CN107232102B - Industrial polyculture method for Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa - Google Patents

Industrial polyculture method for Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa Download PDF

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CN107232102B
CN107232102B CN201710505677.4A CN201710505677A CN107232102B CN 107232102 B CN107232102 B CN 107232102B CN 201710505677 A CN201710505677 A CN 201710505677A CN 107232102 B CN107232102 B CN 107232102B
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water
culture
babylonia
pond
gracilaria
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CN107232102A (en
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赵旺
吴开畅
于刚
王江勇
叶乐
杨蕊
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy Fishery Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/51Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of gastropods, e.g. abalones or turban snails
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G33/00Cultivation of seaweed or algae
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/30Culture of aquatic animals of sponges, sea urchins or sea cucumbers
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses an industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa, which comprises the following steps: (1) activating the culture water and the bottom sand before culture; (2) breeding and feeding Babylonia areolata seedlings; (3) and (4) controlling the environment. The method is an ecological culture method, mainly cultures Babylonia under the land-based industrial culture condition, mixedly cultures Holothuria leucospilota to improve the substrate, mixedly cultures seaweed (gracilaria) to improve the water quality, thereby reducing the morbidity of Babylonia quadrata.

Description

Industrial polyculture method for Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of mixed culture, and particularly relates to an industrial mixed culture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria.
Background
Babylonia areolata (Babylonia areolata) is commonly called as a whelk, is an gastropoda animal of mollusca, is delicious, crisp and tasty in meat quality, rich in nutrition and widely popular with people. The babylonia areolata is one of the important species for cultivating seawater shellfish in south China. However, with the development of the breeding industry, various diseases frequently occur in the breeding process, and the diseases become important factors for restricting the development of the industrial breeding industry of the babylonia areolata. In the south of the Yangtze province, malignant diseases are continuously outbreaked for several years, the morbidity and mortality rate of many farms exceeds 50 percent, even the whole army is covered, and the economic loss is disastrous. The occurrence of diseases is the result of interaction of cultured animals, pathogens and the environment, and the stability of a mariculture system plays an important role in controlling the diseases and healthy culture.
From the current research results of Babylonia areolata diseases, the main pathogeny of the oncosis and the dorsum turning is bacteria; the shell-meat separation is caused by a multifactorial complex in which the effects of bacteria are not of small variety. Researches show that the outbreak of bacteria is closely related to the deterioration of the culture environment, the culture environment is improved, on one hand, a good and relatively stable microbial community structure can be maintained, and the possibility of the outbreak of pathogenic bacteria is reduced; on the other hand, the resistance and the immunity of the cultured animals can be enhanced.
At present, the industrial culture mode of the Babylonia areolata mainly adopts land-based cement pond running water culture, the culture type is too single, only the Babylonia areolata is cultured in the culture pond, bait residues in the pond can be manually cleaned, and the Babylonia areolata waste can not be cleaned, so that the residual bait waste can easily pollute culture water and sand layers when not being cleaned in time.
Therefore, the existing Babylonia breeding mode cannot meet the production requirement, and a new breeding mode needs to be explored urgently to improve the breeding environment of Babylonia, so that the disease problem can be effectively solved, and the sustainable development of the Babylonia breeding industry is promoted.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing an industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria, which is an ecological culture method and mainly cultures Babylonia leucospilota under the land-based industrial culture condition, the polyculture of Holothuria leucospilota is used for improving the substrate, and the polyculture of seaweed (Gracilaria) is used for improving the water quality, so that the morbidity of Babylonia leucolota is reduced.
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is realized by the following technical scheme: an industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa comprises the following steps:
(1) activating culture water and bottom sand before culture: selecting a culture pond, enabling culture water to submerge 10-20 cm of sand surface of the culture pond, placing holothurian with enough jade, and enabling the stocking density to be 1-3 tails/m2Simultaneously, the gracilaria is thrown in the feed with the throw density of 500-800 g/m2Then, flowing water for 2-3 hours every day for activating the culture water and the bottom sand;
(2) breeding and feeding Babylonia areolata seeds: activating the culture water and the bottom sand for 3-7 days, and then putting the Babylonia seedlings into the culture pond, wherein the stocking density is 1000-1200 grains/m2The Babylonia areolata bait is fresh small trash fishMainly, the bait is stopped at regular time and irregular time, the holothuria leucospilota does not need to be fed, and the gracilaria culture does not need to be additionally added with nutrient salt;
(3) and (3) environmental control: in the culture process, the illumination intensity is adjusted to 4000-6000 Lx, the cultivation is carried out in running water, the water change rate is adjusted according to the culture date, the culture water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the pH value of seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5mg/L until the Babylonia areolata, the Holothuria leucospilota and the Gracilaria are harvested.
The method is characterized in that the inventor screens out varieties of the Holothuria leucospilota and the gracilaria which have obvious polyculture effect through a polyculture test of the Babylonia leucospilota and other organisms, and the Holothuria leucospilota and the gracilaria are obtained through the optimization design of culture test conditions for 3 years.
In the method for industrial polyculture of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa, the method comprises the following steps:
the breeding water in the step (1) is preferably seawater in a pollution-free sea area, the water quality meets the standards of fishery water quality standards and environmental conditions of pollution-free food mariculture production places, and the breeding water flows into a breeding pond for use after sand filtration and precipitation.
In the step (1), the culture pond is preferably a rectangular culture pond, a water leakage bottom plate is arranged at the bottom of the rectangular culture pond, a screen is arranged on the water leakage bottom plate, fine sand is arranged on the screen, and the bottom of the culture pond is 2-2.5 m per square meter2Be equipped with 1 air supply pipe, be equipped with inlet tube and drain pipe around breeding the pond respectively.
The height of the rectangular culture pond is preferably 60-80 cm, the screen is preferably a 60 or 80-mesh screen, the fine sand is subjected to disinfection treatment, the thickness of the fine sand is preferably 4-5 cm, and the particle size is preferably 1-2 mm.
The method is characterized in that before the aquaculture water and bottom sand are activated, the aquaculture water environment and an aquaculture pond are prepared, wherein the aquaculture water is seawater in a pollution-free sea area, the water quality meets the standards of fishery water quality standards and environmental conditions of pollution-free food mariculture production places, and the aquaculture water flows into the aquaculture pond for use after sand filtration and precipitation; the culture pond is rectangularBreeding a pool, wherein the height of the pool is 60-80 cm, a plastic water leakage bottom plate is paved at the bottom of the pool, a 60-mesh screen is fixedly covered on the bottom plate, a layer of disinfected fine sand with the thickness of 4-5 cm and the particle size of 1-2 mm is paved on the screen, and every 2-2.5 m in the pool21 air supply pipe is arranged, and a water inlet pipe and a water outlet pipe are respectively arranged in the front and the back of the culture pond.
Washing the disinfected culture pond and bottom sand with seawater, and then, solarizing for 3 days in the sun, and then, introducing water to immerse the sand surface by 10-20 cm; then uniformly putting the holothuria leucospilota into the pond, and breeding the holothuria leucospilota with the density of 1-3 tail/m2(ii) a Uniformly clustering and putting gracilaria verrucosa into the clusters, wherein each cluster is about 500-800 g, and the stocking density is 500-800 g/m2(ii) a And (3) flowing water for 2-3 hours every day, activating the culture water and the bottom sand for 3-7 days, and then throwing the Babylonia seedlings.
The Babylonia seedlings in the step (2) are preferably Babylonia seedlings with the shell height of 0.8-1.2 cm, small individual difference, deep patterns, bright color, complete shell shape and strong vitality.
When seedlings are released, attention is paid to prevent the damage of the snail seedlings.
Preferably, the bait of the Babylonia in the step (2) is mainly fresh small trash fish, the shrimps, the crabs and the shellfish are used as auxiliary materials, the small fishes and the crabs are cut into pieces, the shrimps and the shellfish take meat, the bait is thrown for 1 time at 16: 00-17: 00 every day, the bait throwing amount is 3-10% of the total mass of the Babylonia, the bait is not thrown on the gracilaria when the Babylonia is fed according to water temperature, weather and ingestion conditions, the residual bait condition is checked and recorded in 1 hour and 2 hours after the Babylonia is fed, the next bait throwing amount is adjusted, the proper bait throwing amount standard is that the residual bait is slightly left after 1 hour of feeding, and no residual bait exists after 2 hours.
In the step (2), the timing and non-timing bait stopping is preferably carried out for 1 day every week in the 1 st month, and the bait stopping is carried out for 1 day every 3 days later when the bait is fed, and the bait stopping is carried out in extreme weather of typhoon and heavy rain; stopping feeding for 1 day every 1 day when the water temperature is below 23 ℃.
In the step (3), sunshade nets are preferably arranged on the top and the periphery of the culture pond, and the illumination intensity is adjusted to be 4000-6000 Lx.
In the step (3), the water changing rate is adjusted according to the culture date, and the specific preference is as follows: running water for 1 time in the morning and afternoon every day, wherein each time is 4-8 hours, the water change rate every day is 100% in the first month, 150% in the second month, 200% in the third month and 300% in the fourth month and later; the residual bait is removed in time after 2 hours of bait casting every day to reduce the pollution of the residual bait, the water in the pond is drained for 1 time every 7 days, and water is added immediately after the water is drained out of the water body at the bottom of the pond to keep the water body at the bottom of the pond with good water quality.
No disinfectant and medicine are used in the whole cultivation process.
The industrial aquaculture water quality management standard in the implementation process is as follows: measuring water temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen every day, and periodically measuring NO in water body2-N、NO3-N、NH4-N、PO4The content determination, sampling and sample analysis of chemical factors such as-P, DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen), IP (inorganic phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen and sulfide of bottom sand are carried out according to the method specified in ocean monitoring Specification (GB 17378-2007). The standard of water quality refers to fishery water quality standard (GB 11607-89) published in China and environmental conditions of pollution-free food mariculture production places (NY 5362-2010). When individual or some of the hydration factors are out of the limit, additional water change is performed by the seawater treated by the reservoir.
The following are some of the criteria referred to in practice:
GB 17378 ocean monitoring Specification
GB 11607 fishery water quality standard
NY 5362 environmental conditions for the production area of pollution-free food mariculture.
The invention has the following advantages:
(1) the method disclosed by the invention pays attention to the grasping of the key conditions of disease occurrence in the industrial culture process, utilizes the strong selective feeding capacity of the holothuria leucospilota on sediments, plays a role as a scavenger in the Babylonia culture system, and designs a proper mixed culture density to absorb and digest organic matters such as residual feed, residues and the like in a culture pond, so that the effect of purifying bottom sand is achieved, and the culture substrate is effectively prevented from deteriorating;
(2) the method of the invention mixedly cultivates the macroalgae gracilaria in the culture of Babylonia, on the one hand, the macroalgae gracilaria can absorb CO2Increasing the dissolved oxygen content of the aquaculture water; on the other hand, the bottom of the pond is deposited with the residual bait, residues and excrement of the Babylonia areolata, and the residual bait, residues and excrement are easily subjected to the digestion and bacterial decomposition of the Holothuria leucospilotaAmmonia nitrogen, nitrite, hydrogen sulfide and other substances harmful to Bavisia, and the gracilaria can absorb the ammonia nitrogen as a fertilizer, and the generated oxygen oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide, thereby purifying the water quality;
(3) after the holothuria leucospilota and the gracilaria are polycultured in the method, the living environment of Babylonia areolata is improved, the growth of Babylonia areolata is promoted, the immunity and the physical resistance of Babylonia areolata are improved, and the morbidity of Babylonia areolata is reduced; meanwhile, the holothuria leucospilota and the gracilaria are increased without additionally providing baits or nutrient salts, and the culture yield is also increased;
(4) in addition, the method of the invention improves the substrate by using biological action, reduces the water change rate and saves energy; disinfectant and medicine are not used in the whole cultivation process, so that the pollution to the environment is reduced, and the produced commercial snails are healthy and pollution-free;
(5) 3 years of cultivation practice proves that compared with the traditional industrial cultivation, the method can obviously reduce the morbidity and reduce the production cost by 10-20%;
(6) the method provided by the invention effectively improves the culture environment of the Babylonia by changing the culture mode and combining the traditional industrialized Babylonia culture technology and applying the ecological culture mode, reduces the outbreak frequency of Babylonia culture diseases, and has important significance for sustainable development of Babylonia culture industry.
Detailed Description
Example 1
The industrial polyculture method for Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria includes the following steps:
(1) activating culture water and bottom sand before culture: taking water according to general industrial culture, preparing culture pond, feeding water to submerge sand surface, adding Holothuria leucospilota with stocking density of 2 pieces/m2The gracilaria is thrown in 500g/m2The water for cultivation and the bottom sand are activated by flowing water for 2 hours every day;
(2) the method comprises the following steps of (1) breeding and feeding Babylonia areolata fries: selecting healthy Babylonia areolata seedlings, and stocking the seedlings with the density of 1000 granules/m2(ii) a The Babylonia areolata bait is mainly fresh small trash fish and is stopped at regular time and irregular time; the holothuria leucospilota does not need to be fed(ii) a The gracilaria cultivation does not need additional nutrient salt;
(3) and (3) environment control strategy: adjusting the illumination intensity to 4000 Lx; culturing in running water, and adjusting the water change rate according to the culture date; the culture water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the pH value of the seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5 mg/L.
The method for activating the culture water and the bottom sand in the step (1) comprises the following specific steps:
A. preparing a culture water environment and a culture pond: the aquaculture water is seawater in a pollution-free sea area, the water quality meets the standards of fishery water quality standard and environmental conditions of pollution-free food mariculture production place, and the aquaculture water flows into an aquaculture pond for use after sand filtration and precipitation; the breeding pond is a rectangular breeding pond, the height of the breeding pond is 60 cm, a plastic water leakage bottom plate is paved at the bottom of the breeding pond, a 60-mesh screen is fixedly covered on the bottom plate, a layer of disinfected fine sand with the thickness of 4-5 cm and the particle size of 1-2 mm is paved on the screen, and every 2m in the breeding pond21 air supply pipe is arranged, and the front and the back of the culture pond are respectively provided with an inlet pipe and a drain pipe.
B. Activating culture water and bottom sand: washing the disinfected culture pond and bottom sand with seawater, and then solarizing for 3 days in the sun, and then, adding water to immerse the sand surface by 10 cm; then uniformly putting the holothuria leucospilota with stocking density of 2 tails/m2(ii) a Uniformly putting gracilaria into the clusters, wherein each cluster is about 500g, and the stocking density is 500g/m2(ii) a And (3) running water for 2 hours every day, activating the culture water and the bottom sand for 3-7 days, and then throwing Babylonia seedlings.
Step (2), a strategy method for stocking and feeding Chinese Babylonia fries comprises the following steps:
A. breeding Babylonia areolata seeds: selecting the snail seedlings with the shell height of 0.8-1.2 cm, small individual difference, deep patterns, bright color, complete shell shape and strong vitality and the stocking density of 1000 grains/m2When seedlings are released, attention is paid to prevent the damage of the snail seedlings;
B. the feeding method comprises the following steps: the Babylonia feed mainly comprises fresh small trash fish and auxiliary materials such as shrimps, crabs and shellfish. Cutting small fish and crabs into blocks, taking meat from shrimps and shellfish, feeding 1 time at 16: 00-17: 00 a day, wherein the feeding amount is 3-10% of the weight of the snails, adjusting according to water temperature, weather and ingestion condition, paying attention to the fact that the bait is not put on the gracilaria when feeding, checking and recording the residual bait condition in 1 hour and 2 hours after feeding, and adjusting the feeding amount of the next time, wherein the proper feeding amount standard is that the bait slightly remains after feeding for 1 hour, and no residual bait remains after 2 hours; the holothuria leucospilota does not need to be fed; the gracilaria does not need to be added with nutrient salt.
C. Bait-off strategy: stopping baits every week for 1 day in the 1 st month, stopping baits every 3 days later, stopping baits in extreme days such as typhoon and heavy rain; stopping feeding for 1 day every 1 day when the water temperature is below 23 ℃.
The environment control strategy method in the step (3) comprises the following steps:
A. and (3) illumination control: sunshade nets are properly arranged at the top and the periphery of the culture area, and the illumination intensity is adjusted to 4000 Lx;
B. water quality management: culturing in running water mode, wherein the water is respectively flowed for 1 time in the morning and afternoon every day, each time is 4-8 hours, and the water change rate is 100% in the first month, 150% in the second month, 200% in the third month, and 300% in the fourth month and later; residual baits are removed in time after 2 hours of bait casting every day so as to reduce the pollution of the residual baits; draining the water in the pond for 1 time every 7 days, and immediately adding water after the water is drained from the bottom of the pond to keep the water at the bottom of the pond with good quality; the culture water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the pH value of the seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5 mg/L; no disinfectant and medicine are used in the whole cultivation process.
Example 2
The industrial polyculture method for Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa provided by the embodiment comprises the following steps:
(1) activating culture water and bottom sand before culture: taking water according to general industrial culture, preparing culture pond, feeding water to submerge sand surface, adding Holothuria leucospilota with stocking density of 3 tail/m2The gracilaria is thrown in 500g/m23 hours of flowing water every day to activate the culture water and the bottom sand;
(2) the method comprises the following steps of (1) breeding and feeding Babylonia areolata fries: selecting healthy Babylonia areolata seedlings, stocking the seedlings at a density of 1100 grains/m2(ii) a The Babylonia areolata bait is mainly fresh small trash fish and is stopped at regular time and irregular time; the holothuria leucospilota does not need to be fed; the gracilaria cultivation does not need additional nutrient salt;
(3) and (3) environment control strategy: adjusting the illumination intensity to 5000 Lx; culturing in running water, and adjusting the water change rate according to the culture date; the culture water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the pH value of the seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5 mg/L.
The method for activating the culture water and the bottom sand in the step (1) comprises the following specific steps:
A. preparing a culture water environment and a culture pond: the aquaculture water is seawater in a pollution-free sea area, the water quality meets the standards of fishery water quality standard and environmental conditions of pollution-free food mariculture production place, and the aquaculture water flows into an aquaculture pond for use after sand filtration and precipitation; the breeding pond is a rectangular breeding pond, the height of the breeding pond is 80cm, a plastic water leakage bottom plate is paved at the bottom of the breeding pond, a 60-mesh screen is fixedly covered on the bottom plate, a layer of disinfected fine sand with the thickness of 4-5 cm and the particle size of 1-2 mm is paved on the screen, and every 2m in the breeding pond21 air supply pipe is arranged, and the front and the back of the culture pond are respectively provided with an inlet pipe and a drain pipe.
B. Activating culture water and bottom sand: washing the disinfected culture pond and bottom sand with seawater, insolating for 3 days in the sun, and then feeding water to immerse the sand surface for 15 cm; then uniformly putting the holothuria leucospilota with stocking density of 2 tails/m2(ii) a Uniformly putting gracilaria into the clusters, wherein each cluster is about 500g, and the stocking density is 500g/m2(ii) a And (3) flowing water for 3 hours every day, activating with culture water and bottom sand for 3-7 days, and then throwing Babylonia seedlings.
Step (2), a strategy method for stocking and feeding Chinese Babylonia fries comprises the following steps:
A. breeding Babylonia areolata seeds: selecting the snail seedlings with the shell height of 0.8-1.2 cm, small individual difference, deep pattern, bright color, complete shell shape and strong vitality and the stocking density of 1100 grains/m2When seedlings are released, attention is paid to prevent the damage of the snail seedlings;
B. the feeding method comprises the following steps: the Babylonia feed mainly comprises fresh small trash fish and auxiliary materials such as shrimps, crabs and shellfish. Cutting small fish and crabs into blocks, taking meat from shrimps and shellfish, feeding 1 time at 16: 00-17: 00 a day, wherein the feeding amount is 3-10% of the weight of the snails, adjusting according to water temperature, weather and ingestion condition, paying attention to the fact that the bait is not put on the gracilaria when feeding, checking and recording the residual bait condition in 1 hour and 2 hours after feeding, and adjusting the feeding amount of the next time, wherein the proper feeding amount standard is that the bait slightly remains after feeding for 1 hour, and no residual bait remains after 2 hours; the holothuria leucospilota does not need to be fed; the gracilaria does not need to be added with nutrient salt.
C. Bait-off strategy: stopping baits every week for 1 day in the 1 st month, stopping baits every 3 days later, stopping baits in extreme days such as typhoon and heavy rain; stopping feeding for 1 day every 1 day when the water temperature is below 23 ℃.
The environment control strategy method in the step (3) comprises the following steps:
A. and (3) illumination control: sunshade nets are properly arranged at the top and the periphery of the culture area, and the illumination intensity is adjusted to be 5000 Lx;
B. water quality management: the cultivation is carried out in a running water mode, the water flows for 1 time in the morning and in the afternoon every day, each time lasts for 4-8 hours, and the water change rate is 100% in the first month, 150% in the second month, 200% in the third month, and 300% in the fourth month and later; residual baits are removed in time after 2 hours of bait casting every day so as to reduce the pollution of the residual baits; draining the water in the pond for 1 time every 7 days, and immediately adding water after the water is drained from the bottom of the pond to keep the water at the bottom of the pond with good quality; the culture water temperature is 22-32 ℃, the pH value of the seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5 mg/L; no disinfectant and medicine are used in the whole cultivation process.
Example 3
The implementation place is as follows: the industrial polyculture pilot plant address of Babylonia areolata is located in the mountain root town of Wanning city in Hainan province, the annual seawater salinity is not lower than 20, the water quality is clear, the tide is smooth, and the seawater is pollution-free; the land-based cement pond is located 300m offshore.
Cleaning and preparing the culture pond in early 5 months in 2016. The culture ponds are rectangular culture ponds with 16m of each pond2The water leakage bottom plate is paved at the bottom of the pool, a 60-mesh screen is covered on the bottom plate, a layer of fine sand with the thickness of 4-5 cm and the particle size of 1-2 mm is paved on the screen, and every 2m in the pool21 air supply pipe is arranged, and the front and the back of the culture pond are respectively provided with an inlet pipe and a drain pipe.
And (3) disinfecting the sand surface for 24 hours by using potassium permanganate after water inflow, then repeatedly washing the sand surface by using seawater, and then, introducing water after 3 days of insolation, and immersing the sand surface for 15-20 cm.
Feeding Hypophyces japonicus and Gracilaria at 19 days of 5 months, and stocking sea cucumber with stocking density of 2 tails/m2The whole pond is uniformly dispersed and released for breeding, the gracilaria is released in clusters, each cluster is 500g, and the releasing density is 500g/m2. Each pool is 16m232 tails of sea cucumbers are stocked, the average body mass is 183g, 8000g of gracilaria is stocked in clusters, and flowing water flows for 2-3 hours every day.
And (3) appropriately configuring sun-shading nets at the top and the periphery of the culture area before the Babylonia larvae are stocked, and adjusting the illumination intensity to 4000-6000 Lx. Selecting and stocking the snail seedlings within 27 days of 5 months, and selecting the snail seedlings with the shell height of 0.8-1.2 cm, the average physical quality of 0.132g, small specification difference, deep pattern, bright color, complete shell shape and strong vitality; the density of the snail seedlings is 1000 granules/m216000 granules are stocked in each pond, and 19 ponds are co-cultured, wherein 4 control ponds are adopted.
In the first week of cultivation, fresh oysters and small trash fishes are mixed and fed, the feeding proportion of the small trash fishes is increased day by day, and the feeding proportion of the oysters is reduced; then, taking small trash fish as a main material, shrimp, crab and shellfish as auxiliary materials, cutting the small fish and crab into pieces, and taking the shrimp and shellfish meat; feeding 1 time every day at 16: 00-17: 00, wherein the feeding is carried out while paying attention to not putting baits on the gracilaria, the feeding amount is 3-10% of the mass of the snail body, the regulation is carried out according to the water temperature, the weather and the ingestion condition, the residual bait condition is checked and recorded in 1 hour and 2 hours after the feeding, the next feeding amount is regulated according to the record, the condition that slightly residual baits are left after 1 hour of feeding and no residual baits are left after 2 hours is taken as a standard; stopping feeding every week for one day in the first month, stopping feeding every 3 days later, and stopping feeding in extreme days such as typhoon and heavy rain; the sea cucumber does not need to be fed; the gracilaria does not need to be applied with nutrient salt.
Cultivating in a running water mode after stocking, wherein the running water is respectively carried out for 1 time in the morning and afternoon every day, each time is 4-8 hours, and the water change rate is 100% in the first month, 150% in the second month, 200% in the third month, 300% in the fourth month and later; 2 hours after feeding every day, impurities such as residual bait, fishbone and the like are removed in time so as to reduce the pollution of the residual bait; draining the water in the pool once every 7 days, and immediately adding water after the water in the pool bottom is drained so as to keep good water quality of the accumulated water in the pool bottom; the culture water temperature is 22-30 ℃, the pH value of the seawater is 7.8-8.2, the salinity of the seawater is 25-33, continuous aeration is kept, and the dissolved oxygen is controlled to be more than 5 mg/L.
10 months and 30 days in 2016, and harvesting after 5 months of culture. 3.72 million Babylonia are harvested in 4 single-culture ponds, the specification is 138 grains/kg, the yield is 269.6kg, and the total culture survival rate is 58.19 percent. 18.05 million Babylonia areolata grains are harvested from 15 Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria mixed culture ponds, the specification is 144 grains/kg, the total yield is 1251.1kg, and the total culture survival rate is 75.22%; the survival rate of holothuria leucospilota is 100 percent, and the average body mass is 320 g; 21.2kg of gracilaria is harvested.
The present invention is not limited to the scope of the above specific embodiments, which are only for the purpose of describing the method and process of industrial polyculture of Babylonia squarrosa, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria tenuis in detail. In fact, those skilled in the art can cultivate Babylonia areolata into high-quality nuisanceless commercial Babylonia in land-based industrial mariculture ponds with different conditions according to the above description, and all of them are within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (7)

1. An industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) activation of culture water and bottom sand before culture: selecting a culture pond, enabling culture water to submerge 10-20 cm of sand surface of the culture pond, placing holothurian with enough jade, and enabling the stocking density to be 1-3 tails/m2Simultaneously, the gracilaria is thrown in the feed with the throw density of 500-800 g/m2Then, flowing water for 2-3 hours every day to carry out aquaculture water and bottom sand activation;
(2) breeding and feeding Babylonia areolata seeds: activating the culture water and the bottom sand for 3-7 days, and then putting the Babylonia areolata fries into the culture water and the bottom sand, wherein the stocking density is 1000-1200 grains/m2The bait for the Babylonia quadrata fries is mainly fresh small trash fish, the bait is stopped at regular time and irregular time, the Holothuria quadrupea fries does not need to be fed, and the gracilaria culture does not need to be additionally added with nutrient salt; stopping baits at regular and irregular time in the 1 st month every week for 1 day, and stopping baits every 3 days later, and stopping baits in extreme weather of typhoon and heavy rain; stopping feeding for 1 day every 1 day when the water temperature is below 23 ℃;
(3) and (3) environmental control: adjusting the illumination intensity to 4000-6000 Lx in the culture process, culturing in running water, adjusting the water change rate according to the culture date, controlling the culture water temperature to 22-32 ℃, the pH value of the seawater to 7.8-8.2, and the salinity of the seawater to 25-33, continuously inflating, and controlling the dissolved oxygen to be more than 5mg/L until the Babylonia areolata, the Holothuria leucospilota and the gracilaria are harvested;
the water changing rate of the running water cultivation is adjusted according to the cultivation date and specifically comprises the following steps: 1 time of flowing water in the morning and afternoon every day, 4 hours each time, the water change rate every day is 100% in the first month, 150% in the second month, 200% in the third month, and 300% in the fourth month and later; the residual bait is removed in time after 2 hours of bait casting every day to reduce the pollution of the residual bait, the water in the pond is drained for 1 time every 7 days, and water is added immediately after the water is drained out of the water body at the bottom of the pond to keep the water body at the bottom of the pond with good water quality.
2. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: the culture water in the step (1) is seawater in a pollution-free sea area, and flows into a culture pond for use after sand filtration and precipitation.
3. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: in the step (1), the culture pond is a rectangular culture pond, a water leakage bottom plate is arranged at the bottom of the rectangular culture pond, a screen is arranged on the water leakage bottom plate, fine sand is arranged on the screen, and the bottom of the culture pond is 2-2.5 m per square meter2Be equipped with 1 air supply pipe, be equipped with inlet tube and drain pipe around breeding the pond respectively.
4. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 3, which is characterized in that: the height of the rectangular culture pond is 60-80 cm, the screen is a 60 or 80-mesh screen, the fine sand is subjected to disinfection treatment, the thickness of the fine sand is 4-5 cm, and the particle size of the fine sand is 1-2 mm.
5. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: the Babylonia areolata fries in the step (2) are Babylonia areolata fries with the shell height of 0.8-1.2 cm, small individual difference, deep patterns, bright color, complete shell shape and strong activity.
6. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: and (3) taking fresh small rough fishes as main baits for the babylonia areolata seedlings in the step (2), taking shrimps, crabs and shellfish as auxiliary baits, cutting the small rough fishes and crabs into blocks, taking meat from the shrimps and the shellfish, feeding for 1 time at a speed of 16: 00-17: 00 every day, wherein the feeding amount is 3-10% of the total mass of the babylonia areolata seedlings, adjusting according to water temperature, weather and ingestion condition, not throwing the baits on the gracilaria during feeding, checking and recording residual baits for 1 hour and 2 hours after feeding, so as to adjust the next feeding amount, wherein the proper feeding amount standard is that the baits slightly remain after 1 hour of feeding, and no residual baits exist after 2 hours.
7. The industrial polyculture method of Babylonia areolata, Holothuria leucospilota and Gracilaria verrucosa as claimed in claim 1, which is characterized in that: and (4) arranging sun-shading nets at the top and the periphery of the culture pond in the step (3), and adjusting the illumination intensity to 4000-6000 Lx.
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