the invention effectively shortens the construction period, improves the construction efficiency, and guarantees the construction safety and the quality of the tunnel at the same time.
  • a construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel body which includes flat guide station section construction, flat guide TBM preparation tunnel, starting hole and receiving tunnel construction, and flat guide TBM tunneling section construction;
  • the flat guide station section construction Including the construction of the shallow buried section of the entrance and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcrete lining section;
  • the construction of the shallow buried section of the opening adopts the three-step method for excavation, and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolted and shotcrete lining section uses the two step method for excavation;
  • the drilling and blasting method is used for the construction of the horizontal guide TBM preparation tunnel, the starting hole and the receiving tunnel.
  • the three-step method is used for excavation at the surrounding rock of grade V, and the full-face excavation method is used for the surrounding rock of grade III and IV.
  • Excavation; the length of the steps involved in the three-step method and the two-step method are both 5-6m.
  • the three-step method includes the following steps:
  • the upper steps in the middle section are excavated alternately from left to right and used for initial support; the middle steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support and temporary support; the lower steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support, and the enclosure shall be carried out at any time.
  • the two-step method includes the following steps:
  • the ventilation method adopts press-in ventilation, and the fan of model SDF(B)-No11 is matched with a ⁇ 1.6m air duct through the transverse channel to add a front hole The face is blown out.
  • the construction method of horizontally guided TBM tunnelling section in soft rock area includes the following steps:
  • Advanced geological prediction Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, ground penetrating radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, and geological sketching to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
  • Initial support The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination.
  • the steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of the III and IV surrounding rock arches; the V surrounding rock section
  • the arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame;
  • the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
  • Invert construction including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining steel reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
  • the construction method of horizontally guided TBM tunneling section in hard rock area includes the following steps:
  • Advanced geological prediction Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, ground penetrating radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, geological sketch, etc. to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
  • Initial support The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination.
  • the steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of grade III and IV surrounding rock arches; the section of grade V surrounding rock
  • the arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame;
  • the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
  • Invert construction including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
  • the advanced pipe shed is divided into the advanced large pipe shed and the advanced middle pipe shed. Both use the down-the-hole drill to form the holes and the grouting pump is used for grouting; the advanced large pipe shed adopts heat with a diameter of ⁇ 108 and a thickness of 6mm. It is made of rolled seamless steel pipes, and each of the leading large pipe sheds is 35m long; the circumferential distance between the leading large pipe sheds is 0.4m, and the insertion angle is 3°.
  • the leading small pipes are processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipes with a diameter of ⁇ 42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small pipes is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small pipes is a circumferential spacing of 40cm, which is longitudinally adjacent The overlapping length of the two rows of horizontal projection is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
  • the construction process of the advanced large pipe shed includes the following steps: construction preparation ⁇ drilling ⁇ hole cleaning ⁇ jacking into the steel pipe shed ⁇ hole cleaning ⁇ grouting operation.
  • Construction preparations firstly make a concrete guide wall during construction.
  • the structural size of the guide wall is 1m (height) * 1m (width), and the guide pipe is embedded in the wall.
  • the guide pipe of the tunnel is made of ⁇ 133mm steel pipe.
  • Drilling and clearing Plan ahead for the pipe shed drilling platform before excavating the original topography of the cave entrance, and reserve stepped soil according to the plan during the excavation process as the pipe shed drilling platform; guide the hole pipe reserved in the wall Positioning and orientation, strictly control the lifting amount and angle of the drilling hole; use the pipe-shed DTH drilling rig to drill the hole by the air-driven dry drilling method, and the drilling parameters such as the diameter of the drill bit, the weight on bit, the speed, the air volume, and the air pressure, etc. Meet construction needs.
  • Jacking into the steel pipe shed After the drilling test is qualified, the steel flower tube is continuously connected to the length, and the drill is rotated to push it into the hole.
  • the steel pipe is welded with a grooved mouth. The length of the grooved mouth is 5cm and the height is the pipe diameter. half.
  • the first section of the pipe is arranged alternately with 3m and 6m, the first section with an odd number of holes uses a 3m long steel pipe, and the first section with an even number of holes uses a 6m long steel pipe. Use 6m long steel pipe.
  • the steel pipe is jacked by a drilling rig, the single hole is jacked into the holed steel pipe, and the double hole is jacked into the non-porous steel tube.
  • the full-hole press-in type is used to inject cement mortar into the large pipe shed, and the grouting pump is used to grouting according to the principle of first down and then up, first thinning and then thickening.
  • the amount of grouting is controlled by pressure, the initial pressure of grouting is 0.5 ⁇ 1.0MPa, and the final pressure is 2.0MPa. After reaching the end mark, stop grouting. After the grouting is completed, the slurry in the pipe should be cleared in time, and the same grade cement mortar or C20 concrete should be used to fill it tightly to enhance the rigidity and strength of the pipe shed.
  • the fault zone and the broken surrounding rock section in the cave adopt the advanced support middle tube shed, and the advanced support middle tube shed adopts ⁇ 60 and ⁇ 50 grouting pipes.
  • the pipe is filled with cement mortar.
  • the process flow has no guiding wall construction procedures. Other construction techniques and large The pipe shed construction process is the same.
  • the construction process of the advanced small pipe includes the following steps: construction preparation ⁇ drilling ⁇ hole cleaning ⁇ installation of steel cannula ⁇ hole cleaning ⁇ grouting operation.
  • the leading small pipes are processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipes with a diameter of ⁇ 42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small pipes is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small pipes is a circumferential spacing of 40cm, which is longitudinally adjacent The overlapping length of the two rows of horizontal projection is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
  • the front end of the leading small pipe is processed into a cone to facilitate insertion and to prevent the grout from rushing forward.
  • the grouting holes are arranged in a plum blossom shape (to prevent dead corners from grouting), with a distance of 15mm, and the tail Do not drill holes within 1m to prevent grout leakage, and weld ring stirrups with a diameter of 6mm at the end to prevent the end from cracking when a small pipe is installed, which affects the connection of the grouting pipe.
  • the installation method of the advanced small pipe use the air rock drill to drill the hole at the predetermined position, insert the pipe into the hole, wear the threaded protective cap, and insert the special head to the required depth to fully squeeze the hemp thread plunger and the hole wall. . Then fill the orifice with CS mortar, and the exposed length of the grouting pipe is 30cm to connect the orifice valve and pipeline.
  • the slurry used for the grouting of the leading small conduit is cement slurry with a water-cement ratio of 1:0.8-1.1 (weight ratio), which is selected by the laboratory during construction, and cement with a strength of not less than 42.5 is used.
  • the grouting pressure is 0.5 ⁇ 1Mpa
  • the single-hole grout injection quantity Q is related to the porosity of the surrounding rock. It is estimated based on the diffusion radius and the cracks of the rock formation, and its value is:
  • the construction process of the initial support is to spray the concrete first, then lay the steel mesh, then drill the radial anchor rod, and then re-spray the concrete to the design thickness.
  • the spray concrete support construction procedure is: advanced geological forecast ⁇ excavation ⁇ initial spray concrete 4cm ⁇ construction setting out ⁇ installation of steel frame and hanging steel net ⁇ monitoring ⁇ application of system anchor rod ⁇ spraying to the design thickness.
  • the construction procedure of mortar anchor rod is: firstly locate and prepare for construction, use the anchor rod trolley or pneumatic rock drill to drill the anchor hole, after drilling the anchor hole, use high-pressure air to blow the rock debris in the anchor hole and check the depth of the anchor hole , And then send the anchor rod containing the anchor rod guide frame into the anchor hole, and reach the bottom of the anchor hole, and pay attention to rotating the mortar anchor rod, so that the end of the mortar anchor rod exposes the anchor hole 10cm, so as to weld with the steel mesh; Install the stop plug at the anchor hole at the end of the mortar anchor rod, and then use the grouting pipe to connect the end of the mortar anchor rod with the grouting pump for the mortar anchor rod.
  • the arches and side walls are grouted by the double-pipe exhaust method.
  • a soft plastic exhaust pipe with an inner diameter of ⁇ 4 ⁇ 5mm and a wall thickness of 1 ⁇ 1.5mm is fed into the borehole with the anchor rod to the bottom of the hole, leaving a surplus length of about 1m outside the hole, and then fix the grouting pipe at the anchor hole
  • After confirming that the exhaust pipe is unblocked start to inject the mortar until the exhaust pipe is not exhausted or the slurry overflows, and then pull out the exhaust pipe. Install the pad after the mortar reaches the strength Tighten the nut on the plate.
  • the water-cement ratio of the slurry used for grouting is 1:0.8-1.1 by weight, and the strength of the cement is not less than 42.5.
  • Hollow bolt construction drilling uses bolting trolleys or pneumatic rock drills. Before drilling, determine the hole position according to the design requirements. The drilling is straight and perpendicular to the structural surface of the rock at the location. The drilling diameter is ⁇ 42mm, and the drilling depth 10cm longer than the design length of the bolt.
  • the hollow grouting anchor construction procedure is: after drilling the hole, blow the cuttings in the hole with high pressure wind; combine the anchor head and the end of the anchor rod, wear gaskets and nuts; send the combined rod body into the hole and reach Bottom of the hole; penetrate the end of the anchor rod to level the hole and fasten it to the rod; make sure that the hole is filled with grout during grouting, and the grouting pressure meets the design or specification requirements, and when the exhaust pipe overflows with thick grout Stop grouting; after the strength of the slurry reaches 70%, put an arched backing plate on the end of the anchor rod, and then tighten the nut according to the specified torque.
  • the water-cement ratio of the slurry used for grouting is 1:0.4-0.5 by weight, the grouting pressure is 0.3-0.8MPa, and the cement slurry is used as it is mixed.
  • the grille steel frame is formed according to the design on the outside of the hole, and the hole is installed after the initial sprayed concrete, and welded with the anchor rod. Longitudinal connecting ribs are set between the grille steel frames, and the space between the grille steel frames is filled with spray concrete.
  • the arch feet of the grille steel frame are placed on a solid foundation. When erected, they are perpendicular to the center line of the tunnel. When the gap is too large, set a spacer and fill it with spray concrete.
  • the spraying of concrete is completed in two times, namely, initial spraying and re-spraying.
  • the sprayed concrete is mainly wet spraying, and the tidal spraying process is used for areas with large water content.
  • the spray material is mixed by the concrete mixing station outside the cave and transported by the concrete conveyor.
  • the thickness of the first sprayed concrete is 4 ⁇ 5cm, and the surrounding rock can be sealed quickly.
  • the drilling and blasting section uses a wheeled wet spraying manipulator, and the TBM tunneling section uses the TBM's own wet spraying manipulator.
  • the re-spraying shall be carried out after the arch frame, net hanging and anchor rod operations are completed.
  • the wet spraying process is adopted and the spraying manipulator is used for construction.
  • the spraying concrete is carried out in segments, slices, and layers, from bottom to top, from no water, less water to water, more water areas, and pipes are placed in many water locations to drain the water.
  • the nozzle is basically perpendicular to the sprayed surface, and the distance is maintained at 1.5 ⁇ 2.0m.
  • the gap between the steel frame and the rock surface is filled with sprayed concrete.
  • the spraying sequence is symmetrical first down and then up. The gap between the steel frame and the surrounding rock is sprayed first, and then the steel frame is sprayed. In between, the steel frame should be covered by sprayed concrete, and the protective layer should not be less than 4cm.
  • the diameter of the circle is about 30cm, and strive to spray the concrete surface smoothly.
  • the thickness of one shot is controlled below 6cm, and the length of each section does not exceed 6m.
  • the scale of the fault fracture zone is medium-scale, and the collapse is more serious.
  • a steel frame is erected, steel mesh is hung, and the hand-sprayed concrete system is used to spray concrete to the collapsed area to seal the surrounding rock in time to reduce the surrounding rock.
  • the pre-injection chemical slurry is used to reinforce the stratum slowly and pass the plan. If it is unable to pass through, a circuitous pilot pit is used, and the fracture zone is excavated by drilling and blasting. TBM Step through the plan.

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Abstract

A TBM parallel heading tunnel trunk construction method. Parallel heading tunnel trunk construction comprises parallel heading station section construction, parallel heading TBM preparation tunnel, starting tunnel and receiving tunnel construction, and parallel heading TBM tunneling section construction. The parallel heading station section construction comprises tunnel portal shallow-buried section construction and IV-level surrounding rock bolt-shotcrete lining section construction. A three-step method is used for excavation in the tunnel portal shallow-buried section construction, and a two-step method is used for excavation in the IV-level surrounding rock bolt-shotcrete lining section construction. During the parallel heading TBM preparation tunnel, starting tunnel and receiving tunnel construction, a drilling and blasting method is used for construction, the three-step is used for excavation at V-level surrounding rocks, and a full-face tunneling method is used for excavation at III-level and IV-level surrounding rocks. Using different construction modes for different geology effectively shortens the construction period and improves the construction efficiency, and the designed construction method is adopted to ensure the safety of the construction process and the stability of the surrounding rocks.

Description

一种TBM平导洞身施工方法A construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及隧道施工技术领域,具体涉及一种TBM平导洞身施工方法。The invention relates to the technical field of tunnel construction, in particular to a construction method of a TBM flat guide tunnel body.
背景技术Background technique
在山体隧道施工时,正洞和平导TBM施工段通常敞开式硬岩掘进机掘进施工,采用有轨运输,皮带机出碴方式,铺设仰拱块,正洞和平导同步进行拱墙二次衬砌模筑砼施工,隧道贯通后,在隧道内实施拆机。由于遇到的情况不同所采用的的施工方式也会不同,在该施工部分要穿越硬质岩层、软弱岩层或断裂层等,而软弱岩层和岩性软弱遇地下水极易软化而发生软岩控制型大变形断裂层或碎石层不易太大扰动。针对这些地形需要设计不同的掘进施工方法。In the construction of mountain tunnels, the TBM construction section of the main tunnel and the flat guide is usually open-type hard rock tunneling construction, using track transportation, belt conveyor ballasting, laying invert blocks, and the main tunnel and flat guide are synchronized for the second lining of the arch wall After the tunnel is penetrated, the machine will be dismantled in the tunnel. Due to the different situations encountered, the construction methods used will be different. In the construction part, it is necessary to pass through hard rock formations, weak rock formations or fractured layers, etc., and soft rock formations and lithological weaknesses are easily softened by groundwater and soft rock control occurs. Large deformation fracture layer or gravel layer is not easy to be disturbed too much. According to these terrains, different tunneling construction methods need to be designed.
发明内容Summary of the invention
有鉴于此,本发明的目的是针对现有技术的不足,提供一种针对性强、掘进施工效率高、施工安全性高、完成隧道结构稳固的TBM平导洞身施工方法。In view of this, the purpose of the present invention is to address the shortcomings of the prior art and provide a TBM flat guide tunnel construction method with strong pertinence, high tunneling construction efficiency, high construction safety, and complete tunnel structure stability.
为达到上述目的,本发明采用以下技术方案:To achieve the above objective, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions:
一种TBM平导洞身施工方法,平导洞身施工包括平导车站段施工、平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工,以及平导TBM掘进段施工;所述平导车站段施工包括洞口浅埋段施工和Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工;所述洞口浅埋段施工采用三台阶法开挖,所述Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工采用两台阶法开挖;在所述平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工时采 用钻爆法施工,在位于Ⅴ级围岩处采用三台阶法开挖,在位于Ⅲ和Ⅳ级围岩处采用全断面开挖法开挖;A construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel body, which includes flat guide station section construction, flat guide TBM preparation tunnel, starting hole and receiving tunnel construction, and flat guide TBM tunneling section construction; the flat guide station section construction Including the construction of the shallow buried section of the entrance and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcrete lining section; the construction of the shallow buried section of the opening adopts the three-step method for excavation, and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolted and shotcrete lining section uses the two step method for excavation; The drilling and blasting method is used for the construction of the horizontal guide TBM preparation tunnel, the starting hole and the receiving tunnel. The three-step method is used for excavation at the surrounding rock of grade V, and the full-face excavation method is used for the surrounding rock of grade III and IV. Excavation
所述平导TBM掘进段施工的方法包括以下步骤:The construction method of the flat-guided TBM tunneling section includes the following steps:
1)超前地质预报:运用TSP203、地质雷达、超前钻探、红外探水、地质素描的先进仪器和手段对施工掌子面前方30m范围内的地质情况进行综合超前地质探测和预报,提前预测松散、破碎带情况,利用地质素描法对断层的长度、高度、倾角及水量等做出综合预测预报;1) Advanced geological prediction: Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, geological radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, and geological sketching to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
2)加强超前支护:采用超前管棚、超前注浆、径向注浆、加强支护措施加强掌子面防护;当遇易大变形地段施工时,采用超前小导管注浆支护方式超前加固围岩;当遇断层破碎地段时,采取注双液浆形式超前快速固结围岩破碎段;若变形较小时可采用加密加长径向锚杆,提高围岩自承能力,通过预注浆提高围岩稳定性,以控制塑性区的发展,还设置了小导管或中管棚加强超前支护,同时采用加密型钢架进行支护;2) Strengthen advanced support: use advanced pipe shed, advanced grouting, radial grouting, and strengthened support measures to strengthen the protection of the face; when the construction is prone to large deformation, the advanced small pipe grouting support method is used to advance Reinforce the surrounding rock; when encountering faulted sections, adopt the form of double liquid grout injection to quickly consolidate the crushed sections of surrounding rock; if the deformation is small, the radial bolts can be densely lengthened to improve the self-supporting capacity of the surrounding rock through pre-grouting Improve the stability of the surrounding rock to control the development of the plastic zone, and also set up small pipes or middle pipe sheds to strengthen the advance support, and at the same time use the dense steel frame for support;
3)渗水引排:掌子面前方30m范围岩体为破碎带,探孔地下水成股状水涌出,水压≥0.5MPa时,判识围岩自稳能力较好,进行排水降压,之后采用支护方式进行加固围岩;判识围岩自稳能力差,介质在水作用下易流失,进行排水降压,之后采用注浆加固围岩;3) Seepage water drainage: The rock mass within 30m in front of the head is a broken zone, and the groundwater from the exploration hole gushes out into strands. When the water pressure is ≥0.5MPa, the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is judged to be better, and drainage and pressure reduction are performed. Afterwards, the support method is adopted to reinforce the surrounding rock; the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is poor, and the medium is easily lost under the action of water, drainage and pressure reduction are performed, and then the surrounding rock is reinforced by grouting;
4)初期支护:初期支护由挂钢筋网、喷射砼和锚杆单独或联合组成,Ⅲ、Ⅳ级围岩拱部120°范围内增加格栅钢架加强支护;Ⅴ级围岩地段拱墙增加格栅钢架加强支护;所述锚杆包括砂浆锚杆和中空锚杆,拱部采用注浆中空锚杆,其余边墙采用砂浆锚杆;4) Initial support: The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination. The steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of the Ⅲ and Ⅳ surrounding rock arches; the Ⅴ surrounding rock section The arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame; the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
5)仰拱施作:包括仰拱开挖、初喷混凝土、安装仰拱钢拱架、终喷 砼、防排水管安装、仰拱衬砌钢筋施工和仰拱回填;5) Invert construction: including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining steel reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
6)铺轨、设备区域抽排水、平导TBM掘进,换步作业进行下次循环。6) Track laying, drainage of equipment area, flat-guided TBM tunneling, and change step operation for the next cycle.
优选的,所述三台阶法包括以下步骤:Preferably, the three-step method includes the following steps:
1)测量放线,施作超前支护;1) Measure and set out the line and implement advanced support;
2)左侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;左侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;2) Excavate the upper steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support; excavate the lower steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support, and monitor the surrounding rock at any time;
3)右侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;右侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;3) Excavation of the upper steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support; excavation of the lower steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support, and monitoring and measurement of surrounding rock at any time;
4)中部上台阶左右交错开挖,并施作初期支护;中部中台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;中部下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;4) The upper steps in the middle section are excavated alternately from left to right and used for initial support; the middle steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support and temporary support; the lower steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support, and the enclosure shall be carried out at any time. Rock monitoring measurement;
5)拆除靠近二次衬砌6-8m范围内底部两侧壁的临时支护,浇筑仰拱及仰拱填充砼;5) Remove the temporary support of the two side walls at the bottom within 6-8m of the secondary lining, and pour the inverted arch and the inverted arch filled concrete;
6)拆除剩余的临时支护,施作二次衬砌。6) Remove the remaining temporary supports and construct secondary lining.
优选的,所述两台阶法包括以下步骤:Preferably, the two-step method includes the following steps:
1)施工准备,超前地质预报;1) Construction preparation, advanced geological forecast;
2)爆破设计,测量放线;2) Blasting design, measuring and setting out;
3)上台阶钻眼,装药爆破,通风排烟;3) Drill holes on the stairs, explosive blasting, ventilation and smoke exhaust;
4)初喷砼;4) Initial sprayed concrete;
5)检查爆破效果,装碴运输,出现超挖时调整爆破参数,并重复步骤2)-4);5) Check the blasting effect, load and transport the ballast, adjust the blasting parameters when over-excavation occurs, and repeat steps 2)-4);
6)上下台阶施作初期支护;6) Up and down steps for initial support;
7)监控量测,不达标的进行加强支护;7) Monitor and measure, and strengthen support for those that do not meet the standards;
8)下循环开挖。8) Excavation in the next cycle.
优选的,步骤3)中通风方式采用压入式通风,采用型号为SDF(B)-№11的风机匹配Φ1.6m的风管通过横通道向新增正洞掌子面送风。Preferably, the ventilation method in step 3) adopts press-in ventilation, and the fan of model SDF(B)-№11 is matched with a Φ1.6m air pipe to supply air to the face of the newly added main tunnel through the transverse channel.
优选的,所述三台阶法和两台阶法中涉及到的台阶长度均为5-6m。Preferably, the length of the steps involved in the three-step method and the two-step method are both 5-6 m.
优选的,步骤2)中的超前管棚分为超前大管棚和超前中管棚,均采用潜孔钻机成孔,注浆泵注浆;超前大管棚采用直径为φ108,厚度为6mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前大管棚长35m;所述超前大管棚之间的环向间距为0.4m,外插角为3°。Preferably, the advanced pipe shed in step 2) is divided into the advanced large pipe shed and the advanced middle pipe shed, both of which are drilled by a down-the-hole drill and grouted by a grouting pump; the advanced large pipe shed adopts a diameter of φ108 and a thickness of 6mm The hot-rolled seamless steel pipe is processed, and each of the leading large pipe sheds is 35m long; the circumferential spacing between the leading large pipe sheds is 0.4m, and the insertion angle is 3°.
优选的,步骤2)中的超前小导管采用直径为φ42,厚度为3.5mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前小导管长3.5m;所述小导管的排列方式为环向间距40cm,纵向相邻两排的水平投影搭接长度不小于150cm,外插角为5~10°。Preferably, the leading small conduit in step 2) is processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipe with a diameter of φ42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small conduits is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small conduits is The circumferential spacing is 40cm, the overlapping length of the horizontal projection of two adjacent rows in the longitudinal direction is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
优选的,步骤6)中所述平导TBM掘进过程中运输采用三线四轨,在隧道内每各3km布设一个渡线道岔,道岔至掌子面间距为3km。Preferably, in step 6), three lines and four tracks are used for transportation during the tunneling of the flat-guide TBM, and a crossover switch is arranged every 3km in the tunnel, and the distance between the switch and the tunnel face is 3km.
本发明的有益效果是:The beneficial effects of the present invention are:
超前地质预报,对即将开挖的隧道地质情况进行充分了解,有利于施工团队对待工作的隧道做出可能出现情况的施工方案和预案,避免在施工过程中出现突泥、突水、坍方等不可控的事故的发生,有利于增加对突发事件的可控性能,确保施工安全性。Advanced geological forecasting and a full understanding of the geological conditions of the tunnel to be excavated will help the construction team to make possible construction plans and pre-plans for the tunnels to be worked on, avoiding mud, water, and collapse during the construction process. The occurrence of controlled accidents is beneficial to increase the controllability of emergencies and ensure construction safety.
在软岩施工地段经过超前地质预报可以确定是否需要进行加强超前 支护和渗水引排,超前支护可以减少对围岩的扰动,可以有效抑制变形的发生和发展,增加隧道的稳固性和施工安全性;将渗水引排可以降低水量和水压,避免软岩的流失,抑制岩层的变形。在硬岩施工地段不需要超前支护和渗水引排的施工。In the soft rock construction section, the advanced geological forecast can determine whether it is necessary to strengthen the advanced support and seepage drainage. The advanced support can reduce the disturbance to the surrounding rock, can effectively inhibit the occurrence and development of deformation, and increase the stability and construction of the tunnel Safety: Draining seepage water can reduce water volume and water pressure, avoid the loss of soft rock, and restrain the deformation of rock formations. In the hard rock construction section, there is no need for advance support and seepage drainage construction.
初期支护可以有效改善结构的受力状况,减少围岩的暴露和松动的情况,有利于结构和施工的安全性。The initial support can effectively improve the stress condition of the structure, reduce the exposure and loosening of surrounding rocks, and is beneficial to the safety of the structure and construction.
本发明通过对不同地质采用不同的施工方案,有效缩短施工周期,提高施工效率,同时保证施工安全和隧洞的质量。By adopting different construction schemes for different geology, the invention effectively shortens the construction period, improves the construction efficiency, and guarantees the construction safety and the quality of the tunnel at the same time.
具体实施方式Detailed ways
下面结合实施例对本发明作进一步描述。The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with embodiments.
一种TBM平导洞身施工方法,平导洞身施工包括平导车站段施工、平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工,以及平导TBM掘进段施工;所述平导车站段施工包括洞口浅埋段施工和Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工;所述洞口浅埋段施工采用三台阶法开挖,所述Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工采用两台阶法开挖;在所述平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工时采用钻爆法施工,在位于Ⅴ级围岩处采用三台阶法开挖,在位于Ⅲ和Ⅳ级围岩处采用全断面开挖法开挖;其中三台阶法和两台阶法中涉及到的台阶长度均为5-6m。A construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel body, which includes flat guide station section construction, flat guide TBM preparation tunnel, starting hole and receiving tunnel construction, and flat guide TBM tunneling section construction; the flat guide station section construction Including the construction of the shallow buried section of the entrance and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcrete lining section; the construction of the shallow buried section of the opening adopts the three-step method for excavation, and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolted and shotcrete lining section uses the two step method for excavation; The drilling and blasting method is used for the construction of the horizontal guide TBM preparation tunnel, the starting hole and the receiving tunnel. The three-step method is used for excavation at the surrounding rock of grade V, and the full-face excavation method is used for the surrounding rock of grade III and IV. Excavation; the length of the steps involved in the three-step method and the two-step method are both 5-6m.
所述三台阶法包括以下步骤:The three-step method includes the following steps:
1)测量放线,施作超前支护;1) Measure and set out the line and implement advanced support;
2)左侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;左侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;2) Excavate the upper steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support; excavate the lower steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support, and monitor the surrounding rock at any time;
3)右侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;右侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;3) Excavation of the upper steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support; excavation of the lower steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support, and monitoring and measurement of surrounding rock at any time;
4)中部上台阶左右交错开挖,并施作初期支护;中部中台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;中部下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;4) The upper steps in the middle section are excavated alternately from left to right and used for initial support; the middle steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support and temporary support; the lower steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support, and the enclosure shall be carried out at any time. Rock monitoring measurement;
5)拆除靠近二次衬砌6-8m范围内底部两侧壁的临时支护,浇筑仰拱及仰拱填充砼;5) Remove the temporary support of the two side walls at the bottom within 6-8m of the secondary lining, and pour the inverted arch and the inverted arch filled concrete;
6)拆除剩余的临时支护,施作二次衬砌。6) Remove the remaining temporary supports and construct secondary lining.
所述两台阶法包括以下步骤:The two-step method includes the following steps:
1)施工准备,超前地质预报;1) Construction preparation, advanced geological forecast;
2)爆破设计,测量放线;2) Blasting design, measuring and setting out;
3)上台阶钻眼,装药爆破,通风排烟;通风方式采用压入式通风,采用型号为SDF(B)-№11的风机匹配Φ1.6m的风管通过横通道向新增正洞掌子面送风。3) Drilling on the upper step, explosive blasting, ventilation and smoke exhaust; the ventilation method adopts press-in ventilation, and the fan of model SDF(B)-№11 is matched with a Φ1.6m air duct through the transverse channel to add a front hole The face is blown out.
4)初喷砼;4) Initial sprayed concrete;
5)检查爆破效果,装碴运输,出现超挖时调整爆破参数,并重复步骤2)-4);5) Check the blasting effect, load and transport the ballast, adjust the blasting parameters when over-excavation occurs, and repeat steps 2)-4);
6)上下台阶施作初期支护;6) Up and down steps for initial support;
7)监控量测,不达标的进行加强支护;7) Monitor and measure, and strengthen support for those that do not meet the standards;
8)下循环开挖。8) Excavation in the next cycle.
在软岩区域内平导TBM掘进段施工的方法包括以下步骤:The construction method of horizontally guided TBM tunnelling section in soft rock area includes the following steps:
1)超前地质预报:运用TSP203、地质雷达、超前钻探、红外探水、 地质素描的先进仪器和手段对施工掌子面前方30m范围内的地质情况进行综合超前地质探测和预报,提前预测松散、破碎带情况,利用地质素描法对断层的长度、高度、倾角及水量等做出综合预测预报;1) Advanced geological prediction: Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, ground penetrating radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, and geological sketching to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
2)加强超前支护:采用超前管棚、超前注浆、径向注浆、加强支护措施加强掌子面防护;当遇易大变形地段施工时,采用超前小导管注浆支护方式超前加固围岩;当遇断层破碎地段时,采取注双液浆形式超前快速固结围岩破碎段;若变形较小时可采用加密加长径向锚杆,提高围岩自承能力,通过预注浆提高围岩稳定性,以控制塑性区的发展,还设置了小导管或中管棚加强超前支护,同时采用加密型钢架进行支护;2) Strengthen advanced support: use advanced pipe shed, advanced grouting, radial grouting, and strengthened support measures to strengthen the protection of the face; when the construction is prone to large deformation, the advanced small pipe grouting support method is used to advance Reinforce the surrounding rock; when encountering faulted sections, adopt the form of double liquid grout injection to quickly consolidate the crushed sections of surrounding rock; if the deformation is small, the radial bolts can be densely lengthened to improve the self-supporting capacity of the surrounding rock through pre-grouting Improve the stability of the surrounding rock to control the development of the plastic zone, and also set up small pipes or middle pipe sheds to strengthen the advance support, and at the same time use the dense steel frame for support;
3)渗水引排:掌子面前方30m范围岩体为破碎带,探孔地下水成股状水涌出,水压≥0.5MPa时,判识围岩自稳能力较好,进行排水降压,之后采用支护方式进行加固围岩;判识围岩自稳能力差,介质在水作用下易流失,进行排水降压,之后采用注浆加固围岩;3) Seepage water drainage: The rock mass within 30m in front of the head is a broken zone, and the groundwater from the exploration hole gushes out into strands. When the water pressure is ≥0.5MPa, the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is judged to be better, and drainage and pressure reduction are performed. Afterwards, the support method is adopted to reinforce the surrounding rock; the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is poor, and the medium is easily lost under the action of water, drainage and pressure reduction are performed, and then the surrounding rock is reinforced by grouting;
4)初期支护:初期支护由挂钢筋网、喷射砼和锚杆单独或联合组成,Ⅲ、Ⅳ级围岩拱部120°范围内增加格栅钢架加强支护;Ⅴ级围岩地段拱墙增加格栅钢架加强支护;所述锚杆包括砂浆锚杆和中空锚杆,拱部采用注浆中空锚杆,其余边墙采用砂浆锚杆;4) Initial support: The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination. The steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of the Ⅲ and Ⅳ surrounding rock arches; the Ⅴ surrounding rock section The arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame; the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
5)仰拱施作:包括仰拱开挖、初喷混凝土、安装仰拱钢拱架、终喷砼、防排水管安装、仰拱衬砌钢筋施工和仰拱回填;5) Invert construction: including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining steel reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
6)铺轨、设备区域抽排水、平导TBM掘进,换步作业进行下次循环。6) Track laying, drainage of equipment area, flat-guided TBM tunneling, and change step operation for the next cycle.
在硬岩区域内平导TBM掘进段施工的方法包括以下步骤:The construction method of horizontally guided TBM tunneling section in hard rock area includes the following steps:
1)超前地质预报:运用TSP203、地质雷达、超前钻探、红外探水、地质素描等先进仪器和手段对施工掌子面前方30m范围内的地质情况进行综合超前地质探测和预报,提前预测松散、破碎带情况,利用地质素描法对断层的长度、高度、倾角及水量等做出综合预测预报;1) Advanced geological prediction: Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, ground penetrating radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, geological sketch, etc. to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
2)初期支护:初期支护由挂钢筋网、喷射砼和锚杆单独或联合组成,Ⅲ、Ⅳ级围岩拱部120°范围内增加格栅钢架加强支护;Ⅴ级围岩地段拱墙增加格栅钢架加强支护;所述锚杆包括砂浆锚杆和中空锚杆,拱部采用注浆中空锚杆,其余边墙采用砂浆锚杆;2) Initial support: The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination. The steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of grade III and IV surrounding rock arches; the section of grade V surrounding rock The arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame; the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
3)仰拱施作:包括仰拱开挖、初喷混凝土、安装仰拱钢拱架、终喷砼、防排水管安装、仰拱衬砌钢筋施工和仰拱回填;3) Invert construction: including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
4)铺轨、设备区域抽排水、平导TBM掘进,换步作业进行下次循环。在平导TBM掘进过程中运输采用三线四轨,在隧道内每各3km布设一个渡线道岔,道岔至掌子面间距为3km。4) Track laying, drainage of equipment area, flat-guided TBM tunneling, and stepping operation for the next cycle. Three lines and four tracks are used in the process of flat-guided TBM tunneling. A crossover switch is arranged every 3km in the tunnel, and the distance between the switch and the tunnel face is 3km.
对平导TBM掘进段施工方法做进一步解释:To further explain the construction method of the tunneling section of the horizontal guide TBM:
加强超前支护过程中得超前管棚分为超前大管棚和超前中管棚,均采用潜孔钻机成孔,注浆泵注浆;超前大管棚采用直径为φ108,厚度为6mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前大管棚长35m;所述超前大管棚之间的环向间距为0.4m,外插角为3°。超前小导管采用直径为φ42,厚度为3.5mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前小导管长3.5m;所述小导管的排列方式为环向间距40cm,纵向相邻两排的水平投影搭接长度不小于150cm,外插角为5~10°。In the process of strengthening the advanced support, the advanced pipe shed is divided into the advanced large pipe shed and the advanced middle pipe shed. Both use the down-the-hole drill to form the holes and the grouting pump is used for grouting; the advanced large pipe shed adopts heat with a diameter of φ108 and a thickness of 6mm. It is made of rolled seamless steel pipes, and each of the leading large pipe sheds is 35m long; the circumferential distance between the leading large pipe sheds is 0.4m, and the insertion angle is 3°. The leading small pipes are processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipes with a diameter of φ42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small pipes is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small pipes is a circumferential spacing of 40cm, which is longitudinally adjacent The overlapping length of the two rows of horizontal projection is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
超前大管棚施工流程包括以下步骤:施工准备工作→钻孔→清孔→ 顶进钢管棚→清孔→注浆作业。The construction process of the advanced large pipe shed includes the following steps: construction preparation → drilling → hole cleaning → jacking into the steel pipe shed → hole cleaning → grouting operation.
施工准备工作:施工时先作砼导向墙,导向墙结构尺寸1m(高)*1m(宽),墙内预埋导向管,隧道正洞导向管采用Φ133mm钢管。Construction preparations: firstly make a concrete guide wall during construction. The structural size of the guide wall is 1m (height) * 1m (width), and the guide pipe is embedded in the wall. The guide pipe of the tunnel is made of Φ133mm steel pipe.
钻孔及清孔:洞口原地貌开挖前对管棚钻机作业平台提前规划,开挖过程中按照规划预留台阶式土体,作为管棚钻孔作业平台;以导向墙内预留的孔口管定位、定向,严格控制钻孔上抬量和角度;选用管棚潜孔钻机风动干钻法钻进成孔,风动冲击回旋钻头直径、钻压、转速、风量、风压等钻进参数满足施工需要。Drilling and clearing: Plan ahead for the pipe shed drilling platform before excavating the original topography of the cave entrance, and reserve stepped soil according to the plan during the excavation process as the pipe shed drilling platform; guide the hole pipe reserved in the wall Positioning and orientation, strictly control the lifting amount and angle of the drilling hole; use the pipe-shed DTH drilling rig to drill the hole by the air-driven dry drilling method, and the drilling parameters such as the diameter of the drill bit, the weight on bit, the speed, the air volume, and the air pressure, etc. Meet construction needs.
顶进钢管棚:钻孔检测合格后,将钢花管连续接长,用钻机旋转顶进将其装入孔内,钢管采用企型口焊接连接,企型口开口长度5cm,高度为管径的一半。为使钢管接头错开,第一节管采用3m和6m交替布置,孔位编号为奇数的第一节管采用3m长钢管,孔位编号为偶数的第一节采用6m长钢管,以后每节均采用6m长钢管。钢管用钻机顶进,单号孔顶进有孔花钢管,双号孔顶进无孔钢管。Jacking into the steel pipe shed: After the drilling test is qualified, the steel flower tube is continuously connected to the length, and the drill is rotated to push it into the hole. The steel pipe is welded with a grooved mouth. The length of the grooved mouth is 5cm and the height is the pipe diameter. half. In order to stagger the joints of the steel pipes, the first section of the pipe is arranged alternately with 3m and 6m, the first section with an odd number of holes uses a 3m long steel pipe, and the first section with an even number of holes uses a 6m long steel pipe. Use 6m long steel pipe. The steel pipe is jacked by a drilling rig, the single hole is jacked into the holed steel pipe, and the double hole is jacked into the non-porous steel tube.
注浆作业:采用全孔压入式向大管棚内压注水泥砂浆,用注浆泵按先下后上,先稀后浓的原则注浆。注浆量由压力控制,注浆初压0.5~1.0MPa,终压2.0MPa。达到结束标注后,停止注浆。注浆完成后及时清除管内浆液,并用同等级水泥沙浆或C20砼紧密充填,增强管棚的刚度和强度。Grouting operation: The full-hole press-in type is used to inject cement mortar into the large pipe shed, and the grouting pump is used to grouting according to the principle of first down and then up, first thinning and then thickening. The amount of grouting is controlled by pressure, the initial pressure of grouting is 0.5~1.0MPa, and the final pressure is 2.0MPa. After reaching the end mark, stop grouting. After the grouting is completed, the slurry in the pipe should be cleared in time, and the same grade cement mortar or C20 concrete should be used to fill it tightly to enhance the rigidity and strength of the pipe shed.
洞内断层带、破碎围岩段采用超前支护中管棚,超前支护中管棚采用Ф60、Ф50注浆管,管内填筑水泥砂浆,工艺流程无导向墙施工工序,其它施工工艺与大管棚施工工艺流程相一致。The fault zone and the broken surrounding rock section in the cave adopt the advanced support middle tube shed, and the advanced support middle tube shed adopts Ф60 and Ф50 grouting pipes. The pipe is filled with cement mortar. The process flow has no guiding wall construction procedures. Other construction techniques and large The pipe shed construction process is the same.
超前小导管施工流程包括以下步骤:施工准备工作→钻孔→清孔→安装钢插管→清孔→注浆作业。The construction process of the advanced small pipe includes the following steps: construction preparation → drilling → hole cleaning → installation of steel cannula → hole cleaning → grouting operation.
超前小导管采用直径为φ42,厚度为3.5mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前小导管长3.5m;所述小导管的排列方式为环向间距40cm,纵向相邻两排的水平投影搭接长度不小于150cm,外插角为5~10°。The leading small pipes are processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipes with a diameter of φ42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each of the leading small pipes is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small pipes is a circumferential spacing of 40cm, which is longitudinally adjacent The overlapping length of the two rows of horizontal projection is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
超前小导管前端加工成锥形,以便插打,并防止浆液前冲,小导管中间部位钻φ10mm的注浆孔,注浆孔呈梅花形布置(防止注浆出现死角),间距为15mm,尾部1m范围内不钻孔以防漏浆,末端焊直径为6mm的环形箍筋,以防打设小导管时端部开裂,影响注浆管联接。The front end of the leading small pipe is processed into a cone to facilitate insertion and to prevent the grout from rushing forward. Drill a φ10mm grouting hole in the middle of the small pipe. The grouting holes are arranged in a plum blossom shape (to prevent dead corners from grouting), with a distance of 15mm, and the tail Do not drill holes within 1m to prevent grout leakage, and weld ring stirrups with a diameter of 6mm at the end to prevent the end from cracking when a small pipe is installed, which affects the connection of the grouting pipe.
超前小导管安装方法:在预定的位置用风动凿岩机钻孔,把管子插入孔内,带好丝扣保护帽,专用顶头顶入到要求的深度,使麻丝柱塞与孔壁充分挤压紧。然后再用CS胶泥填充孔口,注浆管的外露长度为30cm,以便连接孔口阀门和管路。The installation method of the advanced small pipe: use the air rock drill to drill the hole at the predetermined position, insert the pipe into the hole, wear the threaded protective cap, and insert the special head to the required depth to fully squeeze the hemp thread plunger and the hole wall. . Then fill the orifice with CS mortar, and the exposed length of the grouting pipe is 30cm to connect the orifice valve and pipeline.
超前小导管注浆所用浆液为水泥浆液,水灰比1:0.8-1.1(重量比),施工时由试验室选定,使用不低于42.5强度的水泥。The slurry used for the grouting of the leading small conduit is cement slurry with a water-cement ratio of 1:0.8-1.1 (weight ratio), which is selected by the laboratory during construction, and cement with a strength of not less than 42.5 is used.
超前小导管的注浆量设计:The design of the grouting amount of the leading small duct:
注浆压力为0.5~1Mpa,浆液单孔注入量Q和围岩的孔隙率有关,根据扩散半径及岩层的裂隙进行估算,其值为:The grouting pressure is 0.5~1Mpa, and the single-hole grout injection quantity Q is related to the porosity of the surrounding rock. It is estimated based on the diffusion radius and the cracks of the rock formation, and its value is:
Q=πR 2Lη(m 3) Q=πR 2 Lη(m 3 )
式中:R—浆液扩散半径(m);In the formula: R-slurry diffusion radius (m);
L—压浆段长度(m);L—the length of grouting section (m);
η—岩层孔隙率,砂土取40%,粘土20%,断层破碎带5%。η-the porosity of the rock formation, 40% for sand, 20% for clay, 5% for fractured zone.
初期支护的施工过程为初喷砼,再铺设钢筋网,然后钻设径向锚杆,再复喷砼至设计厚度。The construction process of the initial support is to spray the concrete first, then lay the steel mesh, then drill the radial anchor rod, and then re-spray the concrete to the design thickness.
喷射砼支护施工程序为:超前地质预报→开挖→初喷砼4cm→施工放样→安装钢架和挂钢筋网→监测→施作系统锚杆→喷射至设计厚度。The spray concrete support construction procedure is: advanced geological forecast → excavation → initial spray concrete 4cm → construction setting out → installation of steel frame and hanging steel net → monitoring → application of system anchor rod → spraying to the design thickness.
砂浆锚杆的施工程序为:先进行定位做施工准备,使用锚杆台车或风动凿岩机钻锚孔,钻完锚孔后,用高压风吹净锚孔内岩屑,并检查锚孔深度,然后将含有锚杆导向架的锚杆送入锚孔内,直达锚孔底,并注意转动砂浆锚杆,使砂浆锚杆尾端外露出锚孔口10cm,以便和钢筋网进行焊接;在砂浆锚杆尾端锚孔口部位安装止浆塞,之后采用注浆管将砂浆锚杆尾端与砂浆锚杆专用注浆泵连接,拱部、边墙采用双管排气法注浆,将内径Φ4~5mm,壁厚1~1.5mm的软塑料排气管同锚杆一起送入钻孔至孔底,并在孔外留1m左右的富余长度,然后将注浆管固定在锚孔口位置,并将锚孔口堵塞,在确认排气管畅通后,开始注入砂浆,直到排气管不排气或溢出稀浆时停止,并将排气管拔出,待砂浆达到强度后安装垫板拧紧螺帽。注浆所用浆液的水灰比按重量计为1:0.8-1.1,其中水泥的强度不低于42.5。The construction procedure of mortar anchor rod is: firstly locate and prepare for construction, use the anchor rod trolley or pneumatic rock drill to drill the anchor hole, after drilling the anchor hole, use high-pressure air to blow the rock debris in the anchor hole and check the depth of the anchor hole , And then send the anchor rod containing the anchor rod guide frame into the anchor hole, and reach the bottom of the anchor hole, and pay attention to rotating the mortar anchor rod, so that the end of the mortar anchor rod exposes the anchor hole 10cm, so as to weld with the steel mesh; Install the stop plug at the anchor hole at the end of the mortar anchor rod, and then use the grouting pipe to connect the end of the mortar anchor rod with the grouting pump for the mortar anchor rod. The arches and side walls are grouted by the double-pipe exhaust method. A soft plastic exhaust pipe with an inner diameter of Φ4~5mm and a wall thickness of 1~1.5mm is fed into the borehole with the anchor rod to the bottom of the hole, leaving a surplus length of about 1m outside the hole, and then fix the grouting pipe at the anchor hole After confirming that the exhaust pipe is unblocked, start to inject the mortar until the exhaust pipe is not exhausted or the slurry overflows, and then pull out the exhaust pipe. Install the pad after the mortar reaches the strength Tighten the nut on the plate. The water-cement ratio of the slurry used for grouting is 1:0.8-1.1 by weight, and the strength of the cement is not less than 42.5.
中空锚杆施工钻孔使用锚杆台车或风动凿岩机钻孔,钻孔前根据设计要求定出孔位,钻孔保持直线并与所在部位岩层结构面垂直,钻孔直径φ42mm,钻孔深度大于锚杆设计长度10cm。中空注浆锚杆施工程序为:钻完孔后,用高压风吹净孔内岩屑;将锚头与锚杆端头组合,戴上垫片与螺母;将组合杆体送入孔内,直达孔底;将止浆塞穿入锚杆末端与孔 口取平并与杆体固紧;注浆时确保浆液注满孔体,注浆压力达到设计或规范要求,待排气管溢出浓浆时停止注浆;待浆液强度达到70%后,在锚杆末端套上拱形垫板,然后按规定扭矩拧紧螺母。注浆所用浆液的水灰比按重量计为1:0.4~0.5,注浆压力为0.3~0.8MPa,水泥浆随拌随用。Hollow bolt construction drilling uses bolting trolleys or pneumatic rock drills. Before drilling, determine the hole position according to the design requirements. The drilling is straight and perpendicular to the structural surface of the rock at the location. The drilling diameter is φ42mm, and the drilling depth 10cm longer than the design length of the bolt. The hollow grouting anchor construction procedure is: after drilling the hole, blow the cuttings in the hole with high pressure wind; combine the anchor head and the end of the anchor rod, wear gaskets and nuts; send the combined rod body into the hole and reach Bottom of the hole; penetrate the end of the anchor rod to level the hole and fasten it to the rod; make sure that the hole is filled with grout during grouting, and the grouting pressure meets the design or specification requirements, and when the exhaust pipe overflows with thick grout Stop grouting; after the strength of the slurry reaches 70%, put an arched backing plate on the end of the anchor rod, and then tighten the nut according to the specified torque. The water-cement ratio of the slurry used for grouting is 1:0.4-0.5 by weight, the grouting pressure is 0.3-0.8MPa, and the cement slurry is used as it is mixed.
格栅钢架在洞外按设计加工成型,洞内安装在初喷砼之后进行,与锚杆焊接。格栅钢架间设纵向连接筋,格栅钢架间以喷砼填平,格栅钢架拱脚安放在牢固的基础上,架立时垂直隧道中线,当格栅钢架和围岩之间间隙过大时设置垫块,用喷砼喷填。The grille steel frame is formed according to the design on the outside of the hole, and the hole is installed after the initial sprayed concrete, and welded with the anchor rod. Longitudinal connecting ribs are set between the grille steel frames, and the space between the grille steel frames is filled with spray concrete. The arch feet of the grille steel frame are placed on a solid foundation. When erected, they are perpendicular to the center line of the tunnel. When the gap is too large, set a spacer and fill it with spray concrete.
喷射砼分二次完成,即初喷和复喷。喷射砼以湿喷为主,含水量较大地段采用潮喷工艺。喷射料由洞外的砼拌合站拌合,砼输送车运输。初喷的喷射砼厚度为4~5cm,及早快速封闭围岩,钻爆段采用轮式湿喷机械手,TBM掘进段采用TBM自带的湿喷机械手。复喷在拱架、挂网、锚杆工序作业完毕后进行。采用湿喷工艺,由喷射机械手施工。The spraying of concrete is completed in two times, namely, initial spraying and re-spraying. The sprayed concrete is mainly wet spraying, and the tidal spraying process is used for areas with large water content. The spray material is mixed by the concrete mixing station outside the cave and transported by the concrete conveyor. The thickness of the first sprayed concrete is 4~5cm, and the surrounding rock can be sealed quickly. The drilling and blasting section uses a wheeled wet spraying manipulator, and the TBM tunneling section uses the TBM's own wet spraying manipulator. The re-spraying shall be carried out after the arch frame, net hanging and anchor rod operations are completed. The wet spraying process is adopted and the spraying manipulator is used for construction.
喷射砼分段、分片、分层进行,由下向上,从无水、少水向有水、多水地段集中,多水处安放导管将水排出。施喷时喷头与受喷面基本垂直,距离保持在1.5~2.0m。格栅钢架、钢拱架时,钢架与岩面之间的间隙用喷射砼充填密实,喷射顺序先下后上对称进行,先喷钢架与围岩之间空隙,后喷钢架之间,钢架应被喷射砼所覆盖,保护层不得小于4cm。喷前先找平受喷面的凹处,再将喷头成螺旋形缓慢均匀移动,每圈压前面半圈,绕圈直径约30cm,力求喷出的砼层面平顺光滑。一次喷射厚度控制在6cm以下,每段长度不超过6m。The spraying concrete is carried out in segments, slices, and layers, from bottom to top, from no water, less water to water, more water areas, and pipes are placed in many water locations to drain the water. When spraying, the nozzle is basically perpendicular to the sprayed surface, and the distance is maintained at 1.5~2.0m. In the case of grille steel frame and steel arch frame, the gap between the steel frame and the rock surface is filled with sprayed concrete. The spraying sequence is symmetrical first down and then up. The gap between the steel frame and the surrounding rock is sprayed first, and then the steel frame is sprayed. In between, the steel frame should be covered by sprayed concrete, and the protective layer should not be less than 4cm. Before spraying, level the recesses of the sprayed surface, and then move the spray nozzle slowly and evenly in a spiral shape, pressing the front half of each circle, the diameter of the circle is about 30cm, and strive to spray the concrete surface smoothly. The thickness of one shot is controlled below 6cm, and the length of each section does not exceed 6m.
TBM掘进断层破碎带时所采用的处理预案:The treatment plan adopted when TBM excavates the fault fracture zone:
1)为使TBM在施工时能够安全、顺利的通过断层破碎带,施工中加强超前地质预报,及时探测出断层破碎带位置,规模及水量分布情况,以便在施工中及早采取对策。1) In order to enable TBM to pass through the fracture zone safely and smoothly during construction, advance geological forecasting is strengthened during construction, and the location, scale and water distribution of the fracture zone can be detected in time so that countermeasures can be taken early in the construction.
2)断层破碎带规模较小时,采用低转速、低推力、稳步掘进的方法直接通过,围岩出露护盾后及时挂钢筋网,打锚杆,喷砼封闭,根据实际情况架立钢架,减少停机时间,防止地层发生变形使TBM刀盘被卡。2) When the scale of the fault fracture zone is small, the method of low speed, low thrust, and steady excavation shall be adopted directly. After the surrounding rock is exposed, the shield shall be hung with steel mesh, anchor rods, sprayed concrete closed, and the steel frame shall be erected according to the actual situation. , To reduce downtime, prevent the formation of deformation and the TBM cutter head from being stuck.
3)断层破碎带规模为中等规模,坍塌较为严重,TBM直接掘进无法通过时,采用架立钢架,挂钢筋网,利用手喷砼系统向坍塌处喷砼及时封闭围岩,以减少围岩暴露时间并尽早形成支护体系,必要时施做超前支护;若护盾上方围岩垮塌严重,可利用护盾及后方钢拱架背覆U14槽钢及钢板封闭塌腔,然后注浆固结护盾上方塌落围岩,以便减少往前继续掘进时的掉碴量;对撑靴处坍塌较严重部位,在钢架背后立模浇筑砼回填,同时对破碎带前方进行注浆预加固地层,以减少或防止围岩变形,然后缓慢掘进通过。3) The scale of the fault fracture zone is medium-scale, and the collapse is more serious. When the TBM cannot pass through the direct excavation, a steel frame is erected, steel mesh is hung, and the hand-sprayed concrete system is used to spray concrete to the collapsed area to seal the surrounding rock in time to reduce the surrounding rock. Exposure time and form a support system as soon as possible, and if necessary, implement advanced support; if the surrounding rock above the shield collapses severely, the shield and the rear steel arch can be used to cover the U14 channel steel and steel plate to seal the collapsed cavity, and then grouting for consolidation The surrounding rock collapsed above the knot shield in order to reduce the amount of ballast dropped when continuing forward; for the more severely collapsed part of the support shoe, the concrete backfill was poured behind the steel frame, and the front of the broken zone was pre-reinforced by grouting The stratum is used to reduce or prevent the deformation of the surrounding rock, and then slowly tunnel through.
4)断层破碎带规模为较大规模,并伴有裂隙水时,先采用预注化学浆加固地层缓慢通过预案,如无法掘进通过则采用迂回导坑,对破碎带钻爆法开挖,TBM步进通过预案。4) When the fault fracture zone is large in scale and accompanied by fissure water, the pre-injection chemical slurry is used to reinforce the stratum slowly and pass the plan. If it is unable to pass through, a circuitous pilot pit is used, and the fracture zone is excavated by drilling and blasting. TBM Step through the plan.
最后说明的是,以上实施例仅用以说明本发明的技术方案而非限制,本领域普通技术人员对本发明的技术方案所做的其他修改或者等同替换,只要不脱离本发明技术方案的精神和范围,均应涵盖在本发明的权利要求范围当中。Finally, it should be noted that the above embodiments are only used to illustrate the technical solutions of the present invention and not to limit them. Other modifications or equivalent substitutions made by those skilled in the art to the technical solutions of the present invention, as long as they do not depart from the spirit and spirit of the technical solutions of the present invention. The scope shall be included in the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

  1. 一种TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,平导洞身施工包括平导车站段施工、平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工,以及平导TBM掘进段施工;所述平导车站段施工包括洞口浅埋段施工和Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工;所述洞口浅埋段施工采用三台阶法开挖,所述Ⅳ级围岩锚喷衬砌段施工采用两台阶法开挖;在所述平导TBM预备洞、出发洞和接收洞施工时采用钻爆法施工,在位于Ⅴ级围岩处采用三台阶法开挖,在位于Ⅲ和Ⅳ级围岩处采用全断面开挖法开挖;A construction method of TBM flat guide tunnel, characterized in that, flat guide tunnel construction includes flat guide station section construction, flat guide TBM preparation tunnel, starting hole and receiving tunnel construction, and flat guide TBM tunneling section construction; The construction of the pilot station section includes the construction of the shallow buried section of the entrance and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcreting lining section; the construction of the shallow buried section of the tunnel opening adopts the three-step method for excavation, and the construction of the grade IV surrounding rock bolting and shotcreting lining section uses the two step method. Excavation; the drilling and blasting method is used for the construction of the horizontal guide TBM preparation tunnel, the starting tunnel and the receiving tunnel. The three-step method is used for excavation at the level V surrounding rock, and the full-scale method is used at the level III and IV surrounding rock. Excavation by section excavation;
    所述平导TBM掘进段施工的方法包括以下步骤:The construction method of the flat-guided TBM tunneling section includes the following steps:
    1)超前地质预报:运用TSP203、地质雷达、超前钻探、红外探水、地质素描的先进仪器和手段对施工掌子面前方30m范围内的地质情况进行综合超前地质探测和预报,提前预测松散、破碎带情况,利用地质素描法对断层的长度、高度、倾角及水量等做出综合预测预报;1) Advanced geological prediction: Use advanced instruments and methods such as TSP203, geological radar, advanced drilling, infrared water exploration, and geological sketching to conduct comprehensive advanced geological detection and prediction of the geological conditions within 30m in front of the construction head, and predict loose, For fracture zone conditions, comprehensive prediction and forecasting of the length, height, inclination angle and water volume of the fault using the geological sketch method;
    2)加强超前支护:采用超前管棚、超前注浆、径向注浆、加强支护措施加强掌子面防护;当遇易大变形地段施工时,采用超前小导管注浆支护方式超前加固围岩;当遇断层破碎地段时,采取注双液浆形式超前快速固结围岩破碎段;若变形较小时可采用加密加长径向锚杆,提高围岩自承能力,通过预注浆提高围岩稳定性,以控制塑性区的发展,还设置了小导管或中管棚加强超前支护,同时采用加密型钢架进行支护;2) Strengthen advanced support: use advanced pipe shed, advanced grouting, radial grouting, and strengthened support measures to strengthen the protection of the face; when the construction is prone to large deformation, the advanced small pipe grouting support method is used to advance Reinforce the surrounding rock; when encountering faulted sections, adopt the form of double liquid grout injection to quickly consolidate the crushed sections of surrounding rock; if the deformation is small, the radial bolts can be densely lengthened to improve the self-supporting capacity of the surrounding rock through pre-grouting Improve the stability of the surrounding rock to control the development of the plastic zone, and also set up small pipes or middle pipe sheds to strengthen the advance support, and at the same time use the dense steel frame for support;
    3)渗水引排:掌子面前方30m范围岩体为破碎带,探孔地下水成股状水涌出,水压≥0.5MPa时,判识围岩自稳能力较好,进行排水降压,之后采用支护方式进行加固围岩;判识围岩自稳能力差,介质在水作用 下易流失,进行排水降压,之后采用注浆加固围岩;3) Seepage water drainage: The rock mass within 30m in front of the head is a broken zone, and the groundwater from the exploration hole gushes out into strands. When the water pressure is ≥0.5MPa, the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is judged to be better, and drainage and pressure reduction are performed. Afterwards, the support method is adopted to reinforce the surrounding rock; the self-stabilization ability of the surrounding rock is poor, and the medium is easily lost under the action of water, drainage and pressure reduction are performed, and then the surrounding rock is reinforced by grouting;
    4)初期支护:初期支护由挂钢筋网、喷射砼和锚杆单独或联合组成,Ⅲ、Ⅳ级围岩拱部120°范围内增加格栅钢架加强支护;Ⅴ级围岩地段拱墙增加格栅钢架加强支护;所述锚杆包括砂浆锚杆和中空锚杆,拱部采用注浆中空锚杆,其余边墙采用砂浆锚杆;4) Initial support: The initial support consists of hanging steel mesh, sprayed concrete and anchor rods alone or in combination. The steel grille is added to strengthen the support within the 120° range of the Ⅲ and Ⅳ surrounding rock arches; the Ⅴ surrounding rock section The arch wall is reinforced with a grid steel frame; the anchor rods include mortar anchor rods and hollow anchor rods, the arch part uses grouting hollow anchor rods, and the remaining side walls use mortar anchor rods;
    5)仰拱施作:包括仰拱开挖、初喷混凝土、安装仰拱钢拱架、终喷砼、防排水管安装、仰拱衬砌钢筋施工和仰拱回填;5) Invert construction: including invert excavation, initial spray concrete, installation of invert steel arch frame, final spray concrete, installation of waterproof and drainage pipes, invert lining steel reinforcement construction and invert backfill;
    6)铺轨、设备区域抽排水、平导TBM掘进,换步作业进行下次循环。6) Track laying, drainage of equipment area, flat-guided TBM tunneling, and change step operation for the next cycle.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,所述三台阶法包括以下步骤:The TBM flat guide tunnel construction method according to claim 1, wherein the three-step method comprises the following steps:
    1)测量放线,施作超前支护;1) Measure and set out the line and implement advanced support;
    2)左侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;左侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;2) Excavate the upper steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support; excavate the lower steps of the left pilot pit, and implement initial support and temporary support, and monitor the surrounding rock at any time;
    3)右侧导坑上台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;右侧导坑下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;3) Excavation of the upper steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support; excavation of the lower steps of the pilot pit on the right, and initial support and temporary support, and monitoring and measurement of surrounding rock at any time;
    4)中部上台阶左右交错开挖,并施作初期支护;中部中台阶开挖,并施作初期支护及临时支护;中部下台阶开挖,并施作初期支护,随时进行围岩监控测量;4) The upper steps in the middle section are excavated alternately from left to right and used for initial support; the middle steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support and temporary support; the lower steps in the middle section are excavated and used for initial support, and the enclosure shall be carried out at any time. Rock monitoring measurement;
    5)拆除靠近二次衬砌6-8m范围内底部两侧壁的临时支护,浇筑仰拱及仰拱填充砼;5) Remove the temporary support of the two side walls at the bottom within 6-8m of the secondary lining, and pour the inverted arch and the inverted arch filled concrete;
    6)拆除剩余的临时支护,施作二次衬砌。6) Remove the remaining temporary supports and construct secondary lining.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,所述两台阶法包括以下步骤:The TBM flat guide tunnel construction method according to claim 1, wherein the two-step method comprises the following steps:
    1)施工准备,超前地质预报;1) Construction preparation, advanced geological forecast;
    2)爆破设计,测量放线;2) Blasting design, measuring and setting out;
    3)上台阶钻眼,装药爆破,通风排烟;3) Drill holes on the stairs, explosive blasting, ventilation and smoke exhaust;
    4)初喷砼;4) Initial sprayed concrete;
    5)检查爆破效果,装碴运输,出现超挖时调整爆破参数,并重复步骤2)-4);5) Check the blasting effect, load and transport the ballast, adjust the blasting parameters when over-excavation occurs, and repeat steps 2)-4);
    6)上下台阶施作初期支护;6) Up and down steps for initial support;
    7)监控量测,不达标的进行加强支护;7) Monitor and measure, and strengthen support for those that do not meet the standards;
    8)下循环开挖。8) Excavation in the next cycle.
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,步骤3)中通风方式采用压入式通风,采用型号为SDF(B)-№11的风机匹配Φ1.6m的风管通过横通道向新增正洞掌子面送风。The construction method of the TBM flat guide tunnel body according to claim 3, characterized in that in step 3), the ventilation method is press-in ventilation, and the fan of model SDF(B)-№11 is matched with a Φ1.6m air duct Air is supplied to the face of the newly added main hole through the cross channel.
  5. 根据权利要求2或3所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,所述三台阶法和两台阶法中涉及到的台阶长度均为5-6m。The TBM flat guide tunnel construction method according to claim 2 or 3, characterized in that the length of the steps involved in the three-step method and the two-step method are both 5-6m.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,步骤2)中的超前管棚分为超前大管棚和超前中管棚,均采用潜孔钻机成孔,注浆泵注浆;超前大管棚采用直径为φ108,厚度为6mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前大管棚长35m;所述超前大管棚之间的环向间距为0.4m,外插角为3°。The construction method of the TBM flat guide tunnel body according to claim 1, wherein the advanced pipe shed in step 2) is divided into an advanced large pipe shed and an advanced middle pipe shed, both of which are formed by a down-the-hole drill and a grouting pump Grouting; the leading large pipe shed is processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipe with a diameter of φ108 and a thickness of 6mm, and each of the leading large pipe sheds is 35m long; the circumferential spacing between the leading large pipe sheds is 0.4m, the extrapolation angle is 3°.
  7. 根据权利要求1所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于, 步骤2)中的超前小导管采用直径为φ42,厚度为3.5mm的热轧无缝钢管加工而成,且每根所述超前小导管长3.5m;所述小导管的排列方式为环向间距40cm,纵向相邻两排的水平投影搭接长度不小于150cm,外插角为5~10°。The construction method of the TBM flat guide tunnel body according to claim 1, wherein the leading small pipe in step 2) is processed by hot-rolled seamless steel pipe with a diameter of φ42 and a thickness of 3.5mm, and each The leading small duct is 3.5m long; the arrangement of the small ducts is a circular spacing of 40cm, the overlapping length of the horizontal projection of two adjacent rows in the longitudinal direction is not less than 150cm, and the extrapolation angle is 5-10°.
  8. 根据权利要求1所述的TBM平导洞身施工方法,其特征在于,步骤6)中所述平导TBM掘进过程中运输采用三线四轨,在隧道内每各3km布设一个渡线道岔,道岔至掌子面间距为3km。The construction method of the TBM flat guide tunnel body according to claim 1, characterized in that, in the process of tunneling of the flat guide TBM in step 6), three lines and four tracks are used for transportation, and a crossover switch is arranged every 3km in the tunnel. The distance to the tunnel face is 3km.
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