CN107190712B - A kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method - Google Patents

A kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107190712B
CN107190712B CN201710524283.3A CN201710524283A CN107190712B CN 107190712 B CN107190712 B CN 107190712B CN 201710524283 A CN201710524283 A CN 201710524283A CN 107190712 B CN107190712 B CN 107190712B
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China
Prior art keywords
bank
toe
stiling basin
flood
formula
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CN201710524283.3A
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CN107190712A (en
Inventor
刘之平
夏庆福
郭新蕾
柳海涛
孙双科
付辉
余弘婧
王涛
李甲振
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B8/00Details of barrages or weirs ; Energy dissipating devices carried by lock or dry-dock gates
    • E02B8/06Spillways; Devices for dissipation of energy, e.g. for reducing eddies also for lock or dry-dock gates
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING OR COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F30/00Computer-aided design [CAD]
    • G06F30/20Design optimisation, verification or simulation

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of toe banks to fall bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method, including:It is connect below the toe bank that the bottom of incoming slope surface is set, the toe bank and falls bank, the toe bank and the downstream setting stiling basin for falling bank, the downstream of the stiling basin sets overfall.The present invention controls hydraulic jump using toe bank, strengthens turbulent fluctuation diffusion, improves energy dissipation rate, shortens stiling basin length, adapts to tailwater level variation, current is made to be distributed on stiling basin width average.It is formed simultaneously using toe bank and shrinks water stream channel, it is ensured that negative pressure does not occur in bank face, has the function that shrink energy dissipater.Using the water cushion for falling bank and being formed certain depth, one can avoid the occurrence of and face bottom whirlpool or vertical-axis eddy intensity after toe bank be greatly reduced, second is that high-velocity flow is avoided to form cavitation erosion to stiling basin floor after toe bank, and can effectively reduce stiling basin underflow speed.

Description

A kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of toe banks to fall bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method, is a kind of hydraulic facility and to set Meter method is the Energy dissipation of flood discharging facility and design method of a kind of reservoir high dam.
Background technology
Energy dissipation by hydraulic jump is one of major way of high dam flood-discharge energy-dissipating.In the 21st century, under eco-friendly theory, The more seat height dams in China have selected energy dissipation by hydraulic jump for influence of the mitigation flood-discharge atomizing to bank slope vegetation or due to geologic Environment Problem Mode.The skill that bottom hydraulic indexes are excessively high, and stiling basin is caused to destroy is faced using stiling basin in traditional energy dissipation by hydraulic jump to solve high dam Art problem, the Hydraulic Design in China and scientific research personnel were on the basis of domestic and international energy dissipation by hydraulic jump achievement in research was summarized in recent years, land It is continuous to develop some novel underflow energy dissipaters for adapting to high water head large discharge per unit, as proposed with reference to Xiangjiabahydropower project engineering Continuously fall bank underflow energy dissipator and height bank energy dissipater, flaring gate pier-the fall bank underflow energy dissipator proposed with reference to Guandi Hydropower Station Deng.
The high-velocity flow that falling bank type underflow energy dissipator will enter in stiling basin, which deflects from, faces bottom region, can effectively reduce and face bottom Fluctuation pressure on flow velocity and bottom plate ensure that stiling basin safe operation, therefore it is high dam flood discharge in recent years to fall bank underflow energy dissipator The research hotspot of energy dissipating.Different researchers have developed it is different fall bank build, and test and numerical simulation by way of carry out Numerous studies work.
It is a kind of novel underflow energy dissipater of suitable high water head large discharge per unit to fall bank underflow, representative two kinds of bodies Type is continuously to fall bank build and height bank build.All there are some individual characteies and general character in research and engineer application for both builds The problem of, it would be highly desirable to it solves.Such as:Height bank build is the special type for being directed to double-deck flood discharge hub hole arrangement form and developing, Using three-dimensional Strong shear and the rolling energy dissipating of space ternary whirlpool, have that the water surface is steady, the sufficient outstanding feature of energy dissipating, but the build is more difficult The high dam in individual layer flood discharge hole is only disposed with applied to dam body or spillway on bank.The continuous bank build scope of application of falling is wider, but With reference to the engineerings such as Burner zone flood-discharge energy-dissipating study in find, under different condition in stiling basin current can occur fluidised form turn twist phenomenon, First, in the case of step height is certain, as the level of tail water raises, fluidised form is to flood bottom by mixed flow flowing state transition in stiling basin Flow fluidised form;Second is that when step height changes from low to high, under the specific water level conditions in downstream, fluidised form is become by underflow in stiling basin Into surface current.Fluidised form turns to twist phenomenon and illustrates that the key for continuously falling bank underflow energy dissipator is the suitable step height of selection, but existing grinds Study carefully the computational theory and method for not determining step height.Flaring gate pier-continuously although falling bank build can ensure that fluid stable, but Since flaring gate pier is longitudinally stretched release floodwatering flow so that part current flip shot enters stiling basin, increases flood-discharge atomizing, against falling bank Underflow stilling basin weakens the original intention of atomization, while the build does not apply to the spillway on bank with longer sluice way yet and designs.
Common problem one existing for respectively falling bank underflow energy dissipator build is due to being designed with culvert sudden expansion, in stiling basin memory Having a die mould whirlpool, this whirlpool be different from it is common in hydraulic engineering there is Free Surface type whirlpool, this kind of whirlpool has strong Degree is big, basin is closed, swirl center singular point pressure is low(Even there is negative pressure), easily lead to stiling basin abutment wall and bottom plate denuded And cavitation erosion, engineering harm are larger.Second is that ensure not occur flowing back or swing water flow in stiling basin, on outflow from sluice hole There are more limitations, the flood discharge of power station later stage are managed more demanding.Third, stiling basin is huge, such as Xiangjiabahydropower project Stiling basin length reaches 220m, and close to 1.4 times of height of dam, it is big to directly result in investment.
The content of the invention
In order to overcome problem of the prior art, the present invention proposes a kind of toe bank and falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and set Meter method.The energy dissipater and design method toe bank and fall bank and complement each other, both fully absorbed height bank and continuously fallen bank Build advantage, in turn avoid respective shortcoming.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this:A kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator, including:On incoming slope The toe bank that the bottom in face is set connects below the toe bank and falls bank, the toe bank and falls the downstream of bank and sets stiling basin, described The downstream of stiling basin sets end sill.
Further, the tooth form of the toe bank is:The rectangular cross-section vertical with water (flow) direction or square, with current The parallel facade in direction is the right angled triangle that bevel edge is circular arc line, the curvature phase of the circular arc curvature of a curve and incoming slope surface Together.
The step of a kind of above-mentioned toe bank falls the design method of bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator, the method is as follows:
Known upper pond levelH1, the level of tail waterH2, force reduction pool bottom elevationH3, falling bank crest level isH4, stiling basin widthw
Determine step heightD2, rule of thumb formula:
D2=- 0.86Fr+14.18
Wherein:Fr is the Freund number that current enter stiling basin, is calculated by following formula:
,
Wherein:,
,
q DesignFor the discharge per unit width under design flood,V DesignPond flow velocity is flowed into for water under design flood, g is acceleration of gravity;
Determine toe bank size:
It is known:It under frequent flood, is not provided in the case of toe bank, flood discharge discharge per unit width isq Chang Yu,
1)Assuming thatW1、W2、DRelation is between 1:
,W1=D1,
And assume that the number of teeth of toe bank isnOvercurrent between a and toe bank, overcurrent, λ do not choose tooth top between 1.0 ~ 1.5;
2)Calculate the between cog discharge per unit width of toe bankq
w=n× W1+ (n- 1) × W2,
3)It determinesD1:
Discharge per unit width between toe bank under frequent flood determines toe bank height D1, should be slightly bigger than the depth of current between toe bank Degree, thus it is available:
,
,
V1 in formulaChang YuFor frequent flood when bank on flow velocity;
4)By D1=W1,λBring following formula into:
w=n× W1+ (n- 1) × W2,
If equation is set up, show step 1)AssumenWithλIt is suitable;
If equation is invalid, assume againnOrλ, repeat step 1)~step 4), until equation meets.
The beneficial effect comprise that:The present invention controls hydraulic jump using toe bank, strengthens turbulent fluctuation diffusion, improves energy dissipating Rate shortens stiling basin length, adapts to tailwater level variation, current is made to be distributed on stiling basin width average.Simultaneously using toe bank shape Into contraction water stream channel, it is ensured that negative pressure does not occur in bank face, has the function that shrink energy dissipater.Certain depth is formed using bank is fallen Water cushion, one can avoid the occurrence of and face bottom whirlpool or vertical-axis eddy intensity after toe bank be greatly reduced, second is that high-velocity flow is avoided to exist Cavitation erosion is formed to force reduction pool bottom after toe bank, and can effectively reduce stiling basin underflow speed.
Description of the drawings
The invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and examples.
Fig. 1 is the facade structures schematic diagram that toe bank described in the embodiment of the present invention one falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator;
Fig. 2 is the planar structure schematic diagram that toe bank described in the embodiment of the present invention one falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator;
Fig. 3 is that the toe bank described in the embodiment of the present invention two is illustrated in the tooth form section in the vertical section of water (flow) direction Figure;
Fig. 4 is that the toe bank described in the embodiment of the present invention two is illustrated in the tooth form section in the parallel facade of water (flow) direction Figure.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment one:
The present embodiment is that a kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator, as shown in Figure 1, 2.The present embodiment includes: The toe bank 2 that the bottom of incoming slope surface 1 is set connects below the toe bank and falls bank 3, the toe bank and falls the downstream of bank and sets and disappears Power pond 4, the downstream of the stiling basin set end sill 5.
The main thought of the present embodiment is:
1)Stiling basin head, which falls, sets several scattered toe banks on bank so that when current flow through toe bank, plane formed shrink and Divergent flow, the high current of beam on facade increase the section of shear that current enter stiling basin so that flow turbulence is strengthened, and improves Energy dissipating efficiency;The setting of toe bank simultaneously so that in different tailwater levels, the jump first place of energy dissipating hydraulic jump is put to be determined relatively;Again Person's toe bank exists, and into the current in stiling basin along stiling basin cross direction profiles than more uniform, flow-shape is stablized in stiling basin.Most Achieve the purpose that shorten stiling basin length eventually.
2)Toe bank is continuously increased along water (flow) direction toe bank width simultaneously so that shrinkage type water stream channel is formed between toe bank.It receives The stream zygodactyl bank that shrinks avoids the formation of certain surge, avoids bank face since the wall surface of high-velocity flow departs to form negative pressure, Reduce the risk of cavitation and cavitation erosion.
3)After current flow through toe bank, divergent flow can form vertical-axis eddy in stiling basin, and swirl center be pressure most Small place, size are directly related with whirlpool intensity.But due to the presence for falling bank after toe bank, the water cushion of certain depth is formed, The intensity of vertical-axis eddy can be greatly lowered in the presence of this water cushion, it might even be possible to avoid the occurrence of and face bottom whirlpool, so that the power that disappears Pressure at bottom of pond plate at swirl center avoids the formation of unfavorable negative pressure, so as to not generate the destruction of cavitation and cavitation erosion;Fall bank simultaneously In the presence of the underflow speed that can effectively reduce stiling basin.
The shape of toe bank can be there are many form, such as:Plane projection is rectangle or upstream face is circular and back side is half Circle, centre are connected with rectangle.The cross sectional shape vertical with current can also be there are many form, such as:Square, rectangle etc..
Force reduction pool bottom is flat, and abutment wall is upright, and length is 1.2~1.4 times or so of hydraulic jump length;Stiling basin end sill is It is trapezoidal, with downstream river course natural sparse model.
Embodiment two:
The present embodiment is the improvement of embodiment one, is refinement of the embodiment one on toe bank tooth form.Described in the present embodiment The tooth form of toe bank is:The rectangular cross-section vertical with water (flow) direction or square, as shown in figure 3, parallel with water (flow) direction is vertical Face is the right angled triangle that bevel edge is circular arc line, as shown in figure 4, the curvature phase of the circular arc curvature of a curve and incoming slope surface Together.
Toe bank simple shape described in the present embodiment, is easy to build, and having to utilize reduces construction cost.This toe bank can be with With it is existing build complete it is engineered on, because its building course does not have earth work, can directly increase in original fall on bank Toe bank, construction cost are very low.Such toe bank equally have Hydraulic Jump first place can be controlled to put, improves energy dissipation rate, shortening disappears power The advantages of pond length.
Embodiment three:
Toe bank described in a kind of above-described embodiment falls the design method of bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator.
The present invention is characterized by the critical size of definite toe bank, is respectively toe bank heightD1st, toe bank widthW1st, toe bank spacing FromW2 and step heightD2。
Assuming that known upper pond levelH1, the level of tail waterH2, force reduction pool bottom elevationH3, falling bank crest level isH4, flood discharge list Wide flowq, stiling basin widthw
1st, step height is determined firstD2
Rule of thumb formula, step heightD2 can be calculated by following formula:
D2=- 0.86Fr+14.18
Wherein:Fr is the Freund number that current enter stiling basin, is calculated by following formula:
,
,
In this formulaq DesignFor the discharge per unit width under design flood,V DesignPond flow velocity is flowed into for water under design flood,gFor gravity Acceleration.
2nd, toe bank size determines
Toe bank size is determined using the flood discharge index of frequent flood.
It is known:It under j frequent floods, is not provided in the case of toe bank, flood discharge discharge per unit width isq Chang Yu,
K assumes that relation is between W1, W2, D1:
, W1=D1,
Overcurrent between l toe banks, not overcurrent on toe bank.
The step of then determining to fall bank size is as follows:
Toe bank quantity is assumed first that as n,
Discharge per unit width between calculating toe bankq
w=n× W1+ (n- 1) × W2,
3)It determinesD1
Discharge per unit width between toe bank under frequent flood determines toe bank heightD1, it should be slightly bigger than the depth of current between toe bank Degree, thus it is available:
,
,
V1 in formulaChang YuFor frequent flood when bank on flow velocity.
4)By D1=W1,λBring following formula into:
W=n × W1+ (n-1) × W2,
If equation is set up, show step 1)The n of hypothesis andλIt is suitable.
If equation is invalid, return to step 1), again more knots modification n orλ, repeat step 1)~step 4), until Until equation meets.
Finally it should be noted that above be merely illustrative of the technical solution of the present invention and it is unrestricted, although with reference to preferable cloth Scheme is put the present invention is described in detail, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that, it can be to the technology of the present invention Scheme(Such as the shape of toe bank, the shape of stiling basin, the utilization of various formula, the sequencing etc. of step)Modify or Equivalent substitution, without departing from the spirit and scope of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a kind of toe bank falls the design method of bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator, the toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula energy dissipation by hydraulic jump Work includes:It is connect below the toe bank that the bottom of incoming slope surface is set, the toe bank and falls bank, the toe bank and the downstream for falling bank Stiling basin is set, and the downstream of the stiling basin sets overfall;The tooth form of the toe bank is:The section vertical with water (flow) direction For rectangular or square, the facade parallel with water (flow) direction is the right angled triangle that bevel edge is circular arc line, the circular arc line Curvature is identical with the curvature of incoming slope surface:It is characterized in that, the step of the method, is as follows:
Known upper pond levelH1, the level of tail waterH2, force reduction pool bottom elevationH3, falling bank crest level isH4, stiling basin widthw
Determine step heightD2, rule of thumb formula:
D2=- 0.86Fr+14.18
Wherein:Fr is the Freund number that current enter stiling basin, is calculated by following formula:
,
Wherein:,
,
q DesignFor the discharge per unit width under design flood,V DesignPond flow velocity is flowed into for water under design flood, g is acceleration of gravity;
Determine toe bank size:
It is known:It under frequent flood, is not provided in the case of toe bank, flood discharge discharge per unit width isq Chang Yu,
1)Assuming thatW1、W2、DRelation is between 1:
,W1=D1,
And assume that the number of teeth of toe bank isnOvercurrent between a and toe bank, overcurrent, λ do not choose tooth top between 1.0 ~ 1.5;
Wherein:W1 for toe bank width,W2 between toe bank distance;
2)Calculate the between cog discharge per unit width of toe bankq
w=n× W1+ (n- 1) × W2,
3)It determinesD1:
Discharge per unit width between toe bank under frequent flood determines toe bank height D1, should be slightly bigger than the depth of current between toe bank, because This is available:
,
,
V1 in formulaChang YuFor frequent flood when bank on flow velocity;
4)By D1=W1,λBring following formula into:
w=n× W1+ (n- 1) × W2,
If equation is set up, show step 1)AssumenWithλIt is suitable;
If equation is invalid, assume againnOrλ, repeat step 1)~step 4), until equation meets.
CN201710524283.3A 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 A kind of toe bank falls bank stiling basin formula underflow energy dissipator and design method Expired - Fee Related CN107190712B (en)

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CN108086260B (en) * 2017-12-18 2019-07-09 安徽理工大学 Differential type High-low Bucket Energy Dissipation Building-height falls bank type stilling pond system and energy dissipating method
CN109853489A (en) * 2018-11-15 2019-06-07 水利部交通运输部国家能源局南京水利科学研究院 A kind of design method of secondary stilling basin end sill height
CN109555088B (en) * 2019-01-14 2023-11-07 中国水利水电科学研究院 Rectifying vortex-preventing device
CN110055935B (en) * 2019-04-22 2021-01-12 中国核电工程有限公司 Method for arranging stilling pool in steep-slope channel
CN113718727B (en) * 2021-09-07 2022-09-16 中国电建集团昆明勘测设计研究院有限公司 Sudden expansion and falling sill absorption basin suitable for large single wide discharge of high water head

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