CN107782634B - Microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device - Google Patents

Microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device Download PDF

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CN107782634B
CN107782634B CN201710844842.9A CN201710844842A CN107782634B CN 107782634 B CN107782634 B CN 107782634B CN 201710844842 A CN201710844842 A CN 201710844842A CN 107782634 B CN107782634 B CN 107782634B
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test piece
triaxial
pressure
test
gas
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CN107782634A (en
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梁卫国
陈跃都
杨健锋
廉浩杰
胡耀青
肖宁
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Taiyuan University of Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/24Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady shearing forces
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • G01N3/06Special adaptations of indicating or recording means
    • G01N3/066Special adaptations of indicating or recording means with electrical indicating or recording means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/18Performing tests at high or low temperatures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0001Type of application of the stress
    • G01N2203/0003Steady
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0016Tensile or compressive
    • G01N2203/0019Compressive
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0014Type of force applied
    • G01N2203/0025Shearing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/003Generation of the force
    • G01N2203/0042Pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • G01N2203/0048Hydraulic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0058Kind of property studied
    • G01N2203/0069Fatigue, creep, strain-stress relations or elastic constants
    • G01N2203/0075Strain-stress relations or elastic constants
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/022Environment of the test
    • G01N2203/0222Temperature
    • G01N2203/0226High temperature; Heating means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/025Geometry of the test
    • G01N2203/0256Triaxial, i.e. the forces being applied along three normal axes of the specimen
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/0617Electrical or magnetic indicating, recording or sensing means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/0658Indicating or recording means; Sensing means using acoustic or ultrasonic detectors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/067Parameter measured for estimating the property
    • G01N2203/0682Spatial dimension, e.g. length, area, angle

Abstract

A microcomputer controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device belongs to the technical field of rock mechanics and engineering, and is characterized in that the test device consists of a loading system, a sealing system, a fluid injection system, an acoustic emission monitoring system, a deformation monitoring system and a data acquisition system, and the invention has the purposes and advantages that: the technical problem that the existing triaxial pressure chamber cannot perform large-displacement shearing seepage coupling of rocks under high confining pressure and high osmotic pressure can be solved, and various expansion functions based on the technology can be realized. The servo control loading of the force, displacement and strain rate in the shearing direction and the injection seepage of the fluid in the dynamic shearing process can be realized. In addition, the device is also provided with a temperature control system, so that the constant temperature control of 0-200 ℃ can be implemented on the triaxial pressure chamber, and then a series of expansion tests of rock dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristics under the action of temperature can be carried out.

Description

Microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device
Technical Field
The invention relates to a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device, which belongs to the technical field of rock mechanics and engineering, in particular to a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device, and can be used for the test research of the dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristics of complete or single-crack rocks under the action of different temperatures and the injection of different fluids.
Background
In underground geotechnical engineering, the interaction of rock mass and underground water often determines the stability of rock mass engineering, and shear slip instability of rock mass under the action of hydraulic coupling usually causes major geological disasters, so that deep research on the shear-seepage coupling characteristic of rock mass and the instability rule caused by the shear-seepage coupling characteristic have a vital role in solving the stability of underground rock mass engineering.
At present, experts at home and abroad do not research on the shear-seepage coupling characteristics of a rock mass, wherein the most difficult problem is the dynamic sealing problem existing in the shear-seepage process, namely, it is difficult to ensure that water only flows along an irregular channel formed by the upper surface and the lower surface of a crack in the shear dislocation process of a rock test piece without side leakage. Therefore, the development of shear seepage coupling equipment with better sealing performance is the basis for exploring the destabilization mechanism of rock mass hydraulic coupling shear seepage coupling.
At present, the Chinese invention patents related to the shear seepage coupling device and method mainly include: "a rock shear-seepage coupling true triaxial test system" (CN 102607950A) of Shandong science and technology university. "a rock fracture shear seepage coupling test system under confining pressure" (CN 102253185A) of Shandong science and technology university. "rock fracture shear seepage coupling test box" of Shandong science and technology university (CN 202133661U). "rock joint shear-seepage coupling test system" by the university of Council (CN 201237591Y). Wuhan university's "shear box suitable for rock joint shear seepage coupling test" (CN 202903786U). "a device for measuring rock shear seepage at high temperature and high pressure" (CN 104596857A). However, these existing joint shear test devices suffer from the following problems: 1. the sealing operation of the test equipment is complicated, and the sealing effect is difficult to meet the test requirement; 2. the test technologies are mostly improved based on a rock direct shear test machine, namely a direct shear box is adopted for carrying out a shear seepage test, but the upper box body and the lower box body of the direct shear box are difficult to ensure the constancy of the shear direction in the shear sliding process, so that the lateral sealing is difficult to realize, and particularly the sealing with higher osmotic pressure is difficult to realize; 3. the traditional direct shear box only considers the normal stress of the rock mass and neglects the lateral stress pressure, so that the stress state of the rock mass is seriously inconsistent with the actual occurrence state; 4. the traditional direct shear box has no gas as a permeation medium, so that the test function is single. 5. The shear displacement of the rock is not very large, mainly because the larger the shear displacement, the poorer the sealing property of the fractured rock; 6. there is no reliable monitoring device to monitor the rock shearing seepage process, and the shearing-seepage characteristic is only inferred by the deformation and the flow variation, which is neither scientific nor accurate.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention discloses a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device, which aims to: the device and the method solve the defects of the test methods, provide a powerful monitoring means for deeply researching the shear-seepage characteristics of the rock mass, and further provide a technical scheme of a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device and method.
The invention relates to a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device, which is characterized in that the device is used for testing the dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristics of complete or single-crack rocks under different temperature effects and different fluid injections, the device is simple to disassemble and good in sealing effect, automation can be realized in most steps, the test device consists of a loading system, a sealing system, a fluid injection system, an acoustic emission monitoring system, a temperature control system, a deformation monitoring system and a data acquisition system, the loading system consists of a triaxial pressure chamber 42, a triaxial pressure chamber top cover 67, a pressure chamber top cover screw 28, a triaxial pressure chamber base 16, a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo loading system 1 and a confining pressure loading system, the triaxial pressure chamber 42 is divided into an upper cavity 29 and a lower cavity 30, the two cavities are connected through a pipeline 43, and an axial loading rod is arranged in each cavity, the test device consists of an outer loading rod 8 and an inner loading rod 7, wherein threaded holes are formed in the end parts of the inner loading rod and the outer loading rod respectively, a first extension rod 2 and a second extension rod 27 are installed respectively, the first extension rod 2 is in contact with an axial LVDT3 and is used for measuring the axial deformation of a test piece 12 in the test process, the second extension rod 27 is used for manually rotating when the test piece 12 is installed, so that the outer loading rod 8 and a rubber sleeve 36 are pressed, the bottom of the outer loading rod 8 realizes the extrusion sealing of rubber through extruding a bearing plate 66, an O-shaped ring is installed on the bearing plate 66 and prevents confining oil from seeping out of the outer loading rod 8, a cylindrical rock test piece 12 with the size of 50 x 100mm is placed in a triaxial pressure chamber 42, and two test pieces 12 are respectively placed on the upper end surface and the lower end surface of the test pieceFrom 45#A 50mm diameter cylinder shear ram consisting of a steel half cylinder ram 34 and a silicone rubber half cylinder ram 10, of which 45#The lower part of the steel semi-cylindrical pressure head 34 is processed with a perforated plate 33 which is integrally semi-cylindrical, while the silicon rubber is another semi-cylinder with the same size, and because the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head 10 has almost no bearing function when being loaded by axial compression, the semi-cylinders 45 with opposite end surfaces#In addition, in order to prevent the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head 10 from generating a larger bearing effect due to volume shrinkage during the loading effect and further causing shear force failure, concave pressure heads 11 are respectively arranged on the cylindrical shear pressure heads and used for reserving an extrusion space for the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure heads 10 under the loading effect and further ensuring that two end faces of the test piece 12 continuously bear constant shear stress, a detachable conversion pressing block 15 is arranged on the outer side of each concave pressure head 11 and fixed with a triaxial pressure chamber base 16 through a positioning pin 37, the conversion pressing block 15 is arranged for a shear seepage test of the test piece with the diameter of 50 multiplied by 50-100 mm, and the conversion pressing block 15 is removed and other specification cushion blocks are added for the test of the test piece with the diameter of 100 multiplied by 100-200 mm; the sealing system is used for sealing a test piece 12 and comprises a Teflon adhesive tape 31, a heat-shrinkable sleeve 61, a rubber sleeve 36, an upper aluminum ring 32 and a lower aluminum ring 35, a support frame comprises a support frame upper plate 9, a support frame lower plate 14 and a support rod 64, the support frame extrudes and seals the upper extension part and the lower extension part of the rubber sleeve, the support frame is connected with a support frame positioning ring 62 through a U-shaped snap ring 63, and in addition, the lower cavity 30 is connected with the triaxial pressure chamber base 16 through a concave annular snap ring 38 and is matched with an O-shaped ring to realize sealing; the microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo loading system 1 comprises a loading frame, a servo loading oil cylinder and a servo control valve, can realize the servo control of force, displacement and deformation, and is characterized in that a triaxial pressure chamber 42 is connected with a loading frame base 44 through a triaxial chamber positioning pin 39; the confining pressure loading system consists of an oil storage tank 59, an oil-filled oil cylinder control system 24, a servo oil cylinder control system 23, a pressurizing chamber 22 and an oil bath heating system 58, wherein oil in the oil storage tank 59 is controlled by the oil-filled oil cylinder control system 24 to enter the oil bath heating systemThe temperature system 58 is used for injecting the oil body into the triaxial pressure chamber 42 after the temperature of the oil body reaches a set temperature, closing the oil-filling oil cylinder control system 24, the overflow valve 46 and the needle valve 18 when the injected oil body sequentially flows through the pressure pipeline 45 and the pressurizing chamber 22 and finally flows out of the overflow port 20, then starting the servo oil cylinder control system 23 which is matched with the pressurizing chamber 22 to increase the confining pressure to a value required by a test at a constant rate, and the confining pressure in the triaxial pressure chamber 42 is obtained by monitoring the pressure sensor 17; the fluid injection system comprises a liquid storage tank 60, a gas storage tank 55, a gas pressurizing and heating system 56, a back pressure valve 69, a liquid injection system 40 and a gas injection system 41, wherein gas and liquid can be injected independently or in a mixed manner, the gas injection system 41 is used for realizing the supercritical state of the gas and expanding the category of the injected gas, the liquid is injected into a triaxial pressure chamber 42 from the liquid storage tank 60 under the control of the liquid injection system 40, the gas is injected into the gas pressurizing and heating system 56 from the gas storage tank 55 under the control of the gas injection system 41 and then enters the triaxial pressure chamber 42, the fluid is injected from a triaxial pressure chamber base 16 through a pipeline, a small-caliber rubber sleeve 13 is arranged between a shearing pressure head and a concave pressure head 11 and between the concave pressure head 11 and the triaxial pressure chamber base 16, so as to prevent the gas and the liquid from being mixed in advance, the liquid and the gas are mixed at a porous plate 33 and injected from the bottom of a test piece 12, the mixed fluid flows through the test piece 12 from bottom to top and finally flows out of the upper end of the test piece 12, then the mixed gas-liquid two-phase fluid sequentially passes through an upper porous plate, an upper shearing pressure head and an inwards concave pressure head, finally flows out of a triaxial pressure chamber 42 from an inner loading rod, passes through a liquid collecting bottle 25 and a gas flowmeter 26 after a back pressure valve is opened 69, and the separation and the weighing of gas and liquid are realized; the deformation monitoring system is used for monitoring axial deformation, radial deformation and volume deformation in the test process, wherein the axial deformation of the test piece 12 is indirectly obtained through the expansion and contraction amount of the inner loading rod 7 measured by the axial LVDT3, the radial deformation of different parts of the test piece 12 is measured by adjusting the position of the radial LVDT65 on the supporting rod, the volume deformation of the test piece 12 is obtained through the variation amount of the LVDT5 on the outer side of the pressurizing chamber, the axial deformation and the volume deformation are measured by two LVDTs respectively, and the radial deformation is added according to the test requirement(ii) a The temperature control system consists of a gas pressurizing and heating system 56, a triaxial chamber temperature control shell 57, an oil bath heating system 58, a thermocouple 54 and a temperature sensor 68, wherein the gas pressurizing and heating system 56 is used for adjusting the pressure and the temperature of gas so as to realize the supercritical state of the gas, the oil bath heating system 58 and the triaxial chamber temperature control shell are used for adjusting and maintaining the temperature of oil so as to realize the temperature reaching and maintaining the required value of a test piece or gas in the triaxial chamber 42, the thermocouple 54 is used for measuring the temperature deformation of the gas and the triaxial chamber 42 in real time, and the temperature sensor 68 is connected to a support rod 64 and used for measuring the temperature change of different parts of the test piece 12; the data acquisition system is used for acquiring acoustic emission signals, axial pressure and axial deformation, confining pressure and volume deformation, radial deformation, gas and kettle body temperature, temperatures of different parts of a test piece, the pressure of gas and liquid at an inlet end, the mixed pressure of gas and liquid at an outlet end and separated flow value data of the gas and the liquid.
The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock is characterized in that the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head 10 is formed by pouring the south large silicon rubber 705, has certain elasticity and sealing performance, and can achieve the best test effect after being poured again before each test and placed in a ventilation place for solidification for 24 hours.
The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock is characterized in that the device can not only perform a shear seepage test on a cylindrical test piece with the size of phi 50 multiplied by 50-100 mm, but also perform shear seepage on a large-size cylindrical test piece with the size of phi 100 multiplied by 100-200 mm by replacing a pressure head and a support frame. In addition, by changing the shape and size of the upper and lower indenters, a series of conventional mechanical strength tests of rock specimens having dimensions of phi 50 × 100mm can also be performed.
The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock is characterized in that the acoustic emission probe 47 is arranged in the triaxial pressure chamber 42 and is tightly attached to the outer wall surface of the rubber sleeve, and acoustic emission signals generated in the shearing damage and sliding processes of the test piece 12 are collected. In order to prevent the acoustic emission probe 47 from being placed in the high-pressure oil and the piezoelectric ceramics inside the probe from being damaged, the acoustic emission probe 47 is protected by sealing. The probe is first pressed tightly by the thin-wall upper circular ring plate 52 and the thin-wall lower circular ring plate 53, and is sealed by the acoustic emission sealing screw 48 and the acoustic emission sealing O-ring 49, and then the upper circular ring plate and the lower circular ring plate are screwed tightly. The outer side of the thin-wall lower circular ring plate 53 is welded with a long arm 50, a groove is formed in the long arm, all the probes are attached to the outer wall of the rubber sleeve, and the groove of the long arm is hooped by a strong rubber band 51, so that the probes are tightly attached to the outer side of the rubber sleeve. Finally, the probe wires are led out of the triaxial cell 42 and connected with the monitoring equipment.
The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock is characterized in that the outer loading rod 8 and the inner loading rod 7 are controlled independently. The upper end of the inner loading rod is connected with a microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo loading test system 1 and used for applying axial loading to a test piece, and the outer loading rod is used for pressing the rubber sleeve 36; the middle part of the external loading rod 8 is connected with an upper cavity piston plate 4, and because the upper cavity and the lower cavity are communicated by a pipeline (43), the upper cavity piston plate 4 can continuously move downwards along with the increase of the oil pressure in the lower cavity, so that the rubber sleeve 36 is always extruded, and the sealing effect of the rubber sleeve is optimal; the dynamic sealing between the inner loading rod and the cavity and between the outer loading rod and the cavity are realized by adopting O-shaped rings 6.
The invention discloses a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test method, which has the advantages that: compared with the prior art, the instrument is simple to disassemble, the control steps of the test process are simple and convenient, and semi-automation can be realized. In addition, the test piece after shearing breakage is tightly attached to the rubber sleeve under the restraint of the aluminum ring, the heat-shrinkable sleeve and the Teflon adhesive tape, so that the lateral sealing effect is good, a shearing seepage coupling test under high osmotic water pressure and large shearing displacement can be carried out, and the influence of temperature and different injected fluids on rock shearing seepage coupling can be considered; secondly, the method for simulating the triaxial stress state of the rock can effectively overcome the defect that only the direct shear-seepage of the rock under a pure normal acting force is considered in the prior art; in addition, the acoustic emission monitoring device is added in the device disclosed by the invention and used for monitoring the crack surface damage evolution condition in the shear seepage coupling process, so that more reliable monitoring means are provided for the shear seepage coupling process of the rock.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device
FIG. 2 is a side view, a top view and an assembly schematic diagram of the acoustic emission probe seal of the present invention
FIG. 3 is a seal assembly view of a test piece
3 FIG. 34 3 is 3 a 3 schematic 3 sectional 3 view 3 of 3 A 3- 3 A 3 in 3 FIG. 33 3
FIG. 5 is a schematic sectional view of B-B in FIG. 3
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of a gum cover
FIG. 7 is a supporting frame structure
Reference numerals in the drawings: 1-microcomputer control electrohydraulic servo loading system; 2-first extension rod; 3-axial LVDT; 4-upper cavity piston plate; 5-LVDT outside the plenum chamber; 6-O-shaped ring; 7-inner loading rod; 8-external loading rod; 9-supporting frame upper plate; 10-a semi-cylindrical silicon rubber pressure head; 11-concave indenter; 12-test piece; 13-small-bore rubber sleeve; 14-support frame lower plate; 15-converting the briquetting; 16-triaxial pressure chamber base; 17-pressure sensor; 18-needle valve; 19-pumping chamber piston rod; 20-overflow port; 21-pumping chamber piston; 22-plenum; 23-servo oil cylinder control system; 24-oil-filled cylinder control system; 25-liquid collection bottle; 26-gas flow meter; 27-second extension bar; 28-pressure chamber cover screw; 29-upper chamber; 30-lower cavity; 31-teflon tape; 32-upper aluminum ring; 33-perforated plate; 34-45#A steel semi-cylindrical ram; 35-lower aluminum ring; 36-rubber sleeve; 37-positioning pin; 38-concave ring-shaped ferrule; 39-three-axis chamber locating pin; 40-liquid injection system; 41-gas injection System: 42-a three-axis pressure chamber; 43-a pipeline; 44-load frame base; 45-pressure line(ii) a 46-relief valve; 47-Acoustic emission Probe; 48-acoustic emission seal screw; 49-acoustic emission sealing O-ring; 50-long arm; 51-strong rubber band; 52-thin wall upper ring plate; 53-thin wall lower ring plate; 54-a thermocouple; 55-a gas storage tank; 56-gas pressurization and warming system; 57-three-axis chamber temperature control housing; 58-oil bath heating system; 59-oil storage tank; 60-a liquid storage tank; 61-heat shrink tubing; 62-a support frame positioning ring; a 63-U-shaped snap ring; 64-a support bar; 65-radial LVDT; 66-a pressure bearing plate; 67-triaxial pressure chamber top cover; 68-a temperature sensor; 69-backpressure valve.
Detailed Description
In order to embody the technical scheme and advantages of the invention, the implementation of the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test method is discussed in detail below by way of example and with reference to the attached drawings. Taking a cylindrical complete rock fine sandstone test piece with the size of phi 50 multiplied by 100mm as an example, pure water is selected as a penetrating medium, and then the device is adopted to compare and research the difference between the dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristic and the conventional shear seepage characteristic of the fine sandstone test piece.
Firstly, a dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristic test study is carried out, and the specific implementation steps are as follows:
step one, sampling: drilling a cylindrical large-size complete fine sandstone rock with the size of phi 50 multiplied by 100mm on a large piece of original rock, and polishing two end faces of the rock to ensure that the unevenness error does not exceed 0.01 mm.
Step two, manufacturing the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head 10: mixing 45 with height of 20mm#The semi-cylindrical steel pressing head 34 is placed in a cylindrical organic glass grinding tool with the diameter of 50mm and the height of 20mm, and then the other half is filled with the southern 705 silicon rubber until the liquid level of the paste is 45 mm#And stopping pouring when the upper end surfaces of the steel semi-cylindrical pressing heads 34 are opposite, then placing the grinding tool at a ventilated position for solidification for 24 hours, and finally taking out the poured silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressing heads 10 for testing. 45 therein#The height of the steel semi-cylindrical ram 34 is the maximum shear error magnitude of the rock.
Step three, assembling a test piece: will 45#The steel semi-cylindrical pressure head 34 and the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head 10 are matched together to form a splicing pressure head, then the two splicing pressure heads are arranged on the upper end surface and the lower end surface of the test piece 12 in opposite directions, then the internally concave pressure head 11 and the cylindrical pressure heads 9 and 15 are respectively arranged on the outer parts of the splicing pressure heads at the two ends, and then the Teflon adhesive tape 31 is spirally wound for one circle from top to bottom, so that the test piece and each pressure head form a whole. Then the whole is put into a rubber sleeve 36, and then two upper aluminum rings 32 and lower aluminum rings 35 which are identical in shape and size and have the outer diameter of 50mm are put into cavities of the outer wall of the test piece and the inner wall of the rubber sleeve, so that the test piece and the rubber sleeve have no gap, wherein the upper aluminum rings 32 exceed the upper end surface of the test piece 12 by 10mm from the top of an upper pressure head 9 of the test piece 12, the lower aluminum rings 35 exceed the lower end surface of the test piece 12 by 10mm from the bottom of a lower pressure head 15 of the test piece, and the remaining 80mm in the middle of the test piece 12 is completely attached by the rubber sleeve 36. Then, the supporting frames are arranged around the rubber sleeve 36, so that the supporting frame upper plate 9 and the supporting frame lower plate 14 are tightly attached to the rubber sleeve 36, then the upper supporting rod 64 is connected between the upper circular plate and the lower circular plate, then the test piece communicated supporting frame is integrally placed between the conversion pressing blocks 15, then the supporting frame positioning ring 62 is placed in the three-axis chamber, and the supporting frame positioning ring 62 are connected through the U-shaped clamping ring 63. Then, the surface of the test piece is connected with an acoustic emission probe 47, and the support rod is connected with a radial LVDT65 and a temperature sensor 68 monitoring device.
Step four, assembling the triaxial cell 42: connecting the lower cavity 30 with the triaxial pressure chamber base 16 through the concave annular clamping sleeve 38, sealing by matching with an O-shaped ring, sleeving a triaxial chamber temperature control shell 57 on the outer part of the triaxial pressure chamber, connecting a second external connecting rod 27 on the external loading rod 8, and manually moving the external loading rod 8 to enable the lower end of the external loading rod 8 to be in contact with the upper part of the rubber sleeve 36, thereby realizing the full-section sealing of the rubber sleeve; the second extension rod 27 is then removed and attached to the inner load rod 7 and the position of the LVDT3 is adjusted so that the needle of the LVDT3 contacts the second extension rod 27, at which point the triaxial cell 42 is fully assembled.
Step five, filling liquid into the triaxial pressure chamber: and opening the oil storage tank 59, the oil bath heating system 58 and the oil-filled cylinder control system 24, opening the needle valve 18 and the overflow valve 46 corresponding to the filled liquid, filling oil into the triaxial pressure chamber 42, and closing the oil-filled cylinder control system 24, the needle valve 18 and the overflow valve 46 when the hydraulic oil flows out of the overflow valve 46 of the pressure-bearing chamber to indicate that the whole cavity is filled with the hydraulic oil.
Step six, applying and maintaining three-axis confining pressure: all data monitoring equipment is started, and 0 is adjusted to start monitoring. And starting the servo oil cylinder control system 23 to add the pressure in the triaxial pressure chamber to a value required by the test and keep the pressure, and adjusting an LVDT5 pointer on the outer side of the pressurizing chamber after the pressure in the chamber is stabilized so as to enable the pointer to be in contact with the upper end of the pressurizing chamber 22. The constant confining pressure value is kept constant in the whole process of the test.
Step seven, applying pore pressure P0: opening the back pressure valve to adjust the back pressure valve to the pore pressure value P required by the test0. The liquid storage tank 60 and the liquid injection system 40 are then opened. Setting the injection system to a constant injection pressure P0Injecting fluid into the bottom of the test piece, and when the injection system prompts that no fluid is injected any more, indicating that the whole interior of the test piece reaches constant pore pressure P0
Step eight, applying osmotic pressure difference and maintaining: when the interior of the test piece reaches constant pore pressure P0While increasing the injection pressure at the inlet end to P1the liquid injection system 40 is set to be P ═ Δ P1-P0the fluid is injected into the bottom of the test piece 12 by the osmotic pressure difference, the liquid collecting bottle 25 is opened, and the liquid permeability is measured, wherein the constant osmotic pressure difference △ P is kept unchanged in the whole test process.
and step nine, applying shear stress, namely starting the microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo axial pressure control system 1, applying the shear stress to the end face of the test piece by loading the inner loading rod 7, applying the shear stress by adopting constant displacement control of 0.0001mm/s in the test, performing shear compression of 20mm, and maintaining the osmotic pressure difference △ P at the two ends of the test piece unchanged in the whole process of shearing the test piece 12.
Step ten, recording test data: recording and analyzing the change of each item of data in real time in the whole shearing process of the test piece, wherein the change comprises the following steps: outlet liquid flow variation, normal and shear forces, normal and shear deformations, acoustic emission signals.
Step eleven, disassembling the test piece: the axial pressure, confining pressure and oil discharge are sequentially removed through each control system, the outer loading rod 8 is pulled out through the second outer connecting rod 27, the temperature control shell 57 of the triaxial chamber is removed, the upper cavity 29 of the triaxial chamber is lifted up through the elevator, the rubber sleeve 36, the upper aluminum ring 32, the lower aluminum ring 35, the Teflon adhesive tape 31 and each pressure head are sequentially removed, and finally, a picture is taken to record the broken test piece, so that the test is completed.
Step twelve, analyzing data: and processing test data, and drawing a shear displacement-permeability curve, a shear displacement-shear force curve, a shear displacement-normal deformation curve and a shear displacement-acoustic emission curve of the test piece.
Next, a conventional shear seepage test of a cylindrical fine sandstone with a diameter of 50 × 100mm was performed, which specifically comprises the following steps:
step one, drilling a cylindrical large-size complete fine sandstone rock with the size of phi 50 multiplied by 100mm on the same large original rock adopted in the test, and polishing two end faces of the rock to ensure that the unevenness error does not exceed 0.01 mm.
The second to seventh steps are the same as the above tests.
step eight, applying osmotic pressure difference and keeping the liquid injection system 40 open, and keeping the pressure difference between delta P and P1-P0The fluid is injected into the bottom of the test piece 12 by the osmotic pressure difference, and the liquid permeability is measured by opening the liquid collecting bottle 25. The fluid injection system is then shut down.
Step nine, applying shear stress: starting the microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo axial pressure control system 1, and applying a shearing force to the end face of the test piece by loading the inner loading rod 7; the shear stress was applied by constant displacement control of 0.0001mm/s in this test, and a shear amount of 0.5mm was performed.
Step ten, performing a conventional shear seepage test: and eighthly, carrying out the steps for a plurality of times, wherein the shearing amount of each time is kept unchanged at 0.5mm until the shearing compression amount of the test piece reaches 20 mm.
And step eleven, dismounting the test piece, and the same as the step eleven of the test.
And step twelve, analyzing all data in the whole test process, and drawing a shear displacement-permeability curve, a shear displacement-shear force curve, a shear displacement-normal deformation curve and a shear displacement-acoustic emission curve of the test piece.
It should also be noted that the above-mentioned embodiments are only intended to illustrate the present invention, but not to limit the present invention, and any person skilled in the art who works with the present invention will be able to change the kinds of rocks, the sizes and specifications of the rocks, and other various changes in form and details, all of which are covered by the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device is characterized in that the device is used for testing the dynamic shear seepage coupling characteristics of complete or single-crack rocks under different temperature effects and different fluid injections, the test device comprises a loading system, a sealing system, a fluid injection system, an acoustic emission monitoring system, a temperature control system, a deformation monitoring system and a data acquisition system, the loading system comprises a triaxial pressure chamber (42), a triaxial pressure chamber top cover (67), a pressure chamber top cover screw (28), a triaxial pressure chamber base (16), a microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo loading system (1) and a confining pressure loading system, the triaxial pressure chamber (42) is divided into an upper cavity (29) and a lower cavity (30), the two cavities are connected through a pipeline (43), an axial loading rod is arranged in the cavity and consists of an outer loading rod (8) and an inner loading rod (7), the end parts of the inner loading rod and the outer loading rod are internally provided with threaded holes, a first extension rod (2) and a second extension rod (27) are respectively installed, wherein the first extension rod (2) is in contact with the axial LVDT (3) and is used for measuring the axial deformation of a test piece (12) in the test process, the second extension rod (27) is used for manually rotating when the test piece (12) is installed, so that the outer loading rod (8) and the rubber sleeve (36) are pressed, the bottom of the outer loading rod (8) realizes the extrusion sealing of rubber through extruding the bearing plate (66), the bearing plate (66) is provided with an O-shaped ring (6) for preventing confining pressure oil from seeping out of the outer loading rod (8), a test piece (12) with the size of phi 50 multiplied by 100mm is placed in the triaxial pressure chamber (42), and the upper end surface and the lower end surface of the test piece (12) are respectively placed with two sides of 45 mm#Steel semi-cylinderA cylindrical shearing pressure head with the diameter of 50mm consisting of a shape pressure head (34) and a silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head (10), wherein the diameter of the shearing pressure head is 45 mm#The lower part of the steel semi-cylindrical pressure head (34) is processed with a porous plate (33) which is wholly semi-cylindrical, and because the silicon rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head (10) has almost no bearing effect when being loaded by axial pressure, the positions of the two end surfaces are opposite 45 degrees#The steel semi-cylindrical indenter (34) applies a shear stress to the test piece (12) under an axial compressive load, causing shear failure of the test piece, and further, in order to prevent the semi-cylindrical silicon rubber pressure head (10) from generating large bearing effect due to volume shrinkage under the loading effect, thereby leading to the failure of the shearing force, therefore, concave pressure heads (11) are respectively arranged on the cylindrical shearing pressure heads, which can reserve an extrusion space for the silicone rubber semi-cylindrical pressure head (10) under the loading action, thereby ensuring that two end faces of the test piece (12) continuously bear constant shear stress, a detachable conversion pressing block (15) is arranged on the outer side of the concave pressure head (11), which is fixed with a base (16) of a triaxial pressure chamber by a positioning pin (37), is provided with a conversion pressing block (15) for a shearing seepage test of a test piece with the diameter of 50 multiplied by 50-100 mm, the test of a test piece with the diameter of 100 multiplied by 100-200 mm can be carried out by removing the conversion pressing block (15) and adding other cushion blocks with the specification; the sealing system is used for sealing a test piece (12), in the test process, in order to increase the sealing effect and reduce the friction between the outer wall of the test piece (12) and the inner wall of a rubber sleeve (36) in the shearing process, when the test piece is installed, the upper end surface and the lower end surface of the test piece (12) and the cylindrical shearing pressure head and the concave pressure head (11) are spirally wound for a circle from top to bottom by a Teflon adhesive tape (31) to form a whole, then the whole is wrapped by a heat-shrinkable sleeve (61) and is repeatedly blown and baked by a hot air blower, then the test piece is placed in a constant temperature box to keep the temperature at 200 ℃ for baking for 2 hours and taken out, after the test piece is cooled to the room temperature, an upper aluminum ring (32) is sleeved between the top of the upper shearing pressure head and the upper end surface of the test piece (12) by 10mm, then a lower aluminum ring (35) is also sleeved between the bottom of the lower shearing pressure head and the lower, then the rubber sleeve (36) is put into a support frame which is supported by an upper plate (9) of the support frameThe device comprises a frame lower plate (14) and a support rod (64), wherein the frame lower plate is used for extruding and sealing the upper extension part and the lower extension part of a rubber sleeve (36), the support frame is connected with a support frame positioning ring (62) through a U-shaped clamping ring (63), on one hand, the position of the support frame and the rubber sleeve (36) provided with a test piece in a triaxial pressure chamber (42) can be ensured to be fixed, on the other hand, a sound emission probe (47), a radial LVDT (65) and a temperature sensor (68) monitoring instrument can be arranged on the support rod (64), and data monitoring of different parts of the test piece is realized; in addition, the lower cavity (30) is connected with the triaxial pressure chamber base (16) through a concave annular clamping sleeve (38) and is matched with an O-shaped ring to realize sealing; the microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo loading system (1) consists of a loading frame, a servo loading oil cylinder and a servo control valve, can realize the servo control of force, displacement and deformation, and is characterized in that a triaxial pressure chamber (42) is connected with a loading frame base (44) through a triaxial chamber positioning pin (39); the confining pressure loading system consists of an oil storage tank (59), an oil-filled oil cylinder control system (24), a servo oil cylinder control system (23), a pressurizing chamber (22) and an oil bath heating system (58), wherein the oil body in the oil storage tank (59) is controlled by the oil-filled oil cylinder control system (24) to enter the oil bath heating system (58), when the temperature of the oil body reaches the set temperature, the oil body is injected into the triaxial pressure chamber (42), when the injected oil body flows through the pressure pipeline (45) and the pressurizing chamber (22) in sequence, and finally flows out of the overflow port (20), the oil-filled cylinder control system (24), the overflow valve (46) and the needle valve (18) are closed, then the servo cylinder control system (23) is opened, the confining pressure is added to a value required by the test at a constant speed by matching with a pressurizing chamber (22), and the confining pressure inside a triaxial pressure chamber (42) is obtained by monitoring a pressure sensor (17); the fluid injection system comprises a liquid storage tank (60), a gas storage tank (55), a gas pressurization and warming system (56), a back pressure valve (69), a liquid injection system (40) and a gas injection system (41), wherein gas and liquid can be injected independently or in a mixed manner, and the gas injection system (41) is used for realizing the supercritical state of different gases and expanding the category of injected gas;
liquid is controlled by a liquid injection system (40) to be injected into a triaxial pressure chamber (42) from a liquid storage tank (60), gas is controlled by a gas injection system (41) to be injected into a gas pressurizing and heating system (56) from a gas storage tank (55), then the gas enters the triaxial pressure chamber (42), fluid is injected from a triaxial pressure chamber base (16) through a pipeline, a small-caliber rubber sleeve (13) is arranged between a shearing pressure head and an inward concave pressure head (11) and between the inward concave pressure head (11) and the triaxial pressure chamber base (16) to prevent the gas and the liquid from being mixed in advance, the liquid and the gas are mixed at a porous plate (33) and injected from the bottom of a test piece (12), the liquid and the gas flow through the test piece (12) from bottom to top and finally flow out from the upper end of the test piece (12), and then the mixed gas-liquid and liquid flow sequentially through the porous plate (33), the upper shearing pressure, finally, a triaxial pressure chamber (42) flows out of the inner loading rod, and the mixed fluid passes through an opened backpressure valve (69) and then sequentially passes through a liquid collecting bottle (25) and a gas flowmeter (26), so that the separation and the weighing of gas and liquid are realized; the deformation monitoring system comprises axial deformation, radial deformation and volume deformation monitoring in the test process, wherein the axial deformation of a test piece (12) is indirectly obtained through the expansion and contraction amount of an inner loading rod (7) measured by an axial LVDT (3), the radial deformation of different parts of the test piece (12) is measured by adjusting the position of a radial LVDT (65) on a supporting rod, the volume deformation of the test piece (12) is obtained through the variation amount of an LVDT (5) on the outer side of a pressurizing chamber, two LVDTs are used for measuring the axial deformation and the volume deformation respectively, and the radial deformation is added according to the test requirement; the temperature control system consists of a gas pressurization and temperature rise system (56), a triaxial chamber temperature control shell (57), an oil bath temperature rise system (58), a thermocouple (54) and a temperature sensor (68), wherein the gas pressurization and temperature rise system (56) is used for adjusting the pressure and the temperature of gas so as to realize the supercritical state of the gas, the oil bath temperature rise system (58) and the triaxial chamber temperature control shell are used for adjusting and maintaining the temperature of an oil body so as to realize the temperature of a test piece or the gas in the triaxial pressure chamber (42) to reach and maintain the value required by the test, the thermocouple (54) is used for measuring the temperature deformation of the gas and the temperature in the triaxial pressure chamber (42) in real time, and the temperature sensor (68) is connected to a support rod (64) and used for measuring the temperature change of different parts of the test piece (12); the data acquisition system comprises an acoustic emission signal, axial pressure and axial deformation, confining pressure and volume deformation, radial deformation, the temperature in a gas and triaxial pressure chamber, the temperature of different parts of a test piece, the pressure of gas and liquid at an inlet end, the mixed pressure of gas and liquid at an outlet end and the acquisition of flow value data of separated gas and liquid.
2. The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock according to claim 1, wherein the silicone rubber semi-cylindrical indenter (10) has certain elasticity and sealing performance, and can achieve the best test effect after being poured again before each test and placed in a ventilated place to be solidified for 24 hours.
3. The microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device according to claim 1, wherein the dynamic shear seepage coupling test of a cylindrical test piece with the diameter of 100 x 100-200 mm can be performed by replacing the size of a pressure head and the size of a support frame.
4. The triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device for the microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock according to claim 1, wherein the acoustic emission probe (47) is arranged in the triaxial pressure chamber (42) and is tightly attached to the outer wall surface of the rubber sleeve (36); in order to prevent the piezoelectric ceramics in the probe from being damaged because the acoustic emission probe (47) is placed in high-pressure oil, the acoustic emission probe (47) needs to be subjected to sealing protection treatment: the probe is tightly pressed by a thin-wall upper circular ring plate (52) and a thin-wall lower circular ring plate (53), and is sealed by a sound emission sealing screw (48) and a sound emission sealing O-shaped ring (49), and then the upper circular ring plate and the lower circular ring plate are screwed by screws; a long arm (50) is welded on the outer side of the thin-wall lower circular plate (53), a groove is formed in the long arm, all probes are attached to the outer wall of the rubber sleeve (36) externally, and the groove of the long arm is hooped by a strong rubber band (51), so that the probes are tightly attached to the outer side of the rubber sleeve (36); and finally, leading the lead of the probe out of a triaxial pressure chamber (42) and connecting the lead with monitoring equipment.
5. The microcomputer-controlled electro-hydraulic servo rock triaxial dynamic shear seepage coupling test device according to claim 1, wherein the outer loading rod (8) and the inner loading rod (7) are independently controlled; the upper end of the inner loading rod is connected with a microcomputer control electro-hydraulic servo loading test system (1) for applying axial loading to a test piece, and the outer loading rod is used for pressing the rubber sleeve (36); the middle part of the outer loading rod (8) is connected with an upper cavity piston plate (4), and the upper cavity and the lower cavity are communicated through a pipeline (43), so that the upper cavity piston plate (4) can continuously move downwards along with the increase of the oil pressure in the lower cavity, the rubber sleeve (36) can be continuously extruded, and the sealing effect of the rubber sleeve (36) is optimal; and the dynamic sealing between the inner loading rod and the cavity and between the outer loading rod and the cavity are realized by adopting O-shaped rings (6).
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